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ePortfolio Child Development Capstone

Berk (2013) states, Childe development is part of a larger, interdisciplinary field know
as developmental Science, which includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan.
(pg.4) To make the vast, interdisciplinary study of human constancy and change more orderly
and convenient, development is often divided into three broad domains: physical, cognitive, and
emotional and social (Berk, 2013, pg. 4). Each child will move through the predicated stages of
development. What is not predictable is the age at which, a child enters the stages and how long
the child will remain in that stage. Its noted, A youngsters developmental age can differ
significantly from his or her chronological age by as much as two or more years in either
direction (CFF, 2014, para. 3).
Physical development is the stage where children hormone levels starts to change as they
grow. For example, growth takes place in the following areas: muscles and cardiovascular.
Children tend to grow faster during infancy and adolescence. However, growth seems to slow
down, during early and middle school age children.
Cognitive development, refers to the expansion of a childs intellect or mental abilities
(Allen & Marotz, 2010, pg. 38). For example, children recognize information, then turn around
and apply the information in a correct way. One, example, of activities that take place in this
stage is remembering. The authors states, Cognitive development is an ongoing process of
interaction between the child and his or her perceptual view of objects or events in the
environment (Allen & Marotz, 2010, pg. 39).
As children grow, their emotional and social develop are growing. In this stage, children
have a clear understanding of who they are and what their roles are in the world. Children are
also more interested in their peers. Children development are affected, by the following factors,

ePortfolio Child Development Capstone

as well: heredity, environmental factors, culture, and family values unique to each individual
(Allen & Marotz, 2010, pg. 25).
Theorist Jean Piaget, believes children learn by handling objects and exploring the world
they reside in. He discusses in his theory, the four different periods, which occur as children
brain forms and experiences increases, which are all characterized by qualitatively distinct ways
of thinking (Berk, 2013). The first stage, sensorimotor stage (birth-2 years) infants use their four
senses and movement to explore their surroundings. The second stage, preoperational (2-7
years), children are now using symbols to explore the world. The third stage, concrete
operational (7-11), children are thinking in organized and logical fashion (Berk, 2013). The
fourth stage (11 years and older) thinking is now the abstract, systematic reasoning system of the
adolescent and adult (Berk, 2013).

ePortfolio Child Development Capstone

References
Berk, L. E. (2013).Child development. (9th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Canadian Fencing Federation Archives. (2014). How do children grow and develop. Retrieved
from https://www.rcga.org/_uploads/documents/L2P/EN/pg_076077_How%20do%20children%20grow%20and%20develop_.pdf