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(A)

(B)

1st Lecture
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GENERAL INTRODUCTION: http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.
sin1x,cos1x,tan1xetc.denoteanglesorrealnumberswhosesineisx,whose
cosineisxandwhosetangentisx,providedthattheanswersgivenarenumerically
smallestavailable.Thesearealsowrittenasarcsinx,arccosxetc.
Iftherearetwoanglesonepositive&theothernegativehavingsamenumerical
value,thenpositiveangleshouldbetaken.
PRINCIPAL VALUES AND DOMAINS OF INVERSE CIRCULAR
FUNCTIONS :
(i)
y=sin1xwhere1x1; y andsiny=x.
2

(ii)
(iii)

y=cos1xwhere1x1;0yandcosy=x.
y=tan1xwherexR; x andtany=x.

(iv)

2
2
1

y=cosec xwherex 1orx1;

(v)
(vi)

y ,y0andcosecy=x.
2
2
1
y=sec xwherex1orx1;0y;y andsecy=x.
2
1

y=cot xwherexR,0<y<andcoty=x.

NOTE THAT :(a) 1stquadrantiscommontoalltheinversefunctions.


(b) 3rdquadrantis not usedininversefunctions.

(c) 4thquadrantisusedintheCLOCKWISE DIRECTIONi.e. 2 y 0 .


Explain&drawgraphsofall6inversecircularfunctionshighlightingtheirprincipalrange.
1.
y=sin1x,|x |1,
2.y=cos1x,|x |1,
3.
y=tan1x,xR,

y 2 , 2

1.
4.
6.

y(0,)

(1)

For each graph comment upon the following.


periodicity
2.
boundness
3.odd/even/neitheroddnorever
increasing/decreasing
5.
verticaltangentifany
maximumandminimum 7.
inflectionpoint
8.
CriticalPoint

4.y=cot1x,xR,

y[0,]

5.y=sec1x,x1,

y 0 , 2

6.y=cosec1x,x1,

y 2 , 0

0 ,

tan1(x)andcot1(x)arecontinuousandmonotoniconR
thattheirrangeisR

(1)

(a)Domain&rangeofcos1[x];x[1,2)andy 0, ,
2

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Ans.D:x<0;R:(0,/2]

(b)Domain&rangeofy=sin1(ex)
(c)Domain&rangeofcos1{x}
sin1{x}

Ans.D: xR ;R:(0,/2]
Ans.D:xR;R:[0,/2)
3

Ans.D: xR ;R: 2 , 4 , 4

(d)Domain&rangeofcot1(sgnx)
(e)

[x]
,where[]and{}denotesthegreatestinteger
{x}

1
Domainoff(x)= sin

functionandfractionalpartrespectively,is
(A*)(0,1)
(B)(1,1){0}
(C)(2,2){1,0,1}
(D)Noneofthese
[Sol. Wemusthave,

[x]

1 {x} 1;

[x]

from1 {x} ,weget

notexI

....(3) [11th, 14-02-2009]

{x} [ x ]
0
{x}

{x} >0(asx={x}+[x]x>0;xN....(1)
[x]

[ x ] {x}
0
{x}

from, {x} 1,weget

(f)

[x]{x}[x]0x<1;x(I0)....(2)
(1)(2)(3)

x(0,1)Ans.]
Totalnumberofsolutionsofsin{x}=cos{x},where{.}denotesthefractional
part,in[0,2]isequalto
(A)5
(B*)6
(C)8
(D)7
1
[Sol. sin{x}=cos{x}ortan{x}=1 {x}=tan (1)[11th, 14-02-2009]

fromthegraphwehave6solutions]

(f)

f(x)=cot1 log 4 (5x28x+4)= ,


4
5

OR

cot1 log 5 (5x28x+4)= 0,


4

(g)

3
4

Letf(x)=a+bcos1x(b>0).Ifdomainandrangeoff(x)arethesameset
then(ba)isequalto
(A)1

(C) 1 2

(B*) 1

[12th 11-05-2008]

[Sol. Domainoffis[1,1]
ascos1x[0,]
hencerangeoffis[a,a+b]
hence a=1anda+b=1

b=2

(D)2

b= ;

ba= +1Ans.]

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1
2
5For evaluation only.
1 3
note cot1 = http://www.foxitsoftware.com
andcot
=

3
3
6

(b)sin 2 s in

3
24
=
5
25

(c)cos(2tan12)+sin(2tan13)=0
3

(d)sin arcsin 5 arccos 5 =

1
1
(f)sin tan cos cot

(h)tan 2 tan
(3)

Notethat

7
25

1
1
=
3
5

(e)tan 2 cos

5
= 3 5
3
2

(g)sin(tan12)+cos(tan12)=

3
5

7
=

4
17

sin1x]max= andsin1x]min=

cos1x]max=andcos1x]min=0
Ifcos1x+cos1y+cos1z=3thencomputethevalueof
6

x2004+y2004+z2004+ x 2003 y 2003 z 2003


(4)

graphofy=sgn(cot1x)&y=1identical

SECOND LECTURE
PROPERTIES OF INVERSE :
P1 sin(sin1x)/cos(cos1x)/tan(tan1x)etc.and
sin1(sinx)/cos1(cosx)/tan1(tanx)etc.
discusstheirdomain,rangeandgraphs.
sin1(sin1)=1;sin1(sin2)=2;sin1(sin3)=3;
sin1(sin4)=4;sin1(sin5)=52;
cos1(cos1)=1;cos1(cos2)=2;cos1(cos3)=3;
cos1(cos4)=24; cos1(cos5)=25.
Considertheincreasinganddecreasingbehaviourofinversefunctionsandtheireffect
onsolvinginequalities.eg.
(1) log2tan1x>1[Ans.nosolution]
(2) (cot1x)25cot1x+6>0
[Ans:(,cot3)(cot2,)]
(3) Numberofintegralxsatisfyingtheinequality,sin1(sin2)>x23x,is
[Hint: Ans.{0,1,2,3}]
[Ans.4solutions] [12th (23-7-2006)]
1.

y=sin(sin1 x)=x, x[1,1],y[1,1],


yisaperiodic

2.

y=cos(cos1x)=x,x[ 1 , 1],
y[1,1],yisaperiodic

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5.

y=cosec(cosec1x)=x,|x|1,|y|1
yisaperiodic

y=sec(sec1x)=x,|x|1,|y|1
yisaperiodic

6.

Note that:(1,2);(3,4)and(5,6)areidenticalfunction.
7.

y=sin1(sin x),xR, y 2 , 2 ,Periodicwithperiod2


8.y=cos1(cos x)=x, xR,y[0,],periodicwithperiod2

9.

y=tan1(tan x)= x,x R (2n 1) 2 n I , y 2 , 2 ,

periodicwithperiod

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11.

y= cosec1(cosec x),xR{n, n I},

y ,0 0,
2 2

yisperiodicwithperiod2

12.

y=sec1(sec x)=x,yisperiodic;

xR (2 n 1) 2

n I

, y 0 , 2

withperiod2

EXAMPLES:
(1)(a) Integralsolutionoftheinequality
3x2+8x<2sin1(sin4)cos1(cos4)

[Ans:x=1]

(b)Theleastintegralvalueofkforwhich
(k2)x2+8x+k+4>sin1(sin12)+cos1(cos12)forallxR,is
(A)7
(B)5
(C)3
(D*)5
1
1
[Sol. sin (sin12)=sin sin(124)=124 [13th, 10-08-2008, P-1]
cos1(cos12)=cos1cos(412)=412

(k2)x2+8x+k+4>0
ifk=2then8x+4>0(notpossible)
ifk2thenk2>0
and 644(k2)(k+4)<0
16<k2+2k8
k2+2k24>0
(k+6)(k4)>0

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k=5Ans. ]
(2)

10

35

24

26

cos1cos 7 + sin1sin 11 + tan1 tan 13 + cot1cot 5


10

4
4
10
= cos1cos =
= cos1cos 2
7
7

7
7

[Sol. cos1cos

35

13

13

sin1sin 11 =sin1sin 2 11 +sin1sin 11 =sin1sin 11

=sin1sin 11 =

24

2
11
2

tan1tan 13 =tan1tan 13 2 =tan1tan 13 = ]


13


(3)

sin1(sin7)+cos1cos(13)[Hint:sin1(sin(72))+cos1(cos(134))=206]

(4)

si n 1[cos2cot1( 2 1)]=

(5)

Domainoff(x)=

1
ln cot1 x

3
;cot1( 2 1)=
4
8

(, cot1)

[Hint:ln(cot1x)>0cot1x>1x<cot1]

(6)

(a)

3
10
3
1
3
sin 1 sin
= sin sin = sin 1 sin =
Ans
Ans
7
7
7

(b)



11
11
cos 1 sin = cos 1 cos =cos1 cos
=
Ans
Ans
18
18
9
2 9

(c)

sin1 cos

3
5 3

13
33
=sin1 cos 10 =sin1 sin 10 10
=sin1 cos
10

10

=sin1 sin 5 =sin1 sin 5 =


(7)

Ans]
5

sin1|sinx|= sin 1 | sin x | ;y= y =y=0ory=1;


ify=1sin1|sinx|=1;x=1or1butsin1|sinx|isperiodicwithperiod
n+1orn1;sin1|sinx|=0; x=0;x=n

P2 cosec1x=sin1 ;|x|>1(identical)&sin1x=cosec1 ,|x|<1x0(notidentical)


x

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1
x

sec1x=cos1 ;|x|>1(identical);
1
x

1
x

cos1x=sec1 ,|x|1(notidentical)
1
x

cot1x=tan1 ifx>0and+tan1 ifx<0


ASKING:f(x)=tan(cot1x)andg(x)=cot(tan1x)areidentical.[True],D:R{0}
Example : Solve cot

x2 1
x2 1
x2 1
2
1 2 x
0 and
0
,consider
tan

2x
2x
2x
x2 1 3

[Hint:Case-1:2tan1

2x

2
]
3

[Ans:x= 3 , , ( 2 3 ) , (2 3 ) ]
3
x 1
1
1
1
1
P3 sin (x)=sin x&cos (x)=cos (x)etc.
generallyusedtospellthevalueofinversetrigonometricfunctionwithverealsquickly.
2

P4 sin1x+cos1x= if|x|<1;sec1x+cosec1x= if|x|>1

andtan1x+cot1x= x R
Examples:
(1) Findxif
3
;
4

4sin1x+cos1x=

(c)

Maximum&Minimumvaluesof
(ii)(sec1x)2+(cosec1x)2
(i)
(sin1x)3 + (cos1x)3
[Sol.(c) (ii) y=(sec1x)2+(cosec1x)2
[Class Test]
1
1
2
1
=(sec x+cosec x) 2sec xcosec1x

(b)

5tan1x+3cot1x=

7
4

(a)

putt=sec1x;sec1x+cosec1x=
y=

2

2
2t t = 2t 2 t
4
4
2

2
2 2
2
2

2
2
t

y= 2 t t = 4 16 = 2 t
8

2
8
4

ymin=

2
;
8

ymax=

5 2
att=Ans. ]
4

(d)
(e)

Findtherangeoff(x)=sin1x+cos1x+tan1x.
sin1x+tan1x+sec1x
[Hint: domain{1,1};Range{3/4,/4}]

(f)

if(tan1x)2+(cot1x)2=

5 2
thenxequalsto
8
2

5
1
t=3/4(reject)or/4]
[Hint: cot1x= tan x t2+(/2t)2=

[Ans.(a)

3 1
;(b) 2 1 ;(d)[/4,3/4];(e)(f)1]
2 2

tan 1

P5(a)tan x+tan y=

[Proof :

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xy

1
only.
,x 0, yhttp://www.foxitsoftware.com
tanevaluation
y
0and xy 10 tan 1 x For
1 xy
2

tan 1

xy

,x 0, y 0and xy 1 tan 1 x tan 1 y


1 xy
2

Lettan1x=andtan1y=

x=tany=tan

where 0, 2
nowunderthecondition
xy<1
tantan<1tan<cot
or

tan<tan
2

<

()<

.............(1)

||lywherexy>1,wehave <()<

...........(2)

2
tan tan
xy

tan1 1 xy =tan1 1 tan tan =tan1(tan())=(as0<< )


2

Nowlet

0<<

=tan1x+tan1y

againlet <<
2

xy

tan1 1 xy =tan1tan()

=tan1 tan

=as , 0

Hence
Also for
(b)

xy
tan1x+tan1y=+tan1 1 xy

x>0&y>0tan1xtan1y=tan1

xy
(withnootherrestriction)
1 xy

EXAMPLES:
1
2

1
3

Remember :tan11+tan12+tan13=andtan11+tan1 +tan1 =

tan 1 1 tan 1 2 tan 1 3


Note: cot 1 1 cot 1 2 cot 1 3 2

(1)

Iftan14+tan15=cot1()thenfind

[Sol. tan14+tan15=tan1

19

45
9
19
=tan1 =cot1
1 20
19
9

19

19

=cot1 9 = ]
9

(2)

7
9

If=tan15tan13+tan1 = and=tan1

2
24
1

+cot1 +tan1 = ,then


11
7
3
4

(4)

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3
11
For evaluation only.
+ cos1
+ cot1 http://www.foxitsoftware.com
(A) (B)/2(C*)5/12(D)/3
3 .
73
146

sin1

[Hint: tan1(3/8)+tan1(5/11)+/6]
ASKING: Whichisgreatercos1

7
3
+cos1
25
5

orcot1(1)

sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 if x 0;y 0and x 2 y 2 1

P-6

(a)

sin1x+sin1y=
sin 1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 if x 0;y 0and x 2 y2 1

notethatx2+y2<10<sin1x+sin1y<
Let

sin1x=andsin1y=;

now x2+y2<1
sin2+sin2<1

0,
2

sin2 < cos2

sin2<sin2 2 < +<

0<sin1x+sin1y< ]

andx2+y2>1 <sin1x+sin1y<
Thisformulashouldnormallybeusedinestablishingtheidentities.
3
5

e.g.findwhethersin1 +sin1

12
isacute/obtusewillbeundulydifficultusingtheabove.
13

3
4

Howeverifweconvertitintotan1 +tan1
(b)

12
itbecomessimple.
5

|||lywehave sin1xsin1y=sin1 x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 ,x>0;y>0

cos1x+cos1y=cos1 xy 1 x 2 1 y 2 ,x>0,y>0,x<y

and

Examples:
(1) Ifcos1x+cos1y+cos1z=thenprovethatx2+y2+z2+2xyz=1
(2)

cos1

L.H.S.tan1

6 1
2

cos1
=
3
6
2 3
1
2

3 2
=tan1 1 tan 1 3 tan 1 2
1 3 2
2

tan1

=cot1 2 tan1 3 +tan1 2 = tan1 3 =


2
6

wherex>0,y>0,z>0 andxy+yz+zx<1andxy<1,yz<1,zx<1
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xy
1
(xy<1)
[Sol. tan x+tan y+tan z=tan 1 xy +tan z
1

xy
z
1 xy
=tan1 x y
z
1
1 xy
x y z xyz

=tan1 1 ( xy yz zx )

xy

if 1 xy z<1
ifxy+yz+zx<1

and

xy<1

x y z xyz

=+tan1 1 ( xy yz zx ) ifxy+yz+zx>1]
EXAMPLE:
(1)

PointP(x,y)satisfyingtheequationsin1x+cos1y+cos1(2xy)= lieson
(A)thebisectorofthefirstandthirdquadrant
(B)bisectorofthesecondandfourthquadrant.
(C)therectangleformedbythelinesx=1andy=1.
(D*)aunitcirclewithcentreattheorigin.

[Sol. cos1y+cos1(2xy)= sin1x=cos1x

(C)
(a)

[Class Test]

cos cos 1 (2 xy ) = cos cos 1 x cos 1 y

2xy=xy+ 1 x 2 1 y2 x2+y2=1(D)][13th, 05-08-2007]

SIMPLIFICATION & TRANSFORMATION OF INVERSE FUNCTIONS BY


ELEMENTRY SUBSTITUTION AND THEIR GRAPHS.
2x
1 x2
2x
1
1
2tan x=sin
2 =tan
2 =cos
1 x
1 x
1 x2
1

startingwithx=tan

1.

2 tan1 x
1 x 1

2x
2 tan1 x if x 1
sin1
2 =
1 x
2 tan1 x
x 1

2 tan 1 x
x 0
=

2 tan x x 0
1 x2

1 1 x

(1)

2.

cos

3.

2 tan 1 x
x 1
2 tan 1 x
2
x

x
1
tan1
2 =
1
1 x
x 1
2 tan x

(2)

(3)

inflectionpoint,criticalpoints,pointsofextremum,derivativesandtheirantiderivatives.
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Highlights:
(a)

f(x)=sin1

2x
1
2 +2tan x=ifx>1,find cosf (10) =1.
1 x

20

20

20

20

[Hint: f(10)=sin1 101 +2tan1(10)=tan1 99 +2tan1(10)=+tan1 99 tan1 99 ]


(b)

f(x)=sin1

2x
+2tan1x=ifx<1
1 x2

1
( 3 sin x ) if 1 x 1 / 2
1

if 1 / 2 x 1 / 2 ;
(c)sin1(3x4x3)= 3 sin x
1
if 1 / 2 x 1
3 sin x

1
3 cos x 2
1

(d)cos1(4x33x)= 2 3 cos x
1
3 cos x

(c)

if 1 x 1 / 2
if 1 / 2 x 1 / 2 ;
if 1 / 2 x 1

1
1
<x<
3
3
1
3x x 3
(e)tan1
+3tan1x ifx>

2 =
3
1 3x
1
+3tan1x ifx<
3

(d)

3tan1xif

H.W.
[Sol.
(a)tan1

1
1 x2 1
= tan1x x R{0}
2
x

range , {0}
4 4

fig(a)

1
1
1
,
if x
2 sin x
2
2

2 sin 1 x
, 1
if x

2
(b)sin12x 1 x 2 =

1
2 sin x if x 1,
2

1
if x [0,1]
2 cos x
1
2
(c)cos (2x 1)=
2 2 cos1 x if x [ 1,0]

fig(b)

fig(c)

fig (e)

(d)tan1

1 x2
1 x2

[Hint:x2=tan,range 4 , 4 ] Generatedfig.(d)
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Identical / Equal function (ASKING) [Also present in Function teaching notes]


Q.1 (i)
(I)
f (x ) = cot(cot 1x);g(x)=x
1
3
(ii) f(x)=sin (3x4x );g(x)=3sin1x (N.I.)

Q.2

(iii)

f(x)=sec1x+cosec1x;g(x)=

(iv)

f(x)=tan(cot1x);g(x)=cot(tan1x) (I)

(iv)

f(x)= e ln cot x ;g(x)=cot1x

(vi)

f(x)= e ln se c x ;g(x)=sec1x (N.I.)Identicalifx(,1](1,)

(N.I.)

(I)

Whichofthefollowingfunction(s)is/areperiodic?
2x
(A*)f(x)= [ x ] where[]denotesgreatestintegerfunction
2

(B*)g(x)=sgn{x}where{x}denotesthefractionalpartfunction
(C)h(x)= sin 1 cos( x 2 )
(D*)k(x)= cos 1 sin x
[Hint: A=1;B=1;C=aperiodic;D=2]

[11th, 26-02-2009] [also in Function]

Identities involving inverse trigonometric functions


(i)

s in 2 cos

2tan1 tan 4 tan 2 = cos1 1 s in 2 cos

1 y2
1 tan

tan amongy0 ]
[Sol. L.H.S.=2tan y=cos
2 wherey=
1 tan
2
1 y
1

(ii) tan1x=2tan1[cosec(tan1x)tan(cot1x)]
[Hint: startwithtan1x=x=tan]

(x0)

[Sol. =2tan1 cos ec tan 2 =2tan1(coseccot)(cot1x= tan1x)


2

1 cos

(D)

=2tan1 sin =2tan1(tan/2)=tan1x]

Equations involving inverse trigonometric functions

(1)

2cot12 cos1 = cosec1x

(2)

cos1x sin1x = cos1 x 3

4
5

[Hint: cos1x sin1x = cos1 x 3

25
]
7
1
1
[Ans:x=0, , ]
2
2

[Ans:x=

....(1)

....(2)
2

2sin1x= cos1( x 3 )=sin1 ( x 3 )


2

also cos1x+sin1x=
Also (2)(1)

2=
wheresin1x=&sin1( x 3 )=
sin2=sin
2sincos=sin
2x. 1 x 2 = x 3

=0ifn=0
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=2ifn=2

Hencecos1{cot(2tan1x)}=0or or
cot(2tan1x)=1,0,or1 (nowproceedbyfirsttakinggeneralsolution)

or
(4)

sin1x+sin12x=

(T/S)

[Sol. = wheresin=xandsin=2xand=

now sin=sin 3 ;hencesin=sin coscos sin


3
3

2x=

5x
3
1
5
1 x 2 x
1 x2
=
2
2
2
2

25x2=3(1x2)

28x2=3x2=
(5)

tan1

x 1
x 1
+tan1
=tan1(7)
x 1
x

Asking
(6) 2 cot12 + cos1(3/5) = cosec1x

3
3
x=
]
28
2 7

Ans:[x=;x=2isrejected]
(A*)

(B)1 (C)25/7 (D)25/24

1
2.
4
1
2
1
1
[Sol. 2tan11/2+tan14/3= tan
1 =2tan 3 =cosec xnosolution]
1
4

(7)

(E)

DeterminetheintegralvalueofKforwhichthesystem(arctanx)2+(arccosy)2=2k

[Ans:k=1;x=tan 1 7 ;y= 7 1 ]
andtan1x+cos1y= .
4
4
2
Simultaneous equations and inequations involving I.T.F.

(1) cos1x > cos1x2


[Ans:[1,0)]
(2) sin1x>cos1x&sin1x>sin1(1x)
1 2 ,1
(3)(a) Solvethesystemofinequalitiesinvolvinginversecircularfunctions
arctan2x3arctanx+2>0and[sin1x]>[cos1x]
where[]denotesthegreatestintegerfunction.
(b) (sec1x)26(sec1x)+8>0
[Ans.x(,sec2)[1,)]
1 2
1
[Sol.(a)
(tan x) 3tan x + 2 > 0
or t2 3t + 2 > 0

(t 2) (t 1) > 0
(tan1x 2) is al
w ays < 0
1

tan x < 1 x < tan 1

x ( , tan 1)

Again
and
H e nce
if
now
and

[s in1x] > [cos 1x]


[ s in1x ] can tak e th e val
ue s { 2, 1, 0, 1}
1
[ cos x] can tak e th e val
ue s { 0, 1, 2, 3 }
[ s in1x] can be gre ate r th an (cos 1x) onl
y
1
1
[ s in x] = 1 and [ cos x] = 0
[ s in1x] = 1 1 < s in1x < /2 (1 s in1x < 2)
s in1 < x < 1
1
[ cos x] = 0 0 < cos 1x < 1
cos 1 < x < 1

Q.2

[cot1x] + [tan1x] = 0. Find range .


[ ] de note s th e gre ate s tinte ge r function.

(F)

Summation of series

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[Ans . (cot 1, tan 1) ]

6
4
2
1
1
1
2
4 +.......[Ans:tan {n(n+1)}/4]
2
4 +tan
2
4 +tan
23 3
2 1 1
22 2
2n
2n
2
n
1
1
[Sol. Tn=tan1
2
4 =tan 1 ( n 2 1) 2 n 2 =tan 1 ( n 2 1 n )(n 2 n 1)
2n n

1.

tan1

2.

(n 2 n 1) (n 2 n 1)
=tan
]
1 (n 2 1 1)( n 2 n 1)
x
x
x
tan1 1 (1 2) x 2 +tan1 1 (2 3) x 2 +..........+tan1 1 n (n 1) x 2
dy
Find ,expressingyouranswerintwoterms.[Ans:tan1(n+1)xtan1x]
dx

3.

( n 1) 2 ( n 1) 2
4n
1

tan
S=
n 4 2n 2 2 n
1 ( n 2 1) 2
n 1

4.

Findthesum cosec

(3 tan 1 1) wronganswer: ; ; 5

2 4 4

4n 4 1 .

[Ans.+tan1(1);cot1 2 +cot1 3 ]

n 0


1 1
1
4
[Sol. S= cosec 4n 1 ;S1= tan
(verify)[111th, 25-02-2009, P-1]
2 =
4
2
n
2 n 1
n 1

S1

Hence
5.

S=

3
4

+tan1(1)andcot1 2 +cot1 3 ]

cot 1(2a1 + a) + cot 1(2a1 + 3a) + cot 1(2a1 + 6a) + cot 1(2a1 + 10a) + ....... to
infinite
Tn=tan1[

na
( n 1) a
tan1 2 ]
2

1
1
S= 2 tan 2 cot 2

a>0]