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, [. , 2, 5, 30,
41, 42].
() B*.
(B B*)/B*, B*
B. ,
B f N,
B = f(N).
B*=(N).
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, . 97]; [. .18.1 (. II); . 13.1
(. III)].
() [1; 10]. 5,41010
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() K
[2; ]. , 9
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( K) = 10 7 .
9

1.1


,
[2; x]

10 1
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8

10 10
10 11
10 12
10 13
10 14
10 15
10 16
410

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25
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,
[2; x]

K
455 052 512
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346 065 540 683
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29 884 570 468 874
279 238 341 451 340
1 075 292 778 753 150

16

50 847 534
2 623 557 156 632 400
10
10 17
1989 . = 410 16 (
),
> 10 7 , 1.1 (

).
1.1
, , ( )
():
9

K~

x
.
ln x

(1.1)

K ~ ,
x/lnx
[2; ] ( K
; , ,
, ).
= 2, 3, 5 > K, 7 (.
7) < K, , ,
K.
10

,
(~), ( . tilde).
(~) (1.1)
(=) ,
K , .
(~) (1.1) ,
K/ 1/lnx ,
: (K/x)/(1/lnx) 1 .

1792 . ( 15 ,
),
1896 . (
) - .
1.1
() . , 10
3
10 17 ( 15- )
= f(lnx),
( , R 2 =
0,9967):

KA
Z(lnx) W , K [1Z(lnx) W ] 1 , (1.2)
K

Z = 1,0454 W = 1,0001 , .
. Z = 1,0454 W = 1,0001, K < Li(x)
10 9 , (.
.7 ). W Z
, ( 1.1) ,
W , ,
Z.

14- Z W
( 14- : [10 3 ; 10 4 ], [10 4 , 10 5 ],, [10 16 , 10
17
]), , Z W ,
W , Z.
Z = W = 1, (1.2)
11

K ~ 1, 1

x
.
ln x 1

(1.3)

(1.3) ,
. . 1848 . ,
(1.3), ( 43),
(1.1). = 3 = 281 (60- )
1 > K. (1 K)
+ ( ), = 3529 (493-
) (70-) ,
1 < K ( ).
Z = 1,0454 W = 1,0001 ( ,
), (1.2)
( = 810 60 ) 0,00745, 2,11%
() = 0,007.297.353.08
( ) [ .
, . 81-84].
Z = W = 1 (, ,
), (1.2)
0,00713, 2,28% ().
()
, , ,
1 < Z < 1,0454.
1-1 ( 1- 1- ):
Z ( W = 1) ,
(1.2) = .
( 11-
) Z = 1,0233410044 ( W = 1),
K

x
, Z = 1,0233410044
ln x Z

(1.3)

-
[2; ]. , !
10 3 10 10
(1.3) 1,0% 0,1%, > 10 17
, (
12

- ) . ,
K 5,7466638090046110 58 ,
K : K 4,210 56 (

, 718073
).
1-1 ( = ) , 11-

( 7),

810 60 1,0000002 ( ~
2740 ). 12-

~ 274 , , ,
= (
, 274 )
?!


. 1.1
( . ?) : K ~
x/lnx ,
: = .

,

( K ).
, ()
( 7)
, . .1.1,
.
= 100 (
), 0,1752, 24
, (
13

).
:
(
, ),
(
, ) [ , .81].
2.
A = f(x) x/lnx,

( , .
, . 100). (. . 1) +
= x/lnx
[2; ] (,

, ).
, = (2,718)
: = (.
. 2.1).
1 < x <
, , ,
1 ( )
(

).

14
. 2.1. A = x/lnx ( )

0 < < 1
, , ,
, 1 ( )
, .
= 1 A = /lnx = 1/0 (
, ).
,
( > 0)
( ) :
L ( : 0 < L < 1);
R ( : 1 < R < );
N ( : N).
N
N = 10 B ,
(2.1)
B = lnN/ln10
, B =
ln/ln10 = 0,43429 . , = 1, 2, 3,
,
N. ()
N.
:
N ~ 10 B , = (ln10) 1 0,4343/.
(2.2)
60
() = 810 ,
N = 10 B , 60,90309.
N ~ 0,0071 10 B , 140
( N).
L
L = 1 10 BL ,
(2.3)
BL = ln(1 L)/ln10
.
L = 1, 2, 3, L ,
L.
R
15

R = 1 + 10 BR ,
(2.4)
BR = ln(R 1)/ln10 ,
BR = ln( 1)/ln10 = 0,23509 .
R = 1, 2, 3, R
, (
) R.
,
: lnx = x 1 ,
, lnx 1,
:
lnL ln(110 BL ) 10 BL , lnR ln(1+10 BR ) 10 BR . (2.5)
:
L = L/lnL (110 BL )/10 BL 10 BL 1 10 BL ; (2.6)
R = R/lnR (1 + 10 BR )/10 BR 10 BR + 1 10 BR
(2.7)
, L, R, N (
) (BL = BR = B >>1),
, :

( );
N
R ln10 ( 140 ).
N = 10 B
, N ,
,
N,
.
, (
BR BL)
,
.
, :
GR , GR R 1 = 10 BR ;
GL , GL 1 L = 10 BL .
16

BR BL (
, )
,
, N.
L, R, N ( )
(BL = BR = B >> 1),
(
) : N
() ,
() : N =
1/GR ( N = 1/GL).
,
N ln10
() . ,

N ( , ,
).
2-1 ( !)

(
):
(
);
(
, ),
(R)
. R

,
R
.
:
(R)
, ,
17

,
,
( ).

,
:

:
, R

... 1/R (
-).
2-1 :

() A = /lnx (
!). , ,

(. . 3 12),
(. 11),
(. 12).
- (
) ,
-,
- (
, ?).
-,

.
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.
18

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[3]:
, " . ,
", .:
, 2004. (. 160-161, 223, 232).

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( )
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?). ,
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)
() ( ),
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, -
() ,
(. 11 12).

19

3.
[2; ]
K. K/
:
.
, K/
1/lnx.
(.
. 1)
(): K/x ~ 1/lnx.
. , . , .
. [10, . 230] 1770 .

. ,
K ( K/)
( = 1/lnx), K
(S) (. . 3.1).
: K ~ , = 1/lnx,
K S (
,
). , S/S 1 .
5
y
(=)
4
(~),
, S 3
= 1/ln [2; ] 2

1
()

0
x
, 1
2
3
4
5
S K . . 3.1. = 1/lnx
.
20

. , S
= 1/lnx [2; 3]
(S) 2 = 1/ln2 3 = 1/ln3
h = 3 2 = 1. S (2 + 3)h 1,176,
S 1,118, ()
: S S 0,058. [2; 3]
65500 ( h 1,510 5 ), 10
11 . S
. ,
h
( S) , =
1/lnx , > 1, 0 < < 1 (.
, . 98).
, (c
h = 1): [3; 4], [4; 5], [N1; N],
S, S, .
() [2; N]
0,08058 ( N = 10 0,07901).
( h
= 1) S (1/ln2+1/ln3) + (1/ln3+1/ln4) ++
(1/ln(N1) + 1/lnN),
S [2; N]:
S = S Ls(N) 0,5(1/ln2 + 1/lnN) 0,08058, (3.1)
Ls(N) 1/ln2 + 1/ln3 + 1/ln4 + + 1/lnN
[2]. 0,5/ln2
0,72135, , , S Ls(N)
0,5/lnN 0,80193, N = 10 7 , 10 8 , 10 9
Ls(N) 4, 31, 189
(), (3.1), ,
S .

21

K
[2; ], S
= 1/lnx.
( K)
, S
( K ):
S = Li(x) Li(2),
(3.2)
> 2 (
N);
Li(x) = lnlnx + + + +
+ + + + .
(3.3)
Li(x) ,
1768 .,
( ).

( k = 1, 2, 3, ).
lnln ,
ln(ln()), (
lnx).
, > 2
S, (3.2),
S ()
(K) [2; ],
( S K ).
, , !
S
(-,

, ,
[ 3, . 160161, 223, 232].
. . 2 ( 2-1)

22

, Gk (lnx)/(kk!) k-
, Gk
Gk . Gk 1 ,
(Gk < 1) ,
(!) 1,85 (
. 6).
( ) ,
k.
, S = lnln + Gk Li(2), Li(2)
= 0,467948. S
(, 770) , ,
:
S Gk G1 + G2 + G3 + + Gk .
(3.4)
[ (S Gk)/S]
(3.4) :
< 1 {1 + [lnlnx Li(2)](lnx 1)/x} 1 ,
(3.5)
> 82 ( <
0,0405). 770 < 0,01 ( 1%), >
10 16 , < 10 14 (3.5)
, ( ?) :
< x 23,14 0 ,9549 .
(3.6)
4.
()
Gk (lnx)/(kk!),
= 10,
170- (kk! = 170170! > 10 308 ).
, ( !)
.
10 B ,
(lnx) 10 L kk! 10 F , k-
:
23

Gk (lnx)/(kk!) 10 L /10 F = 10 L F ,
(4.1)
B
L = ln[(lnx)]/ln10 = klnln(10 )/ln10,
L = k(lnB + lnln10)/ln10,
(4.2)
F = ln(kk!)/ln10 = [lnk + ln(k!)]/ln10,
(4.3)
ln(k!) ln[k(k1)(k2)(k3)1] = lnk + ln(k1) + ln(k2) +
ln(k3) ++ ln1, , ,
Excel.
G 1 10 R1 ,
G 1 R 1 .
G k R k ,
G k 1 R k 1 :
Rk
L F, (4.2) (4.3)
k,
R k 1 L F, (4.2) (4.3)
(k 1).
G 1 10 R1 G 1 lnx (
10 B ),
R 1 = (lnB + lnln10)/ln10.
(4.4)
k = 2, 3, 4, 5, ...
:
G k /G k 1 = 10 W , W R k R k 1 .
(4.5)
(4.2), (4.3) (4.5),
:
G k = G k 1 10 W ,
W R k R k 1 = R 1 + ln(k 1 k 2 )/ln10
(4.6)
, k 2
(4.6), (4.4)
G k
10 B .
> 10
(. ).
24

25

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

5E+56

1E+57

1,5E+57

2E+57

S (3.6), (4.4)
(4.6), = 10 311 , k = 1934
Gk 1,398410 308 . = 10 312
S, Gk > 10 308 .
: Gk =
10 L F N = 10 U ,
Gk* Gk/N = 10 ( L F ) U
(Gk*). N
:
S = 10 U (Gk*) = 10 U (Gk/10 U ) = Gk .
(4.7)
B
= 10 , , , U B 308.
, = 10 10470 U = 10470 308 =
10162 : k = 65514; (Gk/10
U
) = 4,14810 303 ; S = 4,14810 10465 .

(), 810 60 10 B , B =
(ln8 + 60ln10)/ln10 = 60,903 . k
= 1, 2, 3, , 371 (Gk > 1).
G1 = lnx 140, k Gk
, k = 139
G139 1,935810 57 ,
Gk = f(k) (. . 4.1).

Gk


(G),
(k). Gk =
k
5,7460012296101210 58


(K . 4.1.
S = Gk), K
( ).

Gk,
( . 4.1 ,
). ,
, , k = 100180,
81/371 22% ,
99,94%
S = Gk 810 60 .
,
(, = 810 60 )
( G G139 S):
lnlnx = 4,9433 ;
G1 lnx = 140,2345 ;
k = 139 ;
k = 371 ;
1,E+60

Gk

1,E+56
1,E+52
1,E+48
1,E+44
1,E+40
1,E+36

Gk

1,E+28
1,E+24
1,E+20
1,E+16
1,E+12
1,E+08

k
380

360

340

320

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

80

100

60

40

1,E+00

20

1,E+04

400

1,E+32

. 4.2.

S/G 29,68 S ( G);


/G 4133 ( G).
()
, ,
( ):
4-1. 139, 140
137 (. , . 161)
26

,
. .
140 C (, 40
100 C).
4-2. 371
365 (
).
( ?)
, , 371 .
(819 ) 371
( 2,2 ).
373.
4-3. 30
( 40,5 , ,
) 30
(1,35 ),
, [8, . 376].
32 - (. , . 160).
50
, 10
,
29 [ , . 72].
4-4. 4133
~ 1,610 26 ,
(
) ~ 3,8710 22 . 4133.
,
99,9%
( ). ( +
+ ) 3673 ( 4133)
( ).
27

, .. 4133?
,
(/,
/,
/,
/,
/,
/,
/, ..), 10 3 ( 4133).
4000 .
5.
10 B , x > 2 ( > 0,301).
Gk
(lnx)/(kk!), k = 1, 2, 3, 4, ,
(G),
(k).
, G (
k), Gk = f(k) ( G
).
G 10 ,
/G 10 Z ( Z )
,
. ,
Z ,
Z = f(), k = f() k = f().
K/G, K
[2; x].

G1 lnx : G1 = G.
, , G1 = G2, (lnx) 1 /
(11!) = (lnx) 2 /(22!), :
x = exp(4) = 54,5981 B = 4/ln10 = 1,7371 . (5.1)
2 < x < exp(4) :
/G = /lnx /G 10 Z , :
Z = (lnx lnlnx)/ln10 = B lnB/ln10 lnln10/ln10.
(5.2)
28

= 2, 3, 5, 7 Z 0,460; 0,436; 0,492; 0,556,


Z lnx = 53
Z = 1,125. Z = f(x)
, Z
, x > 53 Z = f(x)
Z 0,6514lnlnx + 1,2677.
.
x = exp(4)
: G = G1 = G2. , ()

(Gk = Gk+1), (
).
> exp(4) :
k k = 2, 3, 4, 10
B
, ,
: G = Gk = Gk+1, (lnx)/(kk!) =
(lnx) k 1 /[(k+1)(k+1)!].
( k k):
x = exp(k +1/k +2), B = (k +1/k +2)/ln10.
(5.3)
, (5.3),
: -
, k k,
- ,
k k +1. , k k
(5.3), k
2 + (2 Bln10)k + 1 = 0,
(k1) , (k2)
, (k2 = 1/k):
k = k1 = B[1 + (1 4/B/ln10) 0 , 5 ]ln10 1.
(5.4)
0,5
k2 = B[1 (1 4/B/ln10) ]ln10 1.
(5.5)
, (5.4)
k (
10 B ).
29

(5.4) >>1 , k Bln10 1,


(5.3) k >>1

k Bln10 2, k ln 2,
(5.6)
: = (Bln10 2)/k1 1.

(5.6): || < 0,333/B 2 B 3,97.
( - |
| < 0,333/B 2 ).
, (5.6) (s
ln + 2C 1), s k 2C + 1 2,1544.
, ( B >> 1)
(k)
(s) [1; x] ( s
. , . 87).
(5.3) lnx = (k +1/k +2) ,
G Gk (lnx)/(kk!) ( k = k G 10 ),
:
k = [kln(k +1/k +2) lnk ln(k!)]/ln10.
(5.7)
Z [(k +1/k +2) kln(k +1/k +2) + lnk + ln(k!)]/ln10. (5.8)
Z = f() (5.8),
k = [1 + (1 4/lnx) 0 ,5 ]lnx 1,
(5.3) (5.4).
.
(1730 .):
k! = (2k) 0 ,5 k k k f (k ) , |f(k)| (12k) 1 .
(5.9)
k f(k) = 0

ln(k!) (k + )lnk k + ln(2),


(5.10)
Z [(k + 3/2)lnk kln(k +1/k +2) +
+ 1/k + 2 + ln(2)]/ln10.
(5.11)

30

Z
Z = 7 (. 7) 10 10924 ,
.
Z = 3,6162
(G) 4133 (/G =
10 Z 10 3, 6162 4133).
(5.11) k >> 1 ()
:
Z alnk + b alnB + d alnlnx + b,
(5.12)
a, b d, , = : a
= 3/2/ln10 0,6514; b = [2 + ln(2)]/ln10 1,2677;
d=
[3/2lnln10 + 2 + ln(2)]/ln10 1,8110.
a b : 10 B ( 60
62 0,1) Z
(R 2 = 0,9997): Z 0,8665lnln + 0,8941,
(5.12): || 33%,
b 29%. a
b 30%
( = ).
a b (
):
a = 0,0594W 3 + 0,1459W 2 0,1202W + 0,6847,
(5.13)
3
2
b = 0,2272W 0,6026W + 0,5350W + 0,2401,
(5.14)
W lnlnlnln(x) [W
ln(ln(ln(ln(x))))], > 15,1542 ( B >
/ln10 = 1,1805). (,
?).

31

a b
Z alnlnx + b || < 0,01% 10 56
10 80000 . ,
, ,
[
(5.8)].
()
(- ),
(. . 6).
(5.12) (GM), ,
() ( < ):
GM 1/2 + 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/7 + + 1/ = lnlnx + 0,261497 + ().
Z/GM
W:
Z/GM 0,0334W 3 0,0520W 2 0,0336W + 0,7185, (5.15)
2 910 6 (5.15) |
| < 0,04%. Z/GM
0,9204 ( = 2) 0,4727 ( = 7, . 7),
0,7228 ( 9347, k = 7),
Z/GM (
?) : 0,6948 = 60,9 (
) 0,6595 = 10 12 . ,
Z/GM
, , ( .
. 154).
, /G,
K/G, K
[2; x],
10 B ( x > 2 > 0).
K/G, (, > 100),

G.
32

, x < exp(4) 54,6 ( B < 4/ln10


1,7) ( ): G =
G1 lnx = Bln10. K = f(x) 3 x 53
:
K 0,0016x 2 + 0,3599x + 1,3221 ( R 2 = 0,9958). (5.16)
(5.16) K/G = 6%
( 5), 3 x 53 K/G
: K/G 0,0454x + 1,711. K/G
= f(x) ,
K/G , x > 53
K/G = f(x) K/G 2,5(ln) 0 , 5 .
.
> exp(4) 54,6
(. . 1) K x/(lnx 1) 10 B /(Bln10 1).
G 10 Z , , (5.3), B = (k +1/k
+2)/ln10, :
K/G 10 Z /(Bln10 1) = 10 Z /(k +1/k +1).
(5.17)
(5.17) K/G : || <
2 , K/G
10 B ( ). , k
>>1 (5.6) (5.12), :
K/G (Bln10 2) 0 ,5 10 b (ln 2) 0 , 5 10 b ,
(5.18)
b
10 18,5216 (5.12);
( 2 /) 1
( 2 = 0,1353 ). ,
( = ) :
K/G 2,5(ln) 0 ,5 .
(5.19)

33

(5.19) :
10 B ( 60 62 0,1)
G K ( )
: K/G 2,5235(ln) 0 , 4986 ,
(5.19): 0,5
0,0028, 2,5 || = 0,0067,
(. , . 81).
.
10 B ,
: Gk = 1 k =
k.
: (k)
, (Gk
1) ?
, Gk 10 L F = 1 L F
= 0, , (4.2) (4.3),
( k = k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ):
B = exp{[lnk + ln(k!)]/k lnln10} (kk!) 1 / k (ln10) 1 .
(5.20)
k = 1 B = 1/ln10 B lnx/ln10, ,
.
10 B ,
(5.20) k
: < 1/k. , k = 371 k = 372
: = 60,86 = 61,02, ,
( 60,9), k = 371,
.
(5.20) k! .
(5.9),
( k = k):
B (k/)k 1 / k (2k) 0,5 / k /ln10.
(5.21)
(5.21) :
|| < 0,003/B 2 B 7.
34

k >>1 B k//ln10,
(|| < 1,6/B 0 ,9 ):
k Bln10 6,259B k ln.
(5.22)
(5.6) (5.22) , k/k /(1 2/lnx),
k/k ( ).
k/k = = 2,718 : || <
2/B 0 ,95493 . k/k
, , 14/6 (
), .
k/k = 371/139 2,669, ( 2,669)/
0,018 ( 2,48 ).
10 B ( =
1, 2, 3, 4, ), 1 <
Gk < ( k = k ). Gk
Gk = 2.
Gk 10 L F = ( k = k 1). ,
L F = 1/ln10, , L F
(4.2) (4.3), :
B = exp{[lnk + ln(k!)]/k + 1/k lnln10}.
(5.23)
(. . 4.2) ,

(G), ()
G1 lnx. ( G1 =
140,2345) G366 = 166,8125,

k ( 366 ,

). , = 810 60 ( )
k = 366,
:
lnlnx [(k + 3/2)lnk k + ln(2)]/(k 1).
(5.24)

35

(5.24) (
k = 1, 2, 3, ) k
.
6.
: 10 Be ,
(5.20), (
) (5.21). ,
( k = 1, 2, 3, 4, )
(Gk < 1 k > k),
, , : n k k
= 1, 2, 3, . ,
(S) :
(S)min = 0,317902151454404 ( k = 1, =
2,718),
(S)max = 0,849950329576348 ( k = 5, =
1,5610, = 36,39),
S ,
( 1) 1 0,582.

( )
10 B ,
(Gk > 1 k = k).
S Gn,
:
S Qexp[( )E],
(6.1)

10 Be , ( < x);
( ): Q
0,3682 0,8534 ( k = 5), Q = 0,582;
3,6119 = ln10 = 6,259.
( ).
36

S = 1 +
(S)max 1,85 ,
k = 5.
, k = 65489 ( =
10465,8521) (4.6)
(Gk < 1 k > k), ,
, : n k k = 1, 2, 3, . 30-
(Gn) (R 2
= 1) : Gn 1,0013 n .
( )
, k = 65490 ( = 10466,0119).
,
: Gn
n
k .
: (4.1), (4.2),
(4.3), (5.10) (5.20), k k.
:
Gk exp[(1 + 3/2/k)kln(k)
(3/2 + k)lnk (1 k/k)ln(2)].
(6.2)
k
(k/k 1) (6.2) Gk exp[kln(k)
klnk] exp[kln(k/k)]. 0 < k/k 2,
: ln(k/k)
k/k 1 [1, . 111], :
Gk exp(k k) Gn n .

( )
10 B ,
(Gk > 1 k = k).
Gn
, :
Gn n ,
(6.3)
37

n k k = 1, 2, 3,
10 B ; k
(Gk < 1 k > k);
( ?):
exp[( )ln10],
(6.4)

10 Be , ( < x).
= 1 ( 0).
. 5
k(ln10) 1 ,
(ln10) 1 =
0,1597, / 10 0 ,1597... =
1,44466 ( ). ,

: 1 < .
( 60,9031)
, k = 371, = 60,8594
k = 372, = 61,0198 ( ,
12,4 17,9 . ). :
Gn = 1 n ( n k 371)
Gn 1,117 1, 0067 n , ( n)
|| 0,0067 ( );
(6.4) 1,1172exp[(
)6,0888], (ln10)
0,027 ( 3,7 ).

38

()
() . ,
Gn = f(x) , ,
Gn n ; Gn
1,117 1, 0067 n (
Gn = n ). || |1 1,0067|/1 =
0,0067 ( n).

( ||),
, ( ).
(6.3),
(S Gn)
10 B ( >> 1):
S ( 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ) =
= ( 1) 1 0,582.
(6.5)
(6.5) ( )
,
, 1/.
(6.5) ,
(S)
: ( 1) 1 0,582 ( 1)
1
1,582, .
, ( 1) 1 0,582
.
( 5
1)/2 = 0,618, 2 + 1 = 0
(
?).

39

,
= ( 1) 1
( = 0,582) = ,
= ( 5 +1)/( 5 1) = 2,618 ( = 0,618).

( 405
?), , = ,
405. !
(1; ) (),
(; +) ().
= ( 1) 1 ln(x 1),
= ( 1) 1 :
F ln[( 1)/(x 1)] [x; );
F ln[(x 1)/( 1)] (; x].
,
, F F, = 1 + (
1) 2 /( 1).
1, , ,
() .
, [x; )
: D ( x)/( 1).
, = 1 + 1,007297
D 0,996, ,

3 (. ,
. 45). , = 1 +
( ) 99,6% ,
=
405,5977, (
) 99,6% ( ).
,
405 ( ?).
40

1 + 10 B ,
x
: L x 1 10 B ,
x = 1 + ( 1) 2 10 B 1 + 2,952510 B
: L x 1.
(L L) : L
= ( 1) 2 10 B = ( 1) 2 /L 2,9525/L,
: L 10 , = + 2ln( 1)/ln10. ,
L 10 60 ,9031
L 10 60 , 4329 , (60,9031
60,4329)/60,9031 0,0077 ( ).
7.
(K)
[2; x], = 10 B , , , =
7, ,
K ( = 17,
. . 1.1). :
= 10470 (S),
, , K.
S/K (
)
, S/K
.

41

= 10 B
( B ln2/ln10 =
0,301). = 2 = 3, 5,
7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29 S/K, , :
S/K 0,56; 0,86; 0,93; 1,11; 1,06; 1,12; 1,06; 1,09; 1,168.
= 29 ( S/K) , ,
S/K :
10 5 31% S/K
.
(2 541)
:
S/K 0,1546 3 0,9817 2 + 1,9666 0,1256,
(7.1)
= 4%, (7.1)
.
= 2, 3, 4, ,17 (R 2 = 0,9989)
: S/K 1 1,626exp( 1,1872B),
S/K > 1. .
1914 . . . (1885 1977) ,
( ?) S/K < 1.
1955 . . :
() , 10 B , = 10 C =
10 964 . ,
1966 . (E. Lehman) ,
( . 14
) [2]:
2 < < 10 20 S/K > 1;
10 371 , , S/K < 1;
10 1165 10 500 , S/K < 1.
[
2009 .,
], , ,
, .
42

(. . 1)
: K = x/(lnx Z), Z 1 .
Z = lnx x/K = 8, 9, 10, ,17 (R 2 = 0,9999)
: Z 1 QB M , Q = 0,65580 M =
1,1166, , Q M .
Q M :
S/K > 1.
, (
, ), Z 1 + QB M Q
M ( = 60,903)
: Z = 1 + , = 0,007.297.353.08
() (,
, . , . 81).
Q M,
Q = 0,458238239 M = 1,007445 (,
1 + ). Z (Q M)
K = x/(lnx Z) ( K), ,
( ?)
S/K:

S/K ( S/K > 1 S/K < 1),
, = 10
20
, (.
, . 7).
> 10 20 S/K
( : S/K 0,999
999 864 159) = 10 80 ,
10 29 .
; ,
50% [9, . 184].

43

10 20 < < 10 80 Z 1 + QB M
, S/K
(
S/K?).
, (10 20 10 55 )
:
( )
(
).
S/K =
10 1150 , S/K
1,000 000 000 168 = 10 2000 , , ,
, () (
). S/K
()
: , = 10 1164 = 10 1170
S/K < 1 (
?).
10 10193 , , S/K < 1 (
?).
8.

(k k), (
) = 10 B ,
. , , = 1, 2, 3, 4, ,

k k. (
k k).

44

= 10 B , = 7, 8, 9, , 61
k aB b. ,
a = 6,1955 b = 6,6327, = 0,4%
. k aB b
:
k = (25 U )/4 J,
(8.1)
= 1, 2, 3, = 10 B ;
U ( , U = 1, 2, 3, 4);
J ( ,
). U J (
) 1- (
, . . 8.1).
U = 1 = 1,
: = 1, 5,
9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, ( ).
- ( ) 1-
, J .
, = 1 (8.1)
J = 4, = 5 ( = 9, )
J = 7, = 13 ( = 17, 21,
) J = 8 ..
. 8.1 ,
(8.1): ,
k .

45

J
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

8.1
( ) :
U=1

U=2

U=3

U=4

5
13
25
57
365
537
689
829
965
1097
1225
1349
1477
1597
1721
1841
1965

6
14
30
74
310
498
654
794
930
1062
1194
1318
1446
1570
1690
1814
1934

7
15
35
103
243
455
615
759
899
1031
1159
1287
1415
1539
1659
1783
1903

4
8
20
44

412
576
724
864
996
1128
1256
1384
1508
1628
1752
1872

k ,
() = 61. 1- (61 = 1 + 415),
U = 1. = 61 = 57, ,
J = 10. U J (8.1)
:
k = (2561 1)/4 10 = 371.

46

: J
(J ), , ,
U .
, J = 40, 50, 60, 70, 77 B = B1
29U +31, B1 1- ,
U = 2 U = 4 ( U = 3
).

(. . 8.1 8.2),
U : B f(J),
.
. 8.1 J = 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
U B aexp(bJ) (. . 8.2).
(),
, 10%, B
f(J) ,
(, J = 4, 5, ,
).
J = 9, 8, 7, , 1, 0, 1
U B dJ 2 mJ.
, , 1% (
J = 9, 8, || < 27%).
U
a
b
Jv
Bv
c
d
m

1
0,0202
0,7955
11, 12
129, 281

1595,0

1,8182

117,19

2
0,0179
0,8299
11
166
1566,9

1,7749

118,73

3
0,0127
0,8914
11
231
1535,0

2,0909

117,47

4
0,0296
0,8110
10, 11
96, 220
1507,5

1,6147

121,31

47

8.2
( )

B aexp(bJ)

B dJ 2 mJ

, B aexp(bJ)
(
) v (. . 8.2),
Jv = 10, 11, 12 ( v
J = 9,
8). Jv = 11
4- : Bv = 129, 166, 231, 220. , Bv
,
.
,
= 10 B ( = 1, 2, 3, , 61, ,
)
, .
Bv = 129 = 10 129 ,
-
10 78 ,
( )
(?) .
Bv = 220 = 10 220 , ,
10 169 , ,
, 10 150
:
[9, . 184].
9. ()

48

U J = f(lnB)
. , U = 1
( ) ( B
365).
Gk = f(k) = 2,4 ( k = 1, 2, 3, , 7),
J = f(lnB) ( =
11097, lnB 7). , ,
f (
),
: lnB k
( ).

(.
),
().
.
= 10 e 523 ( 10 =
2,718) . Gk
(4.6):
G k = G k 1 10 W , W = R 1 + ln(k 1 k 2 )/ln10;
k = 1, 2, 3, 4, ;
R 1 (ln + lnln10)/ln10 0,7965,
G 1 10 R1 G 1 = lnx = ln(10 e ) = ln10.
R 1
0,7965 ( ),
(4.6)
k, :
1). W ( R 1 0,7965)
k : k lnB (
= 1, 5, 13, 25, 57, 365, U = 1). (4.6)
( )
G k ( ).
49

2). G k = 3,14
(Gk).
3). :
k ln(Gk)= lnGk.
() k,
, Jk,
: Jk lnGk.
= 10 e 523 ,
, ( -
): -
, 500. 11
(Gk 1),
(. 7),
k lnB =
ln1097 = 7,0003 ( U = 1, . ),
10 B = 10 1097 .
. 8.1 ( )
= 10 e (
G k R 1 ), = 10 B
(
: U, , J). ,
( )
, ,
(4.6)
( R 1 ).
:
(
), ,
. ,
, ,
.

50

,
J = f(lnB), J = 4; 5; 6; ; 77
, B =
a bJ 2 cJ, a = 1624,7; 1582,5; 1553,2; 1521,4; b =
0,0378; 0,0476; 0,0490; 0,0505; c = 116,71; 117,52; 117,60;
117,75 (
U = 1, 2, 3, 4).
( 1 M k /J k )
U
( ?) :
= 1, 2, 3, 4 44%; 15%; 15%
(); + 4% ();
= 5365; 6310; 7243; 4412,
J = f(lnB), 5%-
, || 5%. k lnB =
16 (. 7)
(k ln61 4,11)
;
200% ( J = 1),
(J = 0) (M k 2),

= 1597; 1570; 1539; 1508,
7 1554 (
k lnB 7,3). J = 1
: +200%;
5%-
, ( = 0%)
3373; 3451; 3422; 3392 (J = 15; 16; 16; 16),
8 = 3409 (
k lnB
k = 8). 8 350, ,
, , 5%-
( , 10);
51

J = 16; 17; 18; (?)


, ,
= 10 B , , ,
8 ( ~ 10 3409 ).
, (?)
= 10 B ( ): ( k
lnB = 16); 7 1554; 8 3409.
,
,
:
2). G k Z:
Z = (1 + 1/) 1 = 0,7585
3). k (Gk) Z
: k Jk .

U : J = 9, 10, 9,
8, 7, 6, 5, 4 7%,
J < 3 .
, J = 9, 10, 9 U = 1, 2, 3 (J =
9, 8 U = 4) ,
, : Jk
lnGk (Gk) Z , ,
. ,
= 61,
U = 1 J =10,
(
, , .
, . 141).
, U = 4
,
U = 1, 2, 3 (, ,
, ,
).
52

10.
= 10 B ( = 1, 2, 3, 4, , 62)
k = f(lnx), (R 2 = 1)
: k 1,0004lnx 1,5415.
, : k = Qlnx (L/3 +
1), Q = 7/3/ln10 = 1,0133, L = 1, 2, 3, ,
1. lnx = ln10,
:
k = (7 L)/3 1,
(10.1)
L = 1, 2, 3, ( ,
). (
) ,
. ,
= 46 = 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64, 67, 70, 73
( , . 10.1
), L = 7.
L ,
.
(10.1), ,
( = 61, L = 7) : k = (761 7)/3 1 = 139.
, (L
B . 10.1)? .
1

lnx .

. (18871920 .).
, , x = exp(163 0 , 5 ),
7,510 13 . , :
, (
).

53

, ()
(),
L :
= L 3 3,
(10.2)
L 3 , L
+ 3. , = 46 ( L = 7)
: = 10 3 = 76 3 = 73.
B L
(
) (
):
K = ( B + 3)/3 K = ( L 3 B)/3.
(10.3)
= 46 (L = 7) : K = (73 46 + 3)/3 = 10 K
= (76 46)/3 = 10.
= 28399 (L =
2620). :
= 1 K = 3; = 2 K = 7; = 10 K = 12,
: 2227
K = 11 390 K = 10 (
K = 11).
, , ,
, 11 .
, B/L 11 (. .
10.1). . , . 32-35.
R,
,
: L = R + L 1 . R
: R L L 1 .

54

10.1
L
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

B
1
2
3
10
23
33
46
56
66
76
89
99
109
122
132
142
152

R
1
1
7
13
10
13
10
10
10
13
10
10
13
10
10
10

B
7
20
30
43
53
63
73
86
96
106
119
129
139
149
162
172
182

B/L
1,000
1,000
1,000
2,500
4,600
5,500
6,571

L
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

B
241
251
261
271
284
294
304

R
13
10
10
10
13
10
10

B
268
281
291
301
314
324
334

B /L
9,640
9,654
9,667
9,679
9,793
9,800
9,806

7,000
7,333

1859 20150

10

20177 10,839

2048 22199

10

22226 10,839

2237 24248

10

24275 10,840

2426 26297

10

26324 10,840

2587 28042

10

28069 10,840

7,600
8,091
8,250
8,385
8,714
8,800
8,875
8,941

= 46, R
(?) (13, 10, 10,
10) (13, 10, 10, . 10.1
).
.
( )
.

= 271 ( L = 28), ,
,
(R = 10). , = 271
Bv (. . 9),
, . 9.1:

55

B* = [(365 57) + (310 74) + (243 103) + (412 44)]/4 263


(, *
).
( : = 20150, 22199,
24248, 26297, 28042) , R
R = 10 (
R = 13).
( = 10 20150 , ),
.
10-1 ( . 12):
(10.1) ,
7, 3.
, (
,
) 3- .
= 2, 8, 14, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
( ) ,
.

56 (
). Se, Kr, Mo, Ru (
) = 74, 78, 92, 96
, .

( ) . [11, . 471,
356, 925], ,

. , ,
.
.

56

( = 1, 2, 3, 10, 23, 33, 46, 56)


. 10.1 = 10 B , (lnx =
ln10 2, 5, 7, 23, 53, 76, 106, 129) .
( = 7, 20, 30, 43, 53)
, (lnx = ln10 16, 46,
69, 99, 122) .
(. . 10.1)
(, ),
(,
).
56 ( ) ,

(?) ()
. , ,
(
5% ),
()
, .
,
,
lnx

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1

. 10.1.

57

(
), ln = ln(10 B )
, ( )
,
ln(810 60 ) = 140. ,
95,
.
( )
, ; ,
= 106 1974 ., = 114 1999
. ( ), = 117 2009 . (
). ( )

= 140 2081 .
,
(, = 9697)
810 41 , -
(
), = 117

.
11.

58

(. . 3),
= 1/ln :
(S),
[2; ] (K)
.
, (S K) = 1/ln
,
(0; 1) (1; 2),
S.
(. . 2, 2-1)
(0; 1) (1; 2),
. ( ,
2
? ,
.)
(1; 2),
,
2 ( ).
S
S = Li(2) Li(x),
(11.1)
Li(x) lnlnx + lnx + [. (3.3)],
Li(2) 0,4679.
2 1 S
. , S ,
> 2 ( S K),
S , , :
(1; 2) 1 + 10 , ( > 0),
[2; ] 1+10 B , ( 0).
,
S,
: .

59

( ?).

, , , = 58, , = 10
B 58 : = 1000000,
[1; X] = 10 58 ,
(
10 58 17 . ). , , = 5,
= 1,00001,
,
1 = 4. , 1 (
) = 1 + 10 .
, = 10 58
= 10 58 ,
= 1,0000001 (
!).
,
,
?
( )

() , [3,
. 223, 160-161]. ( ),
, -
, (
).
S
:
1,1 ( 10 %
= 1);
1,1 < < 1,9 ( 80%
);
1,9
( 10%
= 2).
60


: lnx ( 1) [1, . 111], :
ln(1 + 10 ) 10 lnln(1+10 ) ln(10 ) = ln10,
(11.1) :
S Li(2) lnlnx lnx 0,4679 + ln10 10 .
(11.2)
(11.2) 1 :
< 0,210 .
>> 1 S lnlnx ln10
2,3026, , ,
: < 0,21/.
, lnlnx ()

,

. ,

= 10 58 ,
,
~ 10 58 ,
, (
?).
( = ),
, S
( ) .
(
, . , . 66)
() ?
1 + 10 (
),
2 + 10 B ( ).

61

(K ~ X/lnX) (
>>1) S (, S K) : S ~
X/lnX ~ 10 B /(Bln10),
S ~ 10 B . (11.2)
,
: ~ [(ln10) 2 /B]10 B
~ (0,1886/B)exp(2,3026).
(11.3)
,
exp(2,3026), . ,
810 60 ( 61),
1 + 10 , ~ 0,003110 61 10 58 [
: 0,0031
0,0073 (), (~)
(=)?].
= 10 58
(. ), / 5,301961 323. ,
:
10 B ( >>1) 1 + 10 ,
1, 2, 3, 4, ,
:
/ ~ (ln10) 2 B 5,3019B.
(11.4)
( )
1000 1
1 + 10 , 2 + 10 B ,
:
aexp(b), ln(X 2)/ln10.
(11.5)
5,215,7 13
= 2,5%, (11.5)
: a = 0,2885; b = 2,023.
2232622 41000 =
0,5%, (11.5)
: a = 0,379; b = 1,7454.
62

= 3163 ( = 3,5) (11.3)


(11.5) , 170,4 [
(11.3)].
1 + 10 ,
1 + 10 B ,
:
a 3 + b 2 + c + d,
(11.6)
a = 0,6023; b = 0,5696; c = 1,0103; d =
0,0004 2,16,5 1,9 1,05
= 0,15%.
.
, X 2 = f( 1)
(.
, . 130134), (
1) ( ),
( 2)
( ). ( 1,14 1,88
4,45 2,24) ( = 5%)
( ):
X 2 + 3,795exp[ ( 1)].
(11.7)
( )
: ( 1 2)
(
2). (11.7)
74%
.
1 + 10 > 1,9 (
< 0,046) (
|| < ):
S ,
(11.8)
= 3,32192994 ( ?).
63

,
2 + 10 B ( 1),
:
S lg10 B .
(11.9)

:
lg10 B 0,434310 B .
(11.10)
,
, :
;
;
.
, (1; 2)
.
1,00729735308 ( 1 + , S 5,3845),
( ; 2) (2 )/(2 1)100% 99,3%
(.
, . 45). =
10,6161 11, [2; 11] (?)
99,3%
2. ( ) , ,
:
( )
,
: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. ,
() . ?

(. , . 155 ).
12.

64

= 1 = 1/ln (ln1 = 0,
).
0 < < 1 ,

,
( ).
1 0 = 1/ln
.
( |ln|), =
1/|ln| .

: y 0,3321exp(2,9805x) 0,1 0,7
( 60% ).
S,
= 1/ln
(0; ).
> 2 S ,
( ,
).
,
S ( ?):
S = abs[F() F(0)],
(12.1)
abs[] ( ||)
, ( S < 0,
);
F() ln|lnx| + Gk, Gk
, k = 1, 2, 3, ... ( )
Gk (lnx)/(kk!) (. . 3).
F(0) = , 0,577215 . F(0) (
0): Gk ( ) ln|lnx| (+ ), F() =
|| < 0,5x.

65

(12.1) , 0,2
x 0,9 S
( = 2%):
S + (1,5409x 1,818).
(12.2)
> 2.
, X 2 = f()
,
( 0) ( ),
( 1)
( ). ( 0,2
0,9) : X 2
0,02592exp(), = 4,669201 .
0,001 0,9
( = 2,5%):
X 2 + 0,02592exp().
(12.3)

:
0,1 ( 10 % );
0,1 < < 0,9 ( 80%);
0,9
( 10% ).
, (0; 1)
( ).

66


(). ,
0,99270264692 ( 1 ,
S 4,3467), , (0; )
99,3% (.
, . 45, 8184),
= 8,2897 8 ( 7).

: [2; 8]
99,3%
2. ,

(.
, 32, . 155)

.

2,02 < < 3,80.

S,
-: (1/ 1) = f( 1),
:
(1/ 1) 0,0305exp[( 1)],
. = 1,011,84 = 0,99640,3936
( = 3%):
{1 + 0,0305exp[( 1)]} 1 .
(12.4)

67

1,
, (S = S
0,6191 )
0,63478 ( ?),
2,4972 ( ). ,
0,72 ( )
X = ,
. , ,

(. ,
31, . 154).

1 10 , 1, = 1, 2, 3, 4, ,
()
. , = 1 = 0,9,
S = 1,78 4; = 15
= 0,999999999999999 S =
33,96 123.
S,
(lnx 1), ln(1 10 )
10 . ln|lnx| ln10, (12.1)
: S abs( ln10 10 + C), :
S ln10 C.
(12.5)
:
< 0,4exp(2,5), = 2 ( = 0,99)
= 0,12%.
(
S ln10), 10
B
, >> 1 S ~ X/lnX = 10 B /(Bln10) (. . 1).
:
~ 10 B / [B(ln10) 2 ] 10 D ,
(12.6)
D = B (lnB + 2lnln10)/ln10,
: ~ 10 B .
68

S ~ 10 58 (. . 3),
,
~ 10 61 . S
,
L 1 x 10

, ~ 10 58 ( L ~ 10 58
,
L). ,
, , (
) ,
S ( 2 10 58 ).
, 1 10 (
>> 1) 1 + 10 ( >> 1)
[. (11.3)].
, ,
. , ,
,
(
), 1/. ,
,
( ).

69

, (12.1),
S, , ,
S* |x/(lnx 1)| ( 0).
(, ||)
(. . 1): K ~ X/(lnX 1), K
[2; ], K S (.
. 3). S ( K) S*
: (S S*)/S < 0,25|lnx| 1, 5 . ,
( 0) S ,
( )
S. ,
, :
(., ,
).
10 ( 1)
: S |x/(lnx 1)| (10 ln10) 1 .
2 + 10 B ( 1),
:
S 10 B ,
(12.7)
1,4427 (, , 10= 1,4426?).

:
+ (ln + lnln10 + ln1,4427)/ln10
+ 0,4343ln + 0,5214.
(12.8)
(12.8) : ~
, ,
2 (
) , : 2 + .

70

( > 1)
Gk
Gk
(lnx)/(kk!), Gk
( , ),
Gk.
: k = 1, 3, 5,
Gk,
Gk ,
,
Gk. , S abs(ln|lnx| +Gk +
), ( 0) Gk ,
ln|lnx| (
).
Gk = (k)
, , 0,1 (
), = 0,0001 ( =
2,0000068449)
,

Gk, :
7 ( 7),
k = 7 |Gk|
max 85 ( k S 10
5
). |Gk|max (
) (Hc),
k ( |
Gk| )
(kc).

, , = 10 7
(. . 12.1) 9 ,
|Gk|max 33280 (S 610 9 ), k = 14.

71

40000


(
)

30000
20000
10000
0
-10000
-20000
-30000

-40000
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

. 12.1. Gk = (k) = 10

( kc)
10 ? ,
0,0001 |Gk| ,
|Gk|max k = kc,
, .
, ,
Gk = Gk+2 k, ,
, kc (kc = k +1, kc = k).
Gk = Gk+2 , (lnx)/(kk!) = (lnx) k 2 /
[(k + 2)(k + 2)!], k 3 +
5k 2 + [8 (lnx) 2 ]k + 4 = 0.
(, . [1, . 219]), ,
< 0,015 ( ,
1,82387) (): k1
= f1(x); k2 = f2(x); k3 = f3(x), : k1 > 1, k2 < 0, k3 < 1.
( kc)
, k1 ; , k1 =
12,00 , = 4,6910 7 ,
k kc = 12
: |Gk|max = 8250 ( ).

72

, kc = k1
= f1(x) ( , . ).
10 , = 2, 3, 4, , 307 k1,
, kc
(
):
kc lnx 2,5 kc ln10 2,5
(12.9)
kc, (12.9)
: || < 0,2/ 2 ( 12).
,
: k1 + k2
5, k3
(12.9): || k3, 0,84 ( =
2) 0,22 ( = 307), 1/5?
, 10

( >> 1) : |Gk|max |Gk|max.


, (kc),
: (lnx)/(kk!), lnx = ln10 (
) k kc ln10 2,5.
:
< 10 1 ~ 10 2 , 5 .
(12.10)
,
(S 0) = 1/ln
, ,
. ,
b (
x = 10) , ,
( H ~ 10),
( k ~ b)
.
13. ()
73


(17071783 .) ,
,
1.
.
,
.
, ,
,
, , ,
.
(17431794):
[]
, ,
. , ,
, ,
,
. ,

, .

1
E u l e r ,
Opera Omnia, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 241253. in extenso (
) .
(18871985) . (464
.) ,
, , .

74

, . :

- ,
, -
, .2
,
,

, , ,
,
,

, ,
.
,
N ( 1 N)
N (. ,
. 43 50). N
() S. , N = 15
: (15) = 24 S = 24.
,
():
(N) = (N 1) + (N 2) (N 5) (N 7) +
+ (N12) + (N15) (N22) (N26) + (13.1)

.
: .
... (?) .

75

1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 22, 26,


,
( )
E (Euler). G = 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, ( ) : = 1;
= 2; = 5; = 7; ( ). (
1, 5, 61, 1385, 50521, 2702765,
199360981, , . [1,
. 107, 113])
(13.1)
(N) = Z(D),
(13.2)
: Z(D);
G = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ;
D = (N ) (),
G- (D) (13.1);
Z +1 1,
G ( ).
(13.1)
N (D), N.
( ):
1). D ( G
D ), D .
2). N = D = 0 (0)
N (. ).
3). + (Z = Z = +1),
(Z= Z = 1),
(
).

76

( ) : ,
N
( N=0). 0/1 = 0; 0/2 = 0; 0/3 = 0;
, 0/0 , (
1696 . . ).
(13.1) , N:
(0) = 1 N=1 [(0)
] N .
(13.1)
N=15:
(15) = (15 1) + (15 2) (155) (157) +
+ (1512) + (1515) =
= (14) + (13) (10) (8) + (3) + (0) =
= 24 + 14 18 15 + 4 + 15 = 24.
(13.3)
, N=15
D=14; D=13; D=10; D=8;
D=3; D=0. , (13.1)
() N.
(13.1) ,
,
( ).
(13.1)
, , (. . 13.1).
,
(13.1) ()
(+, ) ( ; ,
).

77

,
D = (N ) (13.2):
D G- D = 0, 1, 2,
3, , N=
( G- ).
S =
1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 12, 8, N =
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,,
( !).
(S) :
1). G-
(, G- ),
(+ ) 3- .
13.1. (S) N
G = 1
E = 1
N

2
2

3
5

4
7

5 6
12 15

D =N E

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1

2

3 0
N
4 1
5 2 0
6 3 1
7 4 2
8 5 3
9 6 4
10 7 5 0
11 8 6 1
12 9 7 2
13 10 8 3 0

G =
E =
N

1
1

2
2

3
-5

4
-7

5
12

6
15

D ,

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

3
4
7
6
12
8
15
13
18
12
28
14
24

1
3
4
7
6
12
8
15
13
18
12
28
14

78



-5

-1
-3 -7
-4 -1
-7 -3
-6 -4
-12 -7
-8 -6 12
-15 -12
1
-13 -8
3
-18 -15
4 15

4
7
6
12
8
15
13
18
12
28
14
24
24

2). (S) N
( D ),
G N ( N-
). , N=1 S =1 (
).
3). ( G =1) N- (
N) ()
(S), N1.
4). S
() : 1, 3, 4, 7, 6, 12, 8,
15, 13, 18, 12, 28, 14, 24, 24, (
N).
5). ( G 2) 13.2
()
G EO
1
1
1
, ,
2
2
1
(+ ).
5
3
3
, , ,
7
4
2
.
5
5 12
. 13.2, G = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6
3 15
7
7 22
, ( . even8
4 26
odd, -) ,
9
9 35
:
10
5 40
G 2, = G,
11 11 51
G 2, = G/2.
12
6 57
70
13
13
G- (E) :
77
14
7
E = + + + ,
(13.5)
15 15 92
, E = 1; E= 1+1; E= 1+1+3; ..
16
8 100
G- ()
( ).
. G = 0 2, = 0/2 = 0,
, , , = =
0. = 0,
(13.1) :
(N0) = (N0) (N0) + (N1) + (N2) + (13.4)
79

, (13.4) (13.1)
( ).
, ()
,
:
E = aG + bG + c,
(13.6)
a = 3/8 G;
b = 1/2, c =1/8 G = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11,;
b = 1/4, c = 0 G = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, (0 ?).
(13.1)
:
,
.
1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, [ ], ,
. ,


: 1, 5, 12, 22, 35, 2, 7, 15, 26, 40, [.
(13.6) ], ,
[] .
, (13.1)
(. . 13.1), , ,
-, - ( )
(.
- , . 54).
(- ) -
..
, (
) (N),
N, ,
, ,
( ?). ,
- .
80

(13.1) :
, (0), .
,
? .
, (
, . , . 51 55),
,
, ,
, (
?).
(
) .

(), (
) N
(

, ).
14.
(13.1) G-
: +1, +2, 5, 7, +12, +15, 22, 26,
+35, +40, 51, 57, +70, +77, ( +
). (13.2),
(13.1), :
(N) = (||/E)(N ||),
(14.1)
|| abs() , ,
(||/E)
(+1 1) .
, (
)
:
G +, 1+,
81

14.1. () (G)
G

1 E 1+
G1+
1
2 E 2+
G2+
2
5 E 1G13
7 E 2d=
G24
3
2
12 E 1+
G1+ G2+
x
G1+
5
15 E 2+
-5
G2+
6
-23
-22
22 E 1-4
G17
-19
-18
E
226
-3
G28
-15
-14
35 E 1+
-2
G1+
9
-11
-10
40 E 2+
-1
G2+
10
-7
-6
51 E 10
G111
-3
-2
E
257
1
G212
1
2
70 E 1+
2
G1+
13
5
6
77
G2+
14
92
G115

+, 2+,
G216 100

G = 4x d
2
E = aG + bG + c

1
G1-21
-17
-13
-9
-5
-1
3
7

G , 1,
G , 2.
1+ ( = 1, 12, 35, 70,)
(13.6)
G = 1, 5, 9, 13,, G1+ (.
. 14.1). G2+, G1, G2.
+ , , ,
,
: 1+, 2+, 2, 2 (. .
14.1).
, ( )
= 0 + ( )
(. . 14.1). G :
G = 4x d .
(14.2)
82

0
G2
-2
-1
-1

(G1+, G2+, G1, G2)


G ( d = 3,
2, 1, 0). 0 G ,
(13.6) : G = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
E = 0, 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, [
?, . (13.4)].
(1+, 2+, 1, 2, . . 14.1)
(13.6),
(G1+, G2+, G1, G2).
, :
a, b, c ( );
g1, g2 ( ).
(g = 1, 2/3, 1/3, 0)
g = (i 4)/3, i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
14-1: 12-
(1,1/3, 0,+2/3)
+ (. , . 15,
. 4.1)
(13.6) G
(14.2), (
a, b, c 1, 2)
14.2.
E = a + b + c.
(14.3) x1 = 4/6 3/6 0 -1/6
. x2 = 3/6 2/6 1/6 0
a = 6
6
-6
-6
14.2 4- b = -7 -5 1 -1
c = 2
1
0
0
(1+, 2+, 1, 2).
E 1+ E 2+ E 1- E 2x

-5 187 176 -155 -145


:
-4 126 117 -100 -92
-3
77
70 -57 -51
L1 (2+)
(1+) = 2 1,
-2
40
35 -26 -22
L2 abs(1) (2+) = 4 1,
-1
15
12
-7
-5
0
2
1
0
0
L3 abs(2) abs(1) = 2,
1
1
2
-5
-7
L4 (1+) abs(2) = 4 3,
2
12
15 -22 -26
3
35
40 -51 -57
L5 (1+) (1+) = 12 1.
4
70
77 -92 -100
5

83

117

126 -145 -155

(14.2) , x = G/4 + d/4,


G , x G/4.
()
~ 810, ~ (3/8)G,
(13.6). , : G
~ 4,6210 ~ 10. ,
()
3
(. L1, L2, L3, L4) (24)10,
x
N 2
( N).
1

. 14.2 ,
, : 0
8 m 12
1,1,1,1, 2,2,2,2, 3,3,3,3, .. ( 0 4
). . 14.1. x = f(m)
( 1+, 2+, 1,
2) a, b, c. (14.3)
(14.2) G
.
,

m (
). . 14.1 = f(m) ,
(
).
(
) .
:
* = pm + Q ,
(14.4)
p = 1/4; Q = 3/8 . (14.4)
,
(* ).

( ), :
84

= pm + q,
(14.5)
p = 1/4 ( ); q = 3/4; 2/4; 1/4; 0 (
3/8, Q
). . 14.1 q = (m),
.
,
( ),
(. . 14.4):
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, :
1. i = 1 ( n i = 1, 2, 3, 4).
2. z = pn + q ( ).
3. (z) (.. z).
4. (z) z 0, i=i+1 2,
:
5. = z ( z ).
6. E = a + b + c G = 4x d.
7. n 1.
4,
(14.3).
(14.3)
( = 1/6, 0, 1/6, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6, . . 14.2),
, :
= n/6, n = 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
1/6, , ,
(
. 14.5):
14.4.
i= 1
2
3
4
p 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4
q 3/4 2/4 1/4 0
a 6
6 -6 -6
b -7 -5 1 -1
c
2
1
0
0
d 3
2
1
0

85

1, 2, 5, 7.
(1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 22, 26,),
n = 6, 12, 18, 24, . ( n
6). ,
.
0, 0, 1, 2, ,
1 (0, 0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, ).
n = 3, 9, 15, 21,. (. . 14.5).
2, 1, 0, 0, (2, 1, 0,
0, 15, 12, 7, 5,), (2+,
1+, 2, 1). n = 0, 6, 12, 18,
7, 5, 2, 1, (7, 5,
2, 1, 26, 22, 15, 12,),
(2+, 1+, 2, 1), 1.
n = 3, 9, 15, 21,

0,05

0,04

2, 1, 2+, 1+

0,03
0,02
0,01
0,00
-0,01
-1,5

-1

-0,5

0,5

1,5

2,5

3,5

4,5

-0,02
-0,03
-0,04
-0,05

. 14.2
( )

86

,

( 4, . ),
( p, q, a, b, c, d),
. ,
,

(, ).
. 14.5 (1+, 2+, 1, 2)
,
14.5.

k =1
n
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
-18
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

x1 =
x2 =
a =
b =
c =
x
-1,167
-1,000
-0,833
-0,667
-0,500
-0,333
-0,167
0,000
0,167
-12
0,333
0,500
0,667
0,833
1,000
1,167
1,333
1,500
1,667
1,833
2,000
2,167

4/680
3/6
6 70
-7
2 60
E 1+
50
18,333
15,000
40
12,000
30
9,333
7,000
20
5,000
3,333
10
2,000
1,000
0
-6
0
0,333
-10
0,000
0,000
-20
0,333
1,000
-30
2,000
3,333
-40
5,000
7,000
-50
9,333
-60
12,000
15,000

3/6
2/6
E
6
-5
1
E 2+
15,000
12,000
9,333
7,000
5,000
3,333
2,000
1,000
0,333
6
0,000
0,000
0,333
1,000
2,000
3,333
5,000
7,000
9,333
12,000
15,000
18,333

0
-1/6
1/6
0
-6
-6
1
-1
0
0
E 1E 2-9,333
-7,000
-7,000
-5,000
-5,000
-3,333
-3,333
-2,000
-2,000
-1,000
-1,000
-0,333
-0,333
0,000
n
0,000
0,000
0,000
-0,333
12
18
-0,333
-1,000
-1,000
-2,000
-2,000
-3,333
-3,333
-5,000
-5,000
-7,000
-7,000
-9,333
-9,333
-12,000
-12,000
-15,000
-15,000
-18,333
-18,333
-22,000
-22,000
-26,000
-26,000
-30,333

n,
n = 6x/k ,
(14.6)
k =1 ( ).
87


1, 2, 5, 7 2, 1, 0, 0 (. ).
1+ 2+ Emin = 1/24,
1 2 Emax = 1/24 ( 1/24 =
0,041666 3,7% ).
( Emin Emax)
. 14.2 (
). ,
( )
: 2, 1, 2+, 1+ (
).
(14.3)
= 1/6, 0, 1/6, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6. 14-2:
k = 3,
, -: 1/2,
0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 (, 1/2 ).
- (14.3),
:
E = (a/k)(k) + (b/k)(k) + c.
(14.7)
k
. (14.7) , k
( k = 0).
k > 0 k/6,
: . 14.5
(a, b, c) , (1, 2)
,
1+, 2+, 1, 2 (

n = 6x/k)

( k).
15.
,
(.
, 12, .141).
88


(. 4
). . 14.5 ,
( 1+, 2+, 1, 2)
( ) ,
..
1+,
E = (1/6)n (7/6)n +
2 (. . 14.5). n = 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, ,
(3i+5), ( 1/3
),
( : + ).
():
(n 5)/3 +1.
(15.1)
n = 2, 3, 4, 5 = 0, 1/3, 2/3, 1 (.
).
(0, 0,
) = 1/3
= 2/3; (1, 2) =1+1/3
=1+2/3; .. , i-
= i + 1/3 = i + 2/3.
[
()] (
2 ),
, .
n E1+
A() E
2 0,333 0,000
0 0 0
3 0,000 0,333
0 0 0
4 0,000 0,667
0 0 0
5 0,333 1,000
1 1 1
6 1,000 1,333
1 1 1
7 2,000 1,667
1 1 2
8 3,333 2,000
2 0 2
9 5,000 2,333
2 0 -5
10 7,000 2,667
2 0 -7
11 9,333 3,000
3 1 3
12 12,000 3,333
3 1 12
13 15,000 3,667
3 1 15

89

n = 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, :


(n 5)/3 +1 ( ).
2. , Z = +1, Z = 1.
3.
E = Z[(n +1)/6 7(n +1)/6 + 2],
G = 2 1.
4.
E = Z[(n +2)/6 7(n +2)/6 + 2],
G = 2.
1,
.
1.

16.
(. . 13)
2002 ., .
(.: ,
1975 .). , 2003 .
, , (.
). , ,
.
2007 . ,
( )
( ).
, ( )
.
,
1961 .
. 3- ,

.
16
( ).
.
90

, ,
, . (
) , - (.
, . 66-69),
( , .
. 13) N = 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7,:
(1) = (11) = (0) = 1 (. 2- ) = 1;
(2) = (21) + (22) = (1) + (0) =
=1+2 = 3 ( = 1 + 1);
(3) = (31) + (32) = (2) + (1) =
= 2 + 1 = 21 + 12 = 4;
(4) = (41) + (42) = (3) + (2) =
= 3 + 2 = 31 + 22 = 7;
(5) = (51) + (52) (55) = (4) + (3) (0) =
= 5 + 3 1 ( = 5) = 51+ 32 15 = 6;
(6) = (61) + (62) (65) = (5) + (4) (1) =
= 7 + 5 1 = 71 + 52 15 = 7 + 10 5 = 12;
(7) = (71) + (72) (75) (77) =
= (6) + (5) (2) (0) = 11 + 7 2 1 =
= 111 +72 25 17 = 11 +14 10 7 = 8 ( = 7).
(14), ,
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, ,
N
( ).
,
,

, .
, (
) , , .
: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 22, 30, 42, 56, 77, 101, 135,
176, 231, , 75175,
91

( L, ), ,
, - (,
).[ 2009 . ( 2
) ,
(?) ( ?) N. J. A.
Sloane,
000041.]
()
(. . 16.1,
).

92

16.1. , (L)
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

+
1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338
44583
53174
63261

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338
44583
53174

-1
-1
-2
-3
-5
-7
-11
-15
-22
-30
-42
-56
-77
-101
-135
-176
-231
-297
-385
-490
-627
-792
-1002
-1255
-1575
-1958
-2436
-3010
-3718
-4565
-5604
-6842
-8349
-10143
-12310
-14883
-17977
-21637
-26015
-31185

-1
-1
-2
-3
-5
-7
-11
-15
-22
-30
-42
-56
-77
-101
-135
-176
-231
-297
-385
-490
-627
-792
-1002
-1255
-1575
-1958
-2436
-3010
-3718
-4565
-5604
-6842
-8349
-10143
-12310
-14883
-17977
-21637

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565

93

-1
-1
-2
-3
-5
-7
-11
-15
-22
-30
-42
-56
-77
-101
-135
-176
-231
-297
-385
-490
-627
-792
-1002

-1
-1
-2
-3
-5
-7
-11
-15
-22
-30
-42
-56
-77
-101
-135
-176
-231
-297
-385

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30

1
1
2
3
5

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338
44583
53174
63261
75175

N:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, L
( ). N
( ): 1, 2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 22, 26, 35, 40,
N L
, (
) .
(L) (+ )
( N):
1- L 1- E (N = 1);
2- L 2- E (N = 2);
3- L 3- E (N = 5);
4- L 4- E (N = 7);
.. + (
) .

( L) :
(L = 1 N = 1);
1- ( +) (
N) L ,
L (N1);
N L
( +
).
: N = 270
L = 974 834 369 944 625. N > 270
L (
15- L),
L , :
L ~ 2,1810 N = 500; L ~ 5,8310 N = 750;
L ~ 2,3110 N = 1000; L ~ 2,5110 N = 1250;
L ~ 2,4310 N = 1400 ( ).
, , :
L ~ exp(aN),
(16.1)
94

a 0,2637ln(N) 0,1424; b 0,5(1 1/N); e = 2,718,


N : b 0,5 N >> a.
(16.1) , ,
: L ~ xp(10) ~ 10, m ~ 4,510,
.

, N = 1400 :
L ~ 10 .
(16.2)
17.
, (S) N
. , N =
24 : 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24,
N S = 1+2+3+4+6+8+12+24=60.
- ,
N
.
. 17.1, .
N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, , (
) ().
,
( +, ): 1, 2, 5, 7,
12, 15, 22, 26, 35, 40, .
, N,
() .
(S)
N,
( N- )
( ). , N=24 :
S = 12551 +10022 4905 2977 +7712 +3015 222 =
= 1255 + 2004 2450 2079 + 924 + 450 44 = 60.
95

17.1 . , (S)
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

1
1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338
44583
53174
63261
75175

2
1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338
44583
53174
63261

-5

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015
31185
37338

-7

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143
12310
14883
17977
21637
26015

12

15

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604
6842
8349
10143

96

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255
1575
1958
2436
3010
3718
4565
5604

-22

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490
627
792
1002
1255

-26

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42
56
77
101
135
176
231
297
385
490

35

40

1
1
2
3
5
7
11
15
22
30
42

1
1
2
3
5
7

1
3
4
7
6
12
8
15
13
18
12
28
14
24
24
31
18
39
20
42
32
36
24
60
31
42
40
56
30
72
32
63
48
54
48
91
38
60
56
90
42
96
44
84
78

17.2 . (S)
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

2
-5
1
1
2
2
2
3
4
5
6
-5
7
10
-5
11
14
-10
15
22
-15
22
30
-25
30
44
-35
42
60
-55
56
84
-75
77
112
-110
101
154
-150
135
202
-210
176
270
-280
231
352
-385
297
462
-505
385
594
-675
490
770
-880
627
980
-1155
792
1254
-1485
1002
1584
-1925
1255
2004
-2450
1575
2510
-3135
1958
3150
-3960
2436
3916
-5010
3010
4872
-6275
3718
6020
-7875
4565
7436
-9790
5604
9130
-12180
6842 11208
-15050
8349 13684
-18590
10143 16698
-22825
12310 20286
-28020
14883 24620
-34210
17977 29766
-41745
21637 35954
-50715
26015 43274
-61550
31185 52030
-74415
37338 62370
-89885
44583 74676 -108185
53174 89166 -130075
63261 106348 -155925
75175 126522 -186690

-7

12

-7
-7
-14
-21
-35
-49
12
-77
12
-105
24
-154
36
-210
60
-294
84
-392
132
-539
180
-707
264
-945
360
-1232
504
-1617
672
-2079
924
-2695
1212
-3430
1620
-4389
2112
-5544
2772
-7014
3564
-8785
4620
-11025
5880
-13706
7524
-17052
9504
-21070 12024
-26026 15060
-31955 18900
-39228 23496
-47894 29232
-58443 36120
-71001 44616
-86170 54780
-104181 67248
-125839 82104
-151459 100188
-182105 121716

15

15
15
30
45
75
105
165
225
330
450
630
840
1155
1515
2025
2640
3465
4455
5775
7350
9405
11880
15030
18825
23625
29370
36540
45150
55770
68475
84060

-22

-26

35

-22
-22
-44
-66
-110
-26
-154
-26
-242
-52
-330
-78
-484
-130
-660
-182
-924
-286
-1232
-390
-1694
-572
-2222
-780
35
-2970 -1092
35
-3872 -1456
70
-5082 -2002 105
-6534 -2626 175
-8470 -3510 245
-10780 -4576 385
-13794 -6006 525
-17424 -7722 770
-22044 -10010 1050
-27610 -12740 1470

40

40
40
80
120
200
280

1
3
4
7
6
12
8
15
13
18
12
28
14
24
24
31
18
39
20
42
32
36
24
60
31
42
40
56
30
72
32
63
48
54
48
91
38
60
56
90
42
96
44
84
78

. 17.1 , ( N=2)
N = LE (
, + ). ,
N=24 -: =
1255; = 2004; = 2450; = 2079; = 924; = 450; =
44 ( S = 60).
97

, (L) ,
= LE ,
() ( ).
.
,
(. 17.2,
). ,
()
N = 277,
S* (
) [ abs(S S*) = 1].
N
,
().
N = 45 . 17.1.
N (1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45),
S = 1 + 3 + 5 + 9 + 15 + 45 = 78.
( ):
G ;
L ( , . );
( !);
( , . .17.1).
L
G
E
H = L*E
200000
H
1
75175
1
75175
150000
2
63261
2
126522
100000
3
37338
-5
-186690
50000
4
26015
-7
-182105
010143
5
12
121716
-50000
6
5604
15
84060
7
1255 -22
-27610
-100000
8
490 -26
-12740
-150000
9
42
35
1470
-200000
10
7
40
280
1
2
3
4
5
78
=

G
6

10

.17.1. N = 45 .

98

N=45 ,
H = f(G) (. . 17.1) ,
( ) ,
() .
18.
( . solus )
() ,

35 .
. .

( -,
).
,

() -,
, ..
( ,
!).
( ):
,
,

. (
,
!)

.
,

,
( ,
99

, ).
, .
() (
), ,
,
(
).
(
1917 .). (.
, . 73).
, , N = 45 (
) (. . 17.1). ,
N
.

.
(. . 12.1).
N = 277. ,
(1 277), S =
1+277 = 278. N = 277 .
18.1 ( !).
16-
(H~10, m = 16),
: !
(L) (16.2), ,
(m)
m > 10.
N = 277
( . 17.1).
,
( ), N =
45 (. . 17.1). (
+, )
ln(H) = f(G).
100

18.1. N =277
G
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

L ( G )
E
1 637 293 969 337 170
1
1 520 980 492 851 170
2
1 218 374 349 844 330
-5
1 050 197 489 931 120
-7
722 760 953 690 372
12
576 672 674 947 168
15
338 854 264 248 680
-22
249 291 451 168 559
-26
123 888 443 077 259
35
83 561 103 925 871
40
34 643 126 322 519
-51
21 248 279 009 367
-57
7 206 841 706 490
70
3 972 999 029 388
77
1 071 823 774 337
-92
522 115 831 195
-100
107 438 159 466
117
45 060 624 582
126
6 620 830 889
-145
2 291 320 912
-155
214 481 126
176
56 634 173
187
2 679 689
-210
451 276
-222
5 604
247
297
260
=

H = L*E
1 637 293 969 337 170
3 041 960 985 702 350
6 091 871 749 221 660
7 351 382 429 517 820
8 673 131 444 284 460
8 650 090 124 207 520
7 454 793 813 470 960
6 481 577 730 382 530
4 336 095 507 704 060
3 342 444 157 034 840
1 766 799 442 448 470
1 211 151 903 533 920
504 478 919 454 300
305 920 925 262 876
98 607 787 239 004
52 211 583 119 500
12 570 264 657 522
5 677 638 697 332
960 020 478 905
355 154 741 360
37 748 678 176
10 590 590 351
562 734 690
100 183 272
1 384 188
77 220
278

18-1: ,

!
,
( ).
,
( ).
N ? ,
N ( )
:
101

(E G),
(L) N.
:
E = G3/8 + G/2 + 1/8 G = 1, 3, 5, 7,
E = G3/8 + G/4
G = 2, 4, 6, 8,
( N)
N=277 (. .
18.1). :
L = aLexp( bE),
(18.1)
G = 1, 2, 3, L E ( N);
L N- , G = 1,
(18.1) L
(!) (
N);
= 1,095 (L);
b = 0,0762 exp(1).
G = 1, 2, 3, , 10 ()
(18.1) 2%; G > 10
(L) (18.1).
: = LE (
G = 5 E = 12 N = 277)
(18.1) (
= 0,6%). N
(18.1)
().

102

( N =
277) :
1). (18.1)
, , N 1.
2). b (18.1)
: b = 1,047N, = 2% ( b),
, N , , b 1,4N, .
, N
( ) ()
(L, L, L, .. ),
, ,
N. .
(H) N
(G) N-
. , ( )
( N)
, N. , ~ (3/8)G
(. ),
:
G~~.
(18.2)
N
G ~ 4,610 H ( -: 10
710 , ,
, ?).
(Hmax)
N ( H). H
= f(G) Hmax , ,
( , . . 18.1). N
Hmax ( !)
N, G ( H
N). , (N ~ 810; G ~ 4,610)
( ) : Hmax ~ 10, m ~ 10 (!).
H = f(G) ( )
. ,
103

() , ,
( G ).
,
( ).
.
(. 17.1) G
( N)
:
N = 1 Hmax 1- G = 1 (E = 1);
N = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,, 14 Hmax G = 2 (E = 2);
N = 15, 16, 17,, 51 Hmax G = 3 (E = 5);
.. N G,
( Hmax).
N = 1, 2, 3, 4
(G = G), N
(G >> G).
N (G) (
, ),
(Hmax):
Hmax L E, J = N E + 1,
(18.3)
L J- ( ),
() N = J
. (18.1) (L)
( N),
(18.3) (
).
, N = 15 G = 3,
: E= 5; J = 15 5 + 1 = 11; Hmax = LE = 425 = 210.
N = 277 G = 5, : E = 12; J = 277
12 + 1 = 266; Hmax = LE = 722 760 953 690 37212 8,6710.
(Hmax) 65536
N (. . 18.2)
24- ( G):
G = 2 ( N = 2, 3, 4, , 14, Hmax E);
104

G = 3 ( N = 15, 16, , 51, Hmax E);


G = 4 ( N = 52, , 132, Hmax E);
G = 5 ( N = 133,..., 283, Hmax E);
.. ( G = 24 N = 62025).

105

NG, (Hmax) (
N) G
G ( ). : NG =
2, 15, 52, 133, . . 18.2 ,
4- G:
N ~ 0,18G N ~ 1,29 ,
(18.4)
~ (3/8)G (. ).
(18.4) ,
N :
G ~ (N/ 0,18) ~ 1,54N .
(18.5)
18.2.

NG
H1
1
135
239943
6620830889
2,7E+15
1,2E+22
8,8E+29
2,7E+36
3,4E+43
3,6E+52
3,5E+62
1,9E+73
9,7E+84
2,9E+97
7,8E+110
1,2E+125
1,8E+140
1,5E+156
1,2E+173
5,2E+190
2,1E+209
5,1E+228
1,1E+249

G
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24


NG
E
2
2
5
15
7
52
12
133
15
284
22
532
26
919
35
1321
40
1895
51
2762
57
3911
70
5370
77
7223
92
9498
100
12297
117
15648
126
19671
145
24391
155
29951
176
36373
187
43818
210
52308
222
62025

106

NG
Hmax
Hmax/H1
2
2,00
210
1,56
623938
2,60
24673776612
3,73
1,5E+16
5,35
8,8E+22
7,03
8,1E+30
9,21
3,1E+37
11,62
4,8E+44
14,18
6,1E+53
16,97
7,0E+63
20,26
4,5E+74
23,59
2,7E+86
27,43
9,0E+98
31,32
2,8E+112
35,70
5,0E+126
40,15
8,1E+141
45,09
7,5E+157
50,08
6,4E+174
55,57
3,2E+192
61,12
1,4E+211
67,16
3,8E+230
73,26
8,9E+250
79,85

(18.5)
G ~ 2,5810 ( -: 10
410 , ,
).
~ (3/8)G ~ 10 , (18.3) J =
N E + 1 = 810 10 + 1, J ~ N. (18.3)
Hmax L E,
: Hmax ~ L E ~ L ~ 10, m ~ 10.
G N
(N = 2, 15, 52, 133, ).
: 13, 37, 81, 151, (. . 18.2)
, , :
N N ~ 0,18[(G +1) G] ~ 0,184G . (18.6)
(18.6)
~ 1,2410 ().
( ) N ( )
G ~ 2,5810.
- : 11 210
( ).
()
(Hmax) () N
( N- L):
Hmax/ Hmax/L , = L ~ 10 . (18.7)
(. 17.1) :
~ 0,3183 .
(18.8)
(18.8)
~ 10, Hmax = ~ 10.
( ~ 10, m ~ 10) ,
, , Hmax ~ .
Hmax (18.3) (18.5).

107

N (.
, . 17.2) (Hmin).
Hmin ( ) :
()
N , (G)
H :
H L E, J = N E + 1,
(18.9)
G- (. );
L J- ( ),
( G=1) N = J
.

1. . ., . . . .: , 1980.
2. , . . . .: , 1985.
3. . . .: , 2004.
4. . . II . -: , 2002.
5. . . . -: , 2003.
6. . . . -: , 2004.
7. . . . -: , 2006.
8. . : . .: , 1994.
9. ., ., . : . .:
-, 2007.
10. . .: . . , 1995.
11. . .: . , 1984.

108

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