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Presented By:

Todd Denman
Elaine Pablo

Athletic identity, affect, and peer


relations in youth athletes with physical
disabilities
Debrorah R. Sharpio, Ph.D., Jeffrey J. Martin, Ph.D.

Purpose

The purpose of this article was to examine


athletic identity, affect and peer relations of
youth athletes with physical disabilities and
selected relationships among these variables
(Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Population
American Association

of Adapted Sports

Programs (AAASP)
36 athletes with physical disabilities

27 males/9 females
Age range 12-20 years old
Disabilities:
Cerebral

Palsy, spina bifida, traumatic brain injury,


muscular dystrophy, heart condition, hip condition
and one unknown

Races: African American, Caucasian American,


Hispanic American and Asian American

Methods
Participants were asked to complete the
following surveys/scales to obtain
measurements:
1.
2.
3.

Private-Public Athletic Identity Scale


The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
Peer Relations Scale

Results
Athletic

Identity:

Private: 4.0 out of 5.0

Participants reported thinking and feeling like an


athlete and viewed participation in athletics as an
important outlet for self-expression (Sharpio and
Martin, 2010).

Public: 2.4 out of 5.0

Participants did not strongly perceive that others


viewed them as athletes to the same extent
(Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Results
Affect:

High Positive Affect: 4.4 out of 5.0

The high positive affect score reflects ones level


of pleasurable engagement with the environment
(Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Negative Affect: 1.7 out of 5.0

Reflecting a lack of feeling afraid, ashamed or


distressed (Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Results
Peer

Relations:

Range: 3.9-5.4 out of a 6.0


Mean: 5.0

Participants in the present study perceived


themselves as having lots of friends, as getting
along with kids their age easily, and as being
easily liked (Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Discussion
Athletic

Identity:

Activities that involve challenge, effort and


concentration have been identified to facilitate
positive identity development. Athletes were
able to separate themselves from others and
develop a sense of autonomy and had an
opportunity to view themselves as part of a
team thereby facilitating the social relatedness
aspect of identity formation (Sharpio and
Martin, 2010).

Discussion
Affect:

Athletes with physical disabilities have reported


that sports allows them an opportunity to be
social, active, and aggressive; express
aggression and anger in a socially acceptable
manner; and experience pride, happiness, and
excitement (Sharpio and Martin, 2010).

Discussion
Peer

Relations:

The AAASP philosophy of promoting social


relationships as well as developing sport skills,
may have potentially helped students feel
connected to others with disabilities. (Sharpio
and Martin, 2010).

Conclusion
Opportunities

to explore the boundaries of


ones physical identity are important because
it builds a foundation on which physical and
emotional growth occurs (Sharpio and Martin,
2010).
Community outreach programs should be
developed to demonstrate to educators,
administrators and therapists that students
with physical disabilities can participate in
self-contained competitive adapted sports and
experience enjoyment (Sharpio and Martin,
2010).

Outcome of a Skiing Program on Level and


Stability of Self-Esteem and Physical Self in
Adults with Spinal Cord Injury

(Wilkins, 2014)

Purpose

To

look at intraindividual level and variability


of self-esteem and self worth in adults with
Spinal Cord Injury (Barbin and Ninot, 2008, p.
59)

Methods

Longitudinal- 9 weeks in length; before (4 weeks


at home), during (1 week of the skiing program),
after (4 weeks at home).
The Physical Self Inventory questionnaire (scaled
from not at all to absolutely) was used to look
at 6 domains twice a day: Global self-esteem,
physical self worth, physical condition, sport
competence, attractive body, and physical
strength.
Group Activity- 20 physical educators paired with
10 participants. (Barbin and Ninot, 2008, p. 59,
61)

Results/Discussion

There

was a significant increase in selfesteem, self-worth, physical condition, sport


competence, and attractive body.
Significant increases may be attributed to
them not having known the extent to which
they could perform (Barbin and Ninot, 2008,
p. 63).

Conclusion

Use

of skiing programs for adults can be


beneficial for improving self-esteem and selfworth in individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries
(Barbin and Ninot, 2008, p. 61)

References

Barbin, J., & Ninot, G. (2008). Outcomes of a skiing program


on level and stability of self-esteem and physical self in adults
with spinal cord injury. International Journal of Rehabilitation
Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Fr
Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue Internationale De
Recherches De Radaptation, 31(1), 59-64.
Wilkins, D. (2014, October 29). Planning an Accessible
Winter Holiday for the Whole Family | The Ability Center of
Greater Toledo. Planning an Accessible Winter Holiday for
the Whole Family | The Ability Center of Greater Toledo.
Retrieved October 29, 2014, from
http://www.abilitycenter.org/planning-an-accessible-winterholiday.php