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rofessional

ersvectives
Series Editor Mike Burghall

The
Resourceful
English Teacher
A complete teaching companion

Jon Chandler
Mark Stone
Foreword
T h i s is, i n m a n y w a y s , t h e b o o k that w e w o u l d
like t o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o h a v e t o h a n d o u r s e l v e s -
b o t h as i n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s starting o u r first
jobs and as more e x p e r i e n c e d teachers l o o k i n g for
fresh i n s p i r a t i o n .

Rather t h a n f o c u s i n g o n o n e r e s o u r c e a r e a , a s i s

o f t e n t h e c a s e , The Resourceful English Teacher

addresses t h e f u l l b r e a d t h o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o

the l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r , a n d offers a w i d e v a r i e t y o f

activities a n d t e c h n i q u e s for the m o d e r n c l a s s r o o m .

T h i s b o o k a i m s to be a r e s o u r c e in itself,
presenting stimulating options a n d alternatives
but w i t h o u t p r e s c r i b i n g a s p e c i f i c a p p r o a c h t o
teaching. It c a n be ' d i p p e d into' for a n e w w a y of
r e c y c l i n g v o c a b u l a r y , for e x a m p l e , o r i t c a n b e
read at greater l e n g t h in o r d e r to get a fresh
p e r s p e c t i v e o n u s i n g , say, n e w s p a p e r s o r t h e O H P .

W e h o p e that these pages w i l l b e w e l l - t h u m b e d


a n d the a c t i v i t i e s w i l l b e t r i e d , p l a y e d w i t h a n d
m o d i f i e d , t o suit y o u a n d y o u r c l a s s e s - a n d that
as a result y o u w i l l feel r e f r e s h e d , a n d t h e
experience of being in your classroom will be
richer, for b o t h y o u a n d y o u r s t u d e n t s .

I n short, w e h o p e that i t w i l l e n a b l e y o u t o

b e c o m e a more resourceful English teacher.

Jon Chandler

M a r k Stone
Contents
Page

Foreword 3

Introduction 6

Section 1 9

Newspapers
U s i n g w h o l e newspapers to d e v e l o p and practise reading and speaking skills

Section 2 14

Articles
M a k i n g the most o f i n d i v i d u a l articles f r o m m a g a z i n e s a n d n e w s p a p e r s

Section 3 20

Songs
Successfully c a p i t a l i s i n g on the potential of songs

Section 4 25

Readers
U s i n g graded readers effectively, both in the class a n d in the students' o w n t i m e

Section 5 31

Icebreakers a n d W e l c o m i n g Activities
G e t t i n g c l a s s e s a n d c o u r s e s o f f t o a g o o d start

Section 6 36

Dialogues
M a k i n g the most effective use of d i a l o g u e s f r o m any source

Section 7 40

W a r m e r s a n d Fillers
C h a n g i n g pace, providing contrast and filling a w k w a r d gaps without wasting time

Section 8 47

Circles
G e t t i n g g r a m m a r a n d v o c a b u l a r y out i n the o p e n

4
Page

Section 9 52

Questionnaires
H e l p i n g students t o create their o w n lesson a s they ask a n d a n s w e r their o w n q u e s t i o n s

Section 10 57

T h e W o r d Box
R e c y c l i n g lexis so that it b e c o m e s part of the s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v e v o c a b u l a r y

Section 11 62

Dictionaries
H e l p i n g students use this often n e g l e c t e d resource to the full

Section 12 67

The O H P
C o n v e r t i n g a tool for presentations into a m e d i u m for interactive learning

Section 13 72

Computers
U s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r a s a v e r s a t i l e l e a r n i n g a i d w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e latest s o f t w a r e

Section 14 79

T h e Radio
E x p l o i t i n g a rarely used but surprisingly effective m e d i u m

Section 15 83

T V and Video
G e t t i n g v i d e o t o w o r k rather than s i m p l y entertain

Appendix . 89

professional perspectives series information 95

5
Introduction
Today's language c l a s s r o o m is a c o m p l e x a n d
Planning Your Lessons
varied place. The d e m a n d s m a d e on the language
The Resourceful English Teacher is not a b o o k of
t e a c h e r are n o less c h a l l e n g i n g .
l e s s o n p l a n s b u t o f a c t i v i t i e s , strategies a n d g a m e s ,

On the o n e h a n d , y o u m a y be in a p o s i t i o n w h e r e d e s i g n e d to help y o u e x p l o i t the resources and

all current t e c h n o l o g y is at y o u r d i s p o s a l t o o l s a r o u n d y o u , whatever they are.

( c o m p u t e r , v i d e o , internet). O n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
• S t u d e n t s e n j o y songs b u t , in fact, rarely
y o u m a y find yourself in a p l a c e w h e r e e v e n a
w a n t t o s i n g t h e m . W h a t else c a n y o u d o ?
b l a c k b o a r d w o u l d be a luxury.

• L o w l e v e l s t u d e n t s f i n d video d a u n t i n g .
In b o t h c a s e s , y o u are r e q u i r e d to be resourceful.
W h a t k i n d s o f tasks c a n b r i d g e t h e gap?
This b o o k is designed to help y o u in either of
these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r a s i s m o r e t h a n p r o b a b l e , • H o w c a n y o u use t h e O H P t o c r e a t e a n
i n a n y o f the v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s that l i e b e t w e e n . interactive grammar game?

• W h a t do y o u do w i t h a radio in a
Using This Book classroom?

The Resourceful English Teacher has b e e n w r i t t e n


A s this i s n o t a b o o k o f l e s s o n p l a n s , y o u c a n b e
to be useful to a w i d e v a r i e t y of t e a c h e r s of E n g l i s h .
f l e x i b l e i n t h e w a y y o u use the a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y c a n

• For the less experienced teacher, t h e r e is a be u s e d w i t h i n a r a n g e of d i f f e r e n t l e s s o n f o r m a t s

w e a l t h o f ideas t o h e l p y o u b u i l d u p a a n d a t d i f f e r e n t stages o f t h e c o u r s e .

repertoire of activities in the c l a s s r o o m .


• A filler m a y c o m e at t h e b e g i n n i n g of a

• For the more experienced teacher, s o m e of lesson, to liven up students, in the m i d d l e ,

the ideas i n t h e b o o k m a y a l r e a d y b e to i n d i c a t e a c h a n g e of p a c e or f o c u s , or at

familiar, a l t h o u g h , even w i t h the tried a n d the e n d , to fill an a w k w a r d gap.

tested activity, w e h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d a
• A circle game m i g h t be u s e d to f i n d o u t
n e w twist. H o w e v e r , most w i l l b e n e w a n d
w h a t students k n o w or to practise w h a t y o u
w i l l h e l p y o u t o see t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e
h a v e a l r e a d y t a u g h t t h e m ... o r b o t h .
to y o u in a n e w l i g h t .

• A n icebreaker c a n b e u s e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g
• For the teacher trainer, t h e r e is a w i d e
of a c o u r s e or as a w a y of c l e a r i n g the air
range o f m a t e r i a l s t o h e l p y o u p l a n s e s s i o n s
after a n e x a m .
o n i n d i v i d u a l areas o f c l a s s r o o m t e c h n i q u e .

6
Planning Your Course
If y o u w o r k w i t h a c o u r s e b o o k y o u m a y be • W o r d box a c t i v i t i e s c a n be u s e d to b u i l d
l o o k i n g for w a y s o f b r i n g i n g i n a u t h e n t i c m a t e r i a l s y o u s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v e v o c a b u l a r i e s o v e r the
either to a u g m e n t a u n i t or to r e p l a c e m a t e r i a l s course.
that are less r e l e v a n t to y o u r s t u d e n t s ' interests or
• Articles a c t i v i t i e s c a n h e l p to e s t a b l i s h
needs. If this is t h e c a s e , t h e S e c t i o n s on
Newspapers, Articles a n d Songs w i l l give you the strategies that s t u d e n t s c a n use w h e n

ideas y o u n e e d t o d o this w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . reading o n their o w n .

• A circle game c a n be p l a y e d s e v e r a l t i m e s .
A l t e r n a t i v e l y , y o u m a y w i s h t o use e x i s t i n g c o u r s e
E a c h t i m e y o u c a n 'stir i n ' m o r e l a n g u a g e ,
material but in a d i f f e r e n t w a y that w i l l b r i n g it to
making it more challenging.
life for y o u r c l a s s .

• Dialogues c a n be p r e s e n t e d in a v a r i e t y of
ways and then practised in order to
m e m o r i s e p h r a s e s o r w o r k o n stress, r h y t h m
and intonation.

• G r a m m a r can be practised out l o u d using

circle games.

• P e r s o n a l i s e d s p e a k i n g tasks c a n b e t u r n e d

into questionnaires f o r s t u d e n t s w h o are

reluctant to v o i c e their o p i n i o n s

spontaneously.

A n u m b e r o f a c t i v i t i e s i n his b o o k w o r k w e l l a s
'threads' t h r o u g h o u t a c o u r s e . T h i s m e a n s that y o u
c a n use t h e m o n a r e g u l a r b a s i s , p e r h a p s o n c e o r
t w i c e a w e e k to g i v e c o h e r e n c e a n d s t r u c t u r e to a
series o f l e s s o n s . A s students b e c o r n e m o r e
f a m i l i a r w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y w i l l b e g i n t o use
them^more e f f i c i e n t l y a s t h e n e e d t o e x p l a i n t h e
' h o w s ' a n d the ' w h y s ' o f the g a m e d i m i n i s h .

7
Finding Your Way c l a s s as a w h o l e . If there is a c o m p e t i t i v e e l e m e n t ,

or if the students need to be able to m o v e a r o u n d ,


T h e t w o h u n d r e d a c t i v i t i e s o f The Resourceful
t h e n this t o o i s i n d i c a t e d .
English Teacher h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d to be as

a c c e s s i b l e a n d e a s y t o use a s p o s s i b l e . Equipment / Materials


H e r e are listed t h e t h i n g s y o u w i l l n e e d t o h a v e
w i t h y o u in the c l a s s r o o m .
Sections
T h e b o o k has b e e n o r g a n i s e d i n t o S e c t i o n s , e a c h
Plus...
of w h i c h focuses on a particular resource. You w i l l
H e r e y o u w i l l f i n d a n y s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l s that y o u
f i n d a v e r y brief e x p l a n a t i o n o f e a c h r e s o u r c e o n
w i l l need to f i n d , or to prepare, a n d on w h i c h the
the Contents p a g e s .
a c t i v i t y is b a s e d .

Activities Appendix
E a c h A c t i v i t y has b e e n g i v e n a short a n d , w e
S u g g e s t e d m a t e r i a l for s o m e o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s f r o m
h o p e , m e m o r a b l e title f o l l o w e d b y a b r i e f
t h e Circles s e c t i o n is p r o v i d e d in a separate
d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m a i n a i m a n d a set o f
A p p e n d i x a t t h e b a c k o f the b o o k .
p r o c e d u r e s that c a n be t a k e n in at a g l a n c e .

Headings
A series o f H e a d i n g s i n d i c a t e s e v e r y t h i n g y o u

need to k n o w to carry out each activity

successfully.

Levels
W e h a v e suggested w h a t w e c o n s i d e r the o p t i m u m
l e v e l , o r r a n g e o f l e v e l s , for e a c h a c t i v i t y . T h e s e
are d e s c r i b e d as: b e g i n n e r , e l e m e n t a r y , pre-
intermediate, intermediate, upper-intermediate
and advanced. m

Activity types
W e i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r students w i l l b e w o r k i n g i n
pairs or g r o u p s ; if this is s u g g e s t e d as an o p t i o n ,
t h e n the a c t i v i t y c a n a l s o b e o r g a n i s e d f o r t h e

8
Newspapers
N e w s p a p e r s are a v a l u a b l e but o f t e n u n d e r - u s e d
c l a s s r o o m r e s o u r c e . T h e r e is a b r e a d t h of c o v e r a g e
i n t h e m , w h i c h m e a n s there i s s o m e t h i n g o f
interest t o a l m o s t a l l readers. T h e y p r o v i d e a g o o d
source o f p o p u l a r c u l t u r e , a s t h e y o f t e n i n c l u d e
articles o n p o p m u s i c , T V a n d sport, a s w e l l a s
a d v e r t i s e m e n t s for p r o d u c t s a n d e v e n t s . O n e
newspaper m a y be the source of a w i d e range of
activities, for a l l l e v e l s .

M a n y t e a c h e r s are a f r a i d that t h e i r students m i g h t


be i n t i m i d a t e d by E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e n e w s p a p e r s . In
this s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , we offer a r a n g e of a c t i v i t i e s
w h i c h a c q u a i n t students w i t h n e w s p a p e r s t h r o u g h
a p p r o p r i a t e tasks for t h e i r l e v e l o f E n g l i s h .

You m a y w i s h t o c o n s i d e r w h i c h E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g
countries y o u r students i d e n t i f y w i t h m o s t
positively. V e r y o f t e n this i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
conveniently c o i n c i d e s w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y of
n e w s p a p e r s , but it is w o r t h r e m e m b e r i n g that m o s t
newspapers c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m their publishers
by post.
Newspapers

D e s c r i b e a Typical Reader Ailing Newspaper Preconceptions

Use newspapers to stimulate your A challenging task which puts your How well do your students know
students' curiosity about English- students at the heart of Fleet Street British and American people? Help
speaking cultures them to find out

Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate onwards Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type onwards


Activity type Groupwork Groupwork

Equipment/ Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k


Materials None Materials None (optional)

Plus ... Three or four Plus... T w o different English Equipment/


different English language newspapers Materials None
language newspapers (see below) Plus ... T w o or t h r e e B r i t i s h
and American

• Put the students into small groups. • Put the students into groups a n d newspapers

give out c o p i e s of t w o rival


• G i v e each group a different newspapers. Suggestions for U K • Put the students into pairs or s m a l l
n e w s p a p e r and the n a m e of a newspapers are The Independent groups a n d ask the students to write
typical person w h o might read this and The Times, The Guardian and d o w n a n u m b e r of generalisations
newspaper. T h e a i m for e a c h g r o u p The Independent, The Times and c o n c e r n i n g British a n d A m e r i c a n
is to use any clues in the n e w s p a p e r The Daily Telegraph. p e o p l e that they t h e m s e l v e s m i g h t
to help write a d e s c r i p t i o n of this feel to be true, for e x a m p l e
typical reader. • Tell the students that they are to ' A m e r i c a n s are m o r e c o n c e r n e d
d e c i d e w h i c h o f the t w o newspapers w i t h m o n e y , the British w i t h class.'
• At lower levels, brainstorm any
has the higher c i r c u l a t i o n . T h e
q u e s t i o n s o n e m i g h t ask a b o u t a • O n c e students have c o m p l e t e d theii
students d e c i d e in their groups
p e r s o n , for e x a m p l e ' W h a t d o e s h e lists, c i r c u l a t e British a n d A m e r i c a n
w h i c h n e w s p a p e r they think sells
l o o k like?' ' W h a t ' s her taste in newspapers a m o n g the pairs/groups
the most c o p i e s per m o n t h a n d w h y .
clothes?' a n d write these on the a n d the students s h o u l d search the
T h e y t h e n tell the class, justifying
board. n e w s p a p e r s for e v i d e n c e to prove o
their views.
refute t h e i r a s s e r t i o n s . If at the initia
• In g r o u p s , students try to a n s w e r • Reveal the truth (The Daily stage the g r o u p s c a n o n l y suggest a
these questions in order to b u i l d up Telegraph 946,697; The Times few generalisations, you may wish
a picture of their i m a g i n a r y reader. 671,340; The Guardian 409,569; to p o o l these, by writing t h e m on
The Independent 221,926, as at the b o a r d , before g o i n g on to the
• Students then present the
March 2003). next stage.
description of their typical reader to
the class. • T h e n tell the students that t h e y are • O n c e all the n e w s p a p e r s have been
w o r k i n g as consultants to the circulated, each group should make
• At higher levels this activity c o u l d
n e w s p a p e r with the lower a p r e s e n t a t i o n in w h i c h t h e y tell the
be used as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to a
circulation. In groups, they should class w h i c h generalisations have
w i d e r discussion of class and
suggest different business p l a n s that been confirmed, and w h i c h have
politics in m o d e r n Britain, the U S A
will revive that p a r t i c u l a r
or wherever. b e e n d i s p r o v e d , g i v i n g their reasons
newspaper's circulation.
as they go along.

• After a short time the groups c a n


present their plans to the class.
At the e n d , the class vote for the
p l a n that they feel is m o s t l i k e l y
to succeed.

10
Newspapers

Present a N e w s p a p e r Newspaper Cultures Newspaper Q u i z

Learn about the differences between Use a 'pyramid' discussion (see below) Use an element of competition to get
newspapers - and practise a good to discover the differences between your students reading newspapers
deal of vocabulary as well two cultures as exemplified in their
newspapers

Level Elementary to Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards


Intermediate Activity type Groupwork Activity type Groupwork
Activity type Groupwork Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials None Materials Photocopies
Materials None Plus... Copy/copies of an Plus ... M u l t i p l e c o p i e s of a
Plus ... One different English language single newspaper
n e w s p a p e r for every n e w s p a p e r a n d of a
three or four students first l a n g u a g e • Prepare a written q u i z , the length
in the class newspaper and difficulty of w h i c h will depend
on the level of your class.
• Pre-teach a n y essential newspaper • Pre-teach any essential newspaper
vocabulary, for example column, vocabulary, for example column, • Questions may be o p e n and aim to

article, feature, caption, headline. article, feature, caption, headline. stimulate d i s c u s s i o n , for e x a m p l e ,
'What would you watch on
• Put the s t u d e n t s i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s • Put the students into s m a l l g r o u p s of Thursday night and why?' or closed
and give each group a different a m a x i m u m of six students. G i v e w i t h right/wrong answers, for
newspaper. each of these groups an English example: ' W h a t w a s the
l a n g u a g e n e w s p a p e r a n d a first temperature in Athens yesterday?'
• Tell t h e m to a n a l y s e a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e n e w s p a p e r for a s i m i l a r
sections of the n e w s p a p e r to see readership, for e x a m p l e The Times • P u t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s a n d set
how much column space is the quiz.
and El Pais.
allocated to different topic areas
a n d h o w m u c h a d v e r t i s i n g t h e r e is. • D i v i d e the g r o u p into t w o , so that • Discuss the answers.

half of the g r o u p l o o k s at The


• The students then present the Times. The others study E l Pais.
description of the n e w s p a p e r that T h e y s h o u l d analyse all the different
they have b e e n e x a m i n i n g to the sections of their n e w s p a p e r to see
class. h o w m u c h column space is
allocated to different topic areas.

• Students then w o r k together within


the larger g r o u p to p r o d u c e
sentences c o m p a r i n g the t w o
n e w s p a p e r s , for e x a m p l e : 'There are
m o r e sports pages in The Times t h a n
in El Pais.'

• Pool the observations by a s k i n g


e a c h g r o u p in turn to read out their
sentences. Invite d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e
possible differences between the
two countries.

11
Newspapers

Where Are The Correspondents? A r t i c l e Pairing H e a d l i n e ' C a l l M y Bluff'

Excellent practice for finding one's Persuade your students to use their A panel game already used in English
way around a newspaper and armoury of reading skills language classrooms with individual
scanning words, but not as yet with newspaper
headlines

Level Beginner and Level Pre-intermediate Level Intermediate onwards


Elementary onwards Activity type Competitive
Activity type Pairwork/groupwork Activity type Groupwork activity/game

(optional) Equipment/ Equipment/


Equipment/ Materials None Materials None
Materials Photocopies Plus ... One copy of two Plus ... A range of n e w s p a p e r

Plus ... A c o p y of a d i f f e r e n t different newspapers a r t i c l e s (see b e l o w )

English language for e a c h g r o u p


newspaper and a • D i v i d e the class into groups or
photocopied map of • Put the students into g r o u p s a n d teams, and give each team two or
the w o r l d for e a c h give e a c h g r o u p t w o different three articles with a m b i g u o u s
pair/group of students newspapers, preferably a quality h e a d l i n e s , for e x a m p l e , ' S o a p O p e r a
newspaper and a tabloid. Star Still i n C l o s e t ' o r ' S c h o o l s P l a c e
• Put the students into pairs or s m a l l E m p h a s i s on Tables' (You w i l l need
groups. • A s k e a c h g r o u p t o d r a w u p a list o f
t w e l v e different articles if there are
articles on the same subject in e a c h
four teams.)
• G i v e each pair/group a p h o t o c o p i e d newspaper, for e x a m p l e , different
m a p of the w o r l d a n d a different reports of the s a m e c r i m e , • Each team s h o u l d m a k e up three
newspaper (serious newspapers conflicting reviews of the same film. alternative stories that c o u l d e q u a l l y
g e n e r a l l y w o r k better for this Students n e e d not read all the well a c c o m p a n y these headlines.
activity). articles in their entirety, but m e r e l y
• T h e g a m e starts. Each team presents
e n o u g h of each article to be able to
• Tell t h e m that e a c h n e w s p a p e r has their h e a d l i n e a l o n g w i t h the three
i d e n t i f y its s u b j e c t .
c o r r e s p o n d e n t s in different parts of i n v e n t e d stories a n d the original
the w o r l d ; their task is to m a r k on • Extend the activity by e n c o u r a g i n g story.
their m a p the location of all the the students to present their findings
correspondents for the n e w s p a p e r to the class. • The other teams decide w h i c h of

that they h a v e b e e n g i v e n . the f o u r stories t h e y h a v e just h e a r d


is the most plausible. A w a r d points
• At the e n d of the activity, all the accordingly.
maps and newspapers can be
compared.

12
Newspapers

Chequebook journalism Pushy Paparazzi Spot the Paper

The newshounds have sniffed out Se// pictures and learn English See how much your students have
some good stories - can they sell learned about English language
them for a good price? newspapers

Level Intermediate onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate onwards

Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e Activity type Groupwork;


activity activity competitive activity

Equipment/ Equipment/ (optional)

Materials None Materials None Equipment/


Plus ... Brief n e w s stories Materials Photocopies
Plus... Newspaper
from English language photographs Plus ... Photocopies of four
newspapers (see below) or five n e w s p a p e r
(see below) articles, each from a

• Cut out some typical paparazzi different newspaper

• Cut out i n d i v i d u a l short n e w s stories shots, for e x a m p l e Jennifer L o p e z in


from a n e w s p a p e r - the ' N e w s in a l o w - c u t d r e s s or B r a d Pitt w i t h o u t • G i v e y o u r students a s e l e c t i o n of
Brief section of The Guardian is his shirt. perhaps five articles. You m a y wish
one good source. to omit the headlines.
• D i v i d e the class into 'editors' a n d
• Divide the class into 'journalists' 'photographers.' • Tell t h e m to s k i m the articles a n d
and 'editors.' A s s i g n the editors a decide which British newspaper
newspaper and give the journalists • T h e p h o t o g r a p h e r s s h o u l d try to sell they are taken f r o m , s u p p o r t i n g their
a story e a c h . their p h o t o g r a p h s to the editors for decision using their o w n k n o w l e d g e
the highest price. of the press.
• The journalists a i m to sell their story
to the highest b i d d e r . T h e y h a v e to • Encourage fierce c o m p e t i t i o n ! • A l t e r n a t i v e l y this c a n be p l a y e d as a
think of different a r g u m e n t s that w i l l g a m b l i n g game, the students w h o
persuade the editors of e a c h guess correctly w i n n i n g token
newspaper to b u y their story. money, the others losing their
o r i g i n a l bets.
• The editors have a l i m i t e d b u d g e t ,
but are a l l k e e n t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r
readership.

• At the e n d of t h e a c t i v i t y t h e e d i t o r s
tell t h e c l a s s w h i c h s t o r i e s t h e y h a v e
bought and give their reasons.

13
Newspapers

Chequebook Journalism Pushy Paparazzi Spot the Paper

The newshounds have sniffed out Sell pictures and learn English See how much your students have
some good stories - can they sell learned about English language
them for a good price? newspapers

Level Intermediate onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate onwards

Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e Activity type G r o u p w o r k ;


activity activity competitive activity
(optional)
Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials None Materials None Equipment/
Plus... Brief n e w s stories Plus... Newspaper
Materials Photocopies

from English language photographs Plus ... Photocopies of four


newspapers (see below) or five n e w s p a p e r
(see below) articles, each from a

• Cut out some typical paparazzi different newspaper

• Cut out i n d i v i d u a l short n e w s stories shots, for e x a m p l e Jennifer L o p e z in


from a n e w s p a p e r - the ' N e w s in a low-cut dress or Brad Pitt w i t h o u t • G i v e y o u r students a s e l e c t i o n of

Brief section of The Guardian is his shirt. perhaps five articles. You m a y w i s h

one good source. to omit the headlines.


• D i v i d e the class into 'editors' a n d
• Divide the class into 'journalists' 'photographers.' • Tell t h e m to s k i m the articles a n d

and 'editors.' A s s i g n the editors a decide which British newspaper


• T h e p h o t o g r a p h e r s s h o u l d try to sell they are taken f r o m , s u p p o r t i n g their
newspaper and give the journalists
their photographs to the editors for decision using their o w n k n o w l e d g e
a story e a c h .
the highest price. of the press.
• The journalists a i m to sell their story
t o the highest b i d d e r . T h e y h a v e t o • Encourage fierce c o m p e t i t i o n ! • A l t e r n a t i v e l y this c a n be p l a y e d as a

think of different a r g u m e n t s that w i l l g a m b l i n g game, the students w h o


persuade the editors of e a c h guess correctly w i n n i n g token
newspaper to b u y their story. m o n e y , the others losing their
o r i g i n a l bets.
• The editors h a v e a l i m i t e d b u d g e t ,
but are a l l k e e n t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r
readership.

• At the e n d of t h e a c t i v i t y t h e e d i t o r s
tell t h e c l a s s w h i c h s t o r i e s t h e y h a v e
bought and give their reasons.

13
Articles
M a n y c o u r s e b o o k s c o n t a i n a r t i c l e s , o r parts o f
articles, from newspapers and m a g a z i n e s .
S o m e t i m e s , these are g r a d e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l ,
but i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e y r e m a i n a s a u t h e n t i c m a t e r i a l .
V e r y o f t e n , ' r e a l ' a r t i c l e s are i n c l u d e d a l o n g w i t h
appropriate activities, w h i c h dovetail w i t h the
book's grammatical and lexical syllabus.

Selecting your o w n articles from English language


n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a g a z i n e s has a d d i t i o n a l
advantages. Newspapers and magazines contain
a n e n o r m o u s r a n g e o f text t y p e s . M a n y s u b j e c t s
are c o v e r e d in a v a r i e t y of styles a n d registers,
a l l o w i n g y o u t o c h o o s e s o m e t h i n g that suits b o t h
y o u r s t u d e n t s ' n e e d s a n d interests. A r t i c l e s c a n b e
t o p i c a l . Students c a n use t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f
current events as w e l l as their o w n e x p e r i e n c e to
h e l p t h e m u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e y are r e a d i n g a n d
this w i l l h e l p t h e m b e c o m e m o r e c o n f i d e n t .
Articles

Information G a p Style a n d Register Collocation Prediction

Different newspapers often cover the Same story but look out for the Exploit newspapers in order to present
same stories differences in language and practise new collocations

Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate onwards Level Intermediate onwards

Activity type P a i r w o r k/g r o u p w o r k Activity type Pairwork/groupwork Activity type Pai rwork/grou p w o r k

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies

Plus... Two newspaper Plus ... Two newspaper Plus ... A n e w s p a p e r article
articles (see b e l o w ) a r t i c l e s (see below) (see below)
a n d a list of q u e s t i o n s and a simple table
(see below) (see below) • F i n d a text w h i c h is r i c h in
c o l l o c a t i o n s . Political articles are
• Choose two articles, both on the • C h o o s e t w o articles f r o m t w o g o o d a n d full of such e x a m p l e s as
same subject, f r o m t w o different newspapers, both on the same 'hotly d e n i e d ' , 'flatly refused' or
newspapers. Before the lesson, subject but differing in terms of style 'sweeping changes'.
p r o d u c e a set o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h fit a n d register. B e f o r e the l e s s o n ,
any of the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : p r o d u c e a table consisting of three • Take out ten c o l l o c a t i o n s a n d type

(a) q u e s t i o n s b e s t a n s w e r e d u s i n g vertical c o l u m n s headed 'Information t h e m a s a list o f i n d i v i d u a l w o r d s .

information from both the articles; contained o n l y in article A', P h o t o c o p y t h e list f o r e a c h p a i r o f

(b) q u e s t i o n s e l i c i t i n g d i f f e r e n t 'Information contained only in students.

answers from the t w o articles: a r t i c l e B', ' I n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n


• In pairs s t u d e n t s try to m a t c h t h e
(c) q u e s t i o n s , t h e a n s w e r s t o w h i c h articles A a n d B'. Photocopy one
w o r d s in order to r e p r o d u c e the ten
can only be f o u n d in o n e of the c o p y of this table, as w e l l as a c o p y
collocations. C h e c k their answers at
articles. P h o t o c o p y o n e c o p y o f the of e a c h article, for e a c h student.
this stage.
set o f q u e s t i o n s , a n d o n e c o p y o f
each article, for e a c h student. • Put the class into t w o g r o u p s : g r o u p
• A s k the students w h i c h current news
A a n d g r o u p B. G i v e e a c h student in
story the c o l l o c a t i o n s have been
• Put t h e c l a s s i n t o t w o g r o u p s : g r o u p g r o u p A a c o p y of article A, a n d
t a k e n f r o m . If t h e y d o n ' t k n o w , tell
A and group B. G i v e e a c h student e a c h student in g r o u p B a c o p y of
t h e m . A s k the students to suggest
in group A a c o p y of article A, a n d article B. A s k the students to read
any other phrases or vocabulary
each student in g r o u p B a c o p y the w h o l e of their article i n d i v i d u a l l y
items that they think are likely to
of article B. A s k the students to and resolve any problems, either by
o c c u r in the story a n d write these
read the w h o l e o f t h e i r a r t i c l e discussion, w i t h i n their g r o u p or by
on the b o a r d .
individually at this stage. using a dictionary.

• In pairs or g r o u p s , the students


• W h e n the students h a v e read their • At the e n d of this stage put students
include the original collocations,
articles, t h e y s h o u l d , w i t h i n t h e i r into AB pairs. G i v e e a c h pair a table
and any of the phrases agreed o n , in
groups, resolve a n y v o c a b u l a r y to fill in. W h e n they have finished
order to create their o w n version of
p r o b l e m s , first b y d i s c u s s i o n a n d ask t h e m to select four or five of the
the o r i g i n a l n e w s story.
then, if necessary, by u s i n g items that they h a v e written in the
dictionaries. c o l u m n labelled 'Information in
• T h e students then read the original
articles A a n d B'. A s k t h e m t o
newspaper article and c o m p a r e it
• Hand out the q u e s t i o n s . W o r k i n g in
u n d e r l i n e the phrases that express
with their o w n version.
A B pairs, students p o o l i n f o r m a t i o n
these items. Discuss the differences
and discuss d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i r
in language.
answers.

15
Articles

Headline Prediction Obituaries Film Reviews

Maximize your students' curiosity A roleplay with a difference Everybody enjoys a good film
before reading a newspaper article

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level P r e - i n t e r m e d iate


onwards onwards onwards

Activity type G r o u p w o r k Activity type G r o u p w o r k ; Activity type G r o u p w o r k


homework (optional) Equipment/
Equipment/
Materials O H P ; photocopies Equipment/ Materials Photocopies

Plus ... A newspaper article


Materials Photocopies Plus ... A s e l e c t i o n of f i l m

(see below) Plus ... F o u r or f i v e o b i t u a r i e s reviews


a n d a sheet of p a p e r

• On an O H P , s h o w the students the with four or five • Select four or five reviews of current

headline to an article. Students names on it c i n e m a releases. They s h o u l d be


(see below) similar in length. Photocopy one
s h o u l d try t o p r e d i c t w h a t t h e a r t i c l e
might be about. c o p y of e a c h for every student.
• C o l l e c t four or five interesting
• O n c e they have agreed on the obituaries. Photocopy one copy of • Put the class into g r o u p s of four or

actual subject of the article, put e a c h obituary for every student. five (depending on the n u m b e r of

t h e m into small groups a n d ask reviews you have). Give each

t h e m to write ten q u e s t i o n s that they • Put the students into four or five student in e a c h g r o u p a different

w o u l d like the article to answer. groups. G i v e each g r o u p a different film review. A l l o w the students time
o b i t u a r y to study. to read the reviews.
• Y o u m a y w i s h to ask the students to
write them on O H T s in order to • W h e n they have fully understood • Take b a c k the r e v i e w s . Tell the

c o m p a r e t h e m as a class. the c o n t e n t of the article that they students that e a c h g r o u p is g o i n g


have been given, reseat the class out to see a f i l m together; they have
• Students then read the article to see into n e w groups. Each of these n e w to d e c i d e w h i c h film they want to
w h e t h e r their o w n questions have g r o u p s s h o u l d c o n t a i n a t least o n e see. Students discuss the films and
been answered. student from e a c h of the original negotiate a plan for the e v e n i n g .
groups.
• In their g r o u p s , the students m a y • Each g r o u p then tells the class
then discuss likely answers to their • E a c h s t u d e n t takes it in turns to w h i c h film they have chosen and
remaining questions. r e m i n i s c e a b o u t their life a n d t i m e s . why.
( O n l y a l l o w reference to the text if
essential.) T h e other students ask • At l o w e r levels, y o u m a y w i s h to

questions and sympathize. g r o u p t o g e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s w h o are


reading the s a m e review, before
• G i v e t h e m time, o n c e the activity is they meet the other students w h o
over to m a k e notes, asking further have read a different review.
questions if necessary. These notes
c a n then be written up for
homework.

16
Articles

Day-by-Day Weather Reports W o r l d W e a t h e r Reports A g o n y Aunts

Everybody knows that the English Widen your class's weather Everybody loves giving advice - the
always talk about the weather - horizons question is, is it good enough?
prepare your students!

Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


Pre-intermediate onwards onwards

Activity type Whole class Activity type Whole class Activity type Pairwork

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials O H P (optional); Materials Single V H S player Materials Photocopies
photocopies + TV (optional); Plus... A problem page
Plus... A weather report photocopies from a magazine
Plus... A c a m c o r d e r or a or newspaper

• G i v e the s t u d e n t s a c o p y of a cassette-recorder

weather report/forecast (local, (see b e l o w ) a n d a


• T a k e a p r o b l e m p a g e that has a
national or international) f r o m the c o p y of the w o r l d
v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m letters a n d
current day's n e w s p a p e r , or m a k e a weather report
replies giving advice.
photocopied O H T of the forecast,
and present this. • M a k e a r e c o r d i n g of the TV n e w s • C u t t h e p a g e u p , s o that e a c h letter
weather report and m a k e a c o p y of and each reply is n o w separate.
• Study it as a c l a s s , f o c u s i n g on t h e the ' A r o u n d the W o r l d ' section of
language used to d e s c r i b e the the current day's n e w s p a p e r • Paste these o n t o a p i e c e of p a p e r in

weather. weather report for every t w o or a random order; however, omit

three students. three of the replies and p h o t o c o p y


• Tell t h e s t u d e n t s t o l o o k o u t o f t h e these o n t o another piece of paper.
w i n d o w a n d talk a b o u t w h a t the • S h o w y o u r students the v i d e o of the
weather is like. A s k t h e m if they • Finally, p h o t o c o p y both pasted up
weather report and study the
think that t h e f o r e c a s t w i l l c o m e pages, o n e for e a c h pair of students
language used.
true, a n d e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o m a k e in the class.

their o w n p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e • H a n d out the ' A r o u n d the W o r l d '


• H a n d out the p h o t o c o p i e s w i t h the
weather. M a k e a r e c o r d of t h e s e . p h o t o c o p i e s a n d allocate a city to
letters a n d a n s w e r s (but n o t the
e a c h student. A s k the students to
p h o t o c o p y of the three replies) a n d
• The f o l l o w i n g day, talk a b o u t w h a t prepare to give a brief w e a t h e r
ask e a c h pair of students to m a t c h
the w e a t h e r h a s b e e n l i k e . C o m p a r e report f r o m their part of the w o r l d .
t h e m . E x p l a i n that there are three
the c l a s s ' s f o r e c a s t w i t h t h e o n e i n G i v e t h e m time to prepare this a n d
letters that d o n o t yet h a v e a n y
the p r e v i o u s d a y ' s n e w s p a p e r . h e l p with a n y v o c a b u l a r y ; ask t h e m
replies.
to be imaginative.

• C h e c k the m a t c h i n g e x e r c i s e as a
• W h e n y o u feel that y o u r students
class.
are p r e p a r e d , record t h e m g i v i n g
their i n d i v i d u a l w e a t h e r reports.
• E x p l a i n to the students that they are
n o w w o r k i n g a s ' a g o n y aunts' for
• This activity w o r k s particularly well
the same newspaper. W o r k i n g in
with a multilingual class presenting
pairs, they are to write the replies to
weather reports for their o w n
t h e t h r e e u n a n s w e r e d letters.
countries.

• W h e n the students have finished


their replies, put these up a r o u n d
the class and e n c o u r a g e t h e m to
read e a c h other's.

• At the e n d of the lesson, h a n d out


the real a g o n y a u n t replies for the
students to c o m p a r e w i t h their o w n .

17
Articles

Scissors Plagiarists T V Partners

Use newspaper articles to create a A text-completion task that focuses on Students probably do this in their
discourse puzzle register spare time anyway!

Level Pre-intermediate Level Intermediate Level Beginner to


onwards onwards Pre-intermediate

Activity type Pairwork Activity type P a i r w o r k Activity type M i n g l e ; h o m e w o r k


Equipment/ (optional)
Equipment/
Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies Equipment/
Plus ... Two newspaper Plus ... Twonewspaper
Materials Photocopies

a r t i c l e s (see below) a r t i c l e s (see below) Plus ... A TV s c h e d u l e


from a newspaper

• Take t w o articles on the s a m e subject • C h o o s e t w o news articles reporting and a simple table

and f r o m the s a m e newspaper, but t h e s a m e story, t h e first f r o m a (see below)

from two consecutive days. Ensure tabloid newspaper, and the s e c o n d


that the t y p e f a c e in e a c h article is from a broadsheet. • P h o t o c o p y the TV s c h e d u l e for eac

the same. pair of students. If y o u are w o r k i n g


• P h o t o c o p y b o t h articles for the i n t h e U K , try t o u s e the T V s c h e d u
• P h o t o c o p y o n e c o p y of each article n u m b e r of students in your class, for that e v e n i n g . If y o u are w o r k i n g
for e a c h pair of students. but cut the broadsheet article into a b r o a d , try t o i n c l u d e a T V s c h e d u
t w o after the s e c o n d o r t h i r d that i n c l u d e s s o m e English l a n g u a g
• Cut up each c o p y of the article paragraph. channels.
c o l u m n by c o l u m n , and then cut
between each paragraph. • Study the article from the tabloid • M a k e a simple table with each h o i
n e w s p a p e r with the class in any f r o m six o ' c l o c k until m i d n i g h t ,
• M i x up the t w o articles, but m a k e w a y that y o u w i s h to, p a y i n g m a r k e d o n it. ( Y o u m a y w i s h t o o r r
sure that y o u d e a l w i t h o n l y o n e particular attention to issues of this stage a n d ask y o u r students to
c o p y of e a c h article at a time. register a n d style.
m a k e the table d u r i n g the class.)

• Put e a c h pair of cut-up articles into • Put y o u r students into pairs. G i v e • D i v i d e the students into pairs a n d
an e n v e l o p e . D o n ' t forget to keep a e a c h p a i r t h e first s e c t i o n o f t h e give each pair the p h o t o c o p i e d TV
c o p y of the c o m p l e t e versions. broadsheet article. Ask them to s c h e d u l e , a n d the table if y o u have
identify any differences in style p r e p a r e d it. T h e s t u d e n t s d e c i d e
• D i v i d e your class into pairs a n d give
between the t w o articles. Write individually what they wish to
each pair o n e of the envelopes. A s k
these up on the board. w a t c h that e v e n i n g . T h e y h a v e t o
t h e m to piece the articles back
w a t c h T V c o n t i n u o u s l y b e t w e e n si:
together again. • T h e n ask the students to w o r k in
o'clock and midnight.
pairs to c o m p l e t e the s e c o n d article.
They should select any appropriate • H a v i n g filled in the f o r m , the
i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e first, b u t students then m i n g l e to find their
s h o u l d a t t e m p t to r e f o r m u l a t e it in a m o s t c o m p a t i b l e T V p a r t n e r f o r the
style a n d register m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e e v e n i n g , a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s l i k e , 'I'm
to the s e c o n d newspaper. watching Blind Date. Are you?'

• Finally, give e a c h pair the c o p i e s of • As h o m e w o r k , y o u c o u l d ask the


t h e rest o f t h e s e c o n d a r t i c l e . students to w a t c h o n e English
l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m m e that e v e n i n g .

18
Articles

C o u c h Potatoes ' P e o p l i n g ' the N e w s A n d Today's A r t i c l e is ...

Something of a challenge! Reconstructing the news using the Unsure which article to read next?
human resources at your disposal

Level Elementary to Level Intermediate onwards Level Pre-intermediate


Intermediate Activity type onwards
Groupwork/mingle
Activity type Groupwork;
Equipment/ Activity type Groupwork
homework (optional) Materials Photocopies Equipment/
Equipment/ Plus... Newspaper article/s Materials None
Materials Photocopies
(see b e l o w ) a n d a Plus ... Four or five short
Plus... A TV schedule cassette-recorder or newspaper articles
from a newspaper camcorder (optional) on a range of topics
and a simple table
(see b e l o w ) • Find an interesting story in the n e w s • D i v i d e the class into four or five
that has an i m p o r t a n t h u m a n - groups. G i v e e a c h g r o u p a different
• P h o t o c o p y a TV s c h e d u l e for the interest e l e m e n t a n d that i n v o l v e s a article.
day and, if y o u w i s h , a table w i t h meeting between the characters in
the h o u r s b e t w e e n s i x o ' c l o c k a n d t h e story. Try t h e g o s s i p c o l u m n s o f • Tell the students to read their article

m i d n i g h t m a r k e d o n it. national dailies, local newspapers alone, a n d then, w o r k i n g as a

and gossip magazines such as g r o u p , t o p r o d u c e a list o f f i v e


• Ask your students to read the TV Hello! or OK! r e a s o n s w h y t h e rest o f t h e c l a s s
schedule individually a n d to write s h o u l d read the article. G i v e t h e m a
d o w n their p r e f e r r e d list o f • Either study an article written a b o u t time limit.

programmes for the e v e n i n g . Tell the story, or f o l l o w a series of


t h e m t h a t t h e y must s p e n d t h e e n t i r e articles as they a p p e a r o v e r a f e w • E a c h g r o u p takes it in turn to

evening w a t c h i n g television. p e r s u a d e the class as a w h o l e that


days.
their article is the most interesting.
• Put t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s o f t h r e e • If y o u are using o n l y o n e article,
o r four a n d ask t h e m t o c o m p a r e use an article w h i c h deals with a • T h e class votes to d e c i d e w h i c h

schedules. dramatic, and possibly emotional, a r t i c l e t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o l o o k at.

m e e t i n g ; p e a c e talks are g o o d
• N o w tell t h e m that t h e y a l l h a v e t o • As h o m e w o r k y o u c a n give students
e x a m p l e s . After studying the article
spend the e v e n i n g w a t c h i n g T V the s e c o n d most p o p u l a r article.
a n d d i s c u s s i n g the feelings of all
together a n d t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y o n e
i n v o l v e d , set u p a r o l e p l a y i n w h i c h
television in the h o u s e . In t h e i r
the students re-enact the m e e t i n g
groups they h a v e to n e g o t i a t e a
t h e y h a v e just b e e n r e a d i n g a b o u t .
compromise schedule w h i c h they
all f i n d a c c e p t a b l e . • If y o u are u s i n g a series of a r t i c l e s ,
u s e a s t o r y that l e a d s up to a
• As h o m e w o r k , ask the students to
dramatic meeting. F o l l o w the events
watch one English l a n g u a g e
leading up to the meeting, and then,
programme that e v e n i n g .
on the d a y that the m e e t i n g itself is
d u e t o t a k e p l a c e , set u p a r o l e p l a y
i in w h i c h the students enact the
meeting as they think it will h a p p e n .

• C o m p a r e the roleplay with w h a t


actually took place.

19
3

Songs
Students o f t e n c o m e i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m h u m m i n g M a n y s o n g s n o w c o m e w i t h a v i d e o . E x p l o i t this

s o n g s t o w h i c h t h e y d o n ' t k n o w the w o r d s . relationship. You m a y also find the t e c h n i q u e s in

K n o w i n g the w o r d s g i v e s m a n y t e e n a g e r s k u d o s , t h e TV and Video c h a p t e r o f this b o o k u s e f u l w i t h

a greater i n s i g h t i n t o the m i n d s o f t h e i r i d o l s , a n d songs,

may even help with language acquisition.

Teachers do not often have so m u c h curiosity

available in the c l a s s r o o m .

For learners, as i n d e e d for n a t i v e - s p e a k e r s , t h e


m a i n desire is to understand the s o n g , not
n e c e s s a r i l y the d e t a i l s , but at least t h e gist. N o n -
native speakers often find English language songs
particularly d a u n t i n g a n d frustrating. W h a t is
important, t h o u g h , is the relationship b e t w e e n the
m a t e r i a l a n d the task that is set.

T h e a c t i v i t i e s i n this s e c t i o n h e l p students t o
understand the songs, a n d in the process, d e v e l o p
their E n g l i s h i n t e r m s o f g r a m m a r , v o c a b u l a r y a n d
pronunciation.

Songs c a n often be bought c h e a p l y in

c o m p i l a t i o n s . Students m a y h a v e t h e i r o w n

collections of English songs, and they appreciate

i t w h e n the t e a c h e r b o r r o w s o n e o f t h e i r s o n g s

a n d d e v e l o p s a l e s s o n a r o u n d it.

20
Songs

Line-by-Line M i n g l e Every Breath You Fake ... W h e r e A r e all the Nouns?

Students mingle to unmuddle a Shake, take, slake, rake - how many An alternative to the standard
song rhymes for '-ake' can your students gap-fill
think of?

Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards


Intermediate onwards Activity type Pa i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k
Activity type Mingle/open space Activity type Mingle; Equipment/
activity grou pwork/pa i rwork Materials Single cassette player;
(optional)
Equipment/ photocopies

Materials Single cassette player;


Equipment/ Plus ... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g
photocopies
Materials Single cassette player; and the w o r d s
photocopies (see below)
Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g
Plus... Teacher's knowledge
a n d a cut-up text
of p h o n e m i c chart; • Type up the song, omitting w o r d s
(see below)
* a r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g belonging to one grammatical
and the w o r d s category, for e x a m p l e n o u n s , verbs,
• Photocopy the w o r d s of a s o n g a n d
(see below)
or adjectives. Do not indicate
cut u p the s o n g l i n e b y l i n e .
where t h e s e w o r d s h a v e b e e n
• C h o o s e a song, preferably with omitted.
• G i v e e a c h l i n e to a d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t .
multiple rhymes; 'rap' is excellent
(If y o u h a v e t o o m a n y s t u d e n t s f o r
for this. Put a gap at the e n d of e a c h • Put the students into pairs, a n d give
the lines o f t h e s o n g , y o u m a y h a v e
line of the lyrics, and m a k e o n e e a c h pair the text. A s k t h e m to put a
to allocate t w o students to a line.)
c o p y for e a c h student. cross wherever they think a w o r d is

• Ask the students to s t a n d u p . missing.


text

• T h e n ask t h e m to s t a n d in a l i n e in Every breath you • C h e c k t o g e t h e r as a c l a s s .

the c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e , i n o r d e r t o Every m o v e y o u
• N o w w o r k i n g in small groups the
form the lines of the s o n g , in t h e
students then brainstorm possible
correct order.
• At the t o p of a s m a l l poster, w r i t e
w o r d s for the gaps.
the p h o n e m i c transcription for the
• W h e n the students h a v e f i n i s h e d
e n d i n g of o n e of the w o r d s that y o u • Play the song and c h e c k the
jostling for p o s i t i o n , p l a y t h e s o n g ,
have o m i t t e d . Repeat this for e a c h answers. Discuss w h i c h of the
and see i f t h e s t u d e n t s w a n t t o
group of line endings. alternatives that the students h a v e
move. You m a y n e e d t o d o this
poster created might be possible in the
more than o n c e .
context of the s o n g a n d h o w these
/eik/
• O n c e the lines are in o r d e r , s t u d e n t s alternatives might c h a n g e the

should read the s o n g a l o u d , s a y i n g meaning.


• D i v i d e your class into pairs and
one line e a c h . T h e y c o u l d e v e n s i n g
circulate the posters. The students
it, but d o n ' t c o u n t o n i t !
have to write on the posters all the
words they can think of w h i c h end
w i t h the s o u n d that has b e e n
" indicated.

• Put the posters up a r o u n d the r o o m ,


a n d give the students the g a p p e d
text of the s o n g . T h e y s h o u l d
circulate, trying to c o m p l e t e the
gaps in their texts by s e l e c t i n g the
w o r d s from the posters.

• Finally, play the s o n g to c h e c k the


answers.
21
Songs

W r o n g W o r d s in Text Picture Gaps Jumbled W o r d s

Old MacDonald had a pram ... and on that farm he had a ... Old farm a MacDonald had

Level A l l levels Level Beginner and Level Beginner to

Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Elementary Intermediate

(optional) Activity type Whole class Activity type Pairwork

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Single cassette player; Materials Single cassette player; Materials Single cassette player
Photocopies photocopies photocopies

Plus ... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g Plus ... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g


a n d the w o r d s a n d the w o r d s a n d the w o r d s
(see below) (see below) (see below)

• Type up a s o n g s u c h as ' O l d • Type up a s o n g s u c h as ' O l d • Type up a s o n g s u c h as ' O l d


M a c D o n a l d had a farm', putting in M a c D o n a l d had a farm', replacing M a c D o n a l d had a farm' with the
wrong, possibly hilarious, 'mistakes' the target v o c a b u l a r y w i t h s m a l l w o r d s in s o m e of the lines put into
into the text, for e x a m p l e ' O l d pictures, for e x a m p l e : the w r o n g order. M a k e a c o p y for
MacDonald had a pram'. e a c h pair of students.

• T h e students read the text, w o r k i n g • Put the students into pairs a n d give

in pairs or s m a l l g r o u p s , a n d try to out the copies.

spot the mistakes a n d correct t h e m .


• Students w o r k together to put the
• Play the s o n g a n d ask the students w o r d s into the correct order within
• Play the song to c h e c k the answers.
t o s i n g a l o n g w i t h it. the lines.

• At the e n d , ask t h e m to write d o w n • Play the s o n g to c h e c k the answer;


the w o r d s next to each picture.

22
Songs

Singogloss Song D i c t a t i o n Split Song

A challenging variation on the Mind the gap! A listening activity where the students
dictogloss idea have all the answers

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level All levels

Activity type Pai r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type Pa i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type Pairwork


(optional) (optional) Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials Single cassette player;
Materials Single cassette player; Materials Single cassette player; photocopies
photocopies photocopies Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g
Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g and the w o r d s
and the w o r d s and the w o r d s (see below)
(see below)

• Choose a song, preferably o n e that • C h o o s e a s o n g a n d type it u p . M a k e

tells a story. M a k e o n e c o p y o f t h e • Choose a slow song with clear t w o c o p i e s , o n e w i t h the o d d

w o r d s for e a c h s t u d e n t . words. Good e x a m p l e s are Play n u m b e r e d lines g a p p e d and the

with Fire (Rolling Stones) and even numbered lines c o m p l e t e


• Play the s o n g t h r o u g h o n c e . A s k t h e Yellow ( C o l d p l a y ) . Make a copy (copy A), a n d the other w i t h the
students o n e o r t w o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t for e a c h student in the class. e v e n n u m b e r e d lines g a p p e d and
it. the o d d n u m b e r e d lines complete
• G i v e e a c h student a b l a n k p i e c e of ( c o p y B). M a k e o n e c o p y of either A
• Tell t h e m t h a t y o u a r e g o i n g t o p l a y paper, or alternatively, a c o p y of the or B for e a c h student.
it again, pausing briefly at the e n d song with a line indicating every
of each verse. T h e y are to w r i t e m i s s i n g w o r d in the s o n g . • Play the song through o n c e . Ask
down any important w o r d s or students o n e or two questions about
phrases t h e y h e a r - t h e y a r e n o t • Play the s o n g , if necessary p a u s i n g it.
e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e d o w n a l l o f it. at the end of each line or verse, a n d
ask the students to write it d o w n as • Split the class into pairs, giving o n e
• P l a y it a g a i n . a dictation. m e m b e r of each pair c o p y A, and
the other c o p y B. Play the s o n g
• In pairs or s m a l l g r o u p s , t h e y p o o l • R e p e a t as often as the students feel again, p a u s i n g every f e w lines. A s k
their n o t e s a n d t h e n c o n s t r u c t a t e x t t h e y n e e d it. A f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o t h e the students to c o m p l e t e the g a p p e d
based on their n o t e s . song e a c h time, they c o m p a r e their lines individually.
texts w i t h their partner's.
• Finally, c o m p a r e t h e i r texts to t h e
• W h e n the dictation is finished,
original s o n g lyrics. • Finally, h a n d out the copies of the students c h e c k the answers with
full text for the students to c h e c k . their partners.
Songs

Running D i c t a t i o n My Song 'A and R People'

'Run rabbit, run' Cef your students to talk about what Your class keep a look out for new
they probably talk about outside class talent
anyway!

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type Competitive Activity type W h o l e c l a s s onwards

activity/game Equipment/ Activity type Groupwork

Equipment/ Materials Single cassette player Equipment/


Materials Single cassette player; Materials Single cassette player
photocopies • A s k your students to c o m e in with Plus... R e c o r d i n g s of a
Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a s o n g their favourite song in English, a n d variety of songs
a n d the w o r d s t o b e p r e p a r e d t o t a l k a b o u t it. (see below)
(see below)
• T h e y play the m u s i c to the class,
• C h o o s e a s e l e c t i o n of songs w h i c h
and e x p l a i n w h y it is important to
• M a k e o n e c o p y of the w o r d s of the you think will be u n k n o w n to your
them.
song: Run rabbit, run rabbit, run, students; they m a y be very recent,
run, run/Don't give the farmer his or they may be 'oldies'.
• Let t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s a s k q u e s t i o n s .
fun, fun, fun/He'll get by without his
rabbit pie/So run rabbit, run rabbit, • D e s c r i b e the role of Artist a n d
• T h i s c a n be d o n e , either as a s i n g l e
run, run, run f o r e a c h student, and Repertoire p e r s o n n e l in a m o d e r n
lesson, or as an o n g o i n g series or
o n e large c o p y , to be u s e d as a r e c o r d c o m p a n y (they select a n d
'thread' (see Introduction), through
poster. market the bands).
the term or course.

• Play the s o n g through o n c e . A s k the • Put the class into g r o u p s . Tell the

students o n e or t w o questions about students that they are 'A a n d R

it. p e o p l e , ' a n d that they are g o i n g to


hear ' d e m o tapes' from s o m e
• P l a c e the poster of the s o n g on a promising young bands.
wall outside the classroom.
• P l a y t h e first s o n g . T h e s t u d e n t s ,
• Put the students into g r o u p s of three w o r k i n g in their groups, discuss
o r four. O n e student i n e a c h g r o u p whether the b a n d is worth 'signing',
s h o u l d act as a ' s c r i b e ' , the others the sort of p e o p l e the b a n d m i g h t
s h o u l d take it in turns to act as a p p e a l to, a n d h o w the b a n d s h o u l d
'runners'. be presented to the p u b l i c .

• The runners read the song placed • Repeat this p r o c e d u r e for e a c h


outside the c l a s s r o o m . T h e y song.
m e m o r i z e as large a f r a g m e n t of the
song as they c a n , return to the • To c o m p l e t e the session, if y o u have
group as quickly as possible, and sufficient k n o w l e d g e , tell the class
relay the text to the s c r i b e , w h o h o w successful these bands have
then writes it d o w n . actually been.
4

• T h e groups then race e a c h other to


see w h i c h g r o u p c a n transcribe the
c o m p l e t e text o f t h e s o n g first.

• As s o o n as o n e g r o u p has f i n i s h e d ,
play the s o n g a n d c h e c k the
answers.

• Finally, give all the students a c o p y


of the w o r d s to the song.
24
4

Readers
Most o f the m a j o r p u b l i s h e r s n o w p r o d u c e series A c t i v i t i e s i n this s e c t i o n a l l o w students t o p r a c t i s e
of graded readers. T h e y are v e r y v a r i e d a n d the skills of s k i m m i n g , s c a n n i n g , a n d d e d u c i n g
include c o n t e m p o r a r y f i c t i o n , a s w e l l a s c l a s s i c s from context, as w e l l as creating an opportunity
and books o f f i l m s . T h e w i d e r a n g e o f titles m e a n s for f l u e n c y practice. Students w i l l also be able to
that it is relatively easy for a s t u d e n t to c h o o s e a extend their v o c a b u l a r y a n d d e v e l o p their w r i t i n g
book that fits their interests, or for a t e a c h e r to skills.
choose a class reader that w i l l a p p e a l to a g i v e n
class. T h e a c t i v i t i e s in t h e first part {Using a Class
Reader) d e p e n d o n t h e c l a s s h a v i n g r e a d t o t h e
The activities in this s e c t i o n f a l l i n t o t w o parts: s a m e p o i n t i n the reader. T h e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e

activities w h i c h c a n b e u s e d w h e n the w h o l e c l a s s second part (Using Different Readers) are

is using a single r e a d e r ; a n d a c t i v i t i e s to be u s e d d e s i g n e d for w h e n s t u d e n t s h a v e c h o s e n t h e i r

when students are a b l e t o s e l e c t t h e i r o w n r e a d e r o w n i n d i v i d u a l readers.

from the s c h o o l library, a b o o k s h o p or a s c h o o l -


supported m a i l o r d e r s c h e m e .

These activities a i m to m o t i v a t e students to r e a d ,


and to d e v e l o p as i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n e r s . Initially,
students w i l l need to be s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h the
reading process. T h i s c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y
dealing with p r o b l e m s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d
vocabulary, setting r e a l i s t i c r e a d i n g targets a n d
providing a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a l l e n g i n g tasks. T h i s
will help to give students t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h e y
need to read i n d e p e n d e n t l y in t h e i r o w n t i m e .
Readers Using a Class Reader

C o m p a r i n g First Paragraphs G r o u p Questions Passage Questions

For those happy situations where you An activity that lives, or dies, on the It's amazing how motivating it is tc

have a choice of more than one set of quality of the questions make questions to test somebody e

class readers for your students

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onward

Activity type Groupwork Activity type Groupwork Activity type G r o u p w o r k


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials None Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies

Plus... Sets o f c l a s s r e a d e r s Plus... A set of c l a s s readers Plus ... A s e t of c l a s s r e a d e

• This activity, unlike those f o l l o w i n g , • W r i t e a series of q u e s t i o n s on the • C h o o s e t w o or more unconnecte

should be used before the class has r e a d e r s o far. b u t s i g n i f i c a n t , p a s s a g e s f r o m the

started on a reader. c h a p t e r s that the class has read s


• Put the students into g r o u p s a n d ask far. P h o t o c o p y t h e m , o n s e p a r a t e
• Put the class into as m a n y g r o u p s as t h e m to a n s w e r the questions as a pieces of paper, o n e for each
y o u h a v e sets o f c l a s s r e a d e r s . group. Encourage lively discussion. student in the class.

• G i v e each group a different reader • Do this regularly. Each time, write • Split the class into groups (two o
a n d ask t h e m to l o o k at it for a f e w q u e s t i o n s that e n c o u r a g e the more, d e p e n d i n g on the size of \
minutes. T h e y s h o u l d e x a m i n e the students to l o o k at the b o o k in a class) a n d give e a c h g r o u p o n e c
text o n t h e b a c k a n d r e a d t h e first different way. Include closed the passages.
t w o or three paragraphs. q u e s t i o n s t o test c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d
o p e n questions to e n c o u r a g e the • E a c h g r o u p w o r k s together, readi
• A s k e a c h g r o u p t o ' p r e s e n t ' its students to c o m p a r e their o w n their o w n passage, and discussin
reader to the class. After all the responses to the text. its p l a c e i n t h e s t o r y s o f a r . T h e y
presentations, the students vote to resolve any problems of vocabul
c h o o s e the class reader. • Frame the questions a r o u n d a w i t h i n the passage as they go ak
particular theme.
• T e l l e a c h g r o u p to p r o d u c e a list
• O n e week, write questions w h i c h q u e s t i o n s on this passage for the
e x a m i n e the moral d i l e m m a s faced o t h e r g r o u p . T h e y m a y refer t o t l
by the characters: the decisions they copies of the reader if they wish.
have m a d e , and the decisions they T h e i r questions m a y be on the
could/should have made. context s u r r o u n d i n g the passage,
o n t h e p a s s a g e itself.
• The following week, write questions
which e x a m i n e alternative • T h e g r o u p s t h e n e x c h a n g e the li:
possibilities within the plot. Your of questions, a n d the passages.
c h o i c e of theme will give the
students practice in particular • E a c h g r o u p reads the n e w passaj

g r a m m a t i c a l areas, for e x a m p l e in a n d t h e n tries t o a n s w e r the

the above, modality and q u e s t i o n s that t h e y h a v e b e e n gi'

conditionals.

26
It's on the Tip of my Tongue Missing C h a r a c t e r Lonely Hearts

Expand your students' vocabulary by A character's gone missing - will your Everybody needs somebody - even
building on their knowledge of the students' mini-portraits help the police characters in a novel
characters they have been reading to find him or her?
about

Level Elementary onwards Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate


Pre-intermediate onwards
Activity type Groupwork

Equipment/ Activity type Pairwork/groupwork Activity type Pairwork

Materials Photocopies (optional) Equipment/


Plus... A c l a s s set o f
Equipment/ Materials Photocopies

activators, Materials O H P (optional) Plus ... A ' l o n e l y hearts'


for e x a m p l e Plus ... A set of c l a s s r e a d e r s column
The Longman and a 'missing
Essential Activator, person' poster • M a k e a c o p y of a l o n e l y hearts
Oxford Word power (see below) c o l u m n , o n e for e a c h student. It can
be very helpful to p r o d u c e a
• Looking back over what y o u have • Produce a typical 'missing person' glossary of c o m m o n terms used in
r e a d s o far, c h o o s e a p a r a g r a p h poster for o n e of the characters in these c o l u m n s , for e x a m p l e ' G S H '
from the class r e a d e r w h i c h the class reader. B l a n k out his or her means ' g o o d sense of humour.'
describes o n e of the m a i n name and photocopy it onto an
characters in s o m e d e t a i l . O H T if possible. • L o o k at these together in class,
discussing the language used.
• Type it o u t , c h a n g i n g a l l t h e s p e c i f i c • Present the poster to y o u r class. A s k
language into m o r e g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e m to say w h o it must be a n d • Tell y o u r students that s o m e of the

for e x a m p l e ' h e s t r o d e p u r p o s e f u l l y why. Examine the language used in characters in their reader are feeling

into t h e r o o m ' b e c o m e s ' h e w a l k e d the poster. lonely. W o r k i n g in pairs, they s h o u l d

purposefully into the r o o m ' . Y o u write a l o n e l y hearts advertisement


• Put the students into pairs or s m a l l on behalf of one or two of them.
may w i s h t o u n d e r l i n e the w o r d s
groups. A s k t h e m to p r o d u c e a
that y o u h a v e c h a n g e d .
' m i s s i n g p e r s o n ' poster for o n e • D i s p l a y these a r o u n d the c l a s s r o o m .

• Make one c o p y of your ' s i m p l i f i e d ' character in the novel, but not to
text for e a c h p a i r o f s t u d e n t s . write the character's n a m e on it.

• Put the c l a s s i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s , a n d • D i s p l a y the posters r o u n d the


give e a c h g r o u p a c o p y o f t h e t e x t . c l a s s r o o m . The students have to
Using both their k n o w l e d g e of the g u e s s w h o t h e y refer to.
book, a n d the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d
b y the c o n t e x t , t h e y w o r k t o
'unsimplify' the text.

• Finally, t h e s t u d e n t s c o m p a r e t h e i r
n e w texts w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l .

27
Readers Using a Class Reader

Fantasy Casting Movie Screenplay Instant Screenplay

Arnold Schwarzenegger as Mr Darcy? Bring the text to life/celluloid? From text to stage

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards onwards

Activity type Groupwork Activity type Groupwork Activity type G r o u p w o r k (optional

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies Materials None

Plus ... A c a s t list (see b e l o w )


• Find three or four passages in the • C h o o s e a passage f r o m the b o o k
book with dramatic possibilities. which involves a n u m b e r of
• P r o d u c e a list of t h e c h a r a c t e r s in
These may be key scenes, involving c h a r a c t e r s , a n d is w r i t t e n u s i n g a l<
the b o o k in t h e f o r m of a c a s t list.
several of the m a i n characters. of d i r e c t s p e e c h . It s h o u l d be a
P h o t o c o p y o n e for e a c h g r o u p o f
P h o t o c o p y e a c h passage for the passage with dramatic potential.
students.
n u m b e r of students in each group
• L o o k at t h e p a s s a g e as a c l a s s ,
• D i v i d e the class into small groups. (see below).
d i s c u s s i n g a n y issues o f v o c a b u l a n
Tell the students that they are
• D i v i d e the class into three or four and pronunciation, as well as
casting directors w o r k i n g on the
groups. You m a y w i s h to vary the t a l k i n g a b o u t its c o n t e x t i n t h e
n e w H o l l y w o o d version of the class
size of the groups d e p e n d i n g on the book.
reader. T h e y have to agree on a cast
number of characters in each scene.
list f o r a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e
• A l l o c a t e e a c h o f t h e s p e a k i n g part;
book. They have an unlimited
• G i v e each group o n e of the to a different student. G i v e anothe
budget - and may even choose
p a s s a g e s . A s k t h e m t o r e a d it, a n d t o student the role of narrator. A s k
actors w h o are n o longer w i t h us.
discuss w h a t has h a p p e n e d up to t h e m to read the passage a l o u d as

that p o i n t in the story. they w e r e actors d o i n g a 'read-


• Encourage disagreement.
through.' The narrator reads out al
• T h e students then w o r k in their the parts that are not in direct
groups to p r o d u c e a s c r e e n p l a y for speech.
their s c e n e , i m a g i n i n g that t h e y are
f i l m i n g this e p i s o d e . T h e y d r a w up a • N o w ask the students to read
list o f c h a r a c t e r s , i n v e n t d i a l o g u e t h r o u g h the passage for a s e c o n d
and could even discuss possible t i m e , this t i m e t r y i n g to act it out ^
s o u n d effects. m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . T h e y m a y use
any furniture as props.
• W h e n they have w o r k e d together
on their screenplays, they cast the • Finally, ask t h e m to put their b o o k
different character roles w i t h i n their aside, a n d to re-enact the scene
o w n group. They then rehearse the w i t h o u t the narrator, as they think
scene for a short time. really happened.

• Finally each group performs their • If y o u h a v e a large c l a s s , p u t t h e


s c e n e f o r t h e rest o f t h e c l a s s . s t u d e n t s i n t o s m a l l e r g r o u p s after
t h e first r e a d - t h r o u g h .

28
Reviews Review Forms Book Presentations

Students help each other to choose Your students can be a resource too! Make recent reading the basis for class
readers talks

Level Intermediate Level Elementary to Level Elementary onwards


onwards Intermediate Activity type W h o l e class
Activity type Homework (optional) Activity type Homework (optional) Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials None
Materials Photocopies Materials Photocopies

Plus... O n e or two book Plus ... A review form • Tell t h e s t u d e n t s a b o u t a n o v e l that


reviews (see below) y o u have read recently. Describe
the c h a r a c t e r s a n d e l e m e n t s o f the

• Look at o n e or t w o b o o k r e v i e w s in • Either, p r o d u c e a standard-style plot. Try t o g i v e t h e m a n a u t h e n t i c

class, d i s c u s s i n g a n y i s s u e s o f s t y l e review form for y o u r students. flavour of the b o o k . You m a y even

and language. c h o o s e t o r e a d p a s s a g e s f r o m it.


• O r , ask y o u r students w h a t M a k e it interesting, but don't give
• Ask e a c h s t u d e n t to p r o d u c e a information w o u l d help them a w a y the e n d i n g .
review of the b o o k that he or s h e is decide whether they w o u l d like to
reading for the o t h e r students in the read a b o o k or not. W o r k i n g • O r g a n i s e a w e e k l y slot for b o o k
class. together they p r o d u c e a f o r m that, presentations a n d e n c o u r a g e the

w h e n filled in by a reader, w o u l d students to sign up each week.


• These r e v i e w s are t h e n m a d e i n c l u d e this i n f o r m a t i o n .
available for e v e r y b o d y to r e a d . • M a k e it c l e a r that their presentations
They may be d i s p l a y e d in t h e • P h o t o c o p y the form and place the c a n take different forms. They c o u l d
classroom or in the s c h o o l library, forms in the library a n d c l a s s r o o m . be s i m i l a r to the o n e that y o u have
or they m a y be p u t i n t o a r e v i e w s W h e n e v e r a student finishes a book, given. Alternatively, they c o u l d be
file s o that a n y s t u d e n t c a n c o n s u l t o n e of these forms should be question and answer sessions or
them. completed. student readings f r o m the b o o k .

• These reviews can then be m a d e


available for e v e r y b o d y to read.

29
O u r Next Reader Story Soap U p d a t e M o v i e Moguls

Find out what everybody has been The great thing about soaps is that Which graded readers are going to get
reading - and see what you are going they just go on and on the Hollywood treatment?
to read next

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type C r o u p w o r k Activity type G r o u p w o r k onwards

Equipment/ Equipment/ Activity type Mingle/open space


activity
Materials None Materials None
Equipment/
• This activity w o r k s best w h e n • M a k e sure that y o u are r e a d i n g a Materials None

e v e r y b o d y in the class has b e e n good book.


reading a different b o o k . • T h i s a c t i v i t y is p a r t i c u l a r l y useful
• On M o n d a y , tell y o u r students because it works even w h e n some
• Put the students into g r o u p s of three a b o u t it. students in the class are reluctant to
or four, a n d ask t h e m to take it in
read in their o w n time. G i v e these
turns to tell the other students in the • On Wednesday, give them an
students the role of ' m o v i e moguls'.
g r o u p a b o u t the b o o k that they h a v e update.

b e e n r e a d i n g . Tell t h e m to g i v e • Tell y o u r class that a n u m b e r of


• On Thursday, or Friday, tell t h e m
s o m e i n d i c a t i o n o f the story, b u t n o t H o l l y w o o d financiers are l o o k i n g to
what's happened now.
to give too m u c h away. They take English language graded class
notes, a n d m a y w i s h to ask e a c h • A s k t h e m w h a t they are r e a d i n g at readers to p r o v i d e their next
other questions. the m o m e n t . Put t h e m into ' r e a d i n g blockbuster. A l l o c a t e the roles of

g r o u p s ' a n d tell t h e m to fill in their t h e s e m o v i e m o g u l s t o the less


• W h e n all the groups have presented
c l a s s m a t e s o n t h e s t o r y s o far. enthusiastic readers. The other
all the readers, c h a n g e the
s t u d e n t s are ' i d e a s p e o p l e ' w h o are
g r o u p i n g s , so that n o w e v e r y b o d y is
• T h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k , ask t h e m to go s e l l i n g t h e i r latest i d e a - the b o o k
next to s o m e o n e they have not b e e n
into the s a m e reading groups. T h e y t h e y h a v e just b e e n r e a d i n g .
sitting w i t h before.
tell e a c h o t h e r w h a t has h a p p e n e d
i n t h e i r r e a d e r s , s i n c e t h e y last m e t . • G i v e e a c h of the m o v i e m o g u l s a
• Each p e r s o n tells the other p e o p l e in
Y o u m a y w i s h to m a k e this a regular desk or 'office'. T h e ideas people
the g r o u p a b o u t the b o o k s that t h e y
session. s h o u l d m o v e r o u n d the classroom
h a v e just h e a r d a b o u t . T h e y m a y
a n d visit e a c h m o g u l in turn,
w i s h to refer to their notes.
e x p l a i n i n g w h y their b o o k will
p r o d u c e the next H o l l y w o o d
• W h e n the g r o u p has h e a r d a b o u t all
blockbuster.
the b o o k s that t h e y h a v e not r e a d ,
they d e c i d e , as a group, w h i c h b o o k
• At the e n d of the activity, the
they w o u l d most like to read next. m o g u l s e x p l a i n w h i c h b o o k s they
have c h o s e n , g i v i n g their reasons.

30
5
Icebreakers and
Welcoming Activities
The w o r d ' i c e b r e a k e r ' has b e e n part of E n g l i s h S o m e a c t i v i t i e s a l s o a l l o w t h e t e a c h e r t o stand

teaching t e r m i n o l o g y for a l o n g t i m e , w h i c h is b a c k , o b s e r v e g r o u p d y n a m i c s , a n d assess student

probably a fair i n d i c a t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y for needs. These activities may be used w h e n a new

activities w h i c h c a n b e u s e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f g r o u p c o m e s together, o r w h e n a t e a c h e r takes

a course. over an existing g r o u p . S o m e m a y be used in a


s c h o o l w h i c h operates a rolling intake, where new
For adults, g o i n g into a c l a s s r o o m , a p l a c e students need to be w e l c o m e d into a class w h i c h
capable o f s t i m u l a t i n g s o m e p o s s i b l y u n p l e a s a n t has a l r e a d y a s s u m e d a n i d e n t i t y .
memories, is hard e n o u g h , w i t h o u t the
expectation that o n e w i l l h a v e t o c o m m u n i c a t e
to strangers, and in a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e .

For s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , the p l a y f u l n a t u r e of l a n g u a g e
learning needs to be c o m m u n i c a t e d w h e n a g r o u p
and a teacher are first b r o u g h t together, if t h e r e is
to be a positive w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p .

Many private l a n g u a g e s c h o o l s b r i n g s t u d e n t s
from a variety of c u l t u r e s a n d b a c k g r o u n d s
together, students w h o m a y h a v e little i n c o m m o n ,
apart from a desire to learn E n g l i s h . It is n e c e s s a r y
to 'start out on the right f o o t ' if a g r o u p is to w o r k
purposefully together. T h e a c t i v i t i e s in this s e c t i o n
aim to get students w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r in E n g l i s h ,
with tasks that are c h a l l e n g i n g but n o t t h r e a t e n i n g .
Many of them help students to get to k n o w e a c h
other, to get used to o n e a n o t h e r ' s E n g l i s h , a n d to
relax in an uncritical a t m o s p h e r e .
Icebreakers a n d W e l c o m i n g Activities

Person/Place/Object Ball G a m e 1 Ball G a m e 2

A get-to-know-you activity that A lively way of learning each other's Add a bit of personal information and
bypasses the more commonly names and practising the language of structural practice
discussed personal details introductions

Level Elementary onwards Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate


Pre-intermediate onwards
Activity type Mingle/open space
activity Activity type Whole class Activity type Whole class

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Labels Materials A ball Materials A ball

• W r i t e on the b o a r d the n a m e s of a • W a r m up the students by playing • W a r m up the students by p l a y i n g

p e r s o n , a p l a c e a n d an object that ' c a t c h ' briefly in the c l a s s r o o m . 'catch' briefly in the classroom.

are important to y o u personally.


• W h e n the ball c o m e s b a c k to y o u • W h e n the ball c o m e s back to y o u ,

• Tell the students that they h a v e to say, ' T h i s is Y o k o [ n a m e of t h e say, 'I'm M a r k a n d I like p l a y i n g

find out w h y the n a m e s on the student w h o t h r e w the ball to you] football.'


b o a r d are important t o y o u . Y o u c a n and I'm Mark.'
• T h r o w the ball on to another
o n l y say 'yes' or 'no'. G u i d e t h e m
towards the correct answers, using • T h r o w the ball on to another student a n d , using gestures, m a k e it

fuller answers o n l y if necessary. student a n d , using gestures, m a k e it c l e a r that this p e r s o n is n o w to


clear that this p e r s o n is n o w to introduce yourself and him/herself

• O n c e they have discovered the introduce Yoko, yourself and to the class, u s i n g a s i m i l a r phrase

a n s w e r s , tell e a c h student to w r i t e him/herself to the class: 'This is for e x a m p l e , 'This is M a r k , he likes

on a label the n a m e s of a p e r s o n , Y o k o , a n d t h i s i s M a r k , a n d I'm w a t c h i n g f o o t b a l l a n d I'm F i l i p e a n d

p l a c e or o b j e c t that are i m p o r t a n t to Filipe.' I e n j o y g o i n g to the opera.'

t h e m . Tell t h e m that the three things


• This person then throws the ball to • This person then t h r o w s the ball to
s h o u l d not be c o n n e c t e d , for
another m e m b e r of the group w h o another m e m b e r of the g r o u p w h o
e x a m p l e not ' m y b o y f r i e n d , his
introduces those in the c h a i n before i n t r o d u c e s those in the c h a i n before
bike, a n d the place w h e r e we meet'.
them, before introducing themselves t h e m , before introducing themselves

• The students m i n g l e , f i n d i n g out as and t h r o w i n g the ball o n . a n d t h r o w i n g the ball o n .

much information about one


• This pattern continues until • This pattern continues until
another as possible.
e v e r y o n e has b e e n introduced. e v e r y o n e has been introduced.

32
Icebreakers and W e l c o m i n g Activities

Famous Person Labels Pair Introductions 1 Pair Introductions 2

Perfect practice for yes/no questions A more detailed introduction Encourage students to reflect on their
own experience of learning

Level Elementary to Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate


Intermediate Pre-intermediate onwards

Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e Activity type Pairwork; homework Activity type P a i r w o r k


activity Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials None Materials None
Materials Labels
• E n c o u r a g e the class to ask y o u • A s k students to w o r k in pairs and
• D r a w u p a list o f f a m o u s p e o p l e s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s , for e x a m p l e , interview their partner about their
whose names w i l l be f a m i l i a r to 'Where were you born?' Write each previous experience of learning.
your students. W r i t e o n e of t h e s e q u e s t i o n o n the b o a r d a n d a n s w e r
names on a s t i c k y l a b e l f o r e a c h it. C o n t i n u e u n t i l y o u h a v e a l i s t o f • U s e this to l e a d into a g r o u p

student i n t h e c l a s s . about six questions. T h e n u m b e r discussion on ways in which we


learn a language. You m a y w i s h to
w i l l d e p e n d on the level of the
• Ask the s t u d e n t s to s t a n d w i t h t h e i r use this d i s c u s s i o n to h e l p y o u
class.
backs t o y o u a n d p l a c e o n e l a b e l o n w h e n y o u are d e c i d i n g o n a n

each back. A l l o w the s t u d e n t s t o • W o r k i n g in pairs, the students ask a p p r o p r i a t e syllabus for y o u r

turn, m i n g l e a n d e x a m i n e e a c h each other the same questions. T h e y students.

other's l a b e l s . E x p l a i n t h a t t h e a i m m a y take notes if they want to.


of the a c t i v i t y is to d i s c o v e r t h e i r
new identity u s i n g o n l y yes/no • T h e students t a k e it in turns to

questions, for e x a m p l e , ' A m I a f i l m introduce their partner to the class,

star?' a l o n g with the information they


have found out.
t As h o m e w o r k , t h e s t u d e n t s w r i t e a
brief b i o g r a p h y / d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e • For h o m e w o r k , the students use

famous person that t h e y h a v e b e e n their notes to w r i t e a brief portrait of


their partner. These portraits c a n be
allocated.
put up on the w a l l .

33
Icebreakers a n d W e l c o m i n g Activities

Families World Map Pairing G a m e s

An enjoyable activity that works (multinational classes only) Children enjoy this one and it's use
particularly well with large classes and A lively activity that emphasises the for breaking the ice in a class wher
encourages question practice students' varied backgrounds students may already know each
other, but are together as a group ft
the first time

Level Elementary to Level Elementary onwards Level Beginner to


Intermediate Pre-intermediate
Activity type Pairwork
Activity type Mingle/open space Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k / m i n g l e
activity Materials None Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Prepared cards
Plus... A p i e c e of c o l o u r e d
Materials Slips of paper card (see b e l o w )
and a wall m a p of • Prepare c a r d s w i t h the n a m e of c

• G i v e e a c h student a slip of paper. the w o r l d half of a f a m o u s c o u p l e or pair c

Ask t h e m to write three c o m p l e t e e a c h o n e for e x a m p l e , M i c k e y

sentences about their family. Fewer • Put the n a m e s of all the students Mouse and Minnie Mouse.

sentences may w o r k well with into a 'hat'. D r a w t h e m out in pairs


lower level classes. • H a n d the cards out to the studer
a n d seat the pairs together.
M a k e sure that they c a n r e m e m l

• C o l l e c t the slips of paper a n d • The pairs interview e a c h other their n e w n a m e s a n d then ask tf

redistribute them randomly. A s k about where they c o m e from and to find their partners. Encourage

each student to think of the students take notes. them to use simple language if

questions to find the person w h o s e p o s s i b l e , for e x a m p l e , ' W h o are

p i e c e of p a p e r they are h o l d i n g . • Each student t h e n tells the class you?' 'Are you ...?'

H e l p at this stage if necessary. about their n e w friend.


• W h e n all the pairs are together,

• The students then m i n g l e to 'find' • As h o m e w o r k , give e a c h student a c a n i n t r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s to the

and 'be found'. piece of coloured card. They should class a d d i n g additional informat
describe the place w h e r e their i f t h e y c a n , f o r e x a m p l e , ' H i , I'n
• O t h e r useful topics i n c l u d e : houses, p a r t n e r c o m e s f r o m (for e x a m p l e , Minnie Mouse. I'm M i c k e y ' s
animals, hobbies, holidays. 'Yun-Taek c o m e s from Seoul, the girlfriend.'
capital of South Korea ...').
This activity is an adaptation of an activity in
Classroom Dynamics (Jill Hadfield, OUP).
• T h e next d a y e a c h student is
r e s p o n s i b l e for p l a c i n g their c a r d in
the right p l a c e on a w o r l d m a p ,
using ribbons or pieces of string to
s h o w the exact location.

34
Icebreakers and W e l c o m i n g Activities

Lying G a m e Conversation Dice Famous C o u p l e s

Cynical teenagers, who might not be A good activity for lower-level Sometimes it's easier to be relaxed
curious about one another, are happy students who may lack the confidence when you're someone else
to score points! for free interaction

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type Competitive Activity type W h o l e c l a s s onwards

activity/game Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k / m i n g l e


Equipment/ Materials A set o f d i c e Equipment/
Materials None Materials Labels
• P r e p a r e a list of tasks c o r r e s p o n d i n g
• Tell t h e s t u d e n t s t h r e e p i e c e s o f to the n u m b e r s on the d i c e , for • B e f o r e t h e l e s s o n , d r a w up a list of
information about yourself, o n l y o n e example: f a m o u s c o u p l e s , for e x a m p l e ,
of w h i c h is true. T h e students m a y Antony and Cleopatra, Catherine
ask y o u a n y q u e s t i o n s t h e y w i s h t o . 4 = Tell the g r o u p a b o u t Zeta Jones and M i c h a e l Douglas.
Be p r e p a r e d ! your family Write each n a m e on to a sticky
label.
• The students d i s c u s s , in g r o u p s , 5 = Ask someone about

w h i c h story t h e y b e l i e v e a n d , w h e n their hobbies • As e a c h student w a l k s into the


everyone is ready, they d e l i v e r their c l a s s r o o m , present t h e m with a
• T h e students take it in turns to
verdict, g i v i n g their r e a s o n s . If y o u sticky label. The students mingle
t h r o w the dice. Each time they
wish, points c a n be r e c o r d e d on the a n d try to f i n d their partners.
throw, they have to p e r f o r m the task
board. O n c e a c o u p l e i s ' r e u n i t e d ' t h e y sit
o n t h e list that y o u h a v e p r e p a r e d .
together and brainstorm whatever
• The students t h e n w r i t e t h r e e p i e c e s If a student t h r o w s the s a m e n u m b e r
t h e y k n o w a b o u t the c o u p l e that
of information a b o u t twice, he or she can either t h r o w
they have been allocated.
the d i c e again, or give m o r e
themselves. A g a i n , o n l y o n e i s t r u e .
information.
• W h e n all the c o u p l e s are seated,
• The g a m e c a n t h e n b e r e p e a t e d a s
they take it in turns to present as
above. • After ten minutes, w h e n
much information as they can about
c o n v e r s a t i o n is f l o w i n g freely,
their n e w identities. Encourage the
dispense with the dice.
other students to contribute.

• N o w that the ice has b e e n b r o k e n ,


the students m a y w i s h to d i s c o v e r
m o r e a b o u t o n e another's true
identities.

35
Dialogues
S c r i p t e d d i a l o g u e s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a part o f Example Dialogues

language teaching, whether contrived and


1 Nightclub
w o o d e n , or authentic and fresh. T h e y can be — y\

Vic: Oh no! Not this track again!


found in coursebooks, may be written by teachers
themselves, or can be taken from radio, films or Bob: I know. This is the third time


TV programmes. he's played it tonight.

I n this s e c t i o n w e are c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e use o f Vic: I wish he'd play something decent.

short r e c o r d e d d i a l o g u e s a n d t h e i r t r a n s c r i p t s , n o t Bob: I know. This music's driving me up


p r i m a r i l y for d e v e l o p i n g l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , but a s t h e
the wall.
basis for m o r e i n t e n s i v e l a n g u a g e w o r k . D i a l o g u e s o
c a n be used to teach n e w v o c a b u l a r y in a clear
2 Under the weather
c o n t e x t , t o present f u n c t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , a n d t o
Sue: Hi. How's things?
introduce n e w structures; as w e l l as to present a n d
o o a

p r a c t i s e stress, r h y t h m a n d i n t o n a t i o n . Jan: Fine. And you?

Sue: Well, I feel a bit under the weather,


B e f o r e u s i n g a d i a l o g u e , it's a l w a y s best to m a k e
to be honest.
sure that y o u are f u l l y a w a r e o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l
o
features i t c o n t a i n s . M a r k i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t for Jan: What's the matter?
p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i n the w a y that has b e e n s h o w n
Sue:
opposite (Example Dialogues), helps to remind
Jan: Have you tried taking an aspirin?
y o u of these features - in a d d i t i o n to t h e target
l a n g u a g e . It c a n a l s o serve as the basis for t h e Sue: I have, but it didn't help.
students' written r e c o r d . o o
Jan:
Perhaps you should see a doctor.

I n this s e c t i o n t h e a c t i v i t i e s are d i v i d e d i n t o t w o Sue: I think I wiil.

parts: Presentations and Practice Activities. These o

are c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d so that it is c l e a r w h i c h Key


w a v y line - intonation
activities m a y most easily be c o m b i n e d w i t h i n a
b l a c k d o t - s e c o n d a r y stress
single lesson. w h i t e c i r c l e - p r i m a r y stress

36
Presentations Dialogues

Stressed W o r d s Student Scribe Line-by-Line Prediction

Construct dialogues from stressed Listen and dictate Listen and predict what is coming
words next

Level Elementary onwards Level All levels Level Elementary onwards

Activity type Pairwork/groupwork Activity type Whole class Activity type Whole class
(optional) Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Single cassette player Materials Single cassette player;
Materials Single cassette player; Plus ... A dialogue O H P (optional)
photocopies (see below) Plus... A dialogue
Plus... A dialogue (see below)
(see b e l o w ) m a y b e f o l l o w e d b y Disappearing Dialogue,
First-line C h a n g e , Parallel Situations m a y be f o l l o w e d by any practice activity

may b e f o l l o w e d b y D i s a p p e a r i n g D i a l o g u e ,
First-line Change, Parallel Situations • C h o o s e a d i a l o g u e (of f o u r to e i g h t • This activity w o r k s best w i t h
lines) that y o u feel w i l l be d i a l o g u e s of four to six lines. It is
• Find a short d i a l o g u e (of f o u r to c h a l l e n g i n g for y o u r students. T h e y ideal for presenting n e w language.
eight l i n e s ) w h i c h i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m a y u n d e r s t a n d the gist, but w i l l
the l e v e l o f y o u r s t u d e n t s . L i s t e n t o o n l y be able to decipher it • Set t h e s c e n e f o r t h e d i a l o g u e
the d i a l o g u e a n d m a r k t h e s t r e s s e d c o m p l e t e l y after l i s t e n i n g t o t h e t h r o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n , or use pictures
words on the transcript. d i a l o g u e a n u m b e r of times. or realia.

• Write these stressed w o r d s o n t o • G i v e o n e student in the class the • P l a y t h e first l i n e of t h e d i a l o g u e .


a set o f c a r d s o r s l i p s o f p a p e r , o n e cassette-recorder. M a k e sure that the Ask comprehension questions and
set for e a c h g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s . tape is in the right p l a c e . b u i l d up the context in greater
detail.
• Play t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e d i a l o g u e t o • A s k a n o t h e r student to stand at the
the s t u d e n t s . E l i c i t t h e c o n t e x t i n b o a r d a n d give h i m or her a b o a r d • Play the line a g a i n a n d get the
w h i c h the c o n v e r s a t i o n t o o k p l a c e pen. This person is the class 'scribe' students to repeat it accurately both
and ask s o m e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and is not a l l o w e d to speak. in terms of language and
questions. pronunciation.
• E x p l a i n to the class that they are
• Put the c l a s s i n t o g r o u p s a n d g i v e • A s k the students to predict the next
going to hear a dialogue. Their a i m
each g r o u p o n e o f t h e sets o f t h e line. Discuss their predictions a n d
is to tell the class s c r i b e w h a t to
cards y o u h a v e p r e p a r e d . E x p l a i n then play the second line. Deal with
write on the board, in order to
that y o u a r e g o i n g t o p l a y t h e any comprehension problems. Then
p r o d u c e an exact transcript. They
dialogue a g a i n . d r i l l t h e first t w o l i n e s , first i n c l o s e d
c a n ask the student w i t h the
cassette-recorder to pause and pairs a n d then in o p e n pairs.
• I n their g r o u p s , t h e s t u d e n t s h a v e t o
replay parts of the d i a l o g u e as m a n y
arrange t h e s t r e s s e d w o r d s i n t h e
• A s k the students to predict the next
times as they like. R e m i n d them of
order i n w h i c h t h e y h e a r t h e m . P l a y
line. C o n t i n u e in this way, until the
the language they w i l l n e e d in order
the r e c o r d i n g t w i c e i f n e c e s s a r y .
w h o l e d i a l o g u e has been practised.
to do this.

• Ask the g r o u p s t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e
• Write the d i a l o g u e on the b o a r d
• W h e n the class has c o m p l e t e d this
dialogue a s best t h e y c a n , u s i n g t h e
with the students' help or project it
task t o y o u r satisfaction, f o c u s o n
• stressed w o r d s o n t h e c a r d s . W h e n
using a photocopied O H T
the target l a n g u a g e b e f o r e m a r k i n g
they h a v e f i n i s h e d t h i s , w r i t e a n
the transcript for p h o n o l o g i c a l
agreed v e r s i o n o f t h e d i a l o g u e o n • F o c u s on the target l a n g u a g e , a n d
features a n d drilling.
the b o a r d . d i s c u s s stress, i n t o n a t i o n a n d other
p h o n o l o g i c a l features, m a r k i n g the
• Listen a g a i n a n d c o r r e c t t h e v e r s i o n
transcript where necessary.
o n the b o a r d f o c u s i n g o n t h e t a r g e t
language, b e f o r e m a r k i n g
phonological features.

37
Dialogues Presentations Practice Activities

Split-completion D i a l o g u e Cut-up D i a l o g u e Disappearing Dialogue

Create a dialogue and work on Rearrange lines to form a cohesive Learn a dialogue as it is gradually

discourse features dialogue being erased

Level Pre-intermediate Level All levels Level All levels

onwards Activity type Pairwork Activity type Pairwork

Activity type Pairwork Equipment/ Equipment/


Equipment/ Materials Photocopies Materials None

Materials OHP (optional); Plus ... A dialogue Plus... A dialogue


photocopies (see below) (see below)

Plus... A dialogue (Example


D i a l o g u e 2, p a g e 36) m a y b e f o l l o w e d b y Ray's M e t h o d , m a y f o l l o w Stressed W o r d s , Student Scribe,
First-line C h a n g e , Parallel Situations Line-by-Line P r e d i c t i o n

m a y b e f o l l o w e d b y First-line C h a n g e ,
• C h o o s e a d i a l o g u e of a b o u t four to • C h o o s e a d i a l o g u e of a b o u t four to
Parallel Situations
eight lines. M a k e a p h o t o c o p y of eight lines. Begin the activity with
• You will need: copies of the the d i a l o g u e for e a c h pair in the the w h o l e dialogue written clearly
d i a l o g u e for half the class, w i t h Sue's class. Cut up e a c h p h o t o c o p y line on the board.
lines d e l e t e d ; c o p i e s of the d i a l o g u e by line a n d put these lines into an
• Put the students into pairs. A s k them
for the other half of the class, w i t h envelope.
to act out the dialogue, reading
Jan's l i n e s d e l e t e d ; a n d a c o p y o f
• G i v e o n e of these envelopes to each from the board.
the d i a l o g u e for e a c h student in the
pair of students. A s k t h e m to put the
c l a s s w i t h S u e a n d Jan's l i n e s
• W h e n they h a v e d o n e this, ask o n e
lines into the correct order.
deleted, leaving only their names
of the students to erase the stressed
f o l l o w e d by a dotted line.
• Play the d i a l o g u e . T h e students w o r d s f r o m the b o a r d . This m a y

listen to c h e c k . i n v o l v e a degree of negotiation


• Put the students into pairs. G i v e o n e
b e t w e e n t h e students, if t h e stressed
student in e a c h pair Sue's lines, a n d
• S h o w the students a c o p y of the w o r d s have not already been
t h e other, Jan's l i n e s . Tell t h e m t o
original dialogue, using either the marked.
l o o k c a r e f u l l y at their parts of the
board, a photocopied O H T , or
dialogue and to work individually to
photocopies. • In pairs, the students act o u t the
try to fill in the m i s s i n g l i n e s .
dialogue again.
• F o c u s on the target l a n g u a g e , a n d
• W h e n they have c o m p l e t e d this,
d i s c u s s stress, i n t o n a t i o n a n d o t h e r • A s k another student to erase words
g i v e all the students a c o p y of the
p h o n o l o g i c a l features, m a r k i n g the i n a n o t h e r c a t e g o r y , f o r e x a m p l e the
'names only' dialogue. Individually,
transcript where necessary. verb forms.
they s h o u l d transfer the n e w lines
that they h a v e w r i t t e n o n t o this • O n c e a g a i n , t h e s t u d e n t s a c t o u t the
sheet of paper. Take b a c k the r a p i d l y - d i s a p p e a r i n g d i a l o g u e . This
o r i g i n a l sheets at this point. p r o c e s s m a y b e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the
board is almost, or completely
• In pairs, the s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e i r
blank.
lines, p r o d u c i n g a s o m e w h a t
disjointed dialogue. Each pair then (
• P r o v i d e the students w i t h a written
works to repair their o w n d i a l o g u e record of the d i a l o g u e .
so that it reads m o r e c o h e r e n t l y .

• The students perform their


dialogues.

• L o o k at the o r i g i n a l d i a l o g u e s .
Discuss the differences.

38
Practice Activities Dialogues

First-line C h a n g e Ray's M e t h o d Parallel Situations

Adapt a dialogue to follow a new first Help one another to learn a Adapt what has been learnt to a new
line dialogue situation

Level All levels Level All levels Level Elementary onwards

Activity type Pairwork/mingle Activity type Pairwork/mingle Activity type Pairwork/groupwork/

Equipment/ Equipment/ mingle

Materials Slips of paper Materials Photocopies Equipment/


Plus ... A dialogue Plus ... A dialogue (Example Materials None

(see b e l o w ) D i a l o g u e 2, page 36) Plus ... A dialogue (Example


D i a l o g u e 1, page 36)
may f o l l o w a n y p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l l e d m a y f o l l o w Stressed W o r d s , Line-by-Line
practice Prediction, Cut-up Dialogue m a y f o l l o w any presentation and controlled
practice
• On slips of p a p e r , w r i t e a n u m b e r of • In o r d e r to use this activity, y o u
different lines w h i c h m i g h t start need the f o l l o w i n g : c o p i e s of the • A s k the students to stand in an o p e n
dialogues similar, or parallel to d i a l o g u e for half the class, w i t h space. A s k t h e m to find a partner
Example D i a l o g u e 1. A l t e r n a t i v e s to s o m e of the w o r d s in Sue's lines a n d act out E x a m p l e D i a l o g u e 1 as
' O h no! N o t this track a g a i n ' m i g h t g a p p e d ; and copies of the dialogue best they c a n .
be ' O h n o ! N o t this e p i s o d e a g a i n . ' for the other half of the class,
' O h no! N o t this c o m m e r c i a l a g a i n . ' w i t h s o m e o f t h e w o r d s i n Jan's • The students m i n g l e a n d then find

' O h n o ! N o t this d i a l o g u e lines g a p p e d . another partner to act out another

presentation a g a i n . ' similar dialogue.


• Put the students into pairs, give
• Tell t h e m that s o m e t h i n g has
• G i v e these slips of p a p e r to h a l f t h e t h e m the copies of the dialogue and
changed. You may wish to change
students i n y o u r c l a s s . A s k t h e ask t h e m to act it out. If the student
the roles they are in. For e x a m p l e ,
students t o m i n g l e . W h e n a p e r s o n w h o is acting out Sue is unable to
with a slip m e e t s a p e r s o n w i t h o u t S u e is n o w a d o c t o r a n d Jan a
r e m e m b e r the m i s s i n g w o r d s , 'Jan'
o n e , t h e y start a c o n v e r s a t i o n u s i n g patient; or y o u m a y wish to change
s h o u l d h e l p her. If t h e s t u d e n t w h o
their l i n e a n d d e v e l o p i t a l o n g the situation, for e x a m p l e , Sue n o w
is a c t i n g o u t Jan is u n a b l e to
similar lines to t h e p r e v i o u s l y has hayfever.
r e m e m b e r her missing words, 'Sue'
practised d i a l o g u e . s h o u l d h e l p her.

• O n c e they have d o n e this, the class


m i n g l e . A n y 'Sue' m a y find a n y 'Jan'
a n d act o u t the d i a l o g u e w i t h her.

• W h e n this has g o n e on for a w h i l e ,


the students e x c h a n g e roles a n d
transcripts a n d continue in their
new roles.

• Finally, the students return to their


original pairs a n d act out the
dialogue.

• Provide the students with a written


record of the d i a l o g u e . In this case,
they m a y fill in their g a p p e d
version.

39
7

Warmers and Fillers


Everybody needs warmers and fillers. W a r m e r s
c o m e at the b e g i n n i n g of a l e s s o n ; f i l l e r s in t h e
m i d d l e o r a t the e n d . W h e n a n a c t i v i t y i s u s e d a s
a w a r m e r , t h e t e a c h e r ' s a i m m a y be to get the
students t a l k i n g a n d t h i n k i n g i n E n g l i s h ,
motivating them and getting t h e m to think about
the t o p i c t o c o m e . T h e a i m m a y a l s o b e t o get t h e
students w o r k i n g a s a g r o u p . O r a g a i n i t m a y b e t o
a v o i d a p r e d i c t a b l e b e g i n n i n g t o e a c h l e s s o n , for
e x a m p l e , 'Turn t o p a g e 1 1 3 . '

W h e n an a c t i v i t y is u s e d as a filler, t h e t e a c h e r ' s
a i m may be to provide a change of pace, fill an
a w k w a r d g a p o r f i n i s h off t h e l e s s o n o n a p o s i t i v e
and purposeful note. On a linguistic level,
w a r m e r s a n d fillers c a n b e u s e d t o r e c y c l e
previously taught language, as w e l l as d i a g n o s e
p r o b l e m s b e f o r e a n i n p u t stage o r test after n e w
l a n g u a g e has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d . T h e y c a n b e u s e d
to practise the four skills of s p e a k i n g , listening,
reading and writing.

It's w o r t h t r y i n g a r a n g e of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h y o u r
students, s o that y o u f i n d w h i c h o n e s w o r k best.
These c a n then b e c o m e regular sessions, giving
y o u r students s o m e t h i n g t o l o o k f o r w a r d to, a n d
p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i t y w i t h i n the class syllabus.

40
Warmers and Fillers

Make a Paper Aeroplane O n e - W o r d Story on Paper First Letter, Last Letter

Giving instructions in a foreign An invaluable activity to practise basic A pronunciation game that's really a
language can be hard ... and the writing skills at all levels spelling game
results hilarious!

Level Elementary onwards Level A l l levels Level Elementary to

Activity t y p e Pai r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Intermediate

(optional) Equipment/ Activity type Mingle/competitive

Equipment/ activity
Materials Scrap paper
Materials Scrap paper Equipment/
• This activity w o r k s best w h e n the Materials None

• Ask the students w h e t h e r t h e y k n o w students are seated in a c i r c l e , or


how to m a k e a p a p e r a e r o p l a n e . horseshoe, w i t h desks in front of • A s k the students to stand in a c i r c l e .
them. Tell o n e student to say a n y w o r d
• Divide the class into pairs or s m a l l at a l l .
groups, but g r o u p t h e m s o that t h e r e • E x p l a i n to the students that they are
i s a t least o n e s t u d e n t w h o k n o w s g o i n g to tell a story, but that t h e y • T e l l t h e s t u d e n t t o h i s o r h e r left t o
how to in each g r o u p . At l o w e r are o n l y a l l o w e d to contribute o n e s a y a w o r d that b e g i n s w i t h t h e last
levels, p r e - t e a c h a n y e s s e n t i a l w o r d at a t i m e . Begin the story letter o f the p r e v i o u s w o r d , the next
vocabulary. yourself w i t h the w o r d the. student continues in the same
m a n n e r , f o r e x a m p l e , ' p e a c h ...
• Ask t h e ' e x p e r t s ' t o e x p l a i n t o t h e i r • A s k t h e first s t u d e n t to c o n t i n u e t h e house ... e n g i n e e r ... .'When
partner(s) h o w t o m a k e a n d f l y a story w i t h the next w o r d . Each p r o b l e m s arise y o u s h o u l d
paper a e r o p l a n e . T h e i r p a r t n e r ( s ) i s student then c o n t i n u e s the story by adjudicate.
given a p i e c e of p a p e r a n d is e i t h e r a d d i n g o n e w o r d . At lower levels
blindfolded, or asked to k e e p write the story on the b o a r d as it • To m a k e the activity into a g a m e ,
his/her e y e s s h u t . progresses. Correct any mistakes as give students a five-second limit to
they o c c u r by using gesture. In a e a c h w o r d . If they do not say an
• At lower levels, ask the s t u d e n t s to
m o n o l i n g u a l class, this activity c a n appropriate w o r d in the time
write t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . A t h i g h e r
be demonstrated by using the a l l o w e d , they have to leave the
levels, e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o
students' native language. circle.
think o f t h e a c t i v i t y a s a r o l e p l a y .
The ' e x p e r t ' i s s i g h t e d a n d i s t e l l i n g • G i v e e a c h student a sheet of paper.
.i blind friend h o w to m a k e a p l a n e , A s k t h e m t o w r i t e t h e first w o r d o f a
and then has t o d e s c r i b e h o w i t f l i e s story. T h e y t h e n pass the p i e c e of
and w h e r e it l a n d s . p a p e r t o t h e left a n d w r i t e o n e w o r d
to c o n t i n u e the story on the piece of
• Other tasks t h a t w o r k w i t h t h i s
p a p e r that t h e y h a v e b e e n handed.
activity are o r i g a m i ( J a p a n e s e p a p e r -
folding), m a k i n g t h e p e r f e c t c u p o f • R e p e a t t h i s . If a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s a
tea or c o f f e e , a n d s t a r t i n g a c a r . s t o r y a n d feels that t h e last w o r d i s
i m p o s s i b l e , they pass it b a c k for
correction. You may have to
adjudicate.

Finally students read out the stories.

41
Warmers and Fillers

Make a Paper A e r o p l a n e O n e - W o r d Story on Paper First Letter, Last Letter

Giving instructions in a foreign An invaluable activity to practise basic A pronunciation game that's really a
language can be hard ... and the writing skills at all levels spelling game
results hilarious!

Level Elementary onwards Level A l l levels Level Elementary to

Activity type Pai r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Intermediate

(optional) Equipment/ Activity type M i n g l e / c o m p e t i t i v e


Equipment/ activity
Materials Scrap paper
Materials Scrap paper Equipment/
• This activity w o r k s best w h e n the Materials None
• Ask the s t u d e n t s w h e t h e r t h e y k n o w students are seated in a c i r c l e , or
how to m a k e a p a p e r a e r o p l a n e . horseshoe, with desks in front of • A s k the students to stand in a c i r c l e .
them. Tell o n e student t o say a n y w o r d
• Divide the c l a s s i n t o p a i r s or s m a l l at a l l .
groups, but g r o u p t h e m s o that t h e r e • E x p l a i n to the students that they are
i s a t least o n e s t u d e n t w h o k n o w s g o i n g to tell a story, but that t h e y • T e l l t h e s t u d e n t to h i s or h e r left to
how to in e a c h g r o u p . At l o w e r are o n l y a l l o w e d to contribute o n e s a y a w o r d t h a t b e g i n s w i t h t h e last
levels, p r e - t e a c h a n y e s s e n t i a l w o r d at a time. Begin the story letter o f t h e p r e v i o u s w o r d , the next
vocabulary. yourself with the w o r d the. student c o n t i n u e s in the s a m e
m a n n e r , f o r e x a m p l e , ' p e a c h ...
• Ask the ' e x p e r t s ' to e x p l a i n to t h e i r • A s k t h e first s t u d e n t t o c o n t i n u e t h e house ... e n g i n e e r ... .'When
partner(s) h o w t o m a k e a n d f l y a story w i t h the next w o r d . Each p r o b l e m s arise y o u s h o u l d
paper a e r o p l a n e . T h e i r p a r t n e r ( s ) i s student then c o n t i n u e s the story by adjudicate.
given a p i e c e o f p a p e r a n d i s e i t h e r a d d i n g o n e w o r d . At lower levels
blindfolded, or asked to k e e p write the story on the b o a r d as it • To m a k e the activity into a g a m e ,
his/her e y e s s h u t . progresses. Correct any mistakes as give students a five-second limit to

they o c c u r by u s i n g gesture. In a e a c h w o r d . If they do not say an


• At lower levels, ask t h e s t u d e n t s to appropriate w o r d in the t i m e
m o n o l i n g u a l class, this activity c a n
write t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . A t h i g h e r a l l o w e d , they have to leave the
be demonstrated by using the
levels, e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o circle.
students' native language.
think o f t h e a c t i v i t y a s a r o l e p l a y .
The ' e x p e r t ' i s s i g h t e d a n d i s t e l l i n g • G i v e e a c h student a sheet of paper.
a blind friend h o w to m a k e a p l a n e , A s k t h e m t o w r i t e t h e first w o r d o f a
and t h e n h a s t o d e s c r i b e h o w i t f l i e s story. T h e y t h e n pass the p i e c e of
and w h e r e i t l a n d s . p a p e r t o t h e left a n d w r i t e o n e w o r d
to c o n t i n u e the story on the p i e c e of
• Other tasks t h a t w o r k w i t h t h i s p a p e r that they h a v e b e e n h a n d e d .
activity are o r i g a m i ( J a p a n e s e p a p e r -
folding), m a k i n g t h e p e r f e c t c u p o f • R e p e a t t h i s . If a s t u d e n t r e c e i v e s a
tea o r c o f f e e , a n d s t a r t i n g a c a r . s t o r y a n d f e e l s that t h e last w o r d i s
i m p o s s i b l e , they pass it b a c k for
correction. You may have to
adjudicate.

• Finally students read out the stories.

41
Warmers and Fillers

Spelling G a m e A l p h a b e t Race The Rhinoceros G a m e

Your students will enjoy playing this at Simple but effective and can be used A livelier version of the previous

breaktime too! for revision or as a warmer for a new activity - good with small classes,
vocabulary area and very popular with children

Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards Level A l l levels


onwards Activity type C o m p e t i t i v e Activity type C o m p e t i t i v e
Activity type Pairwork/competitive activity/game activity/game
activity Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials None Materials Different coloured
Materials None board pens

• Put the students into pairs or s m a l l


• D i v i d e the class into teams. Each groups. Ask one student in each • Put y o u r students into t w o teams.
t e a m takes it in turns to a d d a g r o u p to write the alphabet Ask them to c o m e up with a long
letter to a w o r d . E a c h letter m u s t vertically d o w n the side of a p i e c e word, for example rhinoceros. Wi
contribute to a w o r d in English, but o f p a p e r (or y o u m a y w i s h t o t h i s w o r d d o w n t h e l e f t s i d e o f th<
the team which completes a word p h o t o c o p y s o m e sheets in advance). b o a r d a n d again d o w n the centre
loses a n d the o p p o s i n g t e a m is o n c e for e a c h t e a m . M a k e sure th
awarded a point. • Write a t o p i c on the b o a r d a n d give y o u h a v e left e n o u g h s p a c e
the students a t i m e limit. T h e y have b e t w e e n t h e m for e a c h team to
• For e x a m p l e : to write o n e w o r d related to that write a w o r d across.
t o p i c b e g i n n i n g w i t h e a c h letter o f
T e a m A says 'A.' T e a m B says ' N . ' the alphabet on their sheet of paper. • Tell the students that e a c h t e a m h
Team B loses and Team A wins C h e c k the s p e l l i n g o r tell the to write o n e w o r d across for each
one point. students to c h e c k it in dictionaries. letter o f the l o n g w o r d . L i m i t the
The g r o u p with the most w o r d s w o r d s to a particular g r o u p : at
Team B says 'C Team A says 'A.'
wins. l o w e r levels, for e x a m p l e , verbs,
Team B says 'R.' Team B loses
nouns etc; at higher levels, words
and Team A wins one point.
• O n e w a y of e x t e n d i n g the activity is c o n n e c t e d w i t h c r i m e , cars etc.
to circulate the sheets r o u n d
• If a t e a m f e e l s that t h e o p p o s i n g
different groups. The students note For e x a m p l e :
t e a m has u s e d a letter w h i c h d o e s
d o w n any new vocabulary and may
not b u i l d a w o r d in English, they
Robber
challenge any inappropriate words
m a y c h a l l e n g e . If the o p p o s i n g t e a m
House-breaker
or spelling mistakes. Expect heated
is u n a b l e to p r o d u c e a w o r d , the
Innocent
debate.
team challenging gains o n e point. If
N ...
a c h a l l e n g e is i n c o r r e c t , the o t h e r
team gains o n e point. • G i v e e a c h team a different coloui
b o a r d p e n a n d ask t h e m to go to
• For e x a m p l e : back of the c l a s s r o o m . O n e m e m
o f e a c h t e a m t h e n r u n s t o t h e fror
T e a m A says ' M ' . T e a m B says ' Z ' .
of the class to w r i t e a w o r d . He o
Team A challenges and wins a
she runs b a c k to h a n d the pen to
point.
a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e t e a m . The
m
first t e a m t o c o m p l e t e all the w o n
T e a m B says 'A'. T e a m A says 'A'.
across wins.
Team B challenges. Team A says
'Aardvark' and gains one point.

• T h e best w a y to e x p l a i n this g a m e
t o y o u r c l a s s i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e it.

42
Warmers and Fillers

Busybodies Just a M i n u t e A n y t h i n g in the W o r l d

Students insist on sidetracking you? A variation on the well-known BBC Twenty Questions or Animal,
Take advantage radio show Vegetable or Mineral - classic practice
of forming questions

Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate Level Elementary onwards

Activity type P a i r w o r k onwards Activity type Competitive

Equipment/ Activity type Competitive activity/game

Materials None activity/game Equipment/


Equipment/ Materials None

• Allocate e a c h of t h e s t u d e n t s a Materials A watch (a s t o p w a t c h

question w o r d , for e x a m p l e ' W h y ? ' is ideal); c a r d s • T h i n k of an object, a n i m a t e or


'Where?' ' D i d ? ' E x p l a i n that y o u are inanimate, anything in the w o r l d .

going t o tell t h e m a b o u t y o u r • Write on cards s o m e topics that Tell the students that they have to

morning, starting f r o m w h e n y o u y o u r class w i l l feel c o n f i d e n t talking find out w h a t y o u are t h i n k i n g of by

woke up. T h e i r task is to stop y o u about, for e x a m p l e ' M y h o u s e ' asking 'yes/no'questions. If y o u like,

arriving a t t h e s c h o o l b y a s k i n g y o u ' M y last h o l i d a y ' . Y o u m a y w i s h t o y o u c a n limit the n u m b e r of

too m a n y q u e s t i o n s . G i v e t h e m a use the cards for S u m m a r i e s C i r c l e questions, or have a t i m e limit.

time l i m i t . M a k e i t l o n g e r i f t h e (Circles).
• T h e student w h o asks the final
class i s m o r e a d v a n c e d .
• A s k a m o r e c o n f i d e n t student to q u e s t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e 'Is i t a n a n t ? '

• Once you have demonstrated the take a card at r a n d o m a n d read the then thinks of the next 'thing'.

activity, y o u c a n g e t t h e s t u d e n t s t o topic a l o u d to the group. Explain The game continues.

play i t i n p a i r s . B u t t h i s t i m e t h e that the a i m of the g a m e is for this

students a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o o n e student to talk on this subject for

question w o r d . o n e minute without hesitating or


m a k i n g a serious g r a m m a t i c a l error.

Thanks l o R i c h a r d S i d e f o r t h i s i d e a .
• Tell the other students to c h a l l e n g e
if they feel that rules have b e e n
broken. You will need to adjudicate
here. If the c h a l l e n g e is a c c e p t e d ,
the c h a l l e n g e r has to s p e a k on the
s a m e subject for the r e m a i n i n g time.
T h e student s p e a k i n g at the e n d of
the m i n u t e w i n s a point.

• C o n t i n u e the g a m e w i t h another
student and a n e w topic card.

43
Warmers and Fillers

Yes/No - Black/White G a m e Class Expert Absent Friends

Good practice for all kinds of Give your students valuable question A warmer to use when your class
questions practice with this activity arrives in dribs and drabs - it may
even encourage them to arrive
on time!

Level Elementary onwards Level Intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards
Activity type Competitive
activity/game Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials None Materials None Materials None

• A s k o n e s t u d e n t t o sit i n t h e ' h o t • A s k the class to think about • A s k the class to i m a g i n e w h e r e their

seat'. Tell this p e r s o n that his or her subjects or t o p i c areas w h i c h they, absent classmates are, a n d w h a t

a i m is to survive for o n e m i n u t e as i n d i v i d u a l s , k n o w a lot a b o u t , for they might be d o i n g . Take each

w i t h o u t saying 'yes,' 'no,' 'black,' or e x a m p l e : English football, banking, student in turn a n d record the

' w h i t e ' . Tell the o t h e r students that it t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y (in a m u l t i l i n g u a l class's guesses. W h e n the student

is their a i m to force the person in class). arrives, they c a n tell the class

the h o t seat t o use o n e o f these w h e t h e r they w e r e right or not.


• M a k e a list of t h e s t u d e n t s ' n a m e s
words.
a n d put it up on a n o t i c e b o a r d in • Excellent p r a c t i c e for m o d a l verbs

• For e x a m p l e : the c l a s s r o o m . A s k each student to and adverbs. For e x a m p l e ' H e can't


write their topic next to their n a m e . h a v e m i s s e d his bus a g a i n . He's
' D o y o u live in Paris?' E x p l a i n that, o v e r the c o m i n g p r o b a b l y just s t u c k i n t r a f f i c '
'You know that I do.' w e e k s , y o u w o u l d like the students
to take it in turns to a n s w e r
'Have you been to Switzerland?'
questions on their c h o s e n area.
'Never.'

• W h e n all the students have written


' Y o u just s a i d " n o , " d i d n ' t y o u ? '
up a t o p i c , f i n d a student w h o is
'No, I didn't... agh!!'
w i l l i n g t o start t h e b a l l r o l l i n g .
Introduce b o t h the student a n d his
or her t o p i c area to the class, a n d
invite the other students to ask
questions or s i m p l y to c h e c k the
things they think t h e y know about
the 'expert's' c h o s e n area, for
e x a m p l e 'Are there m a n y Italian
players in English teams?' 'There are
four leagues in English football,
aren't there?'

• If y o u w i s h to e x t e n d the activity,
ask the students to write d o w n , on a
p i e c e o f paper, a n y t h i n g n e w that
they have learnt d u r i n g the session.
T h e y s h o u l d h a n d these slips to the
'expert' for c h e c k i n g .

44
Warmers and Fillers

In My G r a n d m o t h e r ' s Chest Stress Stupid Instructions

A children's favourite which Practise stress by getting rid of it. A different angle on giving instructions
emphasises the adjective-noun and warnings
word order in English

Level Elementary and Level Beginner to Level Beginner to


Pre-intermediate Intermediate Pre-intermediate

Activity type Competitive Activity type Competitive Activity type Groupwork


activity/game activity/game
Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials Labels
Materials None Materials Large sheets of paper
and d r a w i n g pins • E x p l a i n to y o u r students that s o m e
• Teacher: 'In my g r a n d m o t h e r ' s Plus... Teacher's knowledge c o m p a n i e s are n o w so scared of
chest, I f o u n d an a n g r y a n t . ' of p h o n e m i c chart b e i n g s u e d that i n E n g l a n d y o u c a n
b u y a p a c k e t of p e a n u t s that carries
Student I: 'In my grandmother's
• M a k e a list of at least t w e n t y the f o l l o w i n g w a r n i n g : 'Contains
chest, I f o u n d an a n g r y a n t a n d a
recently-taught w o r d s which nuts.' A n A m e r i c a n airline gives the
big b o o k . '
c o n f o r m t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t stress f o l l o w i n g message: 'Instructions:

patterns, for e x a m p l e 'Tuesday... O p e n p a c k e t , eat c o n t e n t s . '


Student 2 : 'In my grandmother's
Saturday... December... July.'Make
chest, I f o u n d an a n g r y a n t , a b i g
• D i v i d e y o u r class into groups. G i v e
f o u r p o s t e r s w i t h t h e f o u r stress
book and a c l e v e r cat.'
each g r o u p a generous n u m b e r of
patterns clearly m a r k e d , for e x a m p l e
labels a n d a different c o l o u r e d pen.
• Encourage the class to c o n t i n u e as Oo... Ooo... 0O0... oO.' P l a c e
T h e i r task is to w r i t e as m a n y
above. Stop at Z. these posters a r o u n d the r o o m .
'stupid instructions' or w a r n i n g s for
• A s k your students to go into the objects in the c l a s s r o o m , as they
m i d d l e o f the r o o m . Tell t h e m t o run can in an allocated time.
to the appropriate poster for the
• As s o o n as they have written an
w o r d w h i c h you read out.
instruction, they label the object.
• W o r k t h r o u g h t h e list o f w o r d s i n At the e n d of the activity, the class
this w a y . If there is a n y d i s a g r e e m e n t , d e c i d e s on the funniest instructions.
repeat the w o r d until e v e r y b o d y is
in the same place. W h e n there is
total agreement, everybody shouts
out the w o r d together.

• This activity also works well with


individual phonemes. Used
regularly it can be an effective w a y
of t e a c h i n g , a n d learning, the
p h o n e m i c chart, especially for
children.

45
Warmers and Fillers

D r a w i n g Race Taxi Ride P h o n e m e Labels

Prepositions, shapes and much A quick warmer that makes students Creaf with a large class

more aware of a valuable language-learning


aid: themselves

Level Elementary to Level A l l levels Level Pre-intermediate


onwards
Intermediate Activity type P a i r w o r k
Activity type Groupwork/ Equipment/ Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e
competitive activity activity
Materials None
Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials None • Put the students into pairs. A s k t h e m Materials Labels

Plus... Q u i c k d r a w i n g s that t o sit s i d e b y s i d e a n d i m a g i n e t h a t Plus... Teacher'sk n o w l e d g e

you have produced they are in a taxi. T h e student on of p h o n e m e chart;

the right is an English taxi-driver. o n e different


phoneme written
• P r o d u c e a n u m b e r of q u i c k
• Tell t h e s t u d e n t o n t h e left t h a t t h e i r on each label
drawings with a board pen, made
a i m is to keep the conversation
up of shapes, objects - w h a t e v e r
g o i n g for a given time. • W r i t e the p h o n e m i c chart out on a
you want. These should be simple
set o f l a b e l s (in o t h e r w o r d s , 4 7
d r a w i n g s that a n o t h e r p e r s o n w o u l d
• Repeat the activity f r o m t i m e to
labels). T h e labels that y o u c h o o s e
find easy to reproduce.
time, each time extending the
e a c h t i m e that y o u d o the activity
duration of the activity.
• Put your class into t w o or three will d e p e n d on the n u m b e r of

teams ( d e p e n d i n g on the n u m b e r s students in y o u r class, a n d the


T h a n k s to M a d r i d taxi drivers for this activity.
i n y o u r class). Instruct o n e m e m b e r s o u n d s w h i c h y o u w i s h t o practise

of each team, the 'drawers,' to stand


• A s k the class to stand. G i v e each
in front of the w h i t e b o a r d w i t h
s t u d e n t a different p h o n e m e to wee
a board pen. Allocate each team
M a k e sure that e v e r y o n e knows
a section of the w h i t e b o a r d a n d
w h i c h s o u n d they are wearing.
a different c o l o u r e d b o a r d p e n .

• ' C o n d u c t ' t h e c l a s s : first, e a c h


• Sitting in front of the w h i t e b o a r d ,
s t u d e n t y o u p o i n t t o has t o utter
s h o w t h e first d r a w i n g t o e v e r y b o d y
their o w n s o u n d ; s e c o n d , all the
in the class, except those at the
o t h e r s t u d e n t s h a v e t o c h o r u s the
b o a r d . E x p l a i n that the d r a w e r s
have to r e p r o d u c e the pictures, s o u n d ; finally, m o v e t w o students
together to c o m b i n e their sounds t
as accurately and as q u i c k l y as
m a k e a w o r d in E n g l i s h . Do this a
possible, on the w h i t e b o a r d . The
f e w t i m e s to p r e p a r e the students (
other m e m b e r s of the t e a m are to
the next stage.
instruct t h e m . Enjoy the chaos!

• Tell the students to m i n g l e , lookin


• You may wish to deal with any
f o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s w i t h w h o m the>
language problems before
c a n m a k e a w o r d . A w o r d may ha
p r o c e e d i n g to the next picture, •
any n u m b e r of syllables. W h e n a
using n e w students as drawers.
g r o u p f o r m s , they c h o r u s the w o n
W h e n things get really noisy, ask
You s h o u l d c h e c k their answers.
y o u r s t u d e n t s t o sit o n t h e i r h a n d s .

• A t t h e e n d o f t h e a c t i v i t y , a s k the
s t u d e n t s , ' W h o c o u l d f o r m the m<
w o r d s ? ' T h e c h a n c e s are that it w
b e t h e s t u d e n t w h o i s w e a r i n g the
'schwa'.

46
8

Circles
Circle activities are a w a y of p r o v i d i n g a s t r u c t u r e C i r c l e s r e q u i r e m i n i m a l p r e p a r a t i o n a n d are
which enables a n d e n c o u r a g e s students t o i n t e r a c t e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e . T h e y are e x c e l l e n t lessons t o
in small g r o u p s . T h e y t a k e students o u t f r o m ' h a v e u p y o u r s l e e v e ' for o c c a s i o n s w h e n y o u are
behind their desks a n d a w a y f r o m t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . a s k e d t o t e a c h w i t h little o r n o w a r n i n g .

The activities w h i c h f o l l o w s h a r e a f o r m a t . T h e y
give a variety of structures or f r a m e w o r k s for
Students
student interaction (for e x a m p l e , r o u n d t h e c i r c l e ,
across the c i r c l e , w i t h i n the c i r c l e , c i r c l e s w i t h i n
Keiko
circles, students o u t s i d e a n d students i n s i d e t h e
circle). These f r a m e w o r k s g i v e less c o n f i d e n t
Inger Peter
students a s p a c e w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y c a n p r a c t i s e
their English, as w e l l as g i v i n g m o r e c o n f i d e n t
Joon Juan
students a m o r e d e f i n e d r o l e . T h e y c a n a l s o be
used for classes w i t h p o o r d y n a m i c s .
Fritz Maria

Circle activities c a n be u s e d for t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,


Luka
practice, testing a n d r e c y c l i n g of g r a m m a r ,
vocabulary and p r o n u n c i a t i o n , as w e l l as f o r
fluency practice a n d n e e d s a n a l y s i s . W h e n a c i r c l e
is used for presentation it w i l l n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e t h e
whole class. H o w e v e r , a large c l a s s m a y be
divided into s m a l l e r c i r c l e s for p r a c t i c e .

47
Summaries C i r c l e

Ideal for the beginning of a course to e x p l a i n that his r o l e is: firstly, to clarification. Take notes on other
help you with needs analysis take notes d u r i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n ; p r o b l e m areas a n d f o l l o w the
a n d secondly, w h e n all the activity with a mistakes session.

Level A l l levels questions have dried up, to give a


s u m m a r y of the topic discussed to Example Cards
Activity type Whole class
the w h o l e group.
Equipment/
Materials Prepared cards • W h e n L u k a has g i v e n his s u m m a r y ,
my last holiday
Plus... Two clipboards it is Peter's turn to t a k e a c a r d a n d
and Summaries Fritz's turn to act as note-taker. T h i s
Circle cards process then c o n t i n u e s a r o u n d the
g r o u p . T h e note-takers h e l p to
my home
A s k K e i k o to take o n e of the topic ensure that a n y m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s
c a r d s , f o r e x a m p l e ' m y last h o l i d a y ' are cleared up.
a n d to read it to the g r o u p . Tell the
others that they c a n ask K e i k o a n y • You m a y need to 'feed in' s o m e

q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h e r last h o l i d a y . language if the note-taker has any

G i v e the c l i p b o a r d to L u k a a n d p r o b l e m s asking for repetition or

Auxiliary Verb Circle

Learners are often surprised to sentences herself into a yes/no p o s s i b l e . W i t h a large c l a s s , this
discover the way the auxiliary verb question for L u k a , for e x a m p l e , w o r k s best if the c i r c l e is split
moves like a beachball between ' H a v e y o u got a car?' L u k a answers into pairs.
English speakers this in a n y w a y he likes. Y o u m a y
h o w e v e r w i s h to 'feed in' the • G i v e e a c h p a i r a c a r d , w h i c h they

s t a n d a r d a u x i l i a r y v e r b r e p l y i.e. c a n use to initiate conversation.


Level Beginner to
' N o , I haven't'. W h e n they have finished, they
Pre-intermediate
s h o u l d pass the card on around th
Activity type Pairwork (optional)
• Agreeing U s i n g o n e o f t h e c a r d s c i r c l e . In this w a y all the students
Equipment/ m o d e l ' N o r h a v e I ' a n d ' S o h a v e I'. will be involved in simultaneous
Materials Prepared cards
T h e easiest w a y to do this is to j o i n free p r a c t i c e .
Plus... Auxiliary Verb the circle yourself. U s e the activity
Circle cards to practise these responses, for Example Cards

e x a m p l e ' H a v e y o u got a car?'


• Forming questions G i v e the cards to ' Y e s , I h a v e ' ' S o h a v e I'.
I'm in my 20s.
Keiko. She reads the card on the top
of the p a c k to L u k a , w h o turns the • Differing In t h e s a m e w a y , m o d e l
sentence into a yes/no question. other responses such as 'Have you?'

K e i k o t h e n passes the c a r d s t o Peter, a n d 'I haven't' a n d then use the

w h o reads the next sentence to activity to practise them.


I've got a car.
Fritz. Go o n c e r o u n d the circle in
• Repeat the activity o n c e more,
this way.
telling the students they c a n n o w

• Answering questions G o r o u n d the? respond in any w a y they like, and

group again. This time Keiko looks e n c o u r a g e t h e m to keep the

at the card and transforms the c o n v e r s a t i o n g o i n g for as l o n g as

A full set of Example Cards can be found on page 90.

48
Reporting C i r c l e (Lower)

An activity which presents and • If L u k a has p r o b l e m s , e n c o u r a g e the • If t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y


practises the basic reporting verbs other students to help w i t h the confident, they may enjoy
said, told and asked r e p o r t i n g v e r b or structure. Put the p r o d u c i n g their o w n cards in small
agreed verbs on the board a l o n g g r o u p s , for other g r o u p s to use.

Level Elementary to w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e (see K e y p a g e 9 2 ) .


Discuss the change in the verb form Example Cards
Intermediate
a n d m o v e o n t o the n e x t pair (Peter
Activity type Groupwork
a n d Fritz). I
(optional)
I like ice cream.
Equipment/ • C o n t i n u e in this w a y until all the
Materials Slips of paper;
verbs a n d structures have b e e n
prepared cards
elicited. If y o u do the activity using
Plus... Reporting Circle the cards in the order suggested, the
(Lower) cards I'm going to
differences b e t w e e n the verbs, a n d
watch TV tonight.
the structures that t h e y r e q u i r e , w i l l
• Give the cards to K e i k o a n d ask h e r be m a d e clear to the students.
t o read the t o p c a r d t o L u k a . L u k a
then h a s t o r e p o r t b a c k t h e s e n t e n c e • Shuffle the cards a n d repeat the

that has b e e n w r i t t e n o n it, f o r activity for further practice. W i t h

example: 'I like i c e - c r e a m ' , 'She a large g r o u p y o u m a y w i s h to

told m e she l i k e d i c e - c r e a m ' o r ' S h e p r o d u c e a greater n u m b e r of cards

said s h e l i k e d i c e - c r e a m ' . for this stage of the activity.

Reporting C i r c l e (Upper)

An activity which makes practising • Put the agreed verb on the b o a r d • Repeat the activity, using the slips
reporting verbs fun a n d m o v e to the next pair - Peter they have produced. K e e p the best
a n d Fritz. C o n t i n u e in this w a y until e x a m p l e s to use for a later r e c y c l i n g

Level Intermediate all the verbs a n d structures h a v e activity.

onwards been elicited. If you do the activity


using the cards in the order Example Cards
Activity t y p e W h o l e class
suggested, the verbs on the b o a r d
Equipment/ I
can be grouped easily according to
Materials Slips of p a p e r ; Get out and don't
the structure that f o l l o w s .
prepared cards come back!
Plus... Reporting Circle • Shuffle the cards a n d repeat the
(Upper) cards activity for further practice.
2

• G i v e the students three or four slips If I were you, I'd take it


• G i v e the c a r d s t o K e i k o a n d a s k h e r
of paper each, telling them to back to the shop.
t o read the t o p c a r d t o L u k a . L u k a
has t o report b a c k t h e s e n t e n c e t h a t c h o o s e v e r b s f r o m t h e list o n t h e

has been w r i t t e n o n it, f o r e x a m p l e : b o a r d a n d to write on their slips

'Get out a n d d o n ' t c o m e b a c k ! ' - phrases that c o r r e s p o n d to the

'She t o l d m e t o get o u t a n d n o t t o verbs, for e x a m p l e : 'Let's g o t o the

come back'. If L u k a h a s p r o b l e m s , beach' ( t o suggest). Allow them to

encourage t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o h e l p « use their c o u r s e material or an

with the r e p o r t i n g v e r b o r s t r u c t u r e . appropriate reference book.

A full set of Example Cards can be found on pages 91-92.

49
Circles

Quickfire Circle

How to prepare for those idiomatic 'hot seat'. Students take it in turns to other, w h o responds. If they c a n , tl

opening gambits that native speakers read their lines, g o i n g round the pair c o n t i n u e the conversation.

use so often! c i r c l e . T h e p e r s o n in the hot seat


• W h e n the improvisation c o m e s to
responds as best he or she c a n . At
a n e n d , i n v i t e a n o t h e r p a i r t o stan<
Level Pre-intermediate this stage w e l c o m e a n y peer s u p p o r t
u p a n d d o the same.
onwards or correction.

Activity type Whole class Example Cards


• W h e n all the cards have b e e n read,
Equipment/ repeat the p r o c e d u r e again w i t h
Materials Prepared cards different students in the hot seat. What time do you
Plus... Quickfire Circle Y o u m a y n e e d to repeat this stage call this?
cards four or five times before the w h o l e
group is familiar with the n e w
• M a k e up a set of c a r d s . T h o s e expressions.
p r o v i d e d here are suitable for
Where to, guv?
advanced students; you m a y wish to • W h e n y o u feel the g r o u p is ready,

m a k e your o w n , appropriate to the put the cards on the floor in the

level of your students. m i d d l e o f the c i r c l e . Invite t w o


students sitting o p p o s i t e e a c h other
• Pass the c a r d s out to all but o n e of to stand up. O n e of the students
the students. This student is in the takes a c a r d a n d reads it to the

Interview C i r c l e

Intensive, noisy, free practice • A s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o sit i n t w o c i r c l e s , • T h i s p r o c e s s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e unti


o n e inside the other. Each circle e v e r y b o d y i n t h e i n n e r c i r c l e has

Level Elementary onwards m u s t h a v e the s a m e n u m b e r o f seats been interviewed by everybody ir


(you m a y need to join in to m a k e the outer circle.
Activity type Pairwork/groupwork
the numbers even). T h e chairs in the
Equipment/ • At the e n d , the interviewers meet
inner circle face out, and the chairs
Materials None
d i s c u s s w h o s h o u l d get the j o b . T
in the outer circle face in. The
Plus... a job advertisement a p p l i c a n t s d i s c u s s w h i c h interviev
students in the inner circle are the
they thought w a s most successful.
applicants; and those in the outer
• As a class, study the j o b
circle, the interviewers. If y o u have
advertisement. Discuss the k i n d of
more than fourteen students, m a k e
p e r s o n w h o m i g h t get the j o b a n d
t w o sets o f c i r c l e s .
m a k e a list o f t h e q u a l i t i e s a n d
e x p e r i e n c e that this p e r s o n m i g h t • C o n d u c t all the interviews in pairs
have. simultaneously. Give them a time
limit.
• E x p l a i n that half the students are
applicants for the post a d v e r t i s e d , • W h e n the t i m e has e l a p s e d , ask the
a n d that the other students are g o i n g interviewers in the outer circle to
to interview t h e m . W i t h a lower- m o v e r o u n d o n e p l a c e t o t h e left.
" level g r o u p , give t h e m time to They will n o w be facing a new
prepare before p r o c e e d i n g to the a p p l i c a n t . T h e y i n t e r v i e w this
next stage. a p p l i c a n t for the j o b .

A full set of Example Cards can be found on page 94.

50
Circles

Waiting-room C i r c l e Make or Do C i r c l e G a m e Collocation Circle

An amusing roleplay which helps An enjoyable revision activity for A proven way of learning by heart

students to practise both functional 'make' and 'do'that works well with collocations previously presented

English and reporting children in class

Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary and Level Elementary onwards

onwards Pre-intermediate Activity type Whole class

Activity type Croupwork Activity type Competitive Equipment/


activity/game Materials None
Equipment/
Materials None Equipment/ Plus... A list of c o l l o c a t i o n s ,

Plus... A set of c a r d s w i t h
Materials None idioms or phrasal

s h o r t / l o n g lists o f v e r b s that y o u w i s h

symptoms on them • P l a c e y o u r students in a s t a n d i n g to teach


circle. Begin the activity yourself by

• Explain to the s t u d e n t s in the c i r c l e saying 'Every day I make my bed.' • P l a c e y o u r students in a c i r c l e . Elicit

that t h e y a r e i n a w a i t i n g - r o o m . A c c o m p a n y this w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e t h e first c o l l o c a t i o n o n y o u r list, for

They are w a i t i n g t o c o n s u l t a n e w mime. e x a m p l e ' d e e p l y hurt'. G i v e the

doctor, a b o u t w h o m t h e y a r e a l l c o l l o c a t i o n an appropriate gesture.


• A s k the student next to y o u to
very c u r i o u s . Y o u m a y w i s h t o W h e n e v e r they see this gesture,
repeat w h a t y o u d o , c h a n g i n g the
prepare the s t u d e n t s e i t h e r b y g i v i n g they s h o u l d c h o r u s the c o l l o c a t i o n .
case as appropriate, a n d using the
each of t h e m a list of t h e i r Test t h e m a c o u p l e o f t i m e s .
m i m e , ask t h e m t o a d d a n o t h e r
symptoms, or by a l l o w i n g t h e m to
expression and associated mime. • Elicit the next c o l l o c a t i o n on y o u r
choose their o w n f r o m a l o n g e r list.
'Every d a y my teacher m a k e s his list. A s k t h e p e r s o n o n y o u r left t o
These s h o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e - t a u g h t .
b e d (mime), and I do my h o m e w o r k think of a gesture. Revise the t w o

t Ask o n e of t h e s t u d e n t s to t a k e t h e (mime).' collocations by giving your own

role o f t h e d o c t o r . S e a t t h i s p e r s o n gesture, f o l l o w e d by the person on


• T h e next student in the circle s h o u l d
outside the c i r c l e . T h e p a t i e n t s t a k e y o u r left g i v i n g h i s o r h e r s .
repeat the previous statement a n d
i t i n turns t o v i s i t t h e d o c t o r , w h o
a d d his o r her o w n . A t this stage • T h e next student in the circle takes
asks t h e m n u m e r o u s q u e s t i o n s
y o u should leave the circle. T h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p r o v i d i n g a gesture
about t h e i r s y m p t o m s a n d l i f e s t y l e ,
activity will continue without y o u . for another of y o u r c o l l o c a t i o n s in
makes a d i a g n o s i s a n d g i v e s a d v i c e .
the same way. Practise again, using
The p a t i e n t s r e t u r n t o t h e g r o u p a n d
• If a s t u d e n t is u n a b l e to t h i n k of a
t h e t h r e e g e s t u r e s i n v e n t e d s o far.
the d o c t o r c a l l s i n t h e n e x t p a t i e n t
new make o r do e x p r e s s i o n , or
from t h e c i r c l e . forgets a p r e v i o u s e x p r e s s i o n or • W h e n all the students have a
m i m e , they have to leave the circle. c o l l o c a t i o n a n d a gesture, go round
• W h i l e the d o c t o r i s c o n s u l t i n g h i s o r
T h e last s t u d e n t r e m a i n i n g i s t h e the circle. Each student elicits their
her s e c o n d p a t i e n t , t h e f i r s t p a t i e n t
winner. o w n c o l l o c a t i o n b y using their o w n
reports h i s o r h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n t o t h e
gesture.
others i n t h e w a i t i n g - r o o m . T h i s
must b e i n a s g r e a t a d e t a i l a s
• F i n a l l y the s t u d e n t s t a k e it in turns
possible, s o that t h e f u l l r a n g e o f
to test e a c h o t h e r by u s i n g a v a r i e t y
reporting v e r b s a n d l a n g u a g e i s
of gestures to elicit the collocations.
used. E n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o
gossip.
T h a n k s t o C h r i s C a m p b e l l for this i d e a .

• This a c t i v i t y c a n b e u s e d f o r o t h e r
situations, s u c h a s v i s i t i n g t h e b a n k
manager a n d c o n s u l t i n g a f o r t u n e -
teller.

51
9

Questionnai res
Question Types
P r o d u c i n g their o w n questionnaires can help
E n c o u r a g e y o u r s t u d e n t s to use a v a r i e t y of
students in a v a r i e t y of w a y s . Firstly, it a l l o w s
q u e s t i o n t y p e s i n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , for
t h e m the t i m e t o f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e t h e y
example:
use t h e m in a c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o n t e x t .

S e c o n d l y , students g a i n i n c o n f i d e n c e w h e n t h e y • open-ended questions

are a b l e t o use l a n g u a g e that t h e y h a v e p r o d u c e d


• yes/no q u e s t i o n s
themselves, and k n o w to be correct. This then
provides a solid f o u n d a t i o n for m o r e spontaneous
• wh- questions
interaction.

• true/false s t a t e m e n t s
Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r r e c y c l i n g

language, both within a semi-controlled • multiple choice


f r a m e w o r k , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y in a freer c o n t e x t .
• r a n k i n g f o u r items i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e ,
In native-speaking countries questionnaires c a n preference etc.
h e l p students t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s for c o n f i d e n t

interaction with native speakers, as w e l l as • ' f i n i s h t h e s e n t e n c e ' or gap-fill s e n t e n c e s

p r o v i d i n g t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h students m a y
• ' w h a t w o u l d y o u do if ... ?' q u e s t i o n s
a p p r o a c h m e m b e r s of the p u b l i c .

52
Questionnaires

In the H o t Seat Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Grammar Revision

Prepare a questionnaire for an English- From interview to article and back Students ask and answer questions
speaking guest again using a structure that you have
allocated them

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary to


onwards onwards Intermediate

Activity type Groupwork; Activity type Pairwork Activity type Groupwork/mingle


homework
Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Photocopies Materials None
Materials Photocopies Plus ... A newspaper article
(see below) • Before the lesson, d e c i d e on four or
• Tell t h e c l a s s t h a t a ' g u e s t ' i s c o m i n g five structures that y o u w i s h to
into t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d i s w i l l i n g t o • Choose carefully a newspaper revise.
be interviewed in E n g l i s h . article w h i c h takes the form of a
• Put the students into small groups.
character portrait of an interesting
• Put the s t u d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s a n d a s k A l l o c a t e e a c h student o n e of the
person. P h o t o c o p y o n e for e a c h
them t o w r i t e d o w n a n y q u e s t i o n s structures that y o u w i s h to revise,
student in the class.
that t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o a s k t h i s for e x a m p l e the present perfect.
person.
• G i v e it to the students to r e a d .
• A s k e a c h student to write five
• Each g r o u p r e a d s o u t t h e i r • A s k the students, in pairs, to write q u e s t i o n s that h e o r she c o u l d ask
questions. W r i t e t h e s e u p o n t h e the q u e s t i o n s that the i n t e r v i e w e r a n y other student w i t h i n the class,
board. Very often t h e g r o u p s w i l l for e x a m p l e : ' H a v e y o u been to
must have asked in order to find the
have p r o d u c e d s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s ; Spain?' or ' H a v e y o u had breakfast
information in the article, and to
you c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o this m o r n i n g ? '
write these d o w n in the form of a
discuss w h i c h q u e s t i o n s a r e m o s t
questionnaire.
appropriate, a n d w h y . • A s k the students to c h e c k the

• R e v i e w t h e q u e s t i o n s as a c l a s s . questions written by other members


• The students t h e n d e c i d e t h e o r d e r The students m a y w i s h to add to of their o w n group.
in which their q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that they h a v e
asked. A s t u d e n t o r y o u y o u r s e l f c a n • T h e students then m i n g l e w i t h the
produced.
take notes, w r i t i n g d o w n t h e rest o f t h e c l a s s , a n d a s k e a c h o t h e r

questions i n t h e s u g g e s t e d o r d e r . • Finally, the students roleplay the their q u e s t i o n s . Tell the students that

interview, w o r k i n g in their original if they are asked w h a t they think is


• W h e n a list o f q u e s t i o n s h a s b e e n pairs; o n e t a k i n g the part of the an u n g r a m m a t i c a l question, then
written d o w n i t s h o u l d b e interviewer, the other the part of the they should call you.
photocopied. G i v e o n e c o p y t o interviewee.
each student b e f o r e t h e v i s i t o r i s • W h e n all the questions have b e e n

invited i n . asked, the students return to their


groups and discuss what they have
• The students, i n t u r n , a s k e a c h discovered.
question o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d
take notes o n t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s
answers. W a r n s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e
• need for f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s m i g h t
arise as a result of t h e i r g u e s t ' s
answers. T h e y s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o
ask these q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e a n o t h e r
student m o v e s o n t o t h e n e x t
scripted q u e s t i o n .

53
Questionnaires

In the H o t Seat Interview Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Grammar Revision

Prepare a questionnaire for an English- From interview to article and back Students ask and answer questions
speaking guest again using a structure that you have
allocated them

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary to


onwards onwards Intermediate

Activity type Groupwork; Activity type Pairwork Activity type Groupwork/mingle


homework Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Photocopies Materials None
Materials Photocopies Plus ... A newspaper article
(see below) • Before the lesson, d e c i d e on four or
• Tell t h e c l a s s t h a t a ' g u e s t ' i s c o m i n g five structures that y o u w i s h to
into t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d i s w i l l i n g t o • Choose carefully a newspaper revise.
be interviewed in E n g l i s h . article w h i c h takes the form of a
• Put the students into small groups.
character portrait of an interesting
• Put t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s a n d a s k A l l o c a t e e a c h student o n e of the
person. P h o t o c o p y o n e for e a c h
them t o w r i t e d o w n a n y q u e s t i o n s structures that y o u w i s h to revise,
student in the class.
that t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o a s k t h i s for e x a m p l e the present perfect.
person. • G i v e it to the students to read.
• A s k e a c h student to write five
• Each g r o u p r e a d s o u t t h e i r • A s k the students, in pairs, to write q u e s t i o n s that h e o r s h e c o u l d ask
questions. W r i t e t h e s e u p o n t h e the q u e s t i o n s that the i n t e r v i e w e r any other student w i t h i n the class,
board. Very o f t e n t h e g r o u p s w i l l must have asked in order to find the for e x a m p l e : ' H a v e y o u been to
have p r o d u c e d s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s ; information in the article, and to Spain?' or ' H a v e y o u h a d breakfast
you c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o write these d o w n in the f o r m of a this m o r n i n g ? '
discuss w h i c h q u e s t i o n s a r e m o s t questionnaire.
appropriate, a n d w h y . • A s k the students to c h e c k the

• R e v i e w t h e q u e s t i o n s as a c l a s s . questions written by other members


• The s t u d e n t s t h e n d e c i d e t h e o r d e r T h e students m a y w i s h to add to of their o w n group.
in which their q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that they h a v e
asked. A s t u d e n t o r y o u y o u r s e l f c a n • T h e students then m i n g l e with the
produced.
take n o t e s , w r i t i n g d o w n t h e rest o f t h e c l a s s , a n d a s k e a c h o t h e r

questions i n t h e s u g g e s t e d o r d e r . • Finally, the students roleplay the their q u e s t i o n s . Tell the students that

interview, w o r k i n g in their original if they are a s k e d w h a t they think is


• W h e n a list o f q u e s t i o n s h a s b e e n pairs; o n e t a k i n g the part of the an ungrammatical question, then
written d o w n i t s h o u l d b e interviewer, the other the part of the they should call y o u .
photocopied. G i v e o n e c o p y t o interviewee.
each s t u d e n t b e f o r e t h e v i s i t o r i s • W h e n all the questions have been

invited i n . a s k e d , the students return to their


groups and discuss what they have
• The students, i n t u r n , a s k e a c h discovered.
question o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d
take notes o n t h e i n t e r v i e w e e ' s
answers. W a r n s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e
need for f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s m i g h t
arise as a r e s u l t of t h e i r g u e s t ' s
answers. T h e y s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o
ask these q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e a n o t h e r
student m o v e s o n t o t h e n e x t
scripted q u e s t i o n .

53
Questionnaires

Guess Who? Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Reverse Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T h r e e Answers

Guess who fell in love when she Students inadvertently produce a From answers to questions
was nine questionnaire on the board

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary a n d Level Pre-intermediate


Pre-intermediate onwards
Activity type P a i r w o r k / m i n g l e
Activity type Pairwork; homework Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e
Equipment/
activity
Materials None Equipment/
Materials None Equipment/
• Put the students into pairs. A s k t h e m Materials Slips o f paper

to discuss what they w o u l d most • D i v i d e the board into t w o c o l u m n s .

like to k n o w about the other p e o p l e In the narrow, left-hand c o l u m n • On the board, write three pieces of

in the class, a n d to p r o d u c e t w o write a piece of information about i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t yourself, for

c o p i e s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e in o r d e r to yourself, for e x a m p l e ' 1 8 3 c m ' (your e x a m p l e t h e c o l o u r o f y o u r car, the

find o u t this i n f o r m a t i o n . height). age of y o u r cat, a n d the n a m e of


y o u r first h u s b a n d / w i f e .
• The students mingle, asking • T h e students ask w h a t e v e r

questions, answering questions, and questions they can think of w h i c h • T h e students ask w h a t e v e r question

o c c a s i o n a l l y s a y i n g 'I'd r a t h e r n o t might elicit this answer. W r i t e all t h e y c a n t h i n k o f w h i c h m i g h t lead

say' w h e r e necessary. these questions on the b o a r d in the t o t h e s e a n s w e r s . R e m a i n s i l e n t unt

right-hand c o l u m n , inviting o n e student asks a question which


• As a c l a s s , t h e s t u d e n t s t a k e correction when necessary. Remain elicits the a n s w e r on the board,
it in turns to give o n e p i e c e of silent until o n e student asks a for e x a m p l e ' W h a t c o l o u r is your
i n f o r m a t i o n that they have question w h i c h elicits the answer car?' 'Red'.
discovered. But they must not
o n the b o a r d , for e x a m p l e ' H o w tall
m e n t i o n the n a m e of the person • G i v e e a c h s t u d e n t a p i e c e of paper
are y o u ? ' ' 1 8 3 c m ' .
c o n c e r n e d , for e x a m p l e ' G u e s s O n this p i e c e o f p a p e r e a c h studen
who's been to Disneyland.' The • Repeat this process w i t h a n o t h e r writes three different pieces of
other class m e m b e r s have to guess piece of information about yourself, i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t himself/herself.
w h o the sentence is about. until e n o u g h questions have been
• The students m i n g l e and find a
a s k e d to f o r m a fairly
partner. T h e y ask q u e s t i o n s to elici
c o m p r e h e n s i v e questionnaire on the
t h e a n s w e r s o n t h e i r partner's pieci
board. You may now choose to
of paper.
answer any of the other questions
o n the b o a r d .
• Finally, the students discuss what
they have f o u n d out about each
• Finally, put the students into pairs.
other.
A s k t h e m to interview e a c h other,
using the questions on the b o a r d ,
and to take notes.

• As h o m e w o r k , students c a n write a
brief profile of their partner.

54
Questionnaires

Marketing M i x Public O p i n i o n Survey A c t i o n to Be Taken

A class consumer survey Students produce a questionnaire Give your students a say (in English)
to test public opinion in an English-
speaking country

Level Pre-intermediate Level Intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards onwards

Activity type G r o u p w o r k / m i n g l e Activity type Groupwork Activity type G r o u p w o r k


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials None Materials Photocopies Materials None
Plus... A selection of
• Divide the class i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s . newspapers • Select an issue w i t h i n the s c h o o l
Choose one c o n s u m e r p r o d u c t for (see below) that the class c a n be e x p e c t e d to
each g r o u p , for e x a m p l e c a r s , h a v e s o m e i n f l u e n c e o n , for
portable stereos, b a n k a c c o u n t s , • B r i n g in a s e l e c t i o n of n e w s p a p e r s . e x a m p l e the position of c o m p u t e r s
women's magazines. A l l o c a t e a A s k the students to identify a current in the library or the end-of-term
different p r o d u c t t o e a c h g r o u p i n topic about w h i c h the general party.
the c l a s s .
public will have strong opinions.
• Put the class into small groups a n d
• Working within their groups, the • Put the students into small g r o u p s ask e a c h g r o u p to p r o d u c e a
students p r o d u c e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d ask t h e m to devise a questionnaire w h i c h can be used
which they feel w i l l h e l p t h e m t o questionnaire w h i c h is designed to within the school or college to find
design the p e r f e c t p r o d u c t f o r t h e gauge local p u b l i c o p i n i o n o n the out people's v i e w s on this particular
market r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i r s c h o o l chosen topic. issue.
or college.
• P h o t o c o p y the questionnaires. • W o r k i n g in their groups, the
• W h e n these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are students interview m e m b e r s of the
complete, the students q u e s t i o n the • T h e students go out in pairs to s c h o o l using their questionnaire.
other s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s o r interview m e m b e r s of the p u b l i c ,

the s c h o o l , i n o r d e r t o d o a m a r k e t using their questionnaires. • W h e n they return to the c l a s s r o o m ,

research s u r v e y o n t h e i r a l l o c a t e d the students discuss what they have


• Finally, they report b a c k the results f o u n d out.
product.
of their survey to the class.

• They t h e n r e t u r n t o t h e i r g r o u p s a n d • As a class, the students m a y then

form a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p r o d u c t t h a t m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to the

w o u l d best suit t h e i r o w n m a r k e t . m e m b e r o f staff r e s p o n s i b l e f o r that


area of decision-making.
• Finally, e a c h g r o u p p r e s e n t s t h e i r
ideas t o t h e c l a s s .

r
)5
Questionnaires

Notes and Q u e r i e s Chain Questionnaire Question-stem Questionnair

Genuine questions and answers Building a personalised questionnaire Students produce a spontaneous oral

throughout the course for each pair of students questionnaire

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary to


Intermediate
Activity type Whole class; Activity type Pairwork
homework (optional) Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k
Equipment/ Materials None Equipment/
Materials Slips of paper Materials Photocopies

Plus... A 'question box' • Put the students into pairs. A s k t h e m Plus... Aq u e s t i o n n a i r e


(see below) to f i n d three things that they h a v e in (see below)
c o m m o n . Each pair s h o u l d report

• Set up a ' q u e s t i o n b o x ' in t h e their findings b a c k to the class, for • P r o d u c e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e for your

c l a s s r o o m . N e x t t o it, p l a c e s l i p s e x a m p l e Juan a n d A n n a might say s t u d e n t s , c o n s i s t i n g o n l y o f t h e firs


'We've both been to Portugal', 'We words of possible questions, as
of paper.
both love C o c a - C o l a ' and 'We both b e l o w , a n d m a k e o n e c o p y f o r ea<
• D u r i n g the course, the students fight w i t h o u r e l d e r sisters.' s t u d e n t . W h a t ... ? W h e r e ... ?
write on the slips of paper a n y W h e n . . . ? D i d ... ?
general k n o w l e d g e q u e s t i o n s that • W h e n e a c h pair has reported back,

they w o u l d like to have answered, the class as a g r o u p d e c i d e s w h a t • P u t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o p a i r s . A s k the


for e x a m p l e ' W h y d i d dinosaurs they w o u l d like to k n o w more about to f i n d three things that they have
b e c o m e extinct?' ' H o w m a n y films for e a c h pair of students - Juan a n d c o m m o n . Each pair reports their
h a s B r a d Pitt b e e n i n ? ' A n n a ' s trips to Portugal, for f i n d i n g s b a c k to the class, for
example. e x a m p l e Juan a n d A n n a say 'We'\
• Empty the b o x every t w o w e e k s a n d b o t h b e e n t o B e r l i n ' ' W e b o t h lovi
distribute the questions a m o n g s t the • H a n d e a c h pair of students a b l a n k
L o u R e e d ' a n d ' W e both fight wit!
students. M a k e sure that the p i e c e of paper. At the top of it they
o u r e l d e r sisters'.
students w h o originally wrote the write their names a n d what the class

questions do not receive the w o u l d like to k n o w more about. • W h e n e a c h pair has reported bac
q u e s t i o n slips that they t h e m s e l v e s the class as a g r o u p d e c i d e s what
• Each p i e c e of p a p e r is passed
have written. they w o u l d like to k n o w more ab
r o u n d . Each pair of students writes
for e a c h p a i r of students - Juan ar
• The students use any resources d o w n a n y q u e s t i o n s that they w o u l d
A n n a ' s trips to B e r l i n , for example
available to find the a n s w e r to the like to ask a n d passes the sheet o n .

q u e s t i o n s that they h a v e b e e n g i v e n . As e a c h sheet is c i r c u l a t e d , a • T h e other students ask questions


This may be d o n e as h o m e w o r k . questionnaire forms. a b o u t their trips. Each question m
begin w i t h o n e of the question
• Students then present questions a n d • S t o p t h e a c t i v i t y after t e n m i n u t e s .
w o r d s , for e x a m p l e ' W h e r e did y
answers to the class. Each pair will have a questionnaire
s t a y ? ' E v e r y t i m e a s t u d e n t uses o
in front of t h e m a d d r e s s e d to a
o f t h e q u e s t i o n w o r d s , h e o r she
different pair of students. They take p l a c e s a t i c k n e x t t o it.
it in turns to put the q u e s t i o n s in
front of t h e m to the appropriate • T h i s c o n t i n u e s w i t h e a c h pair of
m e m b e r s of the class. T h e others students.
listen.
• Students t h e n c o u n t their ticks an
w i n n e r is declared.

5(,
10

The Word Box


Make a w o r d b o x for e a c h c l a s s at t h e b e g i n n i n g S t u d e n t s s h o u l d not b e e n c o u r a g e d t o p u t a l l o f
o f the course. T h i s b o x w i l l f i l l u p w i t h n e w these on the cards, but it is useful to m a k e t h e m
lexical items that o c c u r i n t h e c l a s s a n d p r o v i d e a w a r e o f s o m e o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
you with a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e . E x p l a i n to y o u r
A t l o w e r l e v e l s i t c a n b e u s e f u l t o m a r k the stress
students that the b o x is a b a n k of all t h e w o r d s
patterns o n t h e o t h e r s i d e , u s i n g b u b b l e s . T h i s
they will learn a n d p r a c t i s e . U s e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
helps the student reading the w o r d to p r o n o u n c e
frequently for l e x i c a l p r a c t i c e .
i t i n r e c y c l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a n d creates o p p o r t u n i t i e s

Choose a c a r d b o a r d b o x w i t h a l i d a n d c o v e r it for p r o n u n c i a t i o n g a m e s .

with colourful paper. It s h o u l d be q u i t e b i g as it


S t u d e n t s e n j o y b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e for p u t t i n g n e w
will fill u p very q u i c k l y ! C u t u p p i e c e s o f d u r a b l e
w o r d s in t h e b o x . A c l a s s rota ( d a i l y / w e e k l y )
card in a d v a n c e . C a r d s c a n a l l be t h e s a m e
g e n e r a l l y w o r k s w e l l . Pair students u p for this s o
colour, or different. A n e w c o l o u r c a n be u s e d to
that c h o o s i n g t h e w o r d s for t h e b o x b e c o m e s a
show when n e w students h a v e c o m e i n t o t h e
c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t i v i t y i n itself.
class, or a different c o l o u r c a n be u s e d for e a c h
week. This w i l l h e l p y o u t o d e c i d e h o w r e c e n t t h e
vocabulary to be r e c y c l e d s h o u l d b e . C o l o u r -
coding can p r o v i d e a h e l p f u l t o p i c g u i d e if t h e
course is topic-based. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , c o l o u r - c o d e
the cards a c c o r d i n g to v e r b s , n o u n s , p h r a s a l v e r b s ,
adverbs, etc.

What can be put in the b o x ? N o t o n l y i n d i v i d u a l


words but also c o l l o c a t i o n s , set e x p r e s s i o n s ,
idioms, phrasal verbs etc. A d d i t i o n a l u s e f u l
information that m a y b e m a r k e d o n t h e c a r d s c a n
include p h o n e m i c script, s m a l l d r a w i n g s ,
opposites, (partial) s y n o n y m s , d e f i n i t i o n s , e x a m p l e
phrases, and i n d i c a t i o n of register or c o n n o t a t i o n .

57
The Word Box

H o t Seat Points W o r d Stacks G r o u p W o r d Stacks

Students elicit recent vocabulary from Students compete to come up with Groups race to come up with recent

each other recent vocabulary vocabulary

Level A l l levels Level Pre-intermediate Level A l l levels

Activity type Competitive onwards Activity type G r o u p w o r k


activity/game Activity type G r o u p w o r k Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials Word box and
Materials Word box and Materials Word box and word cards

word cards word cards

• D i v i d e the class into groups and

• D i v i d e the class into small teams. • D i v i d e the class into groups, a n d give each g r o u p the same number

O n e m e m b e r o f e a c h t e a m has their give e a c h group the same n u m b e r o f w o r d s f r o m the w o r d b o x . These

back to the b o a r d . o f w o r d s f r o m the w o r d b o x . These s h o u l d b e p l a c e d f a c e d o w n i n the

are p l a c e d face d o w n in the m i d d l e middle of each group.


• A w o r d is put on the b o a r d a n d of each group.
e a c h t e a m has to get their t e a m • O n e student picks up a card and

m e m b e r to say the w o r d by eliciting • O n e student picks up a card a n d t h e n tries t o e l i c i t the w o r d o r

it, b u t w i t h o u t u s i n g m i m e . T h e f i r s t t h e n tries t o e l i c i t the w o r d o r p h r a s e f r o m the rest of t h e g r o u p . I


t e a m to get the w o r d g a i n s a p o i n t . p h r a s e f r o m t h e rest o f t h e g r o u p . I f this person doesn't k n o w the word
this p e r s o n doesn't k n o w the w o r d , they m a y l o o k in their file, or in a
• C h a n g e t h e ' g u e s s e r s ' after e v e r y the c a r d is put on a separate pile of dictionary.
three w o r d s . This c a n be a very 'problem words'.
lively game. • W h e n s o m e o n e in the g r o u p 'find

• W h e n s o m e o n e in the g r o u p says the w o r d , another student picks u|

t h e w o r d that t h e first s t u d e n t is a c a r d a n d tries to elicit this w o r d


t r y i n g to e l i c i t , he or she gets the phrase.
c a r d , a n d this c o u n t s as o n e point.
• T h e first g r o u p to get t h r o u g h thei

• T h e next student then p i c k s up a stack w i n s . G r o u p s can then

c a r d a n d tries t o e l i c i t this w o r d o r e x c h a n g e s t a c k s a n d start a g a i n .

phrase f r o m the other m e m b e r s of


the group. T h e g a m e continues in
this way.

• W h e n all the g r o u p s have used the


original stack of w o r d s , c o l l e c t the
'problem words' from each group.
Try to elicit e a c h of these w o r d s
from the w h o l e class. A g a i n , any
student w h o says the w o r d , gets the
card. The student with the most
c a r d s (or p o i n t s ) i n t h e c l a s s w i n s .

58
The Word Box

Q u e s t i o n Labels D r a w i n g Race C a r d Trading

Students ask questions to discover the High-speed pictionary A co-operative activity in which
mystery words students collect cards

Level Pre-intermediate Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

onwards Activity type C o m p e t i t i v e Activity type M i n g l e / c o m p e t i t i v e


Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e activity/game activity
activity Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Word box and word Materials Word box a n d
Materials Word box and cards; scrap paper word cards
w o r d cards; labels

• Put the class into t e a m s of three to • G i v e e a c h student in the class the


• Select v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t h e c l a s s five students. G i v e e a c h team a pile s a m e n u m b e r of w o r d s f r o m the
word box. You will need o n e card of scrap paper and a p e n c i l . w o r d b o x . Ten to fifteen cards
for e a c h s t u d e n t i n t h e c l a s s . normally works well. Choose them
Transfer e a c h w o r d o n t o a s e p a r a t e • Ask one student from each group to at r a n d o m .
label. c o m e to the front of the class. These
are the ' d r a w e r s ' . S h o w the d r a w e r s • The students mingle and find a
• Ask the s t u d e n t s to s t a n d w i t h t h e i r a w o r d card from the class box. partner. In this case, Juan partners
backs t o y o u a n d p l a c e o n e l a b e l o n Mika.
each back. A l l o w the students to • They run back to their teams, and

turn, m i n g l e a n d e x a m i n e e a c h d r a w the w o r d in order to elicit it • I f J u a n k n o w s t h e w o r d o n t h e first

other's l a b e l s . from other m e m b e r s of the team. c a r d in his stack, he has to elicit it


T h e d r a w e r s are not permitted to f r o m M i k a . If M i k a says the w o r d ,
• Explain that t h e a i m of t h e a c t i v i t y is t a l k . T h e first t e a m t o get t h e w o r d she gets the c a r d .
t o find out w h i c h w o r d t h e y h a v e gains one point.
o n their b a c k s . T h e y c a n o n l y d o • If Juan does not k n o w the w o r d on

this b y a s k i n g y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , f o r • Change drawers and give them a t h e first c a r d , h e a s k s M i k a w h a t i t

example: ' D o y o u w a l k this w a y new word. The game continues in m e a n s . If she c a n e x p l a i n it

when y o u ' v e h a d t o o m u c h t o this way. T h e t e a m w i t h the most satisfactorily, M i k a gets the c a r d .

d r i n k ? ' (stagger) points wins.


• M i k a then does the same with the

• The s t u d e n t s t h e n m i n g l e a n d a s k Variation first o f h e r c a r d s .

questions, i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e • F o l l o w the s a m e p r o c e d u r e as
• After three or four m i n u t e s , ask all
words o n t h e i r b a c k s . a b o v e for f o r m i n g teams.
the students to c h a n g e partners. The

• You m a y w i s h t o c h o o s e w o r d s • Ask o n e student from each group to g a m e c o n t i n u e s in this way.

which b e l o n g to c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d , c o m e to the front of the class. These


• T h e student w i t h the most cards at
and r e l a t e d , l e x i c a l g r o u p s , f o r are the m i m e s . S h o w the m i m e s a
the e n d of the activity is the winner.
example: w a y s o f w a l k i n g , w a y s o f w o r d card f r o m the class b o x .
talking, a n d w a y s o f l o o k i n g . A t t h e
end o f t h e a c t i v i t y , y o u c a n a s k t h e • They run back to their teams, and

students t o s t a n d i n g r o u p s m i m e the w o r d in order to elicit it

according to the l e x i c a l g r o u p in from other m e m b e r s of the team.

which they b e l o n g . T h e s t u d e n t s T h e ' m i m e s ' are not permitted to

may t h e n d i s c u s s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t a l k . T h e first t e a m t o get t h e w o r d

meaning w i t h i n t h e i r g r o u p s . gains o n e point.

• Change mimes and give them a n e w


w o r d . T h e g a m e c o n t i n u e s i n this
way. The team with the most points
wins.
The Word Box

Favourite W o r d s Comparing Words Continuouswordsearch

An imagination-stretching group A short activity for revising Studentswithscriptproblemstrytofindwo

writing activity comparatives rdboundaries!

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary to Level Pre-intermediate


Intermediate onwards
Activity type Pairwork

Equipment/ Activity type Groupwork Activity type Whole class

Materials Word box and Equipment/ Equipment/


word cards Materials Word box and Materials Word box and word
word cards cards; photocopies;

• Put t h e s t u d e n t s Into p a i r s , a n d g i v e O H P (optional)

each pair a pile of cards f r o m the • Put the students into small g r o u p s , Plus ... A word list
word box. and give each group twelve w o r d (see below)

cards picked at random.


• A s k t h e m to c h o o s e their five
• Select w o r d s that y o u w i s h to revise
'favourite' w o r d s from their pile. • T h e students place these in front of
f r o m the w o r d b o x . Write t h e m as
This w i l l involve a degree of t h e m , face up. W o r k i n g together,
one continuous word and
revision and discussion. e a c h g r o u p tries t o p r o d u c e a s m a n y
p h o t o c o p y o n e for e a c h student.
sentences as they can w h i c h
• O n c e they have c h o s e n their five c o m p a r e t w o of the w o r d s in front • T h e students then w o r k to find the
w o r d s , they write a paragraph that of t h e m . G i v e them a time limit. word boundaries. You may wish to
i n c l u d e s all five. W h i l e this is g o i n g o n , circulate a n d s h o w the answers o n a n O H T
help with accuracy.
• T h e y then read the story/paragraph
• Alternatively, y o u m a y w i s h to
to the other pairs, pausing w h e n • At the e n d of the allotted time, see present the students with a more
they c o m e to a 'favourite w o r d ' , the w h i c h g r o u p has p r o d u c e d the most c h a l l e n g i n g list, i n w h i c h t h e last
other students have to guess w h i c h sentences. Y o u m a y w i s h to ask letter o f o n e w o r d s e r v e s a s t h e first
w o r d they are about to read. each group to read out their most letter o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t w o r d , for
ridiculous comparison. example
T h i s is based on an activity in Learner-Based
'teacherabbitelephonecstasyodel.'
Teaching ( C o l i n C a m p b e l l and Hanna
Kryszewska, OUP).

60
The Word Box

W o r d Stress G a m e Five C a r d s Three Words

Take the stress out of stress Writing example sentences with target A simple activity that is more an
vocabulary is boring ...or is it? exploration of grammar and
collocation than a revision exercise

Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate Level A l l levels


Intermediate onwards Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k
Activity type Groupwork Activity type Groupwork/ (optional)

Equipment/ competitive activity Equipment/


Materials Word box and Equipment/ Materials Word box and
word cards Materials Word box and word cards

Plus... W o r d cards with word cards

stress p a t t e r n s • Select three w o r d s from the w o r d


m a r k e d on the b a c k • D i v i d e the class into small groups or b o x a n d write t h e m o n the b o a r d .
(see the Section teams. G i v e e a c h t e a m fifteen cards.
Introduction) • Put the students into small groups
• A s k t h e m to c h o o s e five cards w i t h or pairs. T h e i r task is to p r o d u c e
w h i c h t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o test t h e a sentence c o n t a i n i n g the three
• Put t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o g r o u p s , a n d
other teams. w o r d s on the board. It should be
give each g r o u p a stack of c a r d s
grammatically correct and make
with the w o r d s f a c i n g u p .
• T h e first g r o u p r e a d s o u t t h e first o f sense. G i v e t h e m a time limit.
their target w o r d s . T h e o t h e r g r o u p s
• Ask them to o r g a n i z e the c a r d s into
have o n e minute in w h i c h to write a • D i s p l a y the sentences on an O H P
groups w h i c h s h a r e t h e s a m e stress
sentence u s i n g this w o r d . T h e s e or read them aloud.
patterns. W h e n t h e y a r e s a t i s f i e d
sentences are then passed b a c k to
with their g r o u p i n g s , t h e y turn the
the team w h i c h has c h o s e n the • At l o w e r levels a w a r d o n e point for
cards o v e r t o see w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e
word. each correct sentence. At higher
right.
levels a w a r d o n e point for the
• T h e s e c o n d g r o u p r e a d s o u t t h e first shortest plausible sentence.
• The g r o u p that has m a d e the f e w e s t
o f their target w o r d s . C o n t i n u e until
mistakes w i n s . T h e g r o u p s m a y t h e n
e a c h g r o u p or t e a m has presented
swap stacks a n d repeat t h e e x e r c i s e .
one word.

• N o w e x p l a i n the scoring system:


three points for a sentence w h i c h
uses the w o r d appropriately or has
no mistakes, t w o points for
appropriate use a n d o n e mistake,
o n e point for appropriate use but
t w o or three mistakes, no points for
four or m o r e mistakes or w h i c h uses
the w o r d inappropriately.

• Put the score on the b o a r d .


C o n t i n u e until all the cards have
" been used.

61
11

Dictionaries
T h i s s e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e use o f In this s e c t i o n , t h e a c t i v i t i e s a s s u m e the
monolingual, or 'English-English,'dictionaries. a v a i l a b i l i t y of a c l a s s set of d i c t i o n a r i e s . T h e first
M o s t o f the m a j o r p u b l i s h e r s offer a w i d e r a n g e . part (Familiarization) h e l p s s t u d e n t s to get to
M o n o l i n g u a l dictionaries c o m e in different sizes k n o w their w a y a r o u n d a dictionary, and what it
a n d v a r y in the features t h e y offer. c a p a b l e of. The second part (Problem Diagnosis)
s h o w s t h e m h o w t o use a d i c t i o n a r y t o h e l p therr
T h e s e features m a y i n c l u d e p h o n e m i c
w i t h their i n d i v i d u a l language difficulties. The
t r a n s c r i p t i o n s s h o w i n g w o r d stress, d e f i n i t i o n s
third part (Practice Activities) presents a variety o
pitched at different levels, and information on
other dictionary activities.
h o w the w o r d i s u s e d t o ' d o t h i n g s ' . T h e y m a y
a l s o offer i n f o r m a t i o n o n g r a m m a r , c o l l o c a t i o n ,
c o n n o t a t i o n , as w e l l as d e n o t a t i o n , partial
synonyms and antonyms. A n u m b e r of dictionaries
a l s o p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e o n register a n d s o c i a l
acceptability.

T h e a c t i v i t i e s i n this s e c t i o n s h o w the d i c t i o n a r y
a s a n e v e r y d a y t o o l i n the l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m ,
a n d a l s o e q u i p students w i t h strategies n e e d e d for
t h e i r o w n i n d e p e n d e n t study. A c t i v i t i e s c o v e r
f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h m o n o l i n g u a l d i c t i o n a r i e s , the
use o f d i c t i o n a r i e s t o d i a g n o s e s t u d e n t errors a n d
e x p a n d errors, a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c
dictionary skills.

62
I Dictionaries

Ordering Words Compare Dictionaries Door-to-Door Dictionaries

Introduce younger students and Help your students to discover what An information-gap roleplay where
students who are not used to Roman information they can find in a range of the information exchanged helps the
script to the main ordering principle in dictionaries - this will help them to students as learners
dictionaries make an intelligent choice

Level Beginner and Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


Pre-intermediate onwards onwards

Activity type Pairwork Activity type Pairwork Activity type M i n g l e / o p e n s p a c e


Equipment/ Equipment/ activity

Materials Photocopies Materials None Equipment/


Plus... A list of w o r d s Plus ... At least three different Materials None
(see b e l o w ) monolingual Plus ... At least t h r e e d i f f e r e n t
dictionaries and monolingual

• Write, or if y o u w i s h to m a k e it a list of w o r d s dictionaries

more d i f f i c u l t , d i c t a t e , a list of (see below)

words, not in a l p h a b e t i c a l order, for • Put the students into t w o groups.


your students to p u t i n t o t h e c o r r e c t • G i v e the students a range of T h e first g r o u p a r e c o n s u m e r s ; a s a
order. A d j u s t t h e l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y d i c t i o n a r i e s a n d a list o f w o r d s . A s k group they discuss what they want
according to the level of y o u r t h e m t o c o m p a r e h o w the w o r d s are from a dictionary. The second group
students. dealt with in each dictionary and are s a l e s p e o p l e - give t h e m time to
what information each dictionary look at their products a n d prepare
• Put t h e s t u d e n t s i n p a i r s . T h e y w o r k gives t h e m . their sales p i t c h .
together a n d t h e n u s e a d i c t i o n a r y
to check their a n s w e r s . • Put the students into pairs. W o r k i n g • W h e n they are ready, the students
together, ask t h e m to p r o d u c e a mingle, gathering information and
table demonstrating the differences trying to sell their products.
they have discovered.
• At the e n d , the students d e c i d e
w h i c h dictionary they w o u l d
choose.
Dictionaries Familiarization Problem Diagnosis

Pick a Page at R a n d o m D i c t i o n a r y Page Diagnosis False Friends Paragraph

A quick filler when you have some An activity that helps students to Monolingual groups try to spot
students who have finished an diagnose their own language mistranslations
activity before the others problems by using a dictionary

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type P a i r w o r k Activity type Pairwork onwards

Equipment/ Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k


Materials None Materials Photocopies Equipment/
Plus... A mistakes sheet Materials Photocopies
• Put the students into pairs. A s k t h e m (see below) Plus ... A mistakes sheet
to look at o n e page of the dictionary (see b e l o w )
a n d try t o r e m e m b e r a s m a n y w o r d s • C o l l e c t s o m e recent student errors,
as they can. either written or s p o k e n . Write these • P r o d u c e a series of s e n t e n c e s , e a c h
out as numbered sentences. M a k e of w h i c h contains an error based on
• After they have had a few minutes
sure that t h e y are m i s t a k e s that c a n a m i s t r a n s l a t i o n of a w o r d that
t o d o this, o n e s t u d e n t tests t h e
be corrected using the information appears to be the same, or similar,
other student.
in y o u r class dictionary and write, in b o t h languages, for e x a m p l e
next to each n u m b e r e d sentence, ' S h e ' s s o s e n s i b l e : it's v e r y e a s y t o
• M a k e sure that y o u use a d i c t i o n a r y
the page n u m b e r in the dictionary hurt her feelings.'
that is relatively e a s y for y o u r
that w i l l give the students the
students.
necessary information to correct the • G i v e y o u r students the p h o t o c o p i e d

sentences. mistakes sheet a n d ask t h e m to


w o r k in pairs to correct the
• G i v e y o u r students the p h o t o c o p i e d sentences using monolingual
mistakes sheet a n d ask t h e m to dictionaries.
w o r k in pairs to correct the
sentences. • W h e n they h a v e f o u n d all the
mistakes, correct t h e m as a class.
Variation
• Finally, ask the students to i n c l u d e
• F o l l o w the previous procedure, but
the original w o r d s in an appropriate
this t i m e d o not g i v e the p a g e
c o n t e x t , for e x a m p l e 'She's so
n u m b e r s in the dictionary. Y o u m a y
s e n s i b l e : she has her car serviced
w i s h to underline p r o b l e m s in the
every six m o n t h s . '
sentences if y o u t h i n k that this is
necessary.

64
Practice Activities Dictionaries

Particle Physics New Words - O d d O n e O u t N e w W o r d s - Link T h e m

'Think of or 'think about' - why not A puzzle best solved with the aid of a D o n ' f just find out what they mean -
use a dictionary to decide? dictionary put them in a context

Level Intermediate Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards


onwards
Activity type Groupwork; Activity type P a i r w o r k
Activity type Pairwork pairwork (optional) Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials None
Materials Photocopies Materials Slips of paper

Plus ... A p h o t o c o p i e d sheet Plus.. Four slips of paper • C h o o s e five w o r d s w h i c h you think
(see b e l o w ) (see below) will be n e w to your class, and
which you can imagine occurring in

• M a k e a list of p h r a s a l v e r b s a n d • Take four slips of paper. On each a single context, for e x a m p l e

dependent prepositions that y o u slip write five w o r d s , o n e of w h i c h spooky, haunted, creep and creak.

w i s h t o test y o u r s t u d e n t s o n . is the ' o d d o n e out'. Be careful


• D i v i d e the class into pairs and give
w h e n d o i n g t h i s t o set a p u z z l e
• Write ten s e n t e n c e s , e a c h of w h i c h e a c h pair a dictionary. Write the
w h i c h is appropriate to the level of
includes a t least o n e e x a m p l e f r o m w o r d s o n the b o a r d , a n d e x p l a i n
your group and which can be
y o u r list, b u t g e t a l l t h e p a r t i c l e s that the a i m o f e a c h p a i r is: firstly,
answered using the information in
and prepositions w r o n g . M a k e o n e to look up the w o r d s , c h e c k i n g both
your class dictionary. You m a y wish
photocopy for e a c h pair of students. meaning and usage; and secondly,
t o m a k e the task m o r e d e m a n d i n g
to w r i t e a short text w h i c h i n c l u d e s
by using grammatical or p h o n e m i c
• Put t h e s t u d e n t s i n t o p a i r s . W o r k i n g the w o r d s in any order.
criteria.
together the s t u d e n t s try t o c o r r e c t
them and then use d i c t i o n a r i e s to • Each pair reads their story to the
• Put the students into four groups.
check their a n s w e r s . class.
G i v e e a c h g r o u p o n e of the slips of
paper and a dictionary. A s k them to
find the o d d o n e out and to keep a
record of their reasoning. G i v e t h e m
three or four minutes to do this.

• Circulate the slips of paper a n d


repeat the p r o c e d u r e until all the
groups have seen all the slips of
paper.

• F i n a l l y c o m p a r e the f i n d i n g s as a
class.

65
Dictionaries Practice Activities

W o r d Stress M a t c h C h r i s C a m p b e l l ' s Activity Spelling M a t c h

Familiarize your students with Teaching phrasal verbs can be A spelling/pronunciation/dictionai


how word stress is indicated in problematic - why not get the phonemic chart familiarization ac
the dictionary students to do it? - what more do you want?

Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary to


Pre-intermediate onwards Intermediate

Activity type Pairwork Activity type P a i r w o r k/g r o u p w o r k Activity type P a i r w o r k


Equipment/ (optional) Equipment/
Materials Photocopies Equipment/ Materials Prepared cards
Plus ... A list of w o r d s Materials Slips of paper

(see below) • W r i t e w o r d s o n o n e set o f c a r d s


• Take a m a x i m u m o f t e n slips of their p h o n e m i c transcriptions on

• On a piece of paper write w o r d s of paper. On e a c h slip of paper write a another. M i x t h e m u p , a n d ask t l

d i f f e r e n t stress p a t t e r n s . P h o t o c o p y phrasal verb w h i c h you think will students to match t h e m .

this for e a c h pair of students. be unfamiliar to your class. These


verbs m a y be unrelated, or they • T h e y use d i c t i o n a r i e s to c h e c k tf

• Put the students into pairs a n d ask m a y have one verb, or particle, in answers.

e a c h pair to g r o u p the w o r d s common.


• W i t h stronger students, use diffic
a c c o r d i n g t o stress p a t t e r n s .
• D i v i d e the class into pairs, or small words, for e x a m p l e foe, cough,

• T h e students use the d i c t i o n a r i e s to groups if necessary. G i v e e a c h pair although and kneel.


c h e c k their answers. o n e of the slips of paper a n d a
monolingual dictionary. Ask them to
look up their phrasal verb, c h o o s e a
m e a n i n g that they think is useful,
a n d write a short d i a l o g u e that
contains their c h o s e n use of the
phrasal verb. Circulate and help if
necessary.

• W h e n all the pairs have c o m p l e t e d


t h e i r d i a l o g u e s , ask t h e first p a i r t o
read theirs to the class. A s k the
other students to identify the n e w
phrasal verb a n d to say w h a t they
think it m e a n s in this context. T h e
first p a i r c a n c o n f i r m o r c l a r i f y a s
necessary. Record the phrasal verb,
a n d the agreed use, on the b o a r d .

• The s e c o n d pair read their dialogue


and the process continues in the
same way. Repeat the process until
all the n e w phrasal verbs have been
discussed and recorded.

• As h o m e w o r k the students can write


an e x a m p l e sentence for e a c h
phrasal verb.

66
12

The O H P
The O H P ( o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r ) i s a w o n d e r f u l l y O H P s help create an atmosphere of concentration
flexible c l a s s r o o m t o o l . It a l l o w s the t e a c h e r to and g r o u p f o c u s . V i s u a l images b e c o m e infinitely
make a b o d y o f text a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w h o l e c l a s s stronger w h e n projected in a d a r k e n e d r o o m .
instantly a n d l e g i b l y , m i n i m i z i n g the t i m e s p e n t R o l e p l a y s , d i s c u s s i o n s a n d m a n y g r o u p activities
writing m a t e r i a l o n the b o a r d w i t h t h e i r b a c k t o a l w a y s s e e m t o g o better w h e n t h e O H P i s
the class. It a l s o p r o v i d e s a greater d e g r e e of i n v o l v e d . O H P s are a l s o v e r y u s e f u l for 'staging a
control o v e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a text, t h r o u g h lesson'. They p r o v i d e a clear break from whatever
such t e c h n i q u e s a s m a s k i n g , use o f c o l o u r , has p r e c e d e d t h e m .
overlays a n d u s i n g a series o f O H T s ( o v e r h e a d
transparencies). O H T s c a n b e r e u s e d , s o that y o u r H e r e we have tried to s h o w the range of

preparation t i m e is put to best u s e , a n d c a n p o s s i b i l i t i e s for t h e O H P . T h e first part (Existing

reduce the n u m b e r o f p h o t o c o p i e s that are u s e d i n Text Techniques) l o o k s at w a y s in w h i c h O H P s

class. T h e y are a n e x t r e m e l y e f f i c i e n t w a y o f c a n be u s e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of e x i s t i n g texts s u c h as

giving answers t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f c l a s s r o o m a n d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , letters a n d s o n g s , a n d p r o v i d e s a

homework tasks. b a s i c list of t e c h n i q u e s that m a y be useful in a


n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . T h e s e c o n d part

Students often prefer t h e m to t h e w h i t e b o a r d for a (Student Text Activities) lists a n u m b e r of activities

number o f reasons. O H T s m a y b e p h o t o c o p i e d , that are b a s e d o n s t u d e n t w r i t i n g . T h e t h i r d part

giving the students a w r i t t e n r e c o r d w h i c h is t h e (Other Activities) lists v a r i o u s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s that

same as that u s e d in t h e l e s s o n . M a n y s t u d e n t s w o r k w e l l w i t h the O H P .

find it difficult to w r i t e on a w h i t e b o a r d . O H T s
also a l l o w t h e m to p r o d u c e a r a n g e of m a t e r i a l s
which c a n then b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e rest o f
the class. This is e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l for c l a s s t a l k s ,
displaying c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d i n g r o u p
discussions, a n d class d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l
writing tasks.

67
EXISTS Existing Text Techniques

Text Prediction Cut-up Lines Categorizing Words by Col<

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials O H P Materials O H P Materials O H P ; photocopies

• R e v e a l a p h o t o c o p i e d O H T of a • C u t up an O H T of a text, line by • G i v e the students a p h o t o c o p y o


text, line by line. E n c o u r a g e the line. Place the lines at r a n d o m on text. A s k t h e m to m a r k all the w<
students to predict w h a t is ' c o m i n g the O H P . A l l o w the students t i m e to of a p a r t i c u l a r category, either
next'. read the cut-up lines. The students g r a m m a t i c a l or lexical, on the te
negotiate in order to reconstruct the w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . C h e c k t h i s , usi
• Focus: grammar, collocation and text. Y o u m a y w i s h t o give o n e c o l o u r e d pens, o n the O H T .
discourse a n d a variety of student student the responsibility of
skills. m a n i p u l a t i n g the text o n the O H P . • F o c u s : w o r d g r a m m a r , w o r d sets

• Focus: grammar, discourse,


vocabulary and pronunciation
(for s o n g s ) .

D i a l o g u e Prediction Cut-up Paragraphs Editing a Text on the Whitebo

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials O H P Materials O H P Materials O H P

• R e v e a l t h e t r a n s c r i p t of a d i a l o g u e • C h o o s e a text w i t h m o r e than six • U s e a text that y o u w i s h to edit.


line by line. Elicit as m u c h a b o u t paragraphs. M a k e a photocopied Project this o n t o a w h i t e b o a r d . C
the characters and the context as O H T and cut between each o n e s t u d e n t a b o a r d p e n a n d ask
you can, before m o v i n g on to the paragraph. Place the paragraphs in other students to suggest
next line. the w r o n g order o n the O H T a n d amendments.
ask the students to read t h e m for a
• Focus: social English, turn-taking. f e w minutes. The students should • Focus: punctuation, spelling,

then 'negotiate' the correct order of grammar, vocabulary.

the text.

• F o c u s : discourse features,
writing skills.
Student Text Activities The OHP

1 0 0 Points G a m e Error C o r r e c t i o n Race Dictogloss

Competition-motivated students The question is, not who can make Heard fragments become complete
scrutinize each other's work the most errors, but who can texts
correct them?

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary to Level Elementary onwards

Activity type Competitive Intermediate Activity type G r o u p w o r k


activity/game Activity type Competitive Equipment/
Equipment/ activity/game Materials O H P ; photocopies
Materials O H P ; scrap paper Equipment/ Plus ... A short text
Materials OHP; different (see below)
• O r g a n i z e the class into a m a x i m u m coloured board pens

of four teams. G i v e e a c h team a • C h o o s e a s h o r t n a r r a t i v e or


name. Write the n a m e s of the teams • Produce an O H T of recent student
d e s c r i p t i v e text. M a k e a c o p y for
o n the b o a r d a n d a w a r d e a c h t e a m errors, w h e t h e r s p o k e n or written.
each student.
1 0 0 points. Tell the students that in Put the students into a m a x i m u m of

the g a m e t h e y are g o i n g t o play, three teams and give e a c h team a • N o w read the text a l o u d to the clas;
they c a n b o t h w i n p o i n t s a n d lose different c o l o u r e d board pen. Put at normal speed.
them. the teams at the b a c k of the
classroom. • Tell the students that y o u are g o i n g

• Give each team scrap paper, an t o r e a d t h e s a m e text a g a i n a n d that

O H T , a n d a n O H T p e n . Tell t h e m • Project the O H T o n t o a w h i t e b o a r d . they should write d o w n any

that t h e y h a v e t w o m i n u t e s t o w r i t e T h e students take it in turns to race k e y w o r d s that they hear. E x p l a i n

a sentence w h i c h they all b e l i e v e to to the front of the class to correct that y o u w i l l r e a d the text at the

be grammatically correct. At the e n d any errors. O n l y o n e m e m b e r o f s a m e s p e e d as b e f o r e , a n d that they

of two minutes they will have to each team is a l l o w e d at the board at s h o u l d not attempt to write d o w n

transfer t h e i r s e n t e n c e o n t o t h e a time. every word.

OHT.
• Each correction gains the team o n e • R e a d the text a l o u d for a s e c o n d

• Explain that e v e r y o n e w i l l t h e n l o o k point, but if it is w r o n g the t e a m t i m e . After y o u h a v e d o n e so, put

at the s e n t e n c e . If t h e o t h e r t e a m s loses t w o points. the students into g r o u p s , a n d tell

find a mistake in the s e n t e n c e , they t h e m that, together, they have to

will lose as m a n y p o i n t s as there are c o n s t r u c t a text w h i c h i n c l u d e s the

words in the s e n t e n c e . If the l a n g u a g e that t h e y h a v e just

opposing teams cannot find a recorded.

mistake they c a n ask y o u . If y o u are


• P h o t o c o p y t h e c o m p l e t e d texts o n t o
unable to see a m i s t a k e , the t e a m ' s
a n O H T a n d a l l o w the class t o read
score r e m a i n s u n c h a n g e d . If y o u
e a c h text in turn.
can find no mistakes, the t e a m is
awarded as m a n y points as there are
• G i v e the students a c o p y of the
words in the sentence.
o r i g i n a l text to study.

• G i v e the students the b a d n e w s . T h e


sentence they w r i t e m u s t b e g i n w i t h *
the w o r d o r p h r a s e t h a t y o u w r i t e
o n the b o a r d . S u g g e s t e d w o r d s f o r
lower levels: If...When... Where...
Who... Yesterday... Tomorrow...
and for higher levels: Although...
Despite... Since... Given...
Having... Had...

69
The OHP Other Activities

Memory Game G e t t i n g Everything W r o n g O u t of Focus Pictures

A well-known party game sometimes Incompetent with technology? An enjoyable way of presenting
called Kim's game Make the most of it! or recycling modal verbs for
deduction

Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary to


Intermediate
Activity type Palrwork/groupwork Activity type Whole class
(optional) Equipment/ Activity type Whole class

Equipment/ Materials O H P Equipment/


Materials OHP Plus... An O H T with gapped
Materials O H P

Plus... A n O H T (see b e l o w ) instructions on h o w Plus ... OHTs (photocopied


to use a n O H P or drawn) of
recognizable places,
• Y o u m a y w i s h to p r e c e d e this task
• Place the O H P in a p r o m i n e n t people or objects
w i t h a revision of relevant
vocabulary, prepositions of place p o s i t i o n a n d ask w h e t h e r e v e r y b o d y

and the language of negotiation. c a n see the text p r o p e r l y . M a k e sure • Before you p r o j e c t the O H T t o the

that the m a c h i n e is not s w i t c h e d o n . students, e n s u r e that it is o u t of


• Prepare an O H T s h o w i n g an array focus. Project the out of focus image
of objects on a tray or desk. • Do everything w r o n g ... a n d invite the students to guess
w h a t i t i s , f o r e x a m p l e : 'It m i g h t b e
• Project the O H T a n d a l l o w the • D o n ' t p l u g in the O H P . M a k e sure
an elephant.'
students to see the p r o j e c t i o n for a that the lens is dirty, o u t of f o c u s

brief period of time, for e x a m p l e a n d a i m e d at the c e i l i n g . Ensure that • G r a d u a l l y bring the image into
one minute. all the lights are on in the r o o m , focus, e n c o u r a g i n g students to
a n d that a n y c u r t a i n s o r b l i n d s are reappraise constantly, for e x a m p l e :
• T h e n s w i t c h off the O H P , a n d the open. Put the O H T o n u p s i d e d o w n 'It c a n ' t b e a n e l e p h a n t ; i t h a s n ' t g o t
students, w o r k i n g in pairs or small a n d back to front. Put the O H P t o o f o u r legs. It m i g h t be the
groups, have to reconstruct the far, o r t o o c l o s e t o t h e b o a r d , t o b e headmaster.'
image they have seen. They can do able to focus it successfully. Stand
this, either by d r a w i n g the items in in front of the projector. • Repeat with other images.
the right p l a c e on a sheet of paper,
or by w r i t i n g the n a m e s of those • O n c e y o u r s t u d e n t s start t o p o i n t
objects in the position they and gesticulate in order to give you
remember seeing them. i n s t r u c t i o n s , a s k t h e m t o sit o n t h e i r
hands, a n d do exactly what they say
• Finally project the O H T o n c e more - e v e n if it is w r o n g .
so that students c a n assess t h e i r
performance. • W h e n , finally, the w h o l e class is
able to read the O H T , ask the
• Y o u m a y w i s h to f o l l o w this activity students to fill in the gaps in the
w i t h a n y of the f o l l o w i n g : a m o d e l instructions.
mistakes session, a session on any
area of l a n g u a g e that the students • This activity also works well with

f o u n d difficult, or a v i d e o r e c o r d i n g m
cassette recorders, V H S m a c h i n e s ,

of proficient English users d o i n g the camcorders and computers.

s a m e task, p o s s i b l y f o l l o w e d b y
further practice.

70
Other Activities The OHP

Back to Picture Q u e s t i o n s W h e r e A r e They? Picture Story Prediction

Students love the opportunity to Children's books often have 'Spot the Motivating preparation, using a variety
wrongfoot you - make them work to ...'pictures - use them. of tenses, for producing narratives
achieve this!

Level All levels Level Beginner to Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type Competitive Pre-intermediate onwards

activity/game Activity type Pairwork Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k


(optional) Equipment/ (optional); homework

Equipment/ Materials O H P (optional)

Materials O H P Plus... A 'Spot the


Equipment/
Plus ... A n O H T (see b e l o w ) p i c t u r e (see below)
Materials O H P
Plus ... A p i c t u r e story

• C h o o s e a p i c t u r e that w i l l elicit the • P h o t o c o p y a picture w h e r e students (see below)

language that y o u w i s h t o practise. have to find a n u m b e r of h i d d e n


It m a y be a p i c t u r e w i t h a lot g o i n g objects or animals onto an O H T . • Select a picture story w i t h a

o n , for e x a m p l e to practise the Project it to the class. m a x i m u m of eight to ten pictures.


present c o n t i n u o u s at a l o w l e v e l . It (Useful sources are teenage
m a y be a p h o t o g r a p h of a l a n d s c a p e • Put the students into pairs. Tell t h e m m a g a z i n e s o r n e w s p a p e r strips.)
to elicit the language of m o o d a n d to w o r k together to find the h i d d e n Photocopy it onto an O H T .
e n v i r o n m e n t at a h i g h e r l e v e l . objects as quickly as they can,

Almost any picture may be of value. w i t h o u t p o i n t i n g at the b o a r d , for • Place the O H T on the m a c h i n e and

e x a m p l e : 'Look! There's o n e in the m a s k e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t t h e first

• Project the i m a g e so that e v e r y b o d y slipper u n d e r the c h a i r on the right.' picture. S w i t c h o n the O H P .

c a n s e e it. L o o k a t t h e p i c t u r e Encourage the students to describe

yourself for, say, 3 0 s e c o n d s a n d • Using an O H P ensures that the the picture a n d create as detailed a

t h e n s t a n d s o t h a t y o u r b a c k i s t o it. students have to use language to c o n t e x t a s p o s s i b l e f o r it. T h e n , a s k


The students s h o u l d then ask y o u as locate e a c h of the objects. This t h e m t o p r e d i c t w h a t h a p p e n s next.
many questions as they can in order m e t h o d also works well with 'Spot G a t h e r as m a n y ideas as you can,
t o test y o u r m e m o r y o f it. T h e y , o f the difference' pictures. e n c o u r a g i n g debate where possible.
course, are practising their English.
• R e v e a l t h e n e x t p i c t u r e in the story.

• You can m a k e this into a g a m e by A g a i n , ask the students to describe

telling the students that their a i m is the situation before predicting what

t o get y o u t o m a k e , f o r e x a m p l e , t e n happens next.

mistakes in three m i n u t e s .
• C o n t i n u e in the s a m e way, revealing

• You m a y w i s h to e x t e n d this activity e a c h p i c t u r e o n e b y o n e . After the

by asking a student to take y o u r t h i r d o r f o u r t h p i c t u r e , ask y o u r

place, with a n e w picture. s t u d e n t s t o t e l l t h e s t o r y s o far,

Alternatively put the class into pairs p l a c i n g the e v e n t s in the past.

o r groups, a n d get t h e m t o d o t h e
• A s k the students, either in class or at
activity t h e m s e l v e s .
h o m e , t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y s o far, a n d
to c o n c l u d e it themselves.

• S h o w the students the c o m p l e t e


p i c t u r e story a n d c o m p a r e the
different endings.
13

Computers
C o m p u t e r s have a n u m b e r of distinct advantages S t u d e n t s w h o are t o o s h y t o b e c o m e f u l l y

o v e r p e n a n d p a p e r for c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y are i n v o l v e d in c l a s s r o o m activities or those w h o


p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e for p r o c e s s w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , enjoy using t e c h n o l o g y w i l l also like w o r k i n g on
w h e r e texts are e d i t e d a n d r e d r a f t e d . O n the c o m p u t e r .
c o m p u t e r s , the script is a l w a y s legible. M i s t a k e s
C o m p u t e r s are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n self-access
c a n b e c o r r e c t e d t i d i l y . W o r d s a n d text c a n b e
centres. S o m e of these activities m a y be adapted
m o v e d e a s i l y (using ' c u t a n d p a s t e ' o r ' d r a g a n d
for self-access. But t h e r e are a l s o a n i n c r e a s i n g
d r o p ' ) . T h i s not o n l y h e l p s w i t h s t u d e n t e d i t i n g ,
number of purpose-made programs and
but a l s o m a k e s r e o r d e r i n g text e x e r c i s e s m o r e
C D - R O M s , D V D - R O M s a n d w e b s i t e s that are
n a t u r a l , w i t h a m o r e p o l i s h e d f i n a l result.
e x c e l l e n t for e n c o u r a g i n g l e a r n e r a u t o n o m y . M a k e

I n c o m p l e t e text m a y b e s a v e d o n a c o m p u t e r , a student log available w h e n y o u have programs

w h i c h m e a n s that it is n o t a l w a y s n e c e s s a r y to o f this t y p e a v a i l a b l e .

f i n i s h a w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a l e s s o n , as it m a y
I n t h i s s e c t i o n w e c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h r e e o f the mosl
easily be retrieved afterwards. Similarly, any
b a s i c t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e t e a c h e r w h o has a
m a t e r i a l that y o u p r o d u c e for t h e c o m p u t e r m a y
c o m p u t e r a t his o r her d i s p o s a l : w o r d p r o c e s s i n g ,
be reused ad infinitum, and m a y also be q u i c k l y
e-mail a n d t h e p o p u l a r text r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
a n d e a s i l y a l t e r e d for s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s . It is p o s s i b l e
program Storyboard.
to make printed c o p i e s of student-created w o r k ,
w h i c h w i l l not h a v e a n y o f t h e signs o f t h e
i n t e n s i v e c o r r e c t i n g a n d r e d r a f t i n g that w i l l h a v e
g o n e into it.

T h e nature o f t h e c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r m e a n s that
m a n y group writing activities b e c o m e easier on
' the c o m p u t e r . Students m a y p o i n t t o t h e text, a n d
all of t h e m c a n see it at t h e s a m e t i m e (four is
a b o u t t h e m a x i m u m n u m b e r o f students that y o u
m a y w i s h t o use for a n a c t i v i t y o f this type).

72
Wordprocessing Computers

Gapless G a p s Free W r i t i n g Complete an Incomplete Text

In normal gapped exercises, the Use computers to encourage Students take up where the story
students have to find the words to fill descriptive writing leaves off
in the gaps. Why not also make them
find the gaps themselves?

Level All levels Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards

Activity type Whole class onwards Activity type Whole class

Equipment/ Activity type Pairwork/groupwork Equipment/


Materials Single/multiple Equipment/ Materials Single/multiple
computers (optional) Materials Single/multiple computers (optional)

Plus... A text (see b e l o w ) computers Plus... A text (see below)

• C h o o s e a text a n d t a k e o u t o n e • D o this a c t i v i t y after y o u h a v e d o n e • This technique works well with


g r o u p o f w o r d s f r o m It. T h e s e c o u l d some work on descriptive writing in letters, stories a n d d r a m a t i c
be verbs, articles, prepositions or class. m o n o l o g u e s . G i v e y o u r students the
pronouns. Do not indicate w h e r e first part of a text on s c r e e n . A s k
the w o r d s a r e m i s s i n g . • Put the students into pairs or s m a l l t h e m to predict the content of the
groups, a n d put e a c h g r o u p in front r e m a i n d e r of the text, a n d then to
• Ask the students to c o m p l e t e of a c o m p u t e r . c o m p l e t e it in their o w n w o r d s . If
the text. t h e text is a letter, t h e y s h o u l d
• Start d i c t a t i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g of a
c o n t i n u e in the s a m e register a n d
• As a v a r i a t i o n , try t a k i n g o u t all t h e narrative. For e x a m p l e 'You are in a
tone.
punctuation. You may wish to m a k e h o u s e that y o u h a v e never b e e n into

all the w o r d s l o w e r c a s e (this c a n before. Y o u w a l k into the r o o m . It is


• Print o u t the students' texts a n d
be done automatically by most a b s o l u t e l y e x t r a o r d i n a r y ...
c o m p a r e t h e m with the original.
wordprocessors). Describe the r o o m . ' G i v e the
students t i m e to write a d e s c r i p t i o n
of the r o o m , w o r k i n g in pairs.

• C o n t i n u e the story: 'As y o u are


l o o k i n g a r o u n d the r o o m , a most
u n u s u a l p e r s o n w a l k s i n ...' G i v e
the students t i m e to w r i t e a
description of the person, w o r k i n g
in pairs.

• C o n t i n u e the story: 'The person


l o o k s a t m e a n d starts a
conversation ... W r i t e t h e d i a l o g u e . '
G i v e the students t i m e to write the
dialogue.

• A s k the students to w r i t e a narrative,


w h i c h m a y or m a y not begin in the
same way as you have begun, and
w h i c h links all three e l e m e n t s that
you have introduced.

• At the end of the lesson, c o m p a r e


the stories.

73
Wordprocessing

Incomplete Story Expanding Sentence U s i n g the Spellchecker

Students take up where their A testing, puzzle-like activity A spellchecker can be quite a blunt
classmates' story leaves off instrument - or a fine one

Level Elementary to Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards


Upper-Intermediate onwards Activity type Whole class
Activity type Pa i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type Groupwork Equipment/
Equipment/ Equipment/ Materials Single/multiple
Materials Multiple computers Materials Multiple computers computers (optional)

Plus... A s t o r y (see below) Plus ... A text (see b e l o w )


• Provide students with a s i m p l e
sentence o n screen, for e x a m p l e : P r o d u c e a text w i t h a large n u m b e r
• G i v e y o u r s t u d e n t s t h e first part of a
'I gave the h o m e w o r k to my of spelling mistakes, also include
story on screen. A s k t h e m to
teacher.' s o m e w r o n g w o r d m i s t a k e s i.e.
c o n t i n u e the story in their o w n
w o r d s , w o r k i n g in pairs or small w o r d s w h i c h are spelt c o r r e c t l y but
• Put the students into g r o u p s . Each
groups. are not c o r r e c t in the c o n t e x t , for
student s h o u l d take it in turns to
e x a m p l e : 'Hear's there m o n e y ' or
• After five m i n u t e s , ask e a c h pair or suggest a single w o r d a d d i t i o n to
'Discreet skills practise.'
group to m o v e to the next c o m p u t e r the existing sentence, for e x a m p l e :

a n d to c o n t i n u e the story that they 'I gave the h o m e w o r k to my English T h e students s h o u l d use the

find there. teacher.' Each time a n e w w o r d is s p e l l c h e c k facility to correct the


a d d e d , the g r o u p has t o d e c i d e text. T h e y w i l l n e e d t o d e c i d e
• Repeat this as often as y o u w i s h . w h e t h e r the s e n t e n c e is still between a n u m b e r of alternative
grammatical. You may be asked spellings offered. They will also
to adjudicate. n e e d to correct a n u m b e r of
spellings that the s p e l l c h e c k e r
• In this w a y the o r i g i n a l s e n t e n c e
cannot find.
might b e c o m e 'Sighing deeply,
I dutifully gave the u n b e l i e v a b l y
difficult h o m e w o r k to my unusually
tall, dark, h a n d s o m e English teacher
boyfriend.'

• A brief story o u t l i n e c a n a l s o be
expanded a similar way. The
students s h o u l d add either a single
w o r d , or groups of words, w h e n it is
their turn.

74
Wordprocessing

Reordering Sentences Error A n n o t a t i o n s A m a t e u r Typists

Order out of chaos? Most wordprocessors have an Nobody can type perfectly!
'annotation' command

Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards


onwards
Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type Pa i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k
Activity type Whole class (optional) (optional)

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Single/multiple Materials Single/multiple Materials Multiple computers;
computers (optional) computers (optional) photocopies

Plus... A text (see b e l o w ) Plus ... A different text Plus... A text (see b e l o w )
on-screen for e a c h

• Use the m o u s e , or 'cut a n d paste,' computer • C h o o s e a text w h i c h c o n t a i n s


to rearrange the s e n t e n c e s in a text. problematic spellings and
You may wish o n l y to m o v e s o m e • C h o o s e texts that are at an punctuation.
sentences, a n d k e e p the existing appropriate level for y o u r students

paragraphing; or you may wish to a n d h a v e e a c h text o n - s c r e e n . Put • Put the students into groups a n d

lose the p a r a g r a p h s a s w e l l . the students into pairs or small seat e a c h g r o u p a r o u n d a c o m p u t e r .

groups, a n d put e a c h g r o u p in front Ask one student in each group to be


• Ask the students to ' r e - a s s e m b l e ' the of a c o m p u t e r . the 'typist.'
text.
• A s k each g r o u p of students to m a k e • D i c t a t e t h e t e x t at a s p e e d that is

a list of t h e errors that t h e y m a k e p e r h a p s a little faster t h a n the s p e e d

most frequently. G i v e them a few at w h i c h most of y o u r students can

minutes to do this. type comfortably.

• A s k t h e m to a m e n d the text so that • W h e n y o u have finished the

it n o w i n c l u d e s a n u m b e r of their d i c t a t i o n , ask e a c h g r o u p to m o v e

'favourite' errors, as m a n y as they to a n e w computer, w h e r e they

w o u l d like. w o r k to correct the poorly-typed,


a n d p o s s i b l y i n c o m p l e t e , text.
• A s k e a c h g r o u p to m o v e to a
d i f f e r e n t c o m p u t e r . Tell t h e m t o try • Finally, read the text a g a i n , or give

to spot the errors in the text that the students a p r i n t e d c o p y , to

they are r e a d i n g . For e a c h error they enable them to check.

s h o u l d insert an a n n o t a t i o n . This
annotation s h o u l d indicate the type
of errror that has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d
(for e x a m p l e , s p e l l i n g , p u n c t u a t i o n ,
verb tense, w r o n g word).

• A s k e a c h g r o u p to m o v e to a
different c o m p u t e r again. This time
t h e y s h o u l d try to c o r r e c t the error
within the annotation w i n d o w . If
they t h i n k that the a n n o t a t i o n is
incorrect, they s h o u l d indicate this.

• Finally, ask e a c h g r o u p to return to


their original c o m p u t e r and c h e c k
the text o n - s c r e e n .

75
Computers E-mail

Travel Agents E-mail Roleplays Spoilt Brats

Travel in cyberspace or just in your Get real - get wired! A roleplay that may be a little too
students' imaginations realistic for some students

Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards
Activity type Pairwork/groupwork
(optional) Activity type Whole class Activity type Pairwork/groupwork

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials M u 1 ti p 1 e / n e t w o r k e d Materials Networked Materials Networked

computers (optional) computers computers; multiple


computers (optional)
Plus... Travel brochures Plus... An activity
(see below) (see below)
• Put the students into g r o u p s of six.
I f t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e , it's e a s y t o
• C o l l e c t t w o travel brochures from U s e e-mail as part, or a l l , of a
roleplay activity. Y o u c a n use it to create extra roles. D i v i d e each
t w o different holiday c o m p a n i e s .
establish a relationship before g r o u p into pairs a n d seat e a c h pair
Ideally they s h o u l d be f r o m similar,
characters meet, for e x a m p l e an at a c o m p u t e r . T h e three pairs must
but rival c o m p a n i e s .
e x c h a n g e of letters b e f o r e a be able to c o m m u n i c a t e by e-mail.
• D i v i d e the class into four groups. business m e e t i n g ; a n d y o u c a n use
• In e a c h g r o u p of six, o n e pair is to
G i v e t w o of the groups the it as t h e f o c u s of t h e a c t i v i t y itself,
p l a y a c o u p l e w h o h a v e sent their
b r o c h u r e s a n d tell t h e m that they for e x a m p l e the resolution of a
difficult c h i l d r e n a b r o a d , the second
represent the t w o travel c o m p a n i e s . difficult p r o b l e m by correspondence.
pair is to play their teenagers, and
Tell the t w o o t h e r g r o u p s that they
the t h i r d p a i r are t h e d i r e c t o r o f the
are w o u l d - b e holidaymakers
s c h o o l a n d the children's class
l o o k i n g for a g o o d d e a l .
teacher.
• A s k the t w o travel c o m p a n i e s to
• T h e r o l e p l a y b e g i n s a n d the pairs
familiarize themselves with their
busily e m a i l e a c h other. The picture
brochures and products. Ask the
is c o n f u s i n g : the parents hear of
tourists t o discuss w h e r e they w o u l d
n o t h i n g but hard w o r k f r o m their
like t o g o a n d w h a t sort o f h o l i d a y
l o v e d o n e s - but the s c h o o l is
they w o u l d I ike. You m a y w i s h to
p a i n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . C a n the
give them a budget and a m a p .
situation be resolved?
• W h e n y o u feel the g r o u p s are
• A l l o w the students to take the
p r e p a r e d , ask the tourists to e-mail
r o l e p l a y in a n y d i r e c t i o n they like.
the holiday c o m p a n i e s in order to
The parents m a y d e c i d e to board a
negotiate their holiday. T h e travel
p l a n e a n d sort t h i n g s o u t o n foreign
c o m p a n i e s s h o u l d d o their best t o
soil - w i t h no screen to hide
sell their o w n p r o d u c t s ; the tourists
b e h i n d ; or the children m a y be
s h o u l d try t o get t h e best d e a l .
e x p e l l e d f r o m the s c h o o l .

• This activity m a y be d o n e w i t h
• Alternatively, this r o l e p l a y m a y be
m o r e groups. If so, it b e c o m e s e v e n
d o n e u s i n g p o s t c a r d s a n d letters,
more demanding.
w i t h the teacher acting as
postperson.

76
Storyboard Computers

Mistakes Text Reconstructing D i r e c t i o n s Register Transformation

Storyboard as a helping hand to From map to text via Storyboard Challenge higher-level students with ,
accuracy shift in tone and register

Level All levels Level Elementary onwards Level Upper-intermediate

Activity type Whole class Activity type Whole class and Advanced

Equipment/ Equipment/ Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Materials Single/multiple Materials Single/multiple Equipment/
computers (optional); computers (optional); Materials Single/multiple
photocopies photocopies computers (optional);

Plus ... A t e x t (see below) Plus... A text (see below) photocopies

Plus ... T w o texts (see b e l o w )

Type o u t a text that is full of Type into Storyboard the directions


mistakes on your wordprocessor. from o n e place to another. G i v e the • T y p e o n e h a l f o f a n e x i s t i n g register
There m a y be problems of spelling, students a c o p y of a m a p or a p l a n transformation exercise into
vocabulary or grammar on it. P r i n t w i t h the places m a r k e d , a n d ask Storyboard. P h o t o c o p y the other
this o u t for y o u r s t u d e n t s . T y p e t h e t h e m to reconstruct the text. part for y o u r students. U s i n g the
corrected version of the text into information from their photocopies,
Storyboard. t h e y s h o u l d w o r k t o r e c o n s t r u c t the
p a r a l l e l t e x t in a d i f f e r e n t register.
G i v e the students the printed
version a n d ask t h e m to reconstruct • T h i s is a v e r y d e m a n d i n g e x e r c i s e ,
a correct version, using Storyboard a n d m a y b e d o n e a s r e v i s i o n after
i n t e n s i v e w o r k o n the texts.

77
Storyboard

Storyboard Dictations Picture Stories Incomplete Dictation

Storyboard as spellcheck They say a picture tells a thousand Computer gap-fill


words

Level All levels Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards
Activity type Whole class

Equipment/ Activity type Whole class Activity type W h o l e c l a s s

Materials Single/multiple Equipment/ Equipment/


computers (optional) Materials Single/multiple Materials Single/multiple
computers (optional); computers (option;
Plus ... A text (see b e l o w )
photocopies Plus ... A t e x t (see b e l o w )

• D i c t a t e a text w i t h a n u m b e r of Plus... A picture story a n d

p r o b l e m spellings to the students. a text (see b e l o w ) • D i c t a t e a story to t h e s t u d e n t s bi

They should write it d o w n on paper. miss out all the verbs. T h e stude

T h e y then type their c o r r e c t e d text • Select a picture story w i t h a s h o u l d type the text into Storybc

into Storyboard to c h e c k the m a x i m u m of eight to ten pictures. as y o u dictate. T h e y then have t

spelling. Useful sources are teenage c o m p l e t e the story by c h o o s i n g


m a g a z i n e s o r n e w s p a p e r strips. correct verbs.
• This m a y be d o n e on a w o r d M a k e o n e c o p y for e a c h c o m p u t e r
processor with a spellchecker, but that y o u have. C r e a t e a story that • T h i s t e c h n i q u e tests t h e s t u d e n t s

this w i l l n e e d a great d e a l m o r e follows the sequence of pictures knowledge of vocabulary,

teacher supervision. a n d type the text into S t o r y b o a r d . collocation and grammar.

• G i v e e a c h g r o u p of students o n e of
the p h o t o c o p i e s , a n d ask t h e m to
r e c o n s t r u c t the story, u s i n g
Storyboard.

78
14

The Radio
It is p o s s i b l e to p i c k up stations w h i c h b r o a d c a s t
i n English i n a l m o s t e v e r y part o f t h e w o r l d . T h e
most f a m o u s are p r o b a b l y the B B C W o r l d S e r v i c e
and the V o i c e o f A m e r i c a . T h e s e s t a t i o n s t r a n s m i t
a variety of p r o g r a m m e s , s u c h as n e w s , sport,
soap o p e r a s , p o p m u s i c , y o u t h p r o g r a m m e s a n d
specific p r o g r a m m e s for learners o f E n g l i s h .

These stations c a n be u s e d in the c l a s s r o o m as a


current, a u t h e n t i c s o u r c e o f l i s t e n i n g m a t e r i a l , o r
b y i n d i v i d u a l learners a s part o f t h e i r o w n l e a r n i n g
programme.

Activities in this s e c t i o n use l i v e r a d i o as a s o u r c e


for r o u g h l y - t u n e d i n p u t or a w a y of g e t t i n g
immediate i n f o r m a t i o n o n t o p i c s t h e students are
interested i n . R a d i o c a n a l s o be u s e d as a basis f o r
discussion a n d role-play, r a i s i n g s t u d e n t s '
awareness o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l features o f E n g l i s h
and h e l p i n g t h e m to p r e d i c t w h a t a s p e a k e r is
about to say, u s i n g l i n g u i s t i c c l u e s .
The Radio

Station C r u i s i n g 1 Station C r u i s i n g 2 H o w many Stories?

A familiarization activity for complete A more challenging familiarization A gentle introduction to the news
beginners activity English

Level Beginner Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary and

Activity type W h o l e class onwards Pre-intermediate

Equipment/ Activity type P a i r w o r k Activity type P a i r w o r k


Materials None Equipment/ Equipment/
Plus... A radio Materials None Materials Single cassette p l a '

Plus ... A radio Plus ... A radio news

• Take a radio into class a n d search b r o a d c a s t (see b e k

the airwaves for foreign language • Take a radio into class a n d trawl the
channels. W h e n you c o m e across airwaves for English language • C h o o s e a f a i r l y b r i s k l y - p a c e d ne

either songs or speech in any programmes. W h e n you find one, broadcast, w h i c h will inevitably
l a n g u a g e other t h a n that of the stay t u n e d for a m i n u t e or t w o . too difficult for y o u r students.
students' o w n m o t h e r tongue(s), T h e n s w i t c h off the r a d i o . A s k the
pause. A s k the students ' W h i c h students w h a t kind of radio • Put the students into pairs, a n d ;

language is being spoken?' p r o g r a m m e they think they were t h e m to brainstorm anything tha

listening to. is l i k e l y to be in that day's

• If t h e l a n g u a g e is E n g l i s h , a s k if t h e y international news.

c a n t e l l w h e t h e r it's A m e r i c a n • W h e n a clear picture has e m e r g e d ,


• Tell t h e m that y o u are g o i n g to f
English, British English or any other if necessary with your help, switch
t h e m a n e w s s u m m a r y in Englisl
f o r m of English. A l l o w t h e m to listen the r a d i o b a c k on ( h o p i n g that the
T h e i r task is v e r y s i m p l e : they h;
to a n y English c h a n n e l s for a short programme hasn't changed!) and
to tell y o u , at the e n d of the
time. Then, before continuing your listen for a further t w o or three
broadcast, h o w m a n y s t o r i e s the
search, ask if they heard a n y t h i n g minutes, taking notes.
w e r e t o d a y i n t h e n e w s . P l a y th<
familiar. These might be the names
• S w i t c h off the r a d i o . Put the n e w s a n d d i s c u s s it as a class.
of places, people or simply words
students into pairs, a n d ask t h e m to
similar to words in their o w n
• Play the n e w s a g a i n , this t i m e
c o m p a r e notes on the e x c e r p t that
language.
asking the students to note d o w i
they have been listening to.
the s u b j e c t o f e a c h n e w s story.
• Repeat this activity o c c a s i o n a l l y as
the course progresses.

80
The Radio

Who, What, Where, Why, When? Pauses Trailer Chat

A standard-format question sheet that 'the two leaders met for We all make decisions like this
can be used both in class, and in a every day
self-access centre

Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate

Activity type P a i r w o r k onwards onwards

Equipment/ Activity type Whole class Activity type Groupwork

Materials Single cassette player; Equipment/ Equipment/


photocopies Materials Single cassette player Materials M u l t i p l e cassette

Plus ... A radio news Plus ... A radio broadcast players

broadcast and a (see below) Plus... Three radio excerpts


question form (see below)
(see below) • R e c o r d a broadcast that has m a n y
set p h r a s e s , c o l l o c a t i o n s , i d i o m s - • R e c o r d three trailers for f o r t h c o m i n g
• C h o o s e a fairly briskly-paced n e w s even cliches! News programmes, radio p r o g r a m m e s o n t o three
broadcast. Produce a form with and interviews with politicians, separate tapes. These often consist
columns headed who, what, where, usually work well. of a brief s u m m a r y , information on
why and when, and numbers down the t i m e that t h e y are g o i n g to be
the left-hand s i d e for e a c h i t e m in • Play it to y o u r class, p a u s i n g
b r o a d c a s t , a n d a n e x c e r p t f r o m the
the n e w s b r o a d c a s t . w h e n e v e r y o u t h i n k that y o u r
programme itself.
students s h o u l d be able to c o m p l e t e
• Put the s t u d e n t s i n t o p a i r s , a n d ask the phrase, for e x a m p l e : 'the t w o • D i v i d e the class into three groups.
them to b r a i n s t o r m a n y t h i n g that is leaders met for...'. Discuss possible G i v e e a c h g r o u p a cassette-recorder
likely to be in that day's phrase endings and then continue a n d a different trailer. Place the
international news. They s h o u l d the tape. g r o u p s at a distance f r o m o n e
listen t o the n e w s , c r o s s off a n y another. Tell e a c h g r o u p to listen to
items that w e r e not m e n t i o n e d a n d • Y o u c a n use this to practise not o n l y the trailer for their p r o g r a m m e , and
a d d t h e rest t o t h e i r list. vocabulary, but also grammar, for be p r e p a r e d to d e s c r i b e it to the
example verb forms. students in the other groups. Each
• H a n d out the question forms. T h e
g r o u p m a y listen t o their o w n
students listen to the n e w s a g a i n
r e c o r d i n g as m a n y times as they
a n d try t o c o m p l e t e all t h e
like.
information required. W i t h lower-
level students y o u m a y w i s h t h e m t o • Put the students into g r o u p s of
work together in pairs again to three, w i t h at least o n e student f r o m
complete the forms. each group. Ask them to describe
their p r o g r a m m e to the other
m e m b e r s of the group. W h e n they
have d o n e this, they d e c i d e together
w h i c h p r o g r a m m e they w o u l d like
to listen to.

81
The Radio

Rapid Information Listening Good Interviewer? Requests and Competitions

'and the highest of this week's Did the interviewer find out what your Can your students win that holiday in
climbers is... ' students want to know? the Bahamas?

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards

onwards onwards Activity type Pa i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k


Activity type Whole class Activity type Pairwork/groupwork (optional)

Equipment/ (optional) Equipment/


Materials Single cassette player Equipment/ Materials Single cassette player

Plus ... A radio broadcast Materials Single cassette player Plus... A radio broadcast
(see below) Plus ... A radio broadcast (see below)
(see below)

• Certain regular news broadcasts • T h e r e are a lot of c o m p e t i t i o n s in

m a k e g o o d material for listening-for- • Record a radio interview with a the y o u t h p r o g r a m m e s o n the radio
specific information exercises. f a m o u s person, for e x a m p l e A r n o l d a n d there are also m u s i c
E x a m p l e s of this type of b r o a d c a s t Schwarznegger. p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h invite requests.
a r e : t h e t o p 4 0 hit list, s p o r t s Record o n e of these.
updates, or stock and share prices. • Tell y o u r students that they are

C h o o s e o n e that suits the interests of a b o u t to listen to an i n t e r v i e w w i t h • Play it to y o u r class, a n d encourage

your class. A r n o l d S c h w a r z n e g g e r . Put t h e m the students, in pairs or groups, to


into pairs or small groups a n d ask e n t e r for t h e c o m p e t i t i o n that they

• R e c o r d it regularly a n d f o l l o w the t h e m to w r i t e a n y q u e s t i o n s that h a v e just h e a r d a b o u t ; or to request

ups a n d d o w n s o f the real w o r l d . they w o u l d like to hear answered. a record, saying w h y they want to
h e a r it.
• Play the interview. T h e students
should tick any questions w h i c h
have been answered.

• Finally, the students tell the class


w h i c h of their questions remained
unanswered.

82
14

TV and Video
M a n y English language teachers n o w have access T h i s s e c t i o n is d i v i d e d i n t o t w o parts: Techniques
to TV and video recorders. M a n y schools keep and Resources a n d Activities. In t h e first part we
r e c o r d i n g s o f p r o g r a m m e s * t a k e n d i r e c t l y off-air, l o o k at a v a r i e t y of b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s that c a n be
a s w e l l a s c o m m e r c i a l v i d e o s d e s i g n e d for u s e d w i t h a l m o s t a n y v i d e o . W e a l s o offer a
l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . I n this s e c t i o n w e are c h i e f l y n u m b e r o f i d e a s for u s i n g less c o n v e n t i o n a l
c o n c e r n e d w i t h u s i n g off-air r e c o r d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s s u b t i t l e d f i l m s . T h e s e c o n d part
news p r o g r a m m e s , d o c u m e n t a r i e s , d r a m a s , p o p c o m p r i s e s g r o u p activities w h i c h c a n be used with
programmes a n d chat s h o w s . Students a n d a v a r i e t y of s t u d e n t s a n d t y p e s of off-air r e c o r d i n g .
teachers a l i k e h a v e m i x e d f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e r o l e They involve intensive a n d extensive listening
o f v i d e o i n l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g . S o m e students a c t i v i t i e s a n d use the t e c h n i q u e s listed i n the first
might see a v i d e o l e s s o n as a 'soft o p t i o n ' w h e r e a s part.
others m a y see it as a b e w i l d e r i n g or e v e n
threatening l i s t e n i n g e x e r c i s e . S o m e t e a c h e r s feel W h e n u s i n g m a t e r i a l o f this k i n d , a l w a y s c h e c k the

a degree of p r o f e s s i o n a l g u i l t a b o u t u s i n g t h e copyright regulations. These m a y vary from country to


country.
video in class a n d tend to o v e r b u r d e n students
with l e n g t h y 'as y o u l i s t e n ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n
questions a n d c h e c k l i s t s .

O n the o t h e r h a n d , m o s t students e n j o y u s i n g
what is p r o b a b l y the p r i m a r y m e a n s of
c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n the m o d e r n w o r l d - t e l e v i s i o n .
This gives the t e a c h e r a c l a s s r o o m t o o l that c o m e s
from the real w o r l d , a n d t o w a r d s w h i c h m o s t
students feel a great d e a l of g o o d w i l l . T h e v i s u a l
aspect o f v i d e o c a n b e u s e d t o s u p d b r t learners b y
p r o v i d i n g a c o n t e x t , as w e l l as a g u i d e to
meaning. If this r e l a t i o n s h i p is e x p l o i t e d p o s i t i v e l y ,
students c a n be s u p p o r t e d in t h e i r e x p o s u r e to a
valuable a u t h e n t i c s o u r c e , a n d g i v e n a great d e a l
of c o n f i d e n c e as E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e users.

83
ÏI2LZLÏ!™T31 Techniques and Resou

Channel-hopping Picture D o w n , S o u n d U p Play/Fast F o r w a r d V i e w

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player
and T V and T V and T V

• U s e the remote-control to d r o p in • S h o w the v i d e o to the students w i t h • S h o w the v i d e o at high speed, with


on different English language the screen c o v e r e d , or the picture no sound.
TV channels. b l a c k e d out, but with the s o u n d at
• U s e this to r e m i n d the students of
normal volume.
• U s e this for l a n g u a g e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w h a t t h e y h a v e just s e e n , o r a l l o w
and roughly-tuned input. The • U s e this to ask the students to s o m e students to preview the
students v i e w i n g the anticipate w h a t they think is on the r e m a i n d e r of a story in o r d e r to
d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d excerpts c a n use screen, for e x a m p l e description of create an information gap.
any clues in order to f o r m a picture p e o p l e or of settings. This w o r k s
of the type of TV p r o g r a m m e b e i n g w e l l w i t h s o u n d t r a c k s that h a v e
shown. dialogue or distinctive music.

Using the Pause Button S o u n d D o w n , Picture U p jigsaw S o u n d and Picture

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type P a i r w o r k ( o p t i o n a l ) Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player
and T V and TV; multiple and TV; multiple
VHS players and TVs VHS players and TVs
(optional) (optional)
• U s e the pause button to freeze-
frame the picture.
• S h o w the v i d e o to the students w i t h • A l l o w o n e g r o u p of students to hear
• U s e this to create an o p p o r t u n i t y for t h e v o l u m e set a t z e r o . the s o u n d t r a c k but not to see the
d i s c u s s i o n of w h a t has just p i c t u r e , w h i l e the o t h e r g r o u p sees
happened, what is going to happen • U s e this to elicit language f r o m the the picture but doesn't hear the
a n d a detailed d e s c r i p t i o n of w h a t is students that is related to the soundtrack.
on the screen at the m o m e n t . c o n t e x t a n d that m a y b e u s e d i n the
dialogue. • U s e this as an i n f o r m a t i o n gap
activity.
• T h e students can also provide
v o i c e o v e r s for a scene, either before
o r a f t e r w a t c h i n g it.

• T h e y m a y create an English
soundtrack for a non-English v i d e o ,
for e x a m p l e ' d u b b i n g ' English
instructions onto a cookery
programme.

• The students m a y provide a


commentary to what is happening
on the screen.

84
Techniques and Resources TV and Video

Front-to-back Students Spotting Signs Subtitles in the Mother Tongue

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type P a i r w o r k Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player
and T V and T V and T V

• Seat the students in pairs so that o n e • G e t students to read any on-screen • If y o u h a v e English l a n g u a g e videos
student c a n see the screen a n d the E n g l i s h , for e x a m p l e street s i g n s , with subtitles in the students' mother
other cannot. Turn the s o u n d d o w n shop names, advertised hoardings, t o n g u e , use these to b u i l d student
if there is d i a l o g u e . notices. c o n f i d e n c e . Play the v i d e o w i t h the
s o u n d d o w n , then p l a y the v i d e o
• This creates a g e n u i n e real-time
again w i t h the s o u n d up, but
information g a p activity.
c o v e r i n g the subtitles.

G r o u p O u t , G r o u p In T h e Film of the N o v e l Subtitles in English

Level A l l levels Level A l l levels Level A l l levels

Activity type P a i r w o r k / g r o u p w o r k Activity type W h o l e c l a s s Activity type W h o l e c l a s s


Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/
Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player Materials Single V H S player
and TV; multiple and T V and T V
V H S players and TVs
(optional) T h i s activity w o r k s if y o u are a b l e to If y o u have foreign language videos
c o m p a r e a v i d e o w i t h the b o o k that w i t h English subtitles, use these as
• Put the c l a s s i n t o t w o g r o u p s a n d it is based o n ; this m a y be y o u r r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e for y o u r students.
create an i n f o r m a t i o n g a p . class reader or an a u t h e n t i c text. Y o u m a y w i s h t o d e v e l o p this idea i f
M a n y readers are a d a p t a t i o n s o f the v i d e o is in your students'
• This c a n be d o n e in different w a y s .
n o v e l s that h a v e b e e n m a d e f a m o u s mother-tongue.
You can s h o w o n e g r o u p of students
by recent H o l l y w o o d releases.
a section of v i d e o that the other
group has not s e e n . Y o u c a n s h o w
one group the picture a n d play the
other g r o u p the s o u n d t r a c k , as
mentioned in an earlier activity.

Or you can s h o w each group a


different v i d e o or a different part of
the s a m e v i d e o .

85
Back-to-back Adverts Vocabulary Concepts But W h a t Are They Thinking?

Many advertisements are oblique, An activity to make your students So much in life remains unsaid - or

creating a puzzle for your students really listen does it?

Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards onwards

Activity type Pairwork Activity type Pairwork Activity type Groupwork (optional)

Equipment/ Equipment/ Equipment/


Materials Single V H S player Materials Single VHS player Materials Single V H S player
and T V and TV; photocopies and TV; photocopies

Plus... A recording of TV Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of a f i l m


advertisements a d r a m a or a o r d r a m a (see b e l o w )
(see below) documentary and
a vocabulary sheet • C h o o s e a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y interesting
• R e c o r d a series of TV a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . (see below) scene from a film or drama which
Ideally these s h o u l d be ones w h e r e the students have already seen in
the product advertised b e c o m e s • Produce a v o c a b u l a r y sheet with class and w h i c h involves two or

o b v i o u s o n l y towards the e n d of the a b o u t fifteen w o r d s that are u s e d in m o r e characters. S h o w this scene to

advertisement. the v i d e o . Write the w o r d s d o w n the students, and deal with any
the centre of the page w i t h space problems of comprehension or
• Put the class into pairs a n d seat between them. P h o t o c o p y o n e for vocabulary.
t h e m so that o n e student c a n see each pair of students in the class.
the screen a n d the other c a n n o t . • Put the students into g r o u p s w i t h as
Tell t h e m that the s t u d e n t s f a c i n g • Put the students into pairs a n d give m a n y students as there are
the screen are g o i n g to see a TV each pair a v o c a b u l a r y sheet. Go characters in the scene. S o m e
c o m m e r c i a l a n d that they s h o u l d through the w o r d s w i t h the class, students m a y have to d o u b l e up.
describe exactly w h a t they see to discussing meanings and possible A s k e a c h student to take on the role
their partners. contexts for t h e m . o f o n e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s c e n e . Tell
t h e m that they are g o i n g to express
• P l a y t h e first a d v e r t i s e m e n t w i t h t h e • Play the v i d e o . Tell the students that
what each character is thinking.
sound down, pausing where they c a n look at their sheets, but

necessary to give the students a that there is no n e e d to w r i t e • Play the scene again, pausing
chance to describe what is a n y t h i n g at this stage. regularly w h e n o n e of the
happening. Stop the video before c h a r a c t e r s has just f i n i s h e d
• After y o u have p l a y e d the v i d e o , tell
the p r o d u c t b e i n g advertised speaking. W h i l e the v i d e o is
t h e s t u d e n t s to try to r e c a l l t h e
b e c o m e s clear. A s k any of the p a u s e d , the students 'speak the
contexts in w h i c h the w o r d s w e r e
students w h o have not seen the m i n d s ' of their characters,
used. They should w o r k in pairs.
screen what they think the expressing their feelings, thoughts
Tell t h e m t o w r i t e w h a t t h e y c a n
c o m m e r c i a l i s for, a n d ask t h e m t o a n d frustrations.
r e m e m b e r next to the w o r d on the
give reasons.
sheet. This m a y be a s p o k e n
context, or simply what was
• Play the v i d e o so that all the
s t u d e n t s c a n s e e it, t h i s t i m e w i t h , h a p p e n i n g on-screen at the t i m e .

the s o u n d up. Discuss the language


• Finally, the students p o o l their
and images used before m o v i n g on
information. You can produce a
to another commercial.
written record of the c o n t e x t u a l i z e d
w o r d s on the board.

86
Activities TV and Video

Building up to the N e w s They Do What? Putting W o r d s Into Mouths

A confidence-building introduction to 7t's life, Jim ... but not as we know it.' Conversation has stopped - can your
an often daunting listening task students continue it?

Level Pre-intermediate Level Elementary onwards Level Elementary onwards


onwards Activity type Croupwork Activity type Pairwork
Activity type Whole class Equipment/ Equipment/
Equipment/ Materials Single VHS player Materials Single VHS player
Materials Single VHS player and T V and T V
and TV; photocopies Plus... A recording Plus... A r e c o r d i n g of t w o
Plus ... A r e c o r d i n g of (see below) people speaking
the news (see below)

• C h o o s e a v i d e o c l i p that is
• Take a r e c o r d i n g of a TV n e w s quintessential^ English or • C h o o s e a v i d e o c l i p that features
broadcast and c h o o s e t w o items A m e r i c a n . A g o o d e x a m p l e of this two people having a conversation.
w h i c h feature plenty of i n f o r m a t i o n , might c o m e from an English soap At l o w e r levels, this m a y be t w o
for e x a m p l e d i a g r a m s , p h o t o g r a p h s opera like Eastenders. In o r d e r to p e o p l e m e e t i n g f o r t h e first t i m e o r
a n d f o o t a g e . M a k e a list o f w o r d s c o m p l e t e this activity, y o u r students a s h o p k e e p e r a n d a c u s t o m e r . At
that are essential to an do not need to understand all, or higher levels the c l i p m a y be of a
understanding of the broadcast. indeed any, of the dialogue. m o r e c o m p l e x relationship, or a
P h o t o c o p y o n e for e a c h student. more dramatic situation.
• V i e w the e x c e r p t as a class a n d deal
• S h o w the t w o n e w s items to the with any problems of • D e c i d e h o w m u c h of the clip you
students w i t h the s o u n d turned c o m p r e h e n s i o n , if y o u w i s h to. w i s h t o s h o w i n o r d e r t o set the
d o w n . After e a c h item, ask the scene. W i t h l o w e r levels the clues
students to discuss, in g r o u p s , w h a t • If y o u h a v e a m o n o l i n g u a l c l a s s , p u t may be entirely visual and you
they think the reports are about. y o u r students into small groups a n d might begin with a single frozen
ask t h e m to write sentences
Pool their c o n c l u s i o n s . f r a m e . Start t h e v i d e o .
describing any differences between
• H a n d o u t t h e v o c a b u l a r y lists a n d w h a t t h e y s a w o r h e a r d , a n d life i n • Pause the v i d e o a n d ask the
deal with any problems of their o w n country. students to guess w h a t the actors are
comprehension. g o i n g t o say. D i s c u s s their ideas,
• If y o u h a v e a m u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s , p u t play the next f e w seconds of the
• Ask the students to w o r k a g a i n , in y o u r students into small multilingual
clip and compare.
their g r o u p s , a n d to use the groups a n d ask t h e m to discuss the
k e y w o r d s that t h e y m a y h a v e b e e n differences between what they saw • Put the students into pairs. Play a
g i v e n i n o r d e r t o try a n d r e c o n s t r u c t o r h e a r d a n d life i n their o w n f e w m o r e s e c o n d s of the video.
the story. A t h i g h e r l e v e l s , this m a y countries. Pause it a n d the students continue
be a s p e a k i n g activity. At l o w e r the d i a l o g u e as they think it w i l l
levels, a p p o i n t o n e of the students progress.
in each g r o u p as 'scribe', a n d ask
them to p r o d u c e their o w n news • P l a y t h e m a little m o r e of the c l i p

report. a n d ask t h e m again to c o n t i n u e the


d i a l o g u e f r o m this n e w starting
• Finally, s h o w the students the t w o point.
items w i t h the s o u n d t u r n e d u p , a n d
c o m p a r e w i t h the students' o w n • C o n t i n u e this as y o u w i s h . To

ideas. c o m p l e t e the activity, s h o w the


students the c o m p l e t e conversation.

87
Video Diary Student N e w s A d People

They may be hard to watch, but '... and now over to our overseas Turn an evening pastime into a
they're even harder to make! correspondent...' career

Level Elementary onwards Level Pre-intermediate Level Pre-intermediate


onwards onwards
Activity type Groupwork

Equipment/ Activity type Groupwork Activity type Groupwork

Materials Single V H S player Equipment/ Equipment/


and T V Materials Single VHS player Materials Single VHS player
and T V and T V
Plus ... A camcorder
Plus... A camcorder and a Plus... A camcorder and
r e c o r d i n g of a n e w s empty boxes
• G e t the class to m a k e a v i d e o diary.
b r o a d c a s t (see below) (see below)
If y o u h a v e a large c l a s s , split it i n t o
g r o u p s , a n d ask e a c h g r o u p t o agree
to c o v e r a different aspect of s c h o o l • W a t c h the n e w s broadcast a n d • Find s o m e fairly a n o n y m o u s

life, for e x a m p l e lessons, l u n c h discuss the language, focusing on cardboard boxes such as cereal

break, sports. j o u r n a l i s t i c p h r a s e s s u c h a s '... a n d packets or s h o e b o x e s . C o v e r these


n o w over to our overseas c o m p l e t e l y in white paper, using
• T h e groups plan both w h a t they are correspondent ...'. g l u e or sticky tape so that labelling
g o i n g to f i l m a n d w h a t they are is no longer visible. These boxes
g o i n g to say. T h e y t a k e it in t u r n s to • Tell the students that t h e y are g o i n g will be the d u m m y products your
use the c a m c o r d e r , a n d then edit to m a k e a n e w s broadcast, using class will sell.
the v i d e o together, if this is p o s s i b l e . themselves as subjects: school
sports results, friendships b r e a k i n g • Watch some TV commercials with
• The video can be s h o w n to other u p , t h e e v e r y d a y stuff o f s c h o o l life. the class, preferably in English.
classes or sent to an ' e x c h a n g e D i s c u s s the strategies used in the
school' in England or America, w h o • Put the class into g r o u p s . A s k o n e different advertisements.
may in turn p r o d u c e their o w n group to be the n e w s r o o m team

v i d e o d i a r y f o r your s t u d e n t s . (i.e. n e w s r e a d e r , d i r e c t o r a n d • D i v i d e the class into groups of four


c a m e r a p e r s o n ) a n d ask e a c h of the o r five. G i v e e a c h g r o u p o n e o f the
other g r o u p s to find a story w h i c h c o v e r e d b o x e s . Tell t h e m that these
will make a good news item. G i v e b o x e s c o n t a i n the p r o d u c t t h e y are
the groups e n o u g h time to script going to sell.
their story as w e l l as do a n y
research. M e a n w h i l e , the n e w s r o o m • E x p l a i n that t h e y h a v e t o :

team should circulate to find out


1. decide what the packet contains
w h i c h stories are b r e w i n g .
2. d e c i d e o n its u n i q u e s e l l i n g
point
• W h e n the class is ready, all the
3. decorate the packet
n e w s items are f i l m e d w i t h
4. design, script and film a TV
appropriate links.
c o m m e r c i a l for that p r o d u c t .

• In a c o r n e r of t h e c l a s s r o o m set up a
'studio' and a booking form. W h e n
the groups are ready they can book
the studio for a slot.

• T h e class v i e w s the advertisements


and discusses whether they work.

88
Appendix
Full set of Example Cards for Circles (Section 8)
Summaries Circle

my last holiday a film I enjoyed

my home

my oldest and
dearest friend

J
my hopes for the future my career

my pet hates

my family

my country

89
Auxiliary Circle

I'll be here this time


next year.

I've been to Paris.

I like Chinese food.

I'm wearing my best I was talking when the


pair of jeans. teacher walked in.

I can drive. I'd like to go to Disneyland.

I can swim. I used to smoke.

I'm going to do my
homework tonight.

I'm going to the


cinema tonight.

90
Reporting Circle (Lower)

I 1 She told me (that) s h e l i k e d ice-cream.

I like ice cream. said me

2 She told me (that) s h e w a s g o i n g t o w a t c h T V .


I'm going to
said me
watch TV tonight.

I've been to Britain. •


3 She told

said
me

me
(that) s h e h a d b e e n t o B r i t a i n .

4 She told me (that) s h e c o u l d d r i v e .

I can drive. said me

5 She told me t o get o u t a n d not t o c o m e b a c k .


Get out and
don't come back! (order)

6 She asked (me) what my name was.


What's your name?

7 She asked (me) where I lived.


Where do you live?

8 8 She asked (me) if I liked cooking,

Do you like cooking? whether

9 She asked (me) if I could swim,

Can you swim? whether

10
10 She asked me t o h e l p her.
Could you help me
(request)
with this?

91
Reporting Circle (Upper)

I
Get out and don't 1 tell/order
come back!

If I were you, I'd take it 2 advise

back to the shop.

Don't forget you haven't 3 remind (someone) to do


paid your bill!

Go on, go to Spain. 4 encourage

You'll have a great time!

Why don't you come round


for dinner?

You ate that chocolate, 6 a c c u s e (someone) of


didn't you!

I did it. 7 admit


I took the money.
— doinf

8
Don't look at me.
I didn't take your pen!

I'm really sorry 9 a p o l o g i s e for


but I've broken your watch.

92
Reporting Circle (Upper continued)

10
Let's go 10 suggest d o i n g (speaker i n c l u d e d in suggestion)
to the beach!

11
Why don't you 11 suggest that do/did

go to bed?

12
Would you like to
borrow my car?

13
We can't lend you 13 refuse to d o
any more money.

14
I'll give you the money 14 promise
next week ... honestly!

93
Quickfire Circle

What time do you


You're nicked, mate!
call this?

Where to, guv? Alright?

What seems to be
the matter?

Warm for the time of year,


What do you fancy?
isn't it?

Got a light?

Do you come here often?

It's my shout.

What're you having?

Anything you say may be


taken down ....

94
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