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1.

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2.
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)
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3.
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4.
5.

-
/
1
1.1
1.2
2
2.1
2.2

:
(2 12 )
. (6 x 6)
:
(4 x 8 )
. . (1 x 8)

60
24
36
40
32
8

40


1. .. . .:
. 1990.
2. . . . . - .: , 1988. 390 .
3. .. . .: , 1990. 350 .
4. .. - - .:
. 1992 (1996).
5. .., .., .. .
: . - .: , 1999 (2000, 2005). 768 .
6. .., .. . .: , 1990 (1982).
7. ./ . .. , .. .
. : , 1990. 286 .
8. .., .. : ,
, . .: , 1990. 320 .
9. . . . . .: , 1984.
10. ..
. 1990.
11. : . . : -XXI, 2005. 431 . : .
12. http://www.qrz.ru
13. http://www.cqham.ru
14. http://ru.wikipedia.org
3
15. http://naf-st.ru

X = Xn-1qn-1 + Xn-2qn-2 + ... + x0q0 + X-1q-1 +...+ X-mq-m,


q - , Xi
(Xi = 0...q-1), q i .

- q = 2

( 0 1)
:
/ ,
/ ,
/
4


, x=0 x=1.

.

,
( ).
( ) -
yi,
xn-1x1x0 .
() y = f(x0),
y = f(x0,x1) y = f(x1,x2,x3xn), y, x1,x2,x3xn
0 1.
( , )
,
.


1. () :
x

y=x

2. () :
x0

x1

y = x0 + x1
y = x0 x1

3. ()
x0

x1

y = x0 x1

y = x0 x1

y = x0 x1

y = x0 & x1
7


4. :
x0

x1

y = ( x0 x1 ) ( x0 x1 )

y = x0 x1

5. :
x0

x1

y = x 0 x1

y = ( x0 x1 ) ( x0 x1 )

y = x0 x1

y = x0 x1

xx = x

xx =0

x x = x

x x =1

x0 x1 = x0 x1

x 1 = x

x0 = 0

x0 x1 = x0 x1

x 1 = 1

x0 = x
9

x0 x1 = x1 x0
x0 + x1 = x1 + x0

(x0 x1) + (x0 x2) = x0 (x1 + x2)


(x0 + x1) (x0 + x2) = x0 + (x1 x2)

(x0 x1) x2 = x0 (x1 x2) = x0 x1 x2


(x0 + x1) + x2 = x0 + (x1 + x2) = x0+ x1 + x2
10


1.
1. ,
.

2.

2.

1.

xn-1...1x0
x2
x1
x0
y
ym-1y
y
.
1 0
0
0
0
0
2n
n+m
0
0
1
0
.
0

11

3.
:
()
,
.

:
) , ,
,
, , .
;
) .
,
.
12

3.
:
()
,
1 .

:

) , ,
,
, ,
. ;
) .
,
.
13

3. , 2.
. ( ) :
x2

x1

x0

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 +

+ x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0

4. , 2.
. ( ),

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = ( x2 + x1 + x0 ) ( x2 + x1 + x0 )

( x2 + x1 + x0 ) ( x2 + x1 + x0 )

14

4.


.

.
7. 3 4.
. 3 (x2x1x0)
011.
3. :

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = (3,5, 6, 7)

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = ( x2 + x1 + x0 ) ( x2 + x1 + x0 ) ( x2 + x1 + x0 ) ( x2 + x1 + x0 )

y ( x2 , x1 , x0 ) = (0,1, 2, 4)

15

5.
)

x0
x1

x2
y
) ()

16


:
.
:
1. (
). , .
2. (
).
:
1. .
:
)
)
.
2. - (),
.

17


.
.
, .

.
, , + = 1
: = 0 0+1=1, =1 1+0=1.

abc + abc = bc( a + a ) = bc 1 = bc


:
1.
2.
3.
4.

.
.
.

,
18
().

f(a,b)

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

f(0,0)
f(0,1)
f(1,0)
f(1,1)

b
1

0 f(0,1) f(0,0)
a
1 f(1,1) f(1,0)

2x2 .

19

c f(a,b,)

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

f(0,0,0)
f(0,0,1)
f(0,1,0)
f(0,1,1)
f(1,0,0)
f(1,0,1)
f(1,1,0)
f(1,1,1)

c
00
01
ab
11
10

1
f(0,0,1)
f(0,1,1)
f(1,1,1)
f(1,0,1)

0
f(0,0,0)
f(0,1,0)
f(1,1,0)
f(1,0,0)

bc
a

01
00
11
10
0 f(0,0,1) f(0,0,0) f(0,1,1) f(0,1,0)
1 f(1,0,1) f(1,0,0) f(1,1,1) f(1,1,0)
bc

c
11
01
ab
00
10

1
f(1,1,1)
f(0,1,1)
f(0,0,1)
f(1,0,1)

0
f(1,1,0)
f(0,1,0)
f(0,0,0)
f(1,0,0)

0
1

10
00
11
01
f(0,1,0) f(0,0,0) f(0,1,1) f(0,0,1)
f(1,1,0) f(1,0,0) f(1,1,1) f(1,0,1)

- 2x4
4x2 .
- - ,
00 11 01 10,
.
20

d f(a,b,,d)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

f(0,0,0,0)
f(0,0,0,1)
f(0,0,1,0)
f(0,0,1,1)
f(0,1,0,0)
f(0,1,0,1)
f(0,1,1,0)
f(0,1,1,1)
f(1,0,0,0)
f(1,0,0,1)

1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
1
1

1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1

f(1,0,1,0)
f(1,0,1,1)
f(1,1,0,0)
f(1,1,0,1)
f(1,1,1,0)
f(1,1,1,1)

cd

ab

00

11
f(0,0,1,1)

01
f(0,0,0,1)

00
f(0,0,0,0)

10
f(0,0,1,0)

01

f(0,1,1,1)

f(0,1,0,1)

f(0,1,0,0)

f(0,1,1,0)

11

f(1,1,1,1)

f(1,1,0,1)

f(1,1,0,0)

f(1,1,1,0)

10

f(1,0,1,1)

f(1,0,0,1)

f(1,0,0,0)

f(1,0,1,0)

cd

ab

00

11
f(0,0,1,1)

01
f(0,0,0,1)

00
f(0,0,0,0)

10
f(0,0,1,0)

10

f(1,0,1,1)

f(1,0,0,1)

f(1,0,0,0)

f(1,0,1,0)

11

f(1,1,1,1)

f(1,1,0,1)

f(1,1,0,0)

f(1,1,1,0)

01

f(0,1,1,1)

f(0,1,0,1)

f(0,1,0,0)

f(0,1,1,0)


21



( 0 1)
. ,
.
.
1. ,
2n, . ,
, , , .
2. ,
. ,
,


.
3. ,
.
.
, .
. ,
,
.
22
0, , 1.

.
, .
a

0
1

10
1
1

00
0
1

01
0
0

11
1
1

bc
a

0
1

11
1
1

10
1
1

00
0
1

01
0
0

f = abc + abc + abc + abc + abc


:

f = b + ac

23

.
, .

f = cd + ad +acd + bcd

ab

cd
10

11

01

00

01

11

10

00

f = abcd + abcd + abcd + abcd + abcd +

+ abcd + abcd + abcd + abcd

24


1. F = x

2. ( ) F = x0 x1
x0

x1

1
25

3. ( -)
x0

x1

4. ( )
x0

x1

F = x0 + x1

F = x0 x1

26

5. ( -)
x0

x1

F = x0 x1

6. XOR ( )
x0

x1

F = x0 x1

27

7. ( )
x0

x1

F = x0 x1

28



(/ ),
, ,
.
.

F = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 = x1 x0 + x2 x1


,
?
:
2 ,
2 2
1 2
29

-,
- (
).
.

F = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 = x1 x0 + x2 x1

-
:

F = ( x1 x0 ) ( x2 x1 )
:
2-
25,
3 2-

x0 = x0 x0

x2 = x2 x2

30

F = ( x1 x0 ) ( x2 x1 )

x0

x1

x2

F1

F2

F
31

-,
-
( ).
.

F = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0 = x1 x0 + x2 x1

-
:

F = ( x1 + x0 ) + ( x2 + x1 )

:
:
31
,2-
12
2
2-
1

5 2-

x1 = x1 + x1

F=F

32

F = ( x1 + x0 ) + ( x2 + x1 )

x0

x1

x2

F1

F2

33


,
, 14 16 .

14

16

14

16

:
1. - -,
2. -.

34

-
- - .
- -
.
.
- :

+5 ;

,
;
,
.
35

,
VT3,VT4 VD,
.
,
.. -
.

x = 0, VT1 ,
UVT1 ~ 0 = UVT2 ,
VT2 ,
, UR3 =0 VT4
. UVT2 ~ U =
UVT3 VT3 .
F ~ U 1.
x = 1, VT1 ,
I0VT1 VT2,

,
VT3 .
VT2
R3.
VT4 . F = 0.
36

- 2-

I1 I2 0 VT1
, VT2 VT4.
VT3 R2
. , ,
F R4 VD .
R3 (150...500 ) .
37

R .


,
.


38
.

F = x2 x1 x0

x2

x1

x0


.

,
.

39

,

.
R.

R :
1.
R IFH
IIH.
,


2.
.
R ,
I0Lmax.
,
IIL .

Rmax =

U 2.7
K I FH + N I IH

Rmin =

U 0.4
I OL max N I IL

K ,
N

40

- Z- (3- )

:
E0 = 0
0 = 1, VD1 .
0 = 0, VD1 , UVT2 = 0, UVT3 = 0 VT2 VT3 ,
VT2 , UR3 = 0 VT4 .
, F , , ..
Z-.

41

Z-


E0 = 1


E0 = 0
.
2-
.
Z-
.
H, L Z.

42


U0,
155
1533

U1,

I0,

I1,

0,4
0,4

2,4
2,7

1,6
0,16

0,04 0,4
0,004 0,4

U0,

U1, I0,

I1,

fmax,

I,

10
50

~15
~1,5

100
60

15
10

10
8

2,4
2,7

16
1,6

0,4
0,04


3,2
U,

2,4

1,6

0,8

0
0

0,8

1,6

2,4

3,2

4,8
U,

43

t
U

t
t

K134
K155
K131
555
531
1533
K1531

74L
74
74
74LS
74S
74ALS
74F

1
10
22
2
19
1,2
4

t,

33
9
6
9,5
3
4
3

E, H, RH,

33
90
132
19
57
4,8
12

50
15
25
15
15
15
15

4
0,4
0,28
2
0,28
2
0,28
44


1. ,
. ,
.
2. ,
R=
1 . 20 .
, .
3.
(
Z-).
4.
()
45
0,1 3 .



- ,
.
,
.

, ,
0.8 ,

U = 0.27*U0.55.

46

:

.

, .
RC-


,
.
t1 t0 + 0,5RC -


,


.
47


(
/ --)
:
+515 (318);
;

;
,

48

x = 0, VT1 ,
VT2 . .

Z-

0 = 1, 1 VT3 0
VT4 ,
, , .. Z-.
E0 = 0, VT3 VT4 ,

.
49

x = 0, VT1 , VT2 . VT3 VT4 1 VT3


, VT4 . VT5 0, F +U Rc.
x = 1, VT1 , VT2 . VT3 VT4 0 VT3
, VT4 . VT5 1, F .
50

- 2-

0
1
0
1

B
0
0
1
1

F = AB
1
1
1
0

A B
,
VT1 VT2 F
.

,
,
,
.
51

- 2-

0
1
0
1

B
0
0
1
1

F = A+ B
1
0
0
0

A B ( )
,
VT3,
VT4,
,
.
,

,
.
52


U,
561
176
1554

U0,

U1,

U0,

U1,

I,

3-15
9
5

0,3U
3
0,4

0,8U
8
2,7

0,1U
1
0,1

0,9U
8
3,5

I,

fmax,

10
10
40

10
10
3

40-50
40-50
30

1-5
1
120

t,

50
200
10

, .
.

:
1. ,
(
);
2. C ~100
;
3.
. ,
53
.


,
, .
0 1.
.
54

F = x2 x1 x0 + x2 x1 x0

x0

x0

x1

x1

x2

x2

,
(
x0 x1
),

(, ) 55

_ _

56