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.

( )
,

(2, 2
NH3).
()

.

().



.


.
(,
, , ).

(,
).



.

,

.

.




(, ,
).



(, ).


.
: , .
.
: ,
.
.
:
,
.




(2, 2 NH3).

( ).

.

( ).


I ,
,
.
II
-. 20%
.
III -
(2 2). ,

. 80% .

NH3
H

O2

+ 34

O2


H2O


I ;


.
II


.


,
.




(),
.
(G)
,

.


(S)
,
:
;
S .

= G + S
G0
:
t = 25; = 7; 1 /.


G
.
1. G 0.

.
2. G 0.

.
3. G = 0.
.

Energy released Energy supplied



Product
Energy
must be
supplied.
Reactant

Reactant

Energy is
released.

Product

Endergonic

Exergonic

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.


,
,
5 / .

~.


(
).

1,3-

427

G0, /
-14,8
-13
-12
-10,3
-7.3
-7,6


1. + 2 + 34;

-7,3 /
2. ) + 2 + 427;
-7,3 /
b) 427 + 2 2 34;
-7,6 /

-14,9 /


1.
,
.

+ 34
2.

.


, -G

+
34

, +G



().
:
:
[ATP]+1/2[ADP]
[ATP]+[ADP]+[AMP]
N 0,8-0,95
:
[ATP]/[ADP]*[Pa]
N - 500

1.
.

,
.
,
,
.

2.
3.
4.

:
CO2
CH3-CO-COOH

CH3-CO-SCoA

NAD+
HS-CoA

NADH+H+




(),
3- 5 .
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
2
,
1.


:
1. 1 (, 1)
2. 2
3. 3 (, 2)
4. NAD+ (, )
5. HS-CoA ( )

1. CH3-CO-COOH + 1

1-()-3 + 2
S

2. 1-()-3 + 2-

2-

S--3



3.

S
2-

HS-CoA

S--3

SH

2-

SH

CH3-CO-SCoA



4.

+ 3

2-

SH
S

2-

32

S
5.

32 + NAD+

3 + NADH+H+



CO2
CH3-CO-COOH

CH3-CO-SCoA

NAD+
HS-CoA

NADH+H+

1. 1 (

).
2. 2 3
( -
2
3).
3.
( ,
).

NAD+

2+

-
NADH
,

(
- ,
, )

,


- 2 2.

COOH
COOH

I
I

C=
CH2
+ I
I
C2
HO-C-COOH
-
I
I
H2O
HS-CoA
COOH
CH2
I

COOH
COOH
COOH

I
I
CH3-C-SCoA
II
O

CH2
CH2
I

I
C-COOH
H-C-COOH
+ H2 O
II
I
- H2O
CH
C-
I
I
COOH
COOH
-

COOH -

I
CO2
CO2
CH2

I
CH2
I
NAD+
NADH+H+
C=
NAD+
NADH+H+
I
HS-CoA
COOH
COOH
- COOH
I
-I
CH2

CH2
I
I
CH2
CH2
I
I
GDP
GTP
C=
C
H3PO4
HS-CoA
I
S-CoA
-

FAD

FADH2

COOH
I
CH
II
HC
I
C

+ H2O

COOH
I
CH-OH
I
CH2
I
C

NAD+

NADH+H+

COOH
I
C=O
I
CH2
I
C


+
3NAD

CH3-CO-SCoA + 2H2O +
+
1FAD + GDP + H3PO4
+
2CO2 + HS-CoA + 3NADH+3H +
1FADH2 + GTP


1.

.
2.

.
3.
( NADH FADH2).


4. :
a) 2 2
b)


.
:
Asp, Asn
- Glu, Gln

-,

,
, ,
-,

2+

-,
,


- ,


.


.


COOH
I
C=O
I
CH3

COOH
I
+ CO2
C=
I

C2
ADP
I
ATP
H3PO4
C

COOH
COOH
I
I
CO2
C-O-PO3H2
C2
II
I
CH2
C=
GDP
GTP
I

+ H2
NAD+

NADH+H+

+ NH3

.
.


( )
,
.


.

()

.


,

+ .

+-

++

-
-3-

2,

,


.

()
,


( 2)
.

.





,
.

2.

-
(-)

.

(),
(V)

(..
).


,
.

,
.


.

-

NAD+/NADH

FMN/FMNH2

CoQ/CoQH2

.b (Fe3+)/.b(Fe2+ )
.c1(Fe3+)/.c1(Fe2+ )
.c(Fe3+)/.c(Fe2+ )

.(Fe3+)/.(Fe2+ )

.3(Fe3+)/.3(Fe2+ )
O2/H2O

-0,32V
-0,05V
+0,04V
+0,12V
+0,22V
+0,25V
+0,29V
+0,55V
+0,82V

+-

()

2
(2)

-
,
( ),
/
.
3 - :
1. FeS
2. Fe2S2
3. Fe4S4

- I (FeS)

4-
4-

.

- II (Fe2S2)

2-
2-
2-
.

- III (Fe4S4)

4
4-
4- .

( Q)

( Q)

+2+ +2

-2+ -2



b, c, c1, 3.
:
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. .

1e

3+
Fe

1e

2+
Fe

(3)

Cu2+ + 1e Cu+ 1e


b, c c1


( 3)

SH2

NADH+H+

2e, 2H+

2e, 2H+

NAD+

2b(Fe2+)
2e

FMNH2

2b(Fe 3+)
2e

2e, 2H+

CoQ

FMN

2c1(Fe2+)
2e

CoQH2

2c(Fe2+)
2e

2e

2c(Fe 3+)

2c1(Fe3+)

2a3(Fe 2+)
2e

2Cu+

2a3(Fe3+)

2Cu2+

2a(Fe2+)
2a(Fe3+)

O22-+ 2H+
2e

O2

H2O

NADH+H+

2H+
2e
H2O

O2

O22-

G = -52,6 /
G = -n*E*F
n ;
E ;
F = 23,061/*


NADH+H+

FMN
Fe-S

CoQ

b, c1
Fe-S
III

FAD
Fe-S

II

aa3
Cu
IV

O2


I NADH-CoQ-
II -CoQ-
III CoQH2- -
IV

,

(
).



.

3 ,


( 7,3 /).
, ,
.
I, III IV
.


NADH+H+

FMN
Fe-S

b, c1
Fe-S

CoQ

ADP
H3PO4

III

aa3
Cu
IV

ADP ATP ADP ATP


H3PO4
H3PO4

ATP

FAD
Fe-S

II

O2

+
+ =

2 = 2




CH3-CO-SCoA + 2H2O + 3NAD+ + 1FAD +
GDP + H3PO4 2CO2 + HS-CoA +
3NADH+3H+ + 1FADH2 + GTP

3 = 3*3 = 9
12 = 2
1 = 1

12



CO2
CH3-CO-COOH

CH3-CO-SCoA

NAD+

NADH+H+

HS-CoA

12

15




.

,

.



.
,

:


.




- +


-.

-


,
.

2+
2+
2+

+
+
+
+
+
+

2+
2+
2+

34

+
( --)



.
2-
:
F0

+
F1


(/)

(),
, (),
.
- / = 3
2 - / = 2


.

,

/- ()
.
-
.

ATP
AP

24+

,
()
()
,
-.

.

, / .

2,4-



,

.



40-45%

.
25% -
30-35% - ()


, ,
.

:
;
;
(
, UCP uncoupling protein).


/, ,
.
:



.


I
III
IV ,
-

S-H

O2

NADPH+H+

S-OH
NADP+
H2O


().
450 .
:
1.

.
2. (
, . ).



.

2 + - 2
2- + 2- + 2+ 22 + 2

2- + 22 2 + - +



(
, ).

, , ,
.


1. :
()
2- + 2- + 2+ 22 + 2

222 22 + 2


2. , , .

2H2O

H2O2
2G-SH

G-S-S-G

NADP+

NADPH+H+

I
NADH+H+

III

FMN
Fe-S

ADP
H3PO4

b, c1
Fe-S

CoQ

ADP
H3PO4

ATP

IV

FAD
Fe-S

II

ATP

aa3
Cu
ADP
H3PO4

O2

ATP


NADH+H+

FMN
Fe-S

b, c1
Fe-S

CoQ

ADP
H3PO4

III

ATP

aa3
Cu
IV

ADP ATP ADP ATP


H3PO4
H3PO4

FAD
Fe-S

II

O2