Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

And other good stuff along with some

Practice Problems.

Coolest Finger Nails of the


Week

Balancing Equations
If you are given two compounds and told to
balance the equation, most of you have no
problem doing that. You simply find the
charges, then do the double replacement
reaction. There is a slight difference when
you have a carbonate or a bicarbonate and
an acid is added to them.

Carbonates
Carbonates (CO3) are a polyatomic group with a minus
two charge. When they come in contact with an acid,
they react to make water and a carbon dioxide
molecule.
Bicarbonates(HCO3) are a polyatomic group that have a
minus one charge. When they come in contact with
an acid, they also produce a carbon dioxide as well as a
water. The difference between them is that the
bicarbonate needs only ONE hydrogen ion to
produce the carbon dioxide and the water.

Review
Similarities:
a. Both produce CO2 with acid.
b. Both produce

1 CO2 per polyatomic group.

Differences:
a. Carbonate, CO3 will neutralize twice as much
acid as bicarbonate, HCO3. This means it will take

2 hydrogen ions to convert a carbonate into water and


CO2.

Salts
Remember the definition of a salt is any
metal plus any nonmetal making an
ionic compound. H and OH cannot
form a salt as it is a covalent substance.
This means that virtually every
compound is a salt as every positive ion
and every negative ion make a salt.

Why is water not a salt?


For numerous reasons. First, in dealing with
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, the kind we are doing now,
the salts you are making are all IONICALLY BONDED.
Water is covalently bonded. This means that the SALT
will dissociate in water to form ions. Water does not
separate as the bonds are too strong, being covalent.

Bases
If you go back to your definitions of Acid and Base, an
acid is simply a PROTON DONOR. Bases are
PROTON receivers. These definitions are the reason
that water can act like an acid in some situations and a
base in others. Because of this, it is amphoteric.
When most NERDS think of bases, we think of the
HYDROXIDE BASES, OH. However, some SALTS
can act like a base too. The salts that act like a base are
Carbonate salts and bicarbonate salts. What makes
these unique is that in addition to forming water, they
also produce carbon dioxide gas.

Balancing Carbonate Eq
To balance an acid/carbonate or an acid/bicarbonate
(they are both solved the same way) you do the
problem like any double replacement reaction.
First do the charges. Make the initial salt. If you have a
carbonate or bicarbonate, you will have only ONE salt.
The number of carbonate or bicarbonate ions will
determine the number of carbon dioxide and water
that you produce.

Balancing the Equations


Remember that to determine the number of
carbon dioxide and water molecules formed,
you actually need to balance the equation
using the SALT. Once the equation is
balanced from the salt, count up the
number of carbonates or bicarbonates. This
will then tell you the number of carbon
dioxides and waters that form.

Problem 1
Ca(HCO3)2 + HNO3

Problem 1 Answer
Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
Once you have balanced the equation to this point, you
should see that you have two bicarbonates. This means
you will have two waters and two carbon dioxides.

Ca(HCO3)2 + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + 2CO2 +

2H2O

Problem 2
CaCO3 + H3PO4

Problem 2 Answer
3CaCO3 + 2H3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + CO2 + H2O
Since it is now balanced from the salt, count the number of
carbonates. Here, the number is 3. So the number of
carbon dioxides and waters are 3 each.
3CaCO3 + 2H3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 + 3CO2 +

3H2O

Problem 3
NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 + H3PO4

Problem 3 Answer
NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 + H3PO 4
First, split the equation into two separate
equations to solve.
NaHCO3 + H3PO 4
And
Na2CO3 + H3PO 4

Problem 3 Answer
3NaHCO3 + H3PO 4 Na3PO4 + 3CO2 +
3H2O
And
3Na2CO3 + 2H3PO 4 2Na3PO4 + 3CO2
+ 3H2O
Now combine like terms to get your final
answer.

Problem 3 Final Answer


3NaHCO3 + 3Na2CO3 + 3H3PO4
3Na3PO4 + 6CO2 + 6H2O

Problem 4
In the next problem, you cannot balance the equation.
You are simply trying to figure out how many waters
form and what the salts are.
Use the equation to answer the questions that follow:
30 H3PO4 + 35Ca(OH)2
A. How many water molecules form?
B. What is the final pH?
C. What is the salt that forms?
D. What would happen if phth were added?

Problem 4 Answer
30 H3PO4 + 35Ca(OH)2
A. How many water molecules form?
You have 90 H atoms and 70 OH so, 70 water, 20 H, acid.
B. What is the final pH? Acidic since H is left over.
C. What is the salt that forms? Ca3(PO4)2
D. What would happen if phth were added?
Nothing would happen. Phth tests for OH ion.
You have H+ ion remaining.

Problem 5
In the next problem, you cannot balance the equation.
You are simply trying to figure out how many waters
form and what the salts are.
Use the equation to answer the questions that follow:
24 Al2(CO3)3 + 18H3PO4 + 5H2SO4
A.

B.

Give the salt(s) that form:


How many molecules of water will form?

Problem 5 Answer
24 Al2(CO3)3 + 18H3PO4 + 5H2SO4
A. The salts are AlPO4 and Al2(SO4)3
To determine the number of waters, you need to
sum up the number of carbonates and the
number of hydrogen atoms.
24 x 3 = 72 CO3 and 18 x 3 = 54 plus 10 hydrogen from
sulfuric acid gives 64 H

Problem 5 Answer Cont.


Now your equation becomes this:
72 CO3 + 64 H CO2 + H2O
Referring back to slide number 2, you see that a
carbonate requires TWO hydrogen atoms to make one
carbon dioxide and one water. So you need to divide
the hydrogens by TWO.
72 CO3 + 64/2 H CO2 + H2O

Problem 5 Final Answer


74 CO3 + (32 x 2) H CO2 + H2O
So, now you can see that the Hydrogen is actually the
limiting reagent and tells you that you had enough to
combine with 32 carbonates.
This would allow you to make 32 waters and 32 carbon
dioxides.

Problem 6
Use the equation below to answer the questions that
follow:
15 CaCO3 + 7H2SO4 + 2H3PO4
Salt(s) formedB. Predict the effect of adding Phenol RedC. How many molecules of water will form?
A.

Problem 5 Answer
15 CaCO3 + 7H2SO4 + 2H3PO4
Salts are CaSO4 and Ca3(PO4)2
15CO3 + 20 H
Doing this problem one would think the pH would
be base, since the hydrogen is used up; but
remember that carbon dioxide is produced,
making carbonic acid. pH therefore will be acidic
until the carbon dioxide leaves the solution.

Problem 5 Final Part


15 CaCO3 + 7H2SO4 + 2H3PO4
Isolating the subsystem to give the water and carbon
dioxide, you get
15CO3 + 20 H
Then divide hydrogen by 2 since you need two hydrogen
atoms per group.
15CO3 + 20/2 H

Part 5 Answer
This tells you that you have enough
hydrogen atoms to react with 10 of the
15 carbonate groups, making the
hydrogen the limiting reagent, even
though there are more hydrogen atoms
than carbonates. So, you can make a
total of 10 water molecules.

So the final pH of the solution would be


SEVEN. The reason for this is that you
have CARBONATE left over in the
solution, not hydroxide. If you had
hydroxide, then your solution would be
a pH greater than 7.

What is the greatest number of


waters you can make?
6KHCO3 + 6 K2CO3 + 14 HCl

Answer
6KHCO3 + 6 K2CO3 + 14 HCl
Since you have 14 H and you have 6
bicarbonate, you can make 6 waters.
This will leave you with 8 H+ and
6CO3. The problem though is that you
need 12H for the CO3. You can
neutralize 4 of the CO3. Add that to
the original 6 and you make 10 waters.

Reminder
You need to remember that in order to make the
maximum number of water molecules you need to
start with the bicarbonate ions. They need only one
H+ to neutralize it versus two hydrogen ions needed
for the Carbonate ions.

Some Tech Check Problems


H3PO4 + NaOH + Zn

Solution
H3PO4 + NaOH + Zn
First, break the equation into TWO other equations.
Note: In some instances, depending on the metals, you
would actually have a base react with hydroxide, but
we are going to go with what the book said, and that
was that a hydroxide base + metal is no reaction.
H3PO4 + NaOH Na3PO4

2H3PO4

3Zn Zn3(PO4)2 + 3H2

Solution continued.
H3PO4 + NaOH Na3PO4

2H3PO4

3Zn Zn3(PO4)2 + 3H2

Once you have the two subsystems completed, combine


like terms.

2H3PO4

+ 3NaOH + 3Zn Na3PO4 + Zn3(PO4)2 +


3H2

What if?....Hydroxide and CO3


CaCO3 + H3PO4 + KOH
In our happy idiot world we are going to say that
compounds that act as bases will NOT react with
each other. So, combine acids and bases.
If you can do this without looking at the answer, you
are a true Nerd.

What if? Solution


CaCO3 + H3PO4 + KOH
Set up two subsystems.

3CaCO3

2H3PO4

Ca3(PO4)2 +

3CO2 +

3H2O
H3PO4 + 3KOH K3PO4

+ 3H-OH

Combine Like Terms


3CaCO3

2H3PO4

Ca3(PO4)2 +

H3PO4 + 3KOH K3PO4

3CaCO3

K3PO4 +

3H3PO4 + 3KOH

6H2O

3CO2 + 3H2O

+ 3H-OH

Ca3(PO4)2 +

3CO2 +

Who wants PIZZA?


Realistically, I know that most of you are NOT looking at
Edline and power points that are put up here.
So, to reward people who are doing it, the FIRST THREE
PEOPLE, who come up to me and say
HOW BOUT THEM NERDS!!!
Will get a free slice of pizza in the lounge.