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Energy and matter are constantly

flowing through ecosystems.


Energy tends to flow downhill and in
only one direction: at every step,
much of the energy is lost as heat

Matter, on the other hand, is constantly


being recycled by ecosystems.

Organisms can be arranged in terms of


how they obtain energy (feeding
relationships)

Producers (autotrophs):
- solar energy (photosynthetic)
- chemical energy (chemosynthetic)

Some heterotrophs,
consuming some
autotrophs

Organisms can be arranged in terms of


how they obtain energy (feeding
relationships)

Consumers (heterotrophs)

Organisms can be arranged in terms of


how they obtain energy (feeding
relationships)
Decomposers (fungi, bacteria)

Producers,
consumers and
decomposers
form food chains
or food webs.
The different levels
of feeding
in these chains
are called
trophic levels.

Diagrams that show the


relative amount of
energy or matter at
different trophic levels

Energy

Energy Pyramid:
Shows the relative amount of
energy available at each trophic
level. Organisms use about 10
percent of this energy for life
processes. The rest is lost as heat.

Biomass
Biomass Pyramid:
Represents the
amount of living
organic matter at each
trophic level.
Typically, the greatest
biomass is at the
pyramids base.

Numbers
Pyramid of
Numbers:
Shows the relative
number of individual
organisms at each
trophic level.