Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 418

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1948

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OCR TEX E.G.A. (www.ega-math.narod.ru)
26/I 1948 . 30 . . 32,19 .-. . 42 800 . . . .
6 000 . 10016. 19 . 2 . 725.
16- .
, , 9.

, . ,
:
;
, ; ; ;
,
, 1 .
,
.
1 .
, ,
, - . , ,
. ,
, , ..;
,
.

. . 397.

I.
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.11. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.1920. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
1.2123. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
1.24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
1.26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1.27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1.28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
1.29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
1.30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

II.
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.11. - . . . . . . . . 77
2.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

III. L2
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
3.2. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.3. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.4. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.9. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.1112. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.1415. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

IV. L-
4.12. Lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2k
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.3. 74 p = 2k1
4.45. p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.11. 75 79 p > 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.14. Me Lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

V.
;
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.29. L2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5.1013. Lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.14. p = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

5.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

VI.
6.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
6.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
6.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
6.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
6.1012. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

VII.
7.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
7.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
7.4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7.6. , - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
7.8. , -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
7.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
7.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
7.11. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
7.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
7.1314. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

VIII.

8.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.5. L2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.6. 129, 130 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
8.7. 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.8. 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
8.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
8.1216. k- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
8.17. 134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
8.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
8.19. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

IX. ,
9.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
9.4. L2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
9.56. Lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
9.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
9.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
9.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
9.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
9.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
9.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
9.13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
9.1417. , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

X.
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
10.25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
10.615. . . . . . . . . . 305
10.1617. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
10.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

XI.
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
11.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
11.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
11.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
11.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
11.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
11.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
11.1011. . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
11.1213. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
11.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
11.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
11.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
11.17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
11.18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
11.19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

11.20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372
11.21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
11.2223. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
11.24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
11.25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
11.26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
11.27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

1.1. . 1 . ,
,
. f (x),
2, :
nx
nx 
a0  
.
an cos
+
+ bn sin
f (x) =
2

n=1

am , bm
cos mx sin mx

. :


1
mt
1
mt
am =
f (t) cos
f (t) sin
dt,
bm =
dt,

f (x)




1
n(x t)
1
dt.
f (t) dt +
f (t) cos
f (x) =
2

n=1
n = u, 1 = u

, ,
 
1
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt.
(1.1.1)
f (x) =
0

. ,
, .
(1.1.1)

[a(u) cos xu + b(u) sin xu] du
(1.1.2)
f (x) =
0
1

. . 397.

10

[. i

( ),


1
1
a(u) =
f (t) cos ut dt,
b(u) =
f (t) sin ut dt.

(1.1.3)

f (x) ,

2
f (t) cos ut dt,
a(u) =
0
b(u) ;


2
f (x) =
cos xu du
f (t) cos ut dt.
0
0

(1.1.4)

- . , f (x) , a(u)
, - :


2
sin xu du
f (t) sin ut dt.
(1.1.5)
f (x) =
0
0
(1.1.1) (1.1.4) (1.1.5). , f (x)
( ) g(x)
h(x):
f (x) =

f (x) + f (x) f (x) f (x)


+
= g(x) + h(x);
2
2



f (t) cos u(xt) dt = 2 cos ux

g(t) cos ut dt+2 sin ux

h(t) sin ut dt,


0

(1.1.1)
g(x) + h(x) = 2

cos xu du
g(t) cos ut dt +
0
0


2
+
sin xu du
h(t) sin ut dt,
0
0

.. - g(x) - h(x).
1
.
. 1

Cauchy (1), (2); . , ,


. 398416.

1.1]

11

(1.1.1) , , 0


u
1
e
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt =
0





u
1
1
=
f (t) dt
e
cos u(x t) du =
f (t) 2
dt.

+ (x t)2
0

f (t)
t, t = x, .
, ,
f (t) f (x);


f (x)
dt = f (x),
2
2

+ (x t)
(1.1.1).
, (1.1.1):


1
ixu
e
du
eiut f (t) dt.
(1.1.6)
f (x) =
2

, , f (x) = g(x) + h(x), g h


,



iut
e f (t) dt = 2
g(t) cos ut dt + 2i
h(t) sin ut dt,

(1.1.6)




2
2
cos xu du
g(t) cos ut dt +
sin xu du
h(t) sin ut dt =
0
0
0
0
= g(x) + h(x) = f (x).
(1.1.6) .
,
(1.1.1) , (0, ), .


sin (x t)
f (t)
dt.
(1.1.7)
f (x) = lim

xt
(1.1.6). (1.1.7) f (x)
.

12

[. i

1.2. . ,
, , .
 
f (t) cos ut dt,
(1.2.1)
Fc (u) = 2
0
(1.1.4)

 
f (x) = 2
Fc (u) cos xu du,
0

(1.2.2)

, f (x) Fc (x) .
.
, , - -
. ,

x
2 1
e ,
1 + x2
- .
, -
 
f (t) sin ut dt,
(1.2.3)
Fs (u) = 2
0
 
f (x) = 2
Fs (u) sin xu du.
(1.2.4)
0
.
-
- . ,

2 x
ex ,
1 + x2
- .
(1.1.6) ()

1
eiut f (t) dt,
(1.2.5)
F (u) =
2

1
f (x) =
eixu F (u) du.
(1.2.6)
2

. ,

1
|x|
F (x) = 2
f (x) = e ,
1 + x2

1.3]

13

.
f (x) , F (x) = Fc (x); f (x) , F (x) = iFs (x).
1.3.
. ,
F (u), f (x) . F (u) ,


1
eiwt f (t) dt,
(1.3.1)
F+ (w) =
2 0
 0
1
F (w) =
eiwt f (t) dt,
(1.3.2)
2
w = u + iv, , , : v,
v. ,

1
evt eiut f (t) dt,
(1.3.3)
F+ (w) =
2 0
F+ (w) , evt f (t)
t > 0 0 t < 0. (1.3.3)
 vx

1
e f (x) (x > 0),
ixu

e
F+ (u + iv) du =
0
(x < 0),
2


1
f (x) (x > 0),
ix(u+iv)

e
F+ (u + iv) du =
0
(x < 0).
2
F . ,

 ia+
 ib+
1
1
ixw
f (x) =
e
F+ (w) dw +
eixw F (w) dw, (1.3.4)
2 ia
2 ib

a , b
.
, , f (x) = ex ,
1
1
F+ (w) =
,
2 1 + iw

1
1
F (w) =
.
2 1 + iw

(1.3.4) .

14

[. i


. f (x) 2.
v > 0


1
1  2(n+1) ixw
ixw
e f (x) dx =
e f (x) dx =
F+ (w) =
2 0
2 n=0 2n

1  2 i(+2n)w
=
e
f () d =
2 n=0 0
 2
(w)
eiw
1
1

f
()
d
=
,
=
2 0 1 e2iw
2 1 e2iw


2

eiw f () d.

(w) =
0

,
1
(w)
F (w) =
(v < 0).
2 1 e2iw

 ia+
 ib+
1
1
(w)
(w)
ixw
f (x) =
e
dw
eixw
dw.
2iw
2 ia
1e
2 ib
1 e2iw
(w) .
,
f (x) =

1 
(n)einx .
2 n=

f (x).
1.4. .

esx f (x) dx
(s) =

(1.4.1)

. (s),
, Re s > 0.

 k+i
1
f (x) (x > 0),
sx
e (s) ds =
(1.4.2)
0
(x < 0).
2i ki

1.2, , s = k + it.

1.5]

15


an x n ,
f (x) =
n=0

, f (x)
(1.4.1) .




n! an
sx n
(s) =
an
e x dx =
,
sn+1
0
n=0
n=0

  
1 1 =
n! an sn .
s
s

n=0

, f (x), (s)
, s = .
C, w = 0,
,




1 
ezw
1
zw
e (w) dw =
n! an
dw =
an z n = f (z). (1.4.3)
n+1
2i C
2i n=0
w
C
n=0
, f (z) , .
1.5. .
:

f (x)xs1 dx,
(1.5.1)
F(s) =
0

 c+i
1
f (x) =
F(s)xs ds.
(1.5.2)
2i ci

1 . 2
3 . (1.5.1)
(1.5.2) .
. ,
 c+i

1
x s1
x
e x dx, e =
(s)xs ds (c > 0)
(s) =
2i
0
ci
1
2
3

Riemann (1).
Cahen (1).
Mellin (1), (2).

16

[. i

. (s) ,
:


an
.
(s) =
ns
n=1
:




an
1
nx s1
e x dx =
f (x)xs1 dx,
(s) =
(s)
(s)
0
0
n=1

f (x) =

an enx ;

n=1

,
1
2i

c+i

(s)(s)x

ci

 c+i


an
ds =
(s)(nx)s ds =
2i
ci
n=1
=

an enx = f (x).

n=1

(s)(s) = F(s), (1.5.1), (1.5.2).



. ,
x = e s = c + it, (1.5.1)

f (e )e(c+it) d,
F(c + it) =

(1.5.2)
1
f (e ) =
2

F(c + it)e(c+it) dt.

, 2 ec f (e ), F(c + it) .
, f (x)
x = 0 ,
.

f (z)(z)s1 dz,

s1

(z)
e(s1) ln(z) ln(z), , ,
, z =
= 0
.

1.6]

17

. , ,


(s1)(ln xi)
is
f (x)e
dx = e
f (x)xs1 dx,

, ,


(s1)(ln x+i)
is
f (x)e
dx = e
f (x)xs1 dx.
0


f (z)(z)s1 dz = 2i sin s F(s).

(s) = F(s) sin s,


:

1
(s) =
f (z)(z)s1 dz,
2i

1 c+i (s)z s
f (z) =
ds.
2i ci sin s

f (z) = ez ,

(s) =

(1.5.3)
(1.5.4)

1
.
(1 s)

1 ; , .
1.6. ,
, Encyklopadie der
mathematischen Wissenschaften2 .
. ,
.
.
,
.
, .
1
2

Carlson (1).
. . 397.

18

[. i

1.7. .

f (x) dx
0

f (x) (0, ), , , ..

|f (x)| dx.

f (x) (0, X) X
 X
lim
f (x) dx
X

,

f (x) dx.
0

.
. ,
 1
f (x) dx
0


 1
f (x) dx,

, .

f (x) dx .
0
, , .
, f (x) Lp (a, b), f (x)

b

|f (x)|p dx < .
a
1

L L.

 X
l.i.m.
f (x, ) dx
X

(limit in mean ) ()
,

1.8]

19


 b

lim
()

p

f (x, ) dx d = 0,

a, b p .

z = x + iy,

w = u + iv,

s = + it,

= + i.

f (x), , (1.2.5), (1.2.1), (1.2.3), (1.3.1), (1.3.2), (1.5.1), , ,


F (x),

Fc (x),

Fs (x),

F+ (w),

F (w),

F(s).

, . , - , (1.2.5), (1.2.6), ,
.
, g, G, G+ , G ..
A , . K
, .
, fn (x) f (x) , |fn (x)|  K n x, , |fn (x)|  (x), (x) L . 1 ,


fn (x) dx = f (x) dx;
lim
n

,
, , .
1.8. . ,
,
. .
1. f (x) L(, ).


f (x) cos x dx,
f (x) sin x dx
(1.8.1)

1
, , 10.5, 10.8. [. .. , , . V, 3 . VI, 3,
.. .. , , 3- ., . IX, 6. . .]

20

[. i

.
. , , . . X,
 X

|f (x)| dx < ,
|f (x)| dx < ,

, ,





f (x) cos x dx < ,

X








f (x) cos x dx <

. , (x),
(X, X) ,
 X
|f (x) (x)| dx < .
X








[f (x) (x)] cos x dx <

. ,
 X
(x) cos x dx =
X

(X) sin X (X) sin X


1
=
+

 (x) sin x dx,

( X) 0 ,
> 0 , , .






f (x) cos x dx < 4 ( > 0 ).


, . , .
2. f (x) L(, ). ,
 
1
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt = a,
(1.8.2)
0

,

sin y
[f (x + y) + f (x y) 2a]
lim
dy = 0.
(1.8.3)
0
y

1.9]

21

. |f (t) cos u(x t)|  |f (t)|,




f (t) cos u(x t) dt

u.
 


du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt =
f (t) dt
cos u(x t) du =
0

0

sin (x t)
dt.
f (t)
=
xt

f (t)/(x t) (, x )
(x + , ), ,
 x

sin (x t)
sin (x t)
lim
dt = 0, lim
dt = 0.
f (t)
f (t)

x+
xt
xt
,

x+


lim

sin (x t)
f (t)
dt =
xt

sin y
dy = lim 2a
2a

[f (x + y) + f (x y)]
0

sin v
dv = 2a
v

sin y
dy,
y

sin v
dv = a.
v

, (1.8.2) (1.8.3) .
1.9. . ,
, , , .
3. f (t) L(, ). , x, f (t) ,

 
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
1
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt.
(1.9.1)
=
0
2

f (t) (a, b) ,
 
1
f (x) =
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt,
(1.9.2)
0

22

[. i

, (a, b).
. f (x)
.
(y) = f (x + y) + f (x y) f (x + 0) f (x 0)
(0, ) ,
(y) 0 y 0.
(y) = 1 (y) 2 (y),
1 (y) 2 (y) , (0, ) y 0.

, 1 (y)  y  .



sin y
sin y
sin y
1 (y)
1 (y)
1 (y)
dy =
dy +
dy.
y
y
y
0
0



sin y
sin v
1 ()
dy = 1 ()
dv (0 < < ),
y
v


sin v
dv ,

v





sin
y

 < A

(y)
dy
1


y
0

1 (y)
y
(, ), , ,

sin y
lim
1 (y)
dy = 0.

y

. ,

, ,

sin y
lim
1 (y)
dy = 0.
0
y
, ,
2 (y), . ,

sin y
dy = 0,
(y)
lim
0
y
, 2, 3.

1.9]

23

f (x) (a, b), 12 [f (x+0)+f (x0)] = f (x);


f (x) , (a, b), ,
, , , .
4. f (x) L(, ). x (1.9.2) ,

 
 f (x + y) + f (x y) 2f (x) 
 dy

(1.9.3)


y
0
. , , f (x) x.
1 2
a = f (x). f (x) , (1.9.3) , .
f (t)
L(, ). , ,
51 .
1 + |t|

sin y
1
a1 (x) =
f (y)
dy
(1.9.4)

y

b1 (x) = 1

1 cos xy
f (y)
dy 1

y
1
1

f (y)

cos xy
dy (1.9.5)
y

0 <  x  ,
a(x), b(x), , . , , f (t)
t = x 3
4.

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
=
[a(u) cos xu + b(u) sin xu] du.
2
0
. , |x|  1 f (x) .
 x  1
 1
sin xy
1
1
dy = a1 (x),
d
f (y) cos y dy =
f (y)
0
1
y
1

a(x) = 1

Hahn (2).

f (y) cos xy dy
1

24

[. i

x. ,
 1
1
f (y) sin xy dy
b(x) =
1
x. 3
4.
f (x)
L(, ). ,
f (x) = 0 |x| < 1.
x
3 4,

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
[b1 (u) cos xu + a1 (u) sin xu] du.
=
2x
0


0



sin xu 
1
b1 (u) cos xu du = b1 (u)

b(u) sin xu du =
x 0
x 0

1
b(u) sin xu du,
=
x 0

b1 (u) 0 u .


cos xu  1
a1 (u) sin xu du = a1 (u)
a(u) cos xu du =
 +
x
x 0
0
0

1
=
a(u) cos xu du,
x 0
a1 (u) 0 u 0 u .
.

f (x) , , ,
|x|  1 |x| < 1 f (x).
1.10. 1 . , f (t) t ,


f (t) cos ut dt,
f (t) sin ut dt
0

u > 0 ,

f (t) dt
0

. ,
, .
1

Pringsheim (1).

1.10]

25

6. f (t) , (0, ) , 0, f (t) 0 t .


x


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
2
cos xu du
f (t) cos ut dt.
=
0
2
0
.
 

 
 T 
 
 2f (T + 0)
 T
 


f (t) cos ut dt = f (T + 0)
cos ut dt 
.

 

 T
u
T

0 f (t) cos ut dt
0 <  u  u. ,


cos xu du
f (t) cos ut dt =

0



1
=
f (t) dt
cos xu cos ut du =
f (t)
2 0
0

sin (x t) sin (x t) sin (x + t) sin (x + t)

dt.
xt
xt
x+t
x+t
Ho






 
 T
sin (x t) 
sin (x t)  
f (t)
dt = f (T + 0)
dt < Af (T + 0),


xt
xt
T

. T0 (),





sin
(x

t)

f (t)
. . . dt <

xt
T
T > T0 () . T
 T
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
sin (x t)
dt =
f (t)
lim
0
xt
2
3,

lim

f (t)
0

sin (x + t)
dt = 0
x+t

. ,
 T

 T


sin
(x

t)


f (t)
f (t) dt 0
dt 

xt
0
0

26

[. i

0. .
7. f (t) 6. x


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
2
sin xu du
f (t) sin ut dt.
=
0
2
0
.

 

 T

 


 = f (1 + 0)
=
f
(t)
sin
ut
dt
sin
ut
dt

 

1
1


 cos u cos uT  2f (1 + 0)


= f (1 + 0) 

u
u

f (t) sin ut dt = O(1)


0

u 0, u
. ,
6.
, , , ,
3 4.
1.11. , 1 .
8. f (t) = g(t) cos at (a > 0), g(t) , (0, 1) t .
x
 a 


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
2
cos xu du
+
f (t) cos ut dt.
=

2
0
a
0
. ,

g(t) cos at cos ut dt,
0

u,
, u = a.
> 0

 a
cos xu du
g(t) cos at cos ut dt
0
1

Pringsheim (1).

1.11]

27

. , ,
 a


 a
cos xu du
g(t) cos at cos ut dt =
...
. . . , (1.11.1)
0

,


lim
g(t) cos at dt
0

cos xu cos ut du = 0.

, t
0  t  T , T .
,
 a

g(t) cos at dt
cos xu cos ut du = 0,
lim
0


lim

g(t) cos at
T

sin a(x t) sin(a )(x t)


+
xt

sin a(x + t) sin(a )(x + t)


dt = 0.
+
x+t

, T > x


1
1
g(t) cos at [sin a(x t) sin(a )(x t)]
+
dt 0,
xt t
T
.
, x + t.


g(t) cos at
[sin a(x + t) sin(a )(x + t)
t
T
sin a(x t) + sin(a )(x t)] dt =

g(t) cos at
=2
[cos ax sin at cos(a )x sin(a )t] dt.
t
T



g(t)
g(t)
2
cos at sin(a )t dt =
[sin(2a )t sin t] dt
t
t
T
T
0,
 T2
 T2
g(t)
sin t
sin t dt = g(T1 )
dt = O{g(T1 )}
t
t
T1
T1

28

[. i


 T2
 T2
g(t)
sin(2a )t
sin(2a )t dt = g(T1 )
dt = O{g(T1 )}.
t
t
T1
T1


T

g(t)
cos at sin(a )t dt
t


T

g(t)
cos at sin at dt,
t

(1.11.1) .
, (a + 0, ).
 a 


cos xu du
+
f (t) cos ut dt =
0
a
0


sin (x t) sin (x + t)
1
f (t)
+
dt.
=
2 0
xt
x+t
,
 T  x
 T
sin (x t)
sin y
dt =
dy =
cos at
cos a(x + y)
xt
y
T x
T
 T  x
 T  x
cos ay sin y
sin ay sin y
= cos ax
dy sin ax
dy
y
y
T x
T x
a x T > 2x, > 2a. ,
,

sin (x t)
g(t) cos at
dt = O{g(T )},
xt
T
6.
9. f (t) = g(t) sin at (a > 0), g(t) , 8. x
 a 


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
2
cos xu du
+
f (t) cos ut dt.
= lim
0 0
2
a+
0

g(t)
, ,
dt ,
t
 a 


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
2
cos xu du
+
f (t) cos ut dt.
=

2
0
a
0

1.11]

29

. , 8, , , 0  u  ( > a), ,

g(t) sin at
[cos(a + )x sin(a + )t cos(a )x sin(a )t] dt 0
t
T
0, ..

g(t)
sin at cos at sin t dt
cos ax cos x
t
T

g(t)
sin ax sin x
sin2 at cos t dt 0.
t
T

. sin2 at = 12 (1 cos 2at).

g(t)
cos 2at cos t dt
t
T

,

 1/
  

g(t)
dt
1
cos t dt =
cos t dt = O
+O g
1/
t
t
T
T

 



= O ln 1 + O g 1 = O ln 1 .

sin x ln 1 0, .


g(t) sin at
[cos ax sin at cos(a )x sin(a )t] dt.
t
T
, ,
 , , ,
g(t)
dt. ,
t
T
.
,
.
101 . f (t) = g(t)h(t), g(t), g(t)
L(, ), a h(t) , ,
1 + |t|
1

Hahn (2).

30

[. i

( a) ,
. f (t) t = x 3 4. f (x)
:



f (x + 0) + f (x 0)  1 2(n+1)/a
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt.
=
2n/a
2

n=0

. g(t) ,
 (n+1)a
 (n+1)a
|f (t)|
|g(t)h(t)|
dt =
dt 
1+t
1+t
na
na

 na
g(na)
g(na) (n+1)a
g(t)
|h(t)| dt < K

<K
dt.
1 + na na
1 + na
(n1)a 1 + t
,
5,

f (t)
L(, ). , , 1 + |t|

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
= 1

2x

[b1 (u) cos xu + a1 (u) sin xu] du,


0

a1 (u), b1 (u) , , (1.9.4), (1.9.5).


,
n  (+1)a
n  a


ixy
h(x)e dx =
h(x)ei(a+x)y dx =
=m

=m 0
imay


ei(n+1)ay a
h(x)eixy dx,
=
iay
1e
0
, , , y = 0, 2 , 4 , . . .
a
a

 x2
cos
h(x)
xy dx
sin
x1
e

x1 x2 y.
,

cos
1
g(x)h(x)
xy dx

sin
; a(y), b(y)
. a1 (y), b1 (y) a(y), b(y) ,

1.12]

31

2(n+1)/a

b1 (u) cos xu du =
2n/a

2(n+1)/a

sin xu 
1 2(n+1)/a
= b1 (u)

b(u) sin xu du;


x 2n/a
x 2n/a

a1 (u) a(u).
a1 b1 . , .
1.12. .
, f (x), , , .
f (x) , , ,
, ,
.
111 . f (t) = (t) cos (t) f (t) = (t) sin (t),
(t) ,
, t = 0, t  (t)
,
. , , (t) ,  (t)
(t)
t,




(1.12.1)
(t) = o t (t) .

f (x) = 2


0

cos
xu du
sin

f (t)
0

cos
ut dt,
sin

(1.12.2)

(I)  (t) ,  (t + 1) = O{  (t)}, (t + 1) = O{(t)},

(II)  (t) , t  (t) > K, (2t) = O{(t)}.


.
(t)
. 
, a g(t) h (t)
,


 b
cos
(t)
.
(t)g(t)
h(t) dt = O g(a) max 
h (t)
sin
a
1

; . L a n d a u, Vorlesungen
u
ber Zahlentheorie, Satz 413.

32

[. i

(t)
, , , 
h (t)
,
 b
 b
(t)
(a<<b)
(t)g(t) cos h(t) dt =
g(t)h (t) cos h(t) dt =

a
a h (t)


(b) b
(<<b) (b)

= 
g(t)h (t) cos h(t) dt =
h (t) cos h(t) dt =
g()
h (b)
h (b)

(b)
g()[sin h() sin h()].
h (b)
. .
. (1.12.2) ,

 T


(t)
cos
(t)

ut
dt = 0.
(1.12.3)
lim

=

T,T

(t)  (t)
(t)
=
.
 (t) u
 (t)  (t) u
, , ,
u
,
1 
(t) u

.
(1.12.3) ; ,
, u.
,




cos xu du
f (t) cos ut dt =
f (t) dt
cos xu cos ut du.
0

, ,
T

sin (x t)
f (t)
dt = 0.
lim
T
xt
(I). , (t)
t  T , , ,
 t0  t0 + 



(t)
+
+
= J1 + J2 + J3 ,
cos (t) + (x t) dt =
T tx
T
t0
t0 +

1.13]

33

(t)
 (t0 ) = .
t < t0 , ,
 (t)
,

(t0 )
(t0 )
J1 = O
=O
=
t0 [  (t0 )  (t0 )]
t0  (t0 )


(t0 )
,
(1.12.4)
=O
t0  (t0 )
, = O(1). ,

(t)
(t)

= 
1+ 
 (t)
(t)
(t)
t > t0 . , J1 ,

(t0 )
.
J3 = O
t0  (t0 )
,


J2 = O

t0 +

t0





 (t) 
(t
)
0


.
 x t  dt = O
t0

(1.12.1),
=  1
(t0 )


(t0 )

J1 + J2 + J3 = O
= o(1).
t0  (t0 )
, t0 .
(t) .
(t) , (1.12.4)

(T )
J1 = O
t0  (t0 )
, = 1.
(II) .
, ,
(t) = et/2 , (t) = et

(t) = 1, (t) = t ln t.

1.13. .


sin x
dx = .
x
2
0

34

[. i

, C, , , -



1
cos xu du
f (t) cos ut dt.
f (x) =
C 0
0

C. , f (t) = et x = 0,



1 du
1
t
du
e cos ut dt =
,
1=
C 0
C 0 1 + u2
0


du
= C.
1 + u2

f (x) = 1 (x > 0), ( 6)


x


1
1
cos ut
=
dt =
cos xu du
C 0
x
t
0

2



1
1
cos xu
cos y
cos y
du
=
dy =
dy ,
y
y
C 0
u
C x
0
0


0

cos y
dy = C.
y

VII.
, 1.27, , .
1.14. . (1.1.7), ..
, . ,
,
f (x).
121 .

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
sin (x t)
1
f (t)
= lim
dt

2
xt

,
1

Prasad (1), Pringsheim (1), Hobson (1).

1.14]

Ia)

35

f (x)
L(, ),
1 + |x|

f (x)
(a, )
x
(, a) a x ,

 x
1
Ic)
f (t) dt
x 1
(a, ), x ,
(, a),

II) , x , f (t)
- .
. , 1.9,
T ,

 T






sin
(x

t)
sin
(x

t)

f (t)
f (t)
dt < 
dt <

xt
xt
Ib)

> 0 . ,
Ia). , ,
1.10,
Ib).
1).

1 x
f (t) dt.
(x) =
x 1

f (x) = x (x) + (x),


, x (x) Ia), (x) Ib).
Ic) Ia). ,

f (x)
1 x

f (t) dt.
(x) =
2
x
x 1
Ia) , L(1, );
,




1
dx x
1
|f (t)| dt =
|f (t)| dt +
|f (x)| dx 
2
1
1 x
1
1 x

1
|f (x)| dx < K.

1 x

36

[. i

 (x) L(1, ) , ,
Ic). , ,



 x
  t
1 x f (t)
1 x
f (t)
f (u)
1 x
f (t) dt =
t
dt =
dt
du dt,
x 1
x 1
t
t
x 1
u
1
1
f (t)
, Ia), L(1, ),

t
; ,
Ic) .
, Ic) Ib).

1.15. . ,
f (x) dx
(C, ),  0, I,
 
x 
1
lim
f (x) dx = I.
0

= 0 . = 1


 
 x
x
1
1
f (x) dx =
dx
f (y) dy,

0
0
0
.. ,
s1 + s2 + . . . + sn
n
(C, 1)- .
, C- . : (I)
, ; ,

sin ax dx (a > 0)
lim

 
1 sin a
x
1
1
sin ax dx = lim
2
= ;
lim
0

a
a
a
(II) , ,
, (C, ),
, > 0.
.
(C, ),  0, (C, ) > .

1.16]

 

(, ) =
0

1 x

37


f (x) dx.

>
 
1

1
(, ) d =

0
 
 
1


=
1
1 x f (x) dx =
d

0
0
 
1 

1
1 x d =
=
f (x) dx

0
x
 

( )( + 1) +1
=

1 x f (x) dx,

( + 1)
0
..
 

1
( + 1)
1 (, ) d.
1

(, ) =

( )( + 1) +1 0

( + 1)
1
(, ) I =
+1
( )( + 1)

 
0

1
[(, ) I] d.

(, ) I, |(, ) I|  M 
 .

 


( + 1)
1 d +
1

|(, ) I| 

( )( + 1) +1

 
1
M

+ +1
d .
1

0
 ( = 0), , , O(1 ). ,
, , (, ) I.
1.16. .

 

u
1
1
f (t) cos u(x t) dt =
du
0


 
u
1
1
f (t) dt
cos u(x t) du =
=

0

2 sin2 12 (x t)
1
=
f (t)
dt.
(1.16.1)

(x t)2

38

[. i

.

.
13.

(|x y|  ),
(1.16.2)
O


K(x, y, ) =

O
(|x y| > )
(1.16.3)
|x y|+1


 x
1
1
lim
K(x, y, ) dy = , lim
K(x, y, ) dy = .
0 x
0
2
2
f (x)
L(, ).
1 + |x|+1
 h
 h
|f (x + t) (x)| dt = o(h),
|f (x t) (x)| dt = o(h) (1.16.4)

h 0,

lim

K(x, y, )f (y) dy =

(x) + (x)
.
2

(1.16.5)

, , ,
(I) (x) = f (x + 0), (x) = f (x 0),
;
(II) (x) = (x) = f (x), f (x) ;
(III) (x) = (x) = f (x) x.
. ,

K(x, y, )[f (y) (x)] dy = 0
lim
0

(x). (1.16.2)
(1.16.3), ,

1 x+
[f (y) (x)] dy = 0
lim
0 x


|f (y) (x)|

lim
dy = 0.
0
|x y|+1
x+
(1.16.4).

1.16]

39

|f (x + t) (x)| dt  h

(h) =
0

h  .

 x+


|f
(y)

(x)|
|f
(x
+
t)

(x)|
(t)

 +

dy
=

dt
=

|x y|+1
t+1
t+1 
x+



+1
(t)
dt

+ ( + 1)
dt  + ( + 1)
< 1+
.
+2
+1

t
t
, ,

|f (y) f (x)|

lim
dy = 0.
+1
0
x+ |x y|
,
(x) .
, , = 1

2 sin2 12 (x y)
K(x, y, ) =
.
(x y)2
( = 1), 1 :
14. f (t) L(, ).
 
1
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt
0

(C, 1) 12 [f (x + 0) + f (x 0)] ,
; f (x) , f (x) ; f (x)
x.
, f (t) L(, ), a(u), b(u),
(1.1.3), u, f (x) = 0 x.


 
u 
1
1
1
cos u(x y) du =
=
K x, y,
0


1
(1 v) cos v(x y) dv =
=
0
 1

=
(1 v)1 sin v(x y) dv =
(x y) 0
 |xy|
sin(|x y| w)

dw.
=

+1
|x y|
w1
0
1

Hardy (5).

40

[. i



, K x, y, 1 O(),



1
1
O
. ,
K x, y,

|x y|+1



 1
1
dy
K x, y,
(1 v)1 sin v(y x) dv =
dy =

x
x
x
0



1
1
1
sin
vt
1
=
(1 v)
dv
(1 v)1 dv = .
dt =
0
t
2 0
2
0
:
15. 14 , (C, 1)
(C, ), 0 < < 1.
1.17. 1 .


1
(u) du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt.
(1.17.1)
lim
0 0

(C, )

(1 u)
(u) =
0

(0 < u < 1),


(u  1).

(u) = eu .

(1.17.1)


1
f (t) dt
eu cos u(x t) du =

0


1
=
f (t) 2
dt.

+ (x t)2

(1.17.2)

(1.17.3)

(1.17.4)

K(x, y, ) = 1 2
,
+ (x y)2

(1.17.5)

13 = 1 . , ,
, (1.17.4) f (x) x.
,
1.1. (1.17.4) .
A- .
1

Cauchy (1), Sommerfeld (1), Hardy (4), (5).

1.18]

41

1.18. .
(u) = eu .
2

(1.17.1)


2 2
1
f (t) dt
e u cos u(x t) du =

0



(x t)2
1
dt.
f (t) exp
=
4 2
2
,


1
(x y)2
.
K(x, y, ) = exp
4 2
2

(1.18.1)

1 .
13 ; , .
16. K(x, y, ) (1.18.1),
13 f (x), 2
, eCx f (x) L(, ) C (
, C).
. (x, x + )
(x + , x + ) ,
1.16 (, = 1). , , x g(y) L,



(x y)2
1
2
exp
+ Cy g(y) dy = 0.
lim
0 x+
4 2

(x y)2
y2
(x y)2
(x y)2 (x y)2
2
2

+Cy
=

+C(xy)


+
,
4 2
4 2
(x y)2
4 2
8 2

1
2
C 2
,
8 (x + )2
y  x +

2
x
x
(x y)2
2
=
1


1

=
.
(x + )2
x+
y
y2
, ,
1

Weierstrass (1), Hobson (1), Lebesgue (1), Hardy (6).

42

[. i



2
1
|g(y)| dy,
exp 2

8
x+
0.
1.19. . , f (x + 0) f (x 0),
, , 13.
17. K(x, y, )  0
 b
 x
1
1
lim
K(x, y, ) dy = , lim
K(x, y, ) dy =
(1.19.1)
0 x
0
2
2
a

(1.19.2)
lim K(x, y, ) = 0
0

x y, |x y|  > 0;
, , a = , b = ,
 x

lim
K(x, y, ) dy = 0, lim
K(x, y, ) dy = 0
(1.19.3)
0

x+

. f (x) L(a, b),


 b
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
K(x, y, )f (y) dy =
lim
,
(1.19.4)
0 a
2
, .
f (x) x, (1.19.1)


K(x, y, ) dy = 1.

lim

(1.19.5)

. ,
 b
K(x, y, )[f (y) f (x + 0)] dy 0
x

(a, x).

 b
K(x, y, ) dy +
max |f (y) f (x + 0)|
xyx+
x
 b
 b
|f (y)| dy + |f (x + 0)|
K(x, y, ) dy,
+ max K(x, y, )
y>x+

x+

x+

, , ,
. ,
(a, x).

1.19]

43

. , .
, :
18. (x) L(0, ) (0, )
; (+0) = 1,
(x)  (x), ,
x, .
f (x) L(, ).


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
1
(u) du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt =
,
lim

0
2
0

, .
.
, ,

1
(u) cos u(x y) du
K(x, y, ) =
0
.
,  (x)
x.


K(x, y, ) =
[ (u)] sin u(x y) du =
(x y) 0
 (n+1)

|xy|

=
[ (u)] sin u|x y| du.
n
|x y| n=0 |xy|
.

|xy|

[ (u)] du =
0  K(x, y, ) 
|x y| 0


1
(+0)
,
=
|x y|
|x y|
0
|xy|  , (1.19.2) K(x, y, ) .
,



dy
K(x, y, ) dy =
 (u) sin u(x y) du =

y
x
0
 x



(+0)

1
sin u(x y)
=
(u) du
(u) du =
dy =
= ,
0
xy
2 0
2
2
x

44

[. i

,  (u), , L(0, ). ,

1
K(x, y, ) dy = ;
2

, (1.19.1) . ,



sin u(x y)

K(x, y, ) dy =
(u) du
dy =
0
xy
Y
Y
 1



=O
[ (u)] du + O
[ (u)] du =
Y 1
0



1
= O (+0) () + O
.
Y
Y ,
, , (1.19.3) (1.19.2).
.
(x) = 1 (x) 2 (x), 1 (x) 2 (x) . K1 K2 K-.
K1 K2 (1.19.2). ,




K1 (x, y, ) dy,

K2 (x, y, ) dy

, , , (1.19.1) - . , , .
1.20.
K(x, y, ) = K(x y, ),
K(u, ) u,

1
K(u, ) du =
2
0


lim
K(u, ) du = 0
0

.

K(x y, )f (y) dy
(x, ) =

f (x) , .

1.21]

45

19. f (x) L(, ) K(u, )


, ,

lim
|(x, ) f (x)| dx = 0.
0

.

(x, ) f (x) =
K(u, )[f (x u) f (x)] du,


|(x, ) f (x)| dx 

K(u, )|f (x u) f (x)| du =



K(u, )du
|f (x u) f (x)| dx.
dx

(u) =

|f (x u) f (x)| dx

u: |(u)|  M , u 0.
|(u)|  |u|  .







K(u, )(u) du 
K(u, ) du =








K(u, )(u) du  M
K(u, ) du,









K(u, )(u) du  M
K(u, ) du.


, ,
0. .
, (C, 1)

1 cos (x y)
1
f (y)
dy

(x y)2
, , f (x) . (
= 1 .)

1.21. . f (t) ,
, , . , ,
f (t) ,
.

46

[. i

, , f (t) , , f (t) .
201 . f (t) t = x,

f (t) cos u(x t) dt

u. , g(x, u) ,
 
u
1
1
lim
g(x, u) du = f (x).
0

.

 
 
u
u
g(x, u) du =
cos u(x t) du =
1
1
f (t) dt

0

 T
 T 
2 sin2 12 (x t)
=
f (t)
dt =
+
+
= J1 + J2 + J3
(x t)2

T
T
(T > |x|).
g(x, u).

 t
f1 (t) =

f (v) dv.
0

u = 0, , f1 (t) :
|f1 (t)|  M . , ,
2 sin2 12 (x T )
+
(x T )2


4 sin2 12 (x t)
sin (x t)
f1 (t)
dt
f1 (t)
dt.
+
(x t)2
(x t)3
T
T

J3 = f1 (T )



2M
4M
M
dt
4 dt
+
M
+
M
=
+
.
|J3 | 
2
3
(T x)2
(T x)2 T x
T (t x)
T (t x)
T ,
> 0 . J1 .
T f (t) , f (t)
|t|  T |t| > T , 14
1.16, J2 f (x). .
1

(Hardy (8)). . Macphail and Titchmarsh (1).

1.22]

47

1.22.
: (C, k),
(C, k +1). , k = 0,
k = 1. ,
.
21. f (t) t = x,


t
f (t) cos u(x t) dt
1
lim
0

 0
|t|
1
f (t) cos u(x t) dt
lim

, u.
, g(x, u) ,
 
u 2
1
1
g(x, u) du = f (x).
lim
0

. ,
f (t) = 0 t < 0.

 
u 2
1
g(x, u) du =


 
u 2
t
= lim
1
1
du
f (t) cos u(x t) dt.
0

 

t
u 2
1
1
cos u(x t) du =
f (t) dt

0
0



 T 
t
2 sin (x t)
2
=
1
dt =

+
= J1 + J2
f (t)

(x t)2
2 (x t)3
0
0
T
(|x| < T < ). f1 (t), ,
 t
 t
v
1
f1 (v) dv = t
f2 (t) =
f (v) dv.
t
0
0
g(x, u) u = 0 ,
f2 (t)
.
t
,

48

[. i

T
1
f1 (T )(T ) + [f2 ()() f2 (T )(T )] +
J2 = 1




t
2
T


f2 (T ) (T )
f2 (t) (t) dt,
1
f2 (t) (t) dt +
+ 1

2
2 sin (x t)
(t) =

,
2
(x t)
2 (x t)3
4
2 cos (x t) 6 sin (x t)
 (t) =
+

,
3
(x t)
(x t)3
2 (x t)4
12
2 sin (x t) 12 cos (x t) 24 sin (x t)
 (t) =
+
+

.
4
(x t)
(x t)3
(x t)4
2 (x t)5

f (t)
2 ,
t
 T
J1
f (t)(t) dt,
0


J2 f1 (T )(T ) + f2 (T ) (T ) +
f2 (t) (t) dt.
T

T , > 0 .
T f1 (T )(T ) 0,
 T
f (t)(t) dt f (x)
0

( 1.16)
C- ( 1.15). .
1.23. , (C, 1) 14
(C, ) . 20 : 20, 21
.
.

 
u 
cos ut dt.
1
I (, t) =

0
1.16, 0 < < 1


 t

1
1
I (, t) = +1
v
sin(t v) dv = O
t
t+1
0
, t . ,

1.23]

49



( + 1) t 1
1 t 1
I
v
cos(t v) dv +2
v
sin(t v) dv =
= +1
t
t
t
0
0


1
1
1 1
=
v
cos(t v) dv + O 2 + O
= +1
t
t
t+2
0


1
( + 1)1

+O 2 .
=
cos t
1+
t
2
t
, 20 (C, 1)
(C, ) 0 < < 1. ,
20,



J3 =
f (t)I (, xt) dt = f1 (T )I (, xT )+
f1 (t) I (, xt) dt.
t
T
T
T , |x|. , , ,




f1 (t)
1
( + 1)
cos
x

dt.
t1+
2
T

f (t) =

2 sin 2 t
2

(  t < ( + 1); = 1, 2, ... )

f (t) = 0 t.
1 cos 2 t
(  t < ( + 1); = 1, 2, ... ).
2
,
 T
 T
f (t) cos u(x t) dt = f1 (T ) cos u(x T ) u
f1 (t) sin u(x t) dt
f1 (t) =

T u,
20 .
= 2 .




f1 (t)
1 (+1) (1 cos 2 t) cos 2 t
cos t dt =
dt.
t1+
2
t+1

=1
=

 (+1)

1 (+1)
cos 2+1 t
dt
dt
1

cos 2 t
+ 2
<
2
+1
+1
2
t

2
t

1
1
< 2
.
+O

2 ( + 1)
2

50

[. i

 1  (+1)
dt
cos(2 2 )t cos(2 + 2 )t

cos 2 t
=
2
+1

2
2
t
=


1
1
=O
.
O
=
+3

|2

2
|
2
=
,

f1 (t) sin t
dt = O
t+1

1
.
2

= 2

 
 1

|J3 | > A cos x
 +2 + O(1).
2
ln



1
, cos 2 x 2
 1 ,
, cos 2 . J3 .
, 15, J2 . , , J1
, , ,

J=
f (t)I (, x t) dt

f (t) . , 20 (C, 1) (C, ), < 1.


1 < < 2, I (, t)


( 1) t cos(t v)
I (, t) = 2 +1
dv.
t
t
v 2
0

2 I

t2

( 1)2 t cos(t v)
dv =
t+1
v 2
0


( + 1)2

1
=
sin t
+O 3 ,
+1
t
2
t

, 1.22,


f2 (t)

2
sin x t
( + 1)
dt.
t1+
2
T

f (t) =

22 cos 2 t
2

(  t < ( + 1); = 1, 2, ... )

1.24]

51

f (t) = 0 t.
f2 (t) =


0

1 cos 2 t
2

(  t < ( + 1); = 1, 2, ... ).

t
cos u(x )
1
f (t) cos u(x t) dt = f2 ()


2u
t
2
f2 (t)
sin u(x t) + 1
u cos u(x t) dt,

, , 21 .
,
. ,
, 21 (C, 2) (C, ),
< 2.
1.24. . ,
, ,
.
.
22. f (x) L(, ),



du
1
f (x) dx =
f (t)[sin u( t) + sin ut] dt,
(1.24.1)
0
u
0

 iu

1
e
1
f (x) dx =
eiut f (t) dt
(1.24.2)
lim
du

2
iu
0

,



sin u
2
f (x) dx =
f (t) cos ut dt,
(1.24.3)
du
0
u
0
0



1 cos u
2
du
f (x) dx =
f (t) sin ut dt
(1.24.4)
0
u
0
0
 0.
. (1.1.1), (1.1.6), (1.1.4), (1.1.5). , , (1.24.2).


 iu(t)

 iu
e
1
e
eiut
iut
e f (t) dt =
f (t) dt
du
du.
iu
iu

52

[. i

,

sin tu sin(t )u
2
du,
u
0
t 2, 0 < t < ,
, t < 0 t > .
. ,
.
1.25. .
.
.
. ,
, .
: f (x) , ..,
.
23. f (t) L(, ),
t = x.


1
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
ixu
e
du
eiut f (t) dt.
(1.25.1)
=
lim
2
2

f (t) t = x 4, (1.25.1) f (x).


. , (1.25.1).





ixu
iut
e
du
e f (t) dt =
f (t) dt
eiu(xt) du =


sin (x t)
f (t)
dt,
=2
xt

,
3.
, f (z)
y  0, f (z) 0, |z| ,

1.25]

53

0  arg z  . , 1 , F (u) = 0
u > 0. ,
(1.4.1), (1.4.2).
F+ (w) F (w), , f (x) .
24. ec|t| f (t) L(, ) c, F+ (w), F (w), (1.3.1), (1.3.2), v  c, v  c .
, f (t) t = x ,
3 4,
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
=
2
 ia+
 ib+
1
1
ixw
=
e
F+ (w) dw +
eixw F (w) dw,
lim
lim

2
2
ia
ib
a  c, b  c.
.

0
(x < 0),
g(x) =
eax f (x) (x > 0).
, ,


1
g(x + 0) + g(x 0)
ixu
=
lim
e
du
eiut g(t) dt =
2
2




1
1
ixu
i(u+ia)t
e
du
e
f (t) dt =
eixu F+ (u + ia) du
lim
=
lim

2
2

 ia+
+ 0) + g(x 0)
1
e
eixw F+ (w) dw.
=
lim

2
2
ia
,
 bx
e f (x) (x < 0),
h(x) =
0
(x > 0),
ax g(x

bx h(x

1
+ 0) + h(x 0)
=
lim
2
2

ib+

eixw F (w) dw.

ib

.
1

. , , 6.222.

54

[. i

1.26. 1 . 24 , .
25.


an en s
f (s) =
n=1

n > 0 ,

an .
A(x) =
n x

k > max(0, 0 ),
1
A(x + 0) + A(x 0)
=
lim
2
2i T

k+iT

esx
kiT

f (s)
ds.
s

.
A0 = 0,

m


An = a 1 + a 2 + . . . + a n .

a e > 0 m, , -

=1

, , > 0,
n



a e e = O en .
An =
=1

, N n, n  x,


 

A(x) = AN = O eN = O ex .
, >



n s
f (s) =
(An An1 )e
=
An (en s en+1 s ) =
n=1


n=1

n=1
n+1

An s

sy

e
n

dy = s

esy A(y) dy.

A(y) , 24.
1.27. .

.
1

. H a r d y and R i e s z, The General Theory of Dirichlets Series, pp. 1214.

1.27]

55

26. f (z) ,
a < y < b, a > 0, b > 0, , a < y < b,

O(e()x ) (x ),
(1.27.1)
f (z) =
O(e()x ) (x )
, . F (w), (1.2.5), ,
f (z), a, b, , , , b, a,

1
eizw F (w) dw
(1.27.2)
f (z) =
2
z a < y < b.
. :

1
F (w) =
eiw f () d,
(1.27.2)
2
< v < . F (w)
.
, . ,

1
ei(+i)(u+iv) f ( + i) d = O(eu ),
F (w) =
2
a b,
F (w).
(1.27.2) 23;

. a < < y < < b.
 i+


1
1
izw
izw

e
F (w) dw =
e
dw
eiw f () d =
2
2 0
0
i
 i+
 i+

1
f ()
1
i(z)w
=
d,
f () d
e
dw =
2 i
2i i z
0
. ,
 i+
 0
1
f ()
1
izw

e
F (w) dw =
d,
2i i z
2
, f (z).

56

[. i

1.28. .

.
.
27. f (t) L(, ) , ,

eiut f (t) dt



|u| ixu
1
1
du
eiut f (t) dt
lim
e
2

12 [f (x + 0) + f (x 0)], ;
f (x), f (x) ; f (x)
x.
, (1.16.1), 14 20.
1.29. . , , , , ,
1.5; , ,
,
.
.
28. y k1 f (y) L(0, ), f (y) y = x.

f (x)xs1 dx (s = k + it).
(1.29.1)
F(s) =
0

1
f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
=
lim
2
2i T

k+iT

F(s)xs ds.

(1.29.2)

kiT

29. F(k + iu) L(, )


u = t.
 k+i
1
F(s)xs ds.
(1.29.3)
f (x) =
2i ki

1.29]

F(k + i(t + 0)) + F(k + i(t 0))


= lim

57

f (x)xk+it1 dx.

(1.29.4)

1/

23.
:
30.
F(k + it) = (t)ei(t) ,
(t) (t) 11 t ,
t ;
ekx f (ex ) = (x)ei(x) ,
.
, .
11 .
31. f (z) z = rei
< < , 0 <  , 0 <  , f (z)
O(|z|a ) z O(|z|b+ ) z,
, , a < b. F(s),
(1.29.1), s,
a < < b

O(e()t ) (t ),
F(s) =
O(e()t ) (t )
, , a < < b, (1.29.3) a < k < b.
, F(s) , , f (x), (1.29.3),
,
(1.29.1).
26 .
32. xk1 f (x) L(0, ), , ,

f (x)xk1 dx = F(s)

(1.29.5)

s = k + it t.

58

1
lim
2i

k+i

ki

|t|
1

[. i

F(s)xs ds

+ 0) + f (x 0)], ;
, f (x), f (x) ; , ,
, f (x) x.
, F(k + it) L,


| ln x|
lim
1
f (x)xs1 dx = F(s).
1/
ln
1
[f (x
2

27 .
1 ,


a1
f (x)x dx,
f (x)xb1 dx,
0

a < b, , a < k < b.


, (1.29.5)
, a < < b. F(s)
.
1.30. . , (1.4.3),
33. , f (z)

1
ezw (w) dw,
(1.30.1)
f (z) =
2i
, , , f (z)
, .. f (z) = O(ec|z| ) c > 0.
. (1.30.1), , z; |w|  c,
f (z) = O(ec|z| ). , .
, , ,
f (z) =

an z n .

n=0

, ,
|an | 
1

Hardy (8).

1
Kecr
max
|f
(z)|
<
rn |z|=r
rn

1.30]

59

r. , r = n
|an | < Kecn nn .


n!an
(w) =
wn+1
n=0

w, , |w| > M .
,
|w| = M . , ,





n!an
ezw
1
zw
e (w) dw =
dw =
an z n = f (z),
n+1
2i
2i
w

n=0
n=0
.
1.4,

(w) =
exw f (x) dx,
0

, , Re w > c.
, f (z), (1.30.1),
, , , (w)
: , (w) .
, f (z) , (1.30.1) (w). , , (w) ,
(1.30.1).
.
34. (w) w,
n- ,

etw (w) dw = 0

t, , ,

(w) = a0 + a1 w + . . . + an wn .
.
(w) = (w) a0 a1 w . . . an wn ,
a0 +a1 w+. . .+an wn (w) .


etw (w) dw = 0,

60

[. i

(w) 0, |w| . ezt , Re z > max Re w,

0 ,

(w)
dw = 0,
z w
z,
. ,  R > |z|,


(w)
1
dw = 0.
(z) =
2i  w z
R . , (z) = 0.

II

2.1. . F (x) G(x) f (x) g(x) ,





1
F (x)G(x) dx =
G(x) dx
eixt f (t) dt =
2




1
ixt
=
f (t) dt
G(x)e dx =
f (t)g(t) dt.
(2.1.1)
2

g(t) g(t), G(x) G(x),





F (x)G(x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx.
(2.1.2)

, g = f


2
|F (x)| dx =

|f (x)|2 dx.




Fc (x)Gc (x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx
0

[Fc (x)] dx =
0

f 2 (x) dx,

(2.1.5)




Fs (x)Gs (x) dx =
0

(2.1.4)

(2.1.3)

f (x)g(x) dx

(2.1.6)

f 2 (x) dx.

(2.1.7)


2

[Fs (x)] dx =
0


 2

a20  2
2
1
f (x) dx =
(an + b2n )
+
0
2
n=1

62

[. ii

; 1 .
, ,



1
1
ixt
ixt

e F (t)G(t) dt =
e F (t) dt
eitu g(u) du =
2
2




1
1
it(xu)
=
g(u) du
e
F (t) dt =
g(u)f (x u) du.
2
2

(2.1.8)
,

1

g(u)f (x u) du,
2

F (x)G(x)

(2.1.9)

.
(2.1.8) f (x) g(x). , , . ,



1
h(v) dv
g(u)f (x u v) du, F (x)G(x)H(x)
(2.1.10)
2



1

fn (un ) dun
fn1 (un1 ) dun1 . . .

n/2

(2)


(2.1.11)
...
f1 (u1 )f (x u1 . . . un ) du1

F (x)F1 (x) . . . Fn (x).


Me.
, . F(s),
G(s) f (x) g(x),
 k+i
 k+i

1
1
F(s)G(1 s) ds =
G(1 s) ds
f (x)xs1 dx =
2i ki
2i ki
0
 k+i


1
s1
=
f (x) dx
G(1 s)x ds =
f (x)g(x) dx,
2i 0
ki
0
(2.1.12)
1

(Rayleigh (1)). . Hardy (35), Ramanujan (1).

2.1]

63

, ,
 k+i
 k+i

1
1
F(s)G(1 s) ds =
F(s) ds
g(x)xs dx =
2i ki
2i ki
0
 k+i


1
s
g(x) dx
F(s)x ds =
g(x)f (x) dx.
=
2i 0
ki
0

 k+i
1
F(s)G(s) ds =
2i ki

 k+i


1 dx
1
s1
g(x) dx
F(s)x ds =
g(x)f
.
=
2i 0
x x
ki
0
g = f , f , (2.1.12) k = 12

2
 



1
1
F
+ it  dt =
f 2 (x) dx.
2 
2
0


f (x)g(x)x
0

s1

1
dx =
2i
1
=
2i
=

1
2i

g(x)x

s1

k+i

F(w)xw dw =

g(x)xsw1 dx =

1
2i

(2.1.14)

ki

F(w) dw
ki
k+i

k+i

dx

..
f (x)g(x),

(2.1.13)

F(w)G(s w) dw,

(2.1.15)

ki

k+i

F(w)G(s w) dw

(2.1.16)

ki

.
,
 k+i
1
F(s)G(s)xs ds =
2i ki

 k+i


x du
1
s1 s
g(u) du
F(s)u x ds =
g(u)f
;
=
2i 0
u u
ki
0

(2.1.17)

.
, ,


x du
g(u)f
, F(s)G(s).
(2.1.18)
u u
0

64

[. ii






du1
dun
dun1
x
fn (un )
fn1 (un1 )
...
f1 (u1 )f
,
un 0
un1
u1 u2 . . . u n u1
0
0

F(s)F1 (s) . . . Fn (s).


(2.1.19)


 k+i
 k+i
1
1
sx
sx
(s)(s)e ds =
(s)e ds
f (y)esy dy =
2i ki
2i ki
0
 k+i

1
f (y) dy
(s)es(xy) ds =
=
2i 0
ki
 x
=
f (y)g(x y) dy
(2.1.20)
0

1
2i

k+i

1
(s)(s)e ds =
2i

=

sx

ki

k+i

(s)es(xy) ds =

f (y) dy
0

ki

f (y)g(y x) dy.

(2.1.21)

max(x,0)

, , .



1
1
1
x
ixy
ixu/a

e f (ay) dy =
e
f (u) dy = F
,
a
a
2
a 2
 
1
f (ay) F x . ,
a
a
, ,



1
x
x
f (at)g(bt) dt =
F
G
dx.
(2.1.22)
ab
a
b

. , ,


s1
s
f (ax)x dx = a
f () s1 d,
0

Me f (ax) as F(s).
 k+i

1
f (ax)g(bx) dx =
F(s)G(1 s)as bs1 ds,
(2.1.23)
2i
0
ki
.

2.3]

65

2.2. . ,
,
. . , , ,
I.
(2.1.1) .
35. f (x) G(x) L(, ), F (x)
g(x) ux , (2.1.1) .
, ,
(2.1.1), . , f G
, a F g .
, ,
- - .
35 , f (x) g(x)
L(, ), G(x),
g(x), L(, ), (2.1.1) .
, , 27, g(x)
G(x).
2.3. ,
6. (0, ), - .
361 . f (x) L(0, )
, 0,
x 0. , , g(x) -
Gc (x),
x .


Fx (x)Gc (x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx.
(2.3.1)
0





Gc (y) dy
f (x) cos xy dx =
f (x) dx
Gc (y) cos xy dy.
0

Hardy (5).

(2.3.2)

66

, ,




Gc (y) dy
f (x) cos xy dx =
f (x) dx
0

[. ii

Gc (y) cos xy dy

(2.3.3)

. , ,

 

Gc ()
Gc (y) cos xy dy = Gc ()
cos xy dy = O
.
x

f (x) dx

lim

Gc (y) cos xy dy = 0,

(2.3.3), (2.3.4)



Gc (y) dy
f (x) cos xy dx =
0

(2.3.4)

f (x) dx

Gc (y) cos xy dy

(2.3.5)

> 0. ,


Gc (y) dy
f (x) cos xy dx = 0.
lim
0

y2

Gc (y) dy

f (x) cos xy dx =
0

y1


= f (+0)

y2

f (x) dx
0

Gc (y) cos xy dy =
y1

y2

dx
0

(2.3.6)

y2

Gc (y) cos xy dy = f (+0)


y1

Gc (y)
y1

sin y
dy,
y

0 < < ; ,
 y2



sin y
sin y
Gc (y)
dy = Gc (Y )
dy = O Gc (Y )
y
y
Y
Y
, , Y ,
 Y
sin y
dy 0,
Gc (y)
y
y1
0. , ,
Y .
37. -G (x)
, , s
x
L(1, ).

2.4]

67

,

 y2
1 cos y
Gs (y)
dy,
y
y1

0 .
2.4. ,
.
, ,
1 .
38. f (x) L(0, ). , , g(x) , x . , ,
 t
 1
|f (t)|
g(u) du < .
(2.4.1)
dt
t
0
0




Fc (x)Gc (x) dx =

f (x)g(x) dx,

(2.4.2)

- .
.

 X
  X
2
Fc (x)Gc (x) dx =
Gc (x) dx
f (t) cos xt dt =

0
 X
 
2
f (t) dt
Gc (x) cos xt dx =
=
0


 X

2
f (t) dt
cos xt dx
g(u) cos xu du =
=
0

0

 X

2
=
f (t) dt
g(u) du
cos xt cos xu dx =
0
0




=
f (t) g(t, X) g(t, ) + g(t, X) g(t, ) dt,
(2.4.3)
0

sin x(u t)
du.
ut
0
x t
t, x u u.
g(t, x) = 1

. Hardy and Titchmarsh (5).

g(u)

68

[. ii

g(t) , g(t, X) g(t) X


t, g(t, X) 0. , 0
 U


sin (u t)
du + O g(U ) =
g(u)
g(t, ) =
ut
0
 U



=O
g(u) du + O g(U ) = o(1)
0

( U , ). 1
 



 T
  t


sin
x(u

t)
sin
x(u

t)

du = g
+0
du <
g(u)

ut
2
ut
t/2
t/2

 t/2

A
t
A t
<
< Ag
g(u) du <
g(u) du
2
t 0
t 0


 


 t/2
t/2
2 t/2
g(u)
sin x(u t) 
2 t

du 
du 
g(u)
g(u) du 
g(u) du.

 0

ut
ut
t 0
t 0
0

|f (t)|
|f (t)g(t, x)|  A
t

g(u) du.
0

L(0, 1) L(1, ),
f (t) L(1, ), a

1 t
g(u) du 0.
t 0
, (2.4.3) X , 0
.
38 :
(I) f (x) L(0, ), g(x) (0, ) x ,
(2.4.2).
(II) f (x) L(0, 1), g(x)
(0, 1), (2.4.1)
, 38 f g,
.
1

, A ,
. . .

2.5]

69

(III) f (x) (0, 1), g(x) ln 1


x
L(0, 1), (2.4.1) , 38 f g, .
, f (0, 1) g
L(0, 1) 38,
( (2.4.1)).
2.5.
,
.
, ,
, . .
39. f (x) g(x) . , ,
 a
 a
1
1
ixt
e f (t) dt, G(x, a) =
eixt g(t) dt
F (x, a) =
2 a
2 a


b

(x, a, b) =
a

g(u)f (x u) du

O(ec|x| ) c, a
b, a , b F (x), G(x)
(x) x.

(+0) + (0)
F (x)G(x) dx =
,
lim

2
, .
. > 0. ,
,
2
2



t
t
F (t) exp + iut dt = lim
F (t, a) exp + iut dt =
a
4
4


 a
t
1
f (x) dx
exp + iut + ixt dt =
= lim
a
4
2 a


a

2
f (x)e(x+u) dx,
= lim 2
a

u. , ,

70

[. ii

t
g(u) du
F (t) exp + iut dt =
4
b


 a
b

2
g(u) du
f (x)e(x+u) dx =
= lim 2

= lim

= lim


= 2

b
b

a
a+u


2


g(u) du

b
a+b


2

f (x u)ex dx =

a+u
 min(x+a,b)

ex dx
2

ab

g(u)f (x u) du =
max(xa,b)

ex (x, b, b) dx.
2

, , ,
 t2
2
e 4 F (t)G(t, b) dt,

b , ,

 
t2
4
2
e
F (t)G(t) dt =
ex (x) dx.

, 16.
, , f
g L(, ) .
2.6.
. (2.1.8), . x ,
f (x u) F (t)eixt . ,
x . , ,
(2.1.9) ,
.
40. f (x) F (x),
L(, ), g(x) L(, )
(
G(x) ). 2 F (x)G(x) L(, ),



k(x) =

g(u)f (x u) du.

2.7]

71

, ,
(2.1.8), .
41. f (x) g(x) L(, ).
k(x)
L(, ),
2 F (x)G(x).
.
 a

 a
ixu
ixu
e k(u) du =
e du
f (v)g(u v) dv =
a
a


 a

 av
ixu
ixv
=
f (v) dv
e g(u v) du =
e f (v) dv
eixt g(t) dt.

av

2 G(x).

 ixv
ixu
e k(u) du = 2
e f (v)G(x) dv = 2F (x)G(x).

2.7. .
42. xk1 f (x) L(0, ) G(1k it) L(, ),
F(k + it) L(, ) xk g(x) L(0, ). (2.1.12).
, ,
, .
43. f (x) g(x) . , ,
 a
 a
s1
f (x)x dx, G(s, a) =
g(x)xs1 dx
F(s, a) =
1/a

1/a

= k, = 1 k F(s), G(s)
t, , ec|s| F(s, a), ec|s| G(s, a) c,
a. , ,
 b
1
f (x)g(x) dx
c + c a
a, b, a 0, b 0 = 1.

 k+i
1
F(s)G(1 s) ds =
f (x)g(x) dx,
2i ki
0
, .
39.
41

72

[. ii

44. xk f (x) xk g(x) L(0, ),


x dy
f (y) g
.
h(x) =
y y
0
xk h(x) L(0, ),
F(s)G(s) = k + 1.
2.8. .


f (0) 
Fc (0) 

Fc (n) =
f (n) ,
+
+
2
2
n=1
n=1

(2.8.1)

= 2, > 0.
1 .
45. f (x) (0, ) x ,

 

f (+0)

Fc (n) = lim
+
M
2
n=1


M

f (m 0) + f (m + 0) 1 (M +1/2)
+
f (t) dt .

0
m=1
(2.8.2)


f (t) dt ,

 Fc (0) 
f (+0) 
f (m 0) + f (m + 0)
+
+
.

Fc (n) =
2
2
2
n=1
m=1
(2.8.3)
, , f (x) , (2.8.1).
. f (t) , x ,
, f (t) .

 
f (t) cos xt dt
Fc (x) = 2
0
1
,
- . , (W.L. Ferrar). .
Linfoot (1), Mordell (1).

2.8]

x > 0,
n
 

Fc (m) =
m=1

=

= lim

+
+

f (t)
0

n


73

cos mt dt =

m=1




sin n + 12 t 1

f (t)
dt =
2
2 sin 12 t


!

" 
M 
sin n + 12 t
2  (2m+1)/
2m
dt +
f (t) f
+0
m=0 2m/

2 sin 12 t

!

" 
M 
sin n + 12 t
2m
2  2m/
f (t) f
0
dt +
m=1 (2m1)/

2 sin 12 t

""
!
M !

2m
2m

f
f (+0) +
+0 +f
0

m=1
#
 (2M +1)/

f (t) dt .
(2.8.4)
2 0

Ho, ,


" 

 (2m+1)/ !
sin n + 12 t
2m
+0
dt =
f (t) f

2 sin 12 t
2m/


" 
 / !
sin n + 12 t
2m
2m
+t f
+0
dt =
f
=

2 sin 12 t
0


!

"  /
sin n + 12 t
(2m + 1)
2m
= f
0 f
+0
dt.

2 sin 12 t


 /


1
1 (n+1/2) sin u
1
1
sin n + 2 t
dt +
du,

(n+1/2) u
2 sin 12 t t

n ,


  (2m + 1)

2m
f


f
+
0



. (2.8.4)
M n;
n , . ,
(2.8.2). (2.8.3) (2.8.1), , (2.8.2) .

74

[. ii

. , , 1
 

Fc ()Fc (3) Fc (5) + Fc (7) + . . . =


= f () f (3) f (5) + f (7) + . . . ,
= ,
4
 

Fc ()Fc (5) Fc (7) + Fc (11) + Fc (13) . . . =


= f () f (5) f (7) + f (11) + f (13) . . . ,
= , 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, ... , 6.
6
.
2.9. 2 . , f (x) :
 c+i
1
f (x) =
F(s)xs ds.
2i ci
, ,
 c+i
 c+i



1
1
s
f (n) =
F(s)
(n) ds =
F(s)(s)s ds,
2i
2i
ci
ci
n=1
n=1


1 - .
s
n
n=1
= c = b, b > 0;
(s) s = 1 1,
 1


 s1
f (0)
+
f (x) f (0) x dx +
f (x)xs1 dx
F(s) =
s
0
1

c > 1 (s) =

, , s = 0 f (0). (0) = 12 ,

 b+i

F(1)
1
f (0) 
f (n)
F(s)(s)s ds =
+
=
2

2i
bi
n=1
 1+b+i
1
=
F(1 s)(1 s)s1 ds =
2i 1+bi
 1+b+i
 
 s
1
=
F(1 s)(s) cos s (s) 2
ds =
2

i 1+bi
1
2

Ramanujan (2).
Ferrar (2).

2.10]

75

1 
=
i n=1

1+b+i

1+bi

s
 
F(1 s)(s) cos s 2n
ds.
2

(2.1.23) f g
 
g(x) = cos x, G(s) = (s) cos s , b = 1
2

 k+i

 
F (a) = 1
F(1 s)(s) cos s as ds.
2 c
2
2i ki
(2.8.1).
. ,


d(n)f (n),
n=1

d(n) n. , ,

 c+i
 b+i
f (0)
1
1
2

F(s) (s) ds =
F(s) 2 (s) ds,
+ F (1) 2F(1) +
2i ci
4
2i bi

 1+b+i
1
F(1 s) 2 (1 s) ds =
2i 1+bi

 
2 1+b+i
2
2 s
22s 2s 2 (s) ds =
F(1 s) (s) cos
=
2
i 1+bi


 

2d(n) 1+b+i
=
F(1 s)2 (s) cos2 s (4 2 n)s ds.
2
i
1+bi
n=1
(7.9.7) (7.9.11) :
 k+i  
 
2 s
2 s
2 K (x) Y (x) = 1
cos
2s xs ds

0
0

2
4
2 2 i ki

(k > 1);

, , :


n=1

f (0)
+ F (1) 2F(1) +
4


$
%


+
d(n)
f (x) K0 (4 nx) Y0 (4 nx) dx.
2
0

d(n)f (n) =

n=1

76

2.10. .

1  n
=

e
+
2 n=1

2 1 .
1 + x2

2 1 
1
.
+
2 n=1 1 + n2 2

(I) f (x) = ex , Fc (x) =

[. ii

(II) f (x) = ex /2 , Fc (x) = ex /2 .

 1 
1 
2 n2 /2
2 n2 /2
+
+
=
.

e
e
2 n=1
2 n=1
2

(III) f (x) = ex /2 cos kx. Fc (x) = e(k +x )/2 ch kx,

 k2 /2 1 
1 
2 n2 /2
2 n2 /2

e
cos kn = e
e
ch kn .
+
+
2 n=1
2 n=1

sin x
(IV) f (x) =
45,
1+x
, L(0, ).
(V) f (x) = xs sin2 x (1 < < 2).
 

(1 s) sin s
|x 2|s1 + |x + 2|s1
2
s1

x
(x > 2),
Fc (x) =
2
2
 
(1 s) sin s
2

Fc (0) =
(2s1 ).
2
= , = 4
2
 
% 2(1 s) sin s
 $ s  s
2

+ 3
+ ... =

2
2
2
2

"

!

(4n 2)s1 + (4n + 2)s1
s2
s1
(4n)
2 +
,
2
n=1
2

1+

 
1
1
s1
s
+
+
.
.
.
=

(1

s)
sin
2
3s 5s

!
"

1 
1
1
1
+
.

2 n=1 (2n)1s 2(2n 1)1s 2(2n + 1)1s

(1 2s )(s).

2.11]

(VI)

77

1
22
2 2


(1

x
)
(0 < x < 1),
f (x) =
+ 12

0
(x  1).

1
Fc (x) =

J (x)
x

(x > 0),

Fc (0) =

1
.
2 ( + 1)


 J (n)
1
=
+
2+1 ( + 1) n=1 (n)

22


+ 12


1
1
2 2 2
,
(1 n )
+
2
n1/

= 12 n = 1/ ( 1/ )
12 .
 12 45. ,
12 < < 12 , , .
2.11. - . - , .
46. f (x) (0, ),
0 < < , (, ) 2
x .
 

Fs () Fs (3) + . . . =
!
"
f (+0) + f (0) f (3+0) + f (30)

+ ... ,
(2.11.1)
=
2
2
= . .
2
. , ,
 

Fs () Fs (3) + . . . + (1)n Fs ((2n + 1)) =

sin(2n + 2)t

n
= (1)
f (t)
dt =
2 0
cos t

sin(2n + 2)t
 m/
n
= (1)
f (t)
dt =
2 m=1 (m1)/
cos t


 /2 

m 12 + v sin(2n + 2)v
1 
m1
(1)
f
dv.
=

sin v
2 m=1
/2
1

. (7.1.11).

78

[. ii

(2.11.1)


(1)m1
m=1


  0 ! 

"


m 12 + v
m 12
sin(2n + 2)v
f

f
0
dv +

sin v
/2



"

 /2 ! 
m 12
m 12 + v
sin(2n + 2)v
f
+0
dv ,
f
+

sin v
0
,
45.
. f (x) = xs (0 < < 1).

 
Fs (x) = 2 (1 s) cos s xs1 ,

 
 

2
(1 s) cos s s1 (3)s1 + . . . = s (3)s + . . . ,
2

 
 s1

(1 s) cos s L(1 s) = L(s), L(s) = 1 1s + 1s . . .


2
2
3
5
2.12. . , f (x)
.
47. f (x)

f (y) cos xy dy
(2.12.1)
0

x  0, ,
 Y




 < Keax
f
(y)
cos
xy
dy


0

a, K Y . , ,
(y) =

f (y + n)

n=1

 y  , ..
2
2


N



  (y),
f
(y
+
n)


n=1

(2.12.2)

2.12]

79

(y) L.

 Fc (0) 

f (+0) (+0) (0)


n2
lim
+
+
+
,
=
Fc (n)e
0
2
2
2
2
n=1
, .
.


 (yn)
2
1
2 2 /2
n
2
K(y, ) =
e
=
e
cos ny ,
+
2 n=
2 n=1
(III) 2.10.
 Y
f (y)K(y, ) dy =
0

 Y


2 1 Y
n2 2 /2
f (y) dy +
e
f (y) cos ny dy .
2 0
0
n=1

(2.12.2) Y ;






Fc (0)  n2 2 /2
f (y)K(y, ) dy =
e
Fc (n) .
+
2
0
n=1
K(y, ) . , , K(y, )
, , ,
 /2
 (m+1/2)

f (y)K(y, ) dy +
f (y)K(y, ) dy =
0

m=1

(m1/2)

/2

f (y)K(y, ) dy +

/2

f (y)K(y, ) dy +
0

/2

f (y + m)K(y, ) dy =

m=1 /2
 /2




(y)K(y, ) dy.
/2

17, x = 0, a = ,
2
K(y,
)

; 17 b = K(0, y, ) =
2

, , K(y, ).

III
L2

3.1. . (1.2.1),
(1.2.2), - f (x), Fc (x),
, . ,
,
.
1 .
, .
:
48. f (x) L2 (, ) ( ),
 a
1
F (x, a) =
eixy f (y) dy.
(3.1.1)
2 a
F (x, a) a (, )
F (x) L2 (, ); ,
 a
1
f (x, a) =
eixy F (y) dy
(3.1.2)
2 a
f (x).
f (x), F (x)

1 d
eixy 1

F (x) =
f (y)
dy,
iy
2 dx

1 d
eixy 1

f (x) =
F (y)
dy,
iy
2 dx
x.
1

Plancherel (1), (2), (3), (4).

(3.1.3)
(3.1.4)

3.2]

81

, F (x, a)

1
F (x, a, b) =
2

eixy f (y) dy,


a

a b .

49. f (x), F (x) g(x), G(x) 48,
(2.1.1), (2.1.2) (2.1.3).
- - .
50. f (x) L2 (0, ),
  a
Fc (x, a) = 2
f (y) cos xy dy.
0
Fc (x, a) a (0, )
Fc (x) L2 (0, ); ,
  a
fc (x, a) = 2
F (y) cos xy dy
0 c
f (x). x




sin xy
sin xy
d
d
2
2
Fc (x) =
f (y)
Fc (y)
dy, f (x) =
dy.
dx 0

y
dx 0
y
51. - 50, cos xy sin xy sin xy 1 cos xy.
52. - - L2
(2.1.4), (2.1.5), (2.1.6) (2.1.7).
, - - ,
, ,
, f (x) .
.
3.2. ; 1 . (1.1).


(+1)/

f (x) dx ( = 0, 1, . . .)

a =
/
1

Titchmarsh (1), (2).

L2

82

n


n (x) =

[. iii

a eix/ .

=n

b > 0 n = [b] 1

lim n (x) =

eixy f (y) dy
b

. ,

 
 b
 (+1)/

  n
 ix/

ixy
ixy
n (x)
=
e
f (y) dy
e
f
(y)
dy

e

 
b

=n




e f (y) dy
e f (y) dy  
(n+1)/
b
 b
 b
 n/
x
|f (y)| dy +
|f (y)| dy
|f (y)| dy 0,

b
(n+1)/
b


eix/ eixy   x .

,
 (+1)/
 (+1)/

1 (+1)/
2
2
|a | 
|f (x)| dx
dx =
|f (x)|2 dx.

/
/
/


ixy

X 
 X

2
|n (x)| dx 
X

= 2

n


|n (x)|2 dx =

ix/

a e

n


ix/

a
e

dx =

=n

|a |  2

=n

ixy

=n
n


n/

(n+1)/

|f (x)| dx  2

n/

|f (x)|2 dx.

X ,
2
 b
 X  b


ixy


e f (y) dy  dx  2
|f (x)|2 dx.

X

X
2
 b
  b


ixy


e f (y) dy  dx  2
|f (x)|2 dx.
(3.2.1)


3.2]

83

f (y) = 0 a < y < a, (3.2.1)


 a  b


2
|f (x)|2 dx,
|F (x, b) F (x, a)| dx 
+

a , b . F (x, a)
F (x) L2 (, ); ,
(3.2.1) b ,


2
|F (x)| dx 
|f (x)|2 dx.
(3.2.2)

, f (x, a) (x). ,
(x) = f (x) x, ,


(x) dx =
f (x) dx
0

.


  a
1
(x) dx = lim
f (x, a) dx = lim
dx
F (y)eixy dy =
a
a
2
0
0
0
a
 a

eiy 1
eiy 1
1
1
= lim
F (y)
F (y)
dy =
dy.
a
iy
iy
2 a
2
G , (1.24.2) 22, f (x) = 0 |x| > a,

 iu

e
1
1
F (u, a) du
(|| < a).
f (x) dx =
2 iu
0


lim

eiu 1
F (u, a) du =
u

eiu 1
F (u) du,
u

iu

1 L2 (, ). e
u
.
(3.1.4);
, (3.1.2)
(3.1.1), (3.1.3).
(3.2.2) f F . ,
,



|F (x)|2 dx =

|f (x)|2 dx.

L2

84

[. iii

G(x) g(x),
F + G f + g;


2
|F (x) + G(x)| dx =
|f (x) + g(x)|2 dx,

..



|F (x)|2 + |G(x)|2 + 2 Re[F (x)G(x)] dx =
 

|f (x)|2 + |g(x)|2 + 2 Re[f (x)g(x)] dx.
=

Re

F (x)G(x) dx = Re

f (x)g(x) dx.

f + ig, ,
. ,


F (x)G(x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx.

3.3. ; 1 . f (x) L2 (, ).
fn (x),
, ,


|f (x) fn (x)|2 dx 0.

1
Fn (x) =
2

1
|Fn (x)| dx =
2

dx


ixu

eixu fn (u) du.

eixv fn (v) dv =


1
fn (u) du
fn (v) dv
eix(uv) dx =
=
2




2 sin (u v)
1
fn (u) du
fn (v)
dv.
=
2
uv

fn (u) du

, , 41.

3.3]

85

1.9
2fn (u) ;


2
|Fn (x)| dx =
|fn (u)|2 du.

,



|Fm (x) Fn (x)| dx =
2

|fm (u) fn (u)|2 du,

m n , Fn (x)
F (x) L2 (, ).


2
|F (x)| dx = lim
|Fn (x)|2 dx =
n




2
|fn (x)| dx =
|f (x)|2 dx.
= lim
n

, , F (x) f (x), ,
, , fn (x) . ,
 


1
1
eiu 1
ixu
du
Fn (x) dx =
dx
fn (u)e du =
fn (u)
iu
2 0
2
0

( ). n ,


1
eiu 1
F (x) dx =
f (u)
du,
iu
2
0
iu
e 1 L2 . x
iu

1 d
eixu 1

du,
F (x) =
f (u)
iu
2 dx

, F (x) ( 0)
, .

; , , . ,


F (x)G(x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx.

L2

86

[. iii

g(x) = 1 0  x  g(x) = 0 x < 0 x > .


 ixu
 x iu
1 d
1 d
1 eix 1
e 1
e 1
G(x) =
du =
du =
.
iu
iu
2 dx 0
2 dx 0
2 ix



eix 1
1

F (x)
f (x) dx,
dx =
ix
2
0
, f (x) F (x).
, h(x) = f (x) a  x  a h(x) = 0 |x| > a.

 a
 a
1
1 d
eixu 1
du =
H(x) =
f (u)
f (u)eixu du = F (x, a).
iu
2 dx a
2 a
F (x) F (x, a)
f (x) h(x), .. 0 |x|  a f (x) |x| > a. ,
 a 


2
|f (x)|2 dx,
|F (x) F (x, a)| dx =
+

a . ,
F (x) = l.i.m. F (x, a).
a

3.4. ; 1 . , f (x) L L2 ,

1
eixt f (t) dt.
F (x) =
2

2 2


x
exp
|F (x)|2 dx =
2

2 2



x
1
ixu
exp
e f (u) du
eixv f (v) dv =
dx
=
2
2




1
x2
=
f (u) du
f (v) dv
exp
+ ix(u v) dx =
2
2




(u v)2
1
f (u) du
exp
f (v) dv,
=
2 2
2

(3.4.1)
1

F. Riesz (2).

3.5]

87


 



2


(u

v)

=
f
(u)f
exp

(v)
du
dv


2 2


 




(u v)2
(u v)2


f
(u)
exp

exp
f
(v)
du
dv
=

2
2
4
4

&


 
(u v)2

|f (u)|2 du dv
exp
2
2

& 

(u v)2
exp
|f (v)|2 du dv =

2 2


 
(u v)2
=
|f (u)|2 du dv =
exp
2
2





t2
2
|f (u)| du
exp 2 dt = 2
|f (u)|2 du.
=
2

2 x2
exp
2


|F (x)| dx 
2

|f (u)|2 du,

, 0, , F (x)
L2 (, ).
, (3.4.1)




t2
1

f (u) du
exp 2 f (u + t) dt =
2
2




t2
1
exp 2 dt
f (u)f (u + t) du =
=
2
2



1
t2
=
exp 2 (t) dt,
2
2

(t) =

f (u)f (u + t) du.

f L2 , ,
( 1.18),
2 2



x
2
|F (x)| dx = lim
exp
|F (x)|2 dx =
0
2




2
t
1
exp 2 (t) dt = (0) =
|f (u)|2 du.
= lim
0 2
2

L2

88

[. iii

F f L2 .
3.5. 1 . n-
n
2 d
2
ex .
(3.5.1)
Hn (x) = (1)n ex
n
dx

n (x) = ex

2 /2

Hn (x) = (1)n ex

2 /2

dn x2
e .
dxn

(3.5.2)

, , , ,
, , .

dn x2
dn+1 x2
dn+2 x2

n x2 /2
2
(x + 1) n e
+ 2x n+1 e
+ n+2 e
n (x) = (1) e
dx
dx
dx


dn+1 x2
dn+1 
dn x2
dn+2 x2
x2
2xe
=
2x
e
=
e

2(n
+
1)
e .
dxn+2
dxn+1
dxn+1
dxn

n (x)

dn x2
dn x2
2
(x + 1) n e
=
= (1) e
2(n + 1) n e
dx
dx
= (x2 2n 1)n (x).
n x2 /2

(3.5.3)

, y = n (x)
d2 y
x2 y = (2n + 1)y.
(3.5.4)
dx2
2
y = ex /2 u,
d2 u
du
= 2nu,

2x
dx2
dx

(3.5.5)

Hn (x) .
Hn (x) . ,
u = a 0 + a1 x + . . .
1

. , , . 5171.

3.6]

89

(3.5.5).

ar r(r 1)x

r2

r=2

ar rx = 2n
r

r=1

ar x r ,

r=0

(r + 1)(r + 2)ar+2 = 2(r n)ar .


, : , r , n,
.
n (x) . , (3.5.3)
m (x)n (x) n (x)m (x) = 2(n m)m (x)n (x),

$
%
1



m (x)n (x) n (x)m (x) 
m (x)n (x) dx =
= 0,
2(n m)

m = n.
3.6.
531 . |t| < 1

2
1
x y 2 (x yt)2
.
exp
t Hn (x)Hn (y) =

n n!
2
2
2
2
1

t
1

t
n=0
(3.6.1)
.

1
2
x2
e
=
eu +2ixu du,

2
2


e(x +y )/2

(2i)n ex

Hn (x) =

un eu

2 +2ixu

du.

(x2 +y 2 )/2

e

2n n!

n=0

=
1

e(x

tn Hn (x)Hn (y) =

2 +y 2 )/2

. Watson (3).



n=0

(2tuv)n u2 v2 +2ixu+2iyv
e
du dv =
n!

L2

90

e(x

2 +y 2 )/2

(x2 y 2 )/2 

eu

2 v 2 +2ixu+2iyv2tuv

[. iii

du dv =

e(1t

2 )u2 +2i(xyt)u

du =

2
x y 2 (x yt)2
1
.
exp

=
2
1 t2
1 t2
,
  

(2uv)n u2 v2 +2Au+2Bv
du dv
e
n!
n=0

< 1.
54.
n (x)
n (x) = 

2n n!
(, ), ..


1 (m = n),
m (x)n (x) dx =
0 (m = n).

. m = n 3.5. (3.6.1) x = y,


n x2

t e [Hn (x)]2
1t 2
1

exp
x .
=
n n!
2)
1
+
t
2
(1

t
n=0
,






1
1t 2
tn
x2
2

e [Hn (x)] dx = 
exp
x dx =
n n!
1+t
2
(1 t2 )

n=0


1
1+t
1
=
tn .

=
=
2
1

t
1

t
(1 t )
n=0
t,




2
2
[n (x)] dx =
ex [Hn (x)]2 dx = 2n n! ,

3.7]

91

3.7.
55. f (x) L2 (, ).


f (x)m (x) dx
(m = 0, 1, 2, . . .).
(3.7.1)
am =


lim


2



f (x)
am m (x) dx = 0.


(3.7.2)

m=0

. (3.6.1)


x y 2 (x yt)2
1
n
.
(3.7.3)
exp
t n (x)n (y) = 

2
1 t2
(1 t2 )
n=0
K(x, y, t). K(x, y, t)  0 ( y = 2xt 2 + u)
1+t

K(x, y, t) dy =

1
1 t2 x2
1 + t2 u2
=
exp
exp
du =
1 + t2 2
1 t2 2
(1 t2 )

1 t2 x2
2
=
exp
1
1 + t2
1 + t2 2
t 1. (1.19.2), (1.19.3), , .
, f (x) , , , 17,

K(x, y, t)f (y) dy = f (x).
(3.7.4)
lim
t1

, (3.7.3) f (y)
(, ),



n
an t n (x) =
K(x, y, t)f (y) dy f (x)

n=0

t 1, , , .
f (x) ,



2 n
an t =
f 2 (x) dx,
n=0

L2

92


a2n

[. iii

f 2 (x) dx.

n=0

f (x) L2 (, ). ,
, f (x) ,
,

|f (x) f (x)|2 dx < ,


an, =

f (x)n (x) dx.

2


n

f (x)
am, m (x) dx =

f (x) dx+

m=1

f (x) dx
2

n



a2m

< 2 + 2

n


n


am, am 

m=1

2
am m (x) dx

m=1

f (x)

, ,

 
2
f (x) f (x) dx + 2
2

a2m, 2

m=1

m=1

n


f (x)

f2 (x) dx 2

n


2
am, m (x) dx <

m=1
n


a2m, < 3

m=1

n. (3.7.2).
56. a1 , a2 , . . .
f (x) L2 (, ),
(3.7.1).
n (x).
. 54
2
 
N

 N



am m (x) dx =
a2m ,

m=n

m=n

N .
n

m=0

am m (x)

3.8]

93

n f (x),


f (x)r (x) dx = lim

n


m=0

am m (x)r (x) dx = ar .

3.8.
57. n (x) in n (x).
.


dn
2
2
ixy
n
e n (x) dx = (1)
eixy+x /2 n ex dx =
dx


n
2 d
2
=
ex
eixy+x /2 dx =
n
dx


n
2
2 d
2
= ey /2
ex
e(x+iy) /2 dx =
n
dx


n
2
2 d
2
= (i)n ey /2
ex
e(x+iy) /2 dx =
n
dy

n 
d
2
2
2
= (i)n ey /2 n
ex /2+ixyy /2 dx =
dy

dn
2
2
= (i)n ey /2 n 2 ey = in 2 n (y).
dy
.

1
eixy n (x) dx.
n (y) =
2

n (y)

1
=
2

eixy x2 n (x) dx.

, ,

1
eixy n (x) dx.
n (y) =
2
y 2

n (y) y 2 n (y) + (2n + 1)n (y) =



1
=
eixy [n (x) x2 n (x) + (2n + 1)n (x)] dx = 0.
2

L2

94

[. iii

, n (x) , n (x); ,
2
2
ex /2 n (x) , ex /2 n (x) . ,
n (x) = cn n (x).

1
=
2

x2 /2

eixyy

2 /2

dy,

in
dn x2 /2

e
=
dxn
2
,

eixyy

2 /2

y n dy;



dn x2 /2
x2 /2
n n
(1)
e
=
e
x
+
.
.
.
.
dxn

in

ixyy 2 /2 n

y dy = e

x2 /2

n n

(1) x + . . . ,

ixy


1
2
n (x) dy =
eixyy /2 (2n y n + . . .) dy =
2
n x2 /2 n n
=i e
(2 x + . . .).

,
c n = in .
3.9. ;
. , , f (x) L2 (0, ),

f (x)n (x) dx.
an =

a2n

a1 = a3 = . . . = 0,

=2
f (x)2n (x) dx


n=0


a22n

=2
0

f 2 (x) dx.

3.10]

95

56, g(x) ,

n
g(x)2n (x) dx
(n = 0, 1, . . .),
(1) a2n = 2

g (x) dx =
0


a22n

n=0

f 2 (x) dx.

f g, , .
, g(x) f (x).


 
sin xy
sin xy
n
2
2n (t) cos yt dt =
2n (y) dy = (1)
dy
0
y
y
0
0



  x

sin xy cos yt
n
n
2

dy = (1)
= (1)
2n (t) dt
(t) dt,
0
2 0 2n
y
0
2n (t) L(0, ) y
.

0

N
sin xy 
(1)n a2n 2n (y) dy =
y n=0
0
 x
N
 
  x

a2n
2n (t) dt =
f (t) dt,
= lim
2
2 0
N
0

sin xy
g(y)
dy = lim
N
y

n=0

f g -
.
, f (x) , .
3.10. . L2 , 3 14.
58. f (t) L2 (, ) t = x,

f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
1
eixu F (u) du.
=
lim

2
2

. G(u), eixu |u| < 0 |u| > ,




1
sin (x + v)
ixuiuv
g(v) =
e
du = 2
.

x+v
2

L2

96

[. iii

, ,

 
sin (x v)
ixu
e
F (u) du = 2
f (v)
dv.

xv

( 12, Ia).
591 . f (t) L2 (, ),


|u|
1
F (u)eixu du
1
f (x) =
lim

x,
 h
|f (x + t) + f (x t) 2f (x)| dt = o(h)
0

h 0, x. f (x) ,
(C, 1).
. G(u), 

|u| ixu
e
|u| < 0 |u| > ,
1


 2 sin2 1 (x + v)
|u| ixuiuv
1
2
1
du = 2
.
e
g(v) =

(x + v)2
2
, ,


 
2 sin2 12 (x v)
|u|
ixu
1
du = 2
f (v)
dv,
F (u)e

(x v)2

, 1.16, 13.
f F .

60.
 a
1
eixt (t) dt,
f (x) = lim
a
2 a
L2 ,
1
f (x) =
2
1

Plancherel (3).

eixt (t) dt,

3.11]

97

L, .
,


|t|
1
lim
1
f (t)eixt dt

2
(x), 14 (x).
3.11. . f (t) L2 ,


eixt f (t) dt

. , 59, (C, 1) , f F
.
, . 58,
F (x). f (x), .
611 . f (t) L2 (, ),


eixt f (t) dt = o(ln )

(3.11.1)

x,


|F (x + y) + F (x y) 2F (x)| dy = o(h)

(h) =
0

h 0, x.
. 58,

 
sin y
ixt
e f (t) dt = 2
F (x + y)
dy.

y






2 


sin y 
dy
2
F (x + y)
|F (x + y)| dy

|F (t)|2 dt
dy  
2
y
y
1
1

Plancherel (3).

L2

98

[. iii

(, 1). ,
 1
 1
sin y
sin y
dy =
dy =
F (x + y)
[F (x + y) + F (x y)]
y
y
1
0
 1
sin y
=
[F (x + y) + F (x y) 2F (x)]
dy + O(1),
y
0
F (x) .
 1
 1/



 dy


F (x+y)+F (xy)2F (x) dy + F (x+y)+F (xy)2F (x)
.

y
0
1/
(h) = o(h), o(1),
1
 1

 1 
 1
(y)
(y)
dy
(y) 
+
dy = O(1) + o
dy =
= o(ln ).
2
y
y 1/
1/
1/ y
1/ y
.
621 . f (t) f (t) ln(|t| + 2)
2
L (, ), x

1

eixt f (t) dt = F (x).


(3.11.2)
lim

2
.




|t|
1 ixt
ixt
ixt
1
e f (t) dt =
e
e |t|f (t) dt.
f (t) dt +

, 59, 2F (x).
, x

eixt |t|f (t) dt = o().

61


eixt f (t) ln(t + 2) dt = o(ln )

() =
0

x. x , ,
1

Plancherel (3).

3.12]

99

t (t)
dt =
0
0 ln(t + 2)
 

1
t(t) 
t
(t) dt =
=

ln(t + 2) 0
ln(t + 2) (t + 2) ln2 (t + 2)
0


=
o(1) dt = o(),
o(ln ) +
ln( + 2)
0
.

ixt

e tf (t) dt =

3.12. , , , , ,
,
.

63. f (t) f (t) ln(|t| + 2)
L2 (, ), (3.11.2) x1 .
.

 (x)
ixt
e f (t) dt =
eixt f (t)(x, t) dt,
(x) =
(x)

(x) x,
(x)  a, (x, t) = 1 |t|  (x) = 0 |t| > (x),
(x, t) = 0 |t| > a x.
 



ixt
(x) dx =
dx
e f (t)(x, t) dt =
f (t) ln(|t| + 2) (t) dt,
0

eixt (x, t) dx
(t) = 
ln(|t| + 2) 0
( t ).

2 



2

(x) dx 
|f (t)| ln(|t| + 2) dt
|(t)|2 dt.




dt
ixt
|(t)| dt =
e (x, t) dx
eiyt (y, t) dy =

ln(|t| + 2) 0
0
  
(x, t) (y, t)
dx
dy
ei(xy)t
dt =
=
ln(|t| + 2)
0
0

   (x,y)
ei(xy)t
dt,
dx
dy
=
0
0
(x,y) ln(|t| + 2)

[Plessner (2)].

L2

100

[. iii

(x, y) = min{(x), (y)}. (x, y) =


,

0

sin(x y)
1 cos(x y)
cos(x y)t
dt =
+
+
ln(t + 2)
(x y) ln( + 2) (x y)2 ( + 2) ln( + 2)

ln(t + 2) + 2
1
[1 cos(x y)t]
+
dt =
2
(x y) 0
(t + 2)2 ln3 (t + 2)
= J1 + J2 + J3 .

, F (x, y, t) = F (y, x, t),


 

 




F (x, y, (x, y)) dx dy   2
dx
|F (x, y, (x))| dy.

0

, Q 0  x  , 0  y  ,
Q1 = Q{(x)  (y)},

Q2 = Q{(x) > (y)}.

Q1 (x, y) = (x), Q2 (x, y) = (y).


 
  


 


F (x, y, (x, y)) dx dy   
F (x, y, (x)) dx dy  +

Q
Q
 
 1  




F (x, y, (x)) dy
+ 
F (x, y, (y)) dx dy   2
dx
0

Q2

x y.
,

 
 




J1 dx dy   2
dx

0



 sin((x y)(x)) 


 (x y) ln((x) + 2)  dy.

0  x  ,


 (x) 
 
 sin((x y)(x)) 
 sin u 


 dy  2


 u  du 

xy
0
0

 [(x)+2]

$

%
du
= 2 1 + ln + ln (x) + 2 .
2 1+
u
1


 





J1 dx dy   4

0

1 + ln + ln((x) + 2)
dx < K().
ln((x) + 2)

3.12]

101


 




J
dx
dy
2


0 0




1 cos (x y)(x)
dx
2
dy <
2
(x y)2
0 ((x) + 2) ln ((x) + 2) 0

(x)
<A
dx < K().
2
0 ((x) + 2) ln ((x) + 2)

 

 



ln(t + 2) + 2
1 cos(x y)t


dt
J3 dx dy   2
dx
dy <
3

2
(x y)2
0 0
0 (t + 2) ln (t + 2)
0
0

t[ln(t + 2) + 2]
dt = K().
< K()
3
2
0 (t + 2) ln (t + 2)
(x)

2




(x) dx < K()
f 2 (t) ln(|t| + 2) dt.


(x, T, T ) =

(x)

max

f (t) cos xt dt.

T (x)T 

(x, T, T  )
, f (t) = 0 t < T t > T  .

2




 <
(x,
T,
T
)
dx


0

T

< K()

f (t) ln(t + 2) dt < K()

f 2 (t) ln(t + 2) dt.

T


(x, T, T ) (x, T ) = max





(x, T, T )  0,
1 ,

f (t) cos xt dt,


T

(x)

f (t) cos xt dt = 0, (x) = T . T


2





(x, T ) dx < K()

0

T (x)

(x)

f 2 (t) ln(t + 2) dt.

; . , , 10.8.1. [.
. . , , . 125.
. .]

L2

102

[. iii

(x, T )  0, T (x, T ) , , 1 (x).




1 (x) dx  lim
(x, T ) dx = 0,
T

1 (x) = 0 x. , (x, T )
max min, ,
(x, T ) 0 x.

 U
f (t) cos xt dt  (x, T ),
(x, T ) 


T
U

f (t) cos xt dt 0 x, T U -

. ,

f (t) cos xt dt
0

x. , x. ,
(3.11.2) x.
, , 48,
F (x).
3.13.
.
64. f (x) g(x) L2 (, ),
(2.1.9) ,
(2.1.8) x.
. f (u+t),
t ,

 a
1
eixt a+t ixv
ixu
e f (u + t) du = l.i.m.
e f (v) dv = eixt F (x).
l.i.m.
a
a
2 a+t
2 a
, 49.
65. f (x) L2 (, ), g(x) L(, ), (2.1.9) L2 .
. F L2 , G , F G L2 .

1
eixu 1

F (u)G(u)
du.
(3.13.1)
iu
2

3.13]

103


ixu

G(u) e


1
iu

eixu 1
eiyu G(u)
du =
iu
a
 a

ixu
1
1
iyu e
e
eiu g() d =
du
= l.i.m.
a 2 a
iu

 a

sin(x + y )u sin(y )u
g() d
du =
= l.i.m. 1

a
u

0
 x+y
=
g() d
(x > 0),

1
l.i.m.
a
2

.
, (3.13.1)
1

xy

1
g() d =
2

f (y) dy
f (y) dy
y

 x 
1
=
du
f (y)g(u y) dy,
2 0

g(u y) du =
0

. x .
, f
2
L , g L,


h(x) =

f (y)g(x y) dy

L2 , 1


2
2
|h(x)| 
|f (y)| |g(x y)| dy
|g(x y)| dy =



2
=
|f (y)| |g(x y)| dy
|g(u)| du,





2
2
|h(x)| dx 
|g(u)| du
|f (y)| dy
|g(x y)| dx =

|f (y)|2 dy


2
|g(u)| du .

|f (y)|2 |g(xy)| dy

. . .

104

L2

[. iii

66. f (x) ,
L(, ), F (x)

(t)(x t) dt,
(3.13.2)
F (x) =

L (, ). , F (x)
,
 
f (x) = 2
F (t) cos xt dt
0
2

L.
 . f (x)
L, f (x) L2 . G(x)
. G L2 , 64,

G(t)G(x t) dt


f f = f .
, (3.13.2), f
, , f
L.
67. f L,

(t)(x t) dt,
F (x) =

L2 , .



f = |f | |f | sgn f.
3.14. .
68. f (x) f  (x) L2 ,
F (x) xF (x) L2 , .
.
 x
2
2
f (x) f (0) = 2
f (t)f  (t) dt,
0

x . , , f 2 (x)
L, ,
; , f (x) x .

3.15]

105

ixu 

ixu

f (u) du = e


a

f (u) ix
a

eixu f (u) du.

a 2(x).
, ,
x. 2ixF (x),
x. ,
(x) = ixF (x),
, (x)
L2 .
, xF (x) L2 (x) . F xF L2 , F (u) L(, )1 .
 x


1
eixu 1
i
(u) du =
uF (u)
F (u)eixu du C.
du =
iu
2
2
0
if (x),
if (x) . x
 x
(u) du = if (x) C,
0

.
, , .
3.15.
69. f (x), Fc (x) napa - L2 ,


Fc (t)
1 x
f (t) dt,
dt
x 0
t
x
. .
1

,
& 
& 



1
|xF | dx  2
|F | dx =
|F | dx +
|F |2 dx + 2
|xF |2 dx.

|x|1
|x|>1 |x|
|x|1
|x|>1
. .

L2

106

[. iii

. ,
L2 , 1 . ,
- .

 
1 x
sin xy
f (t) dt = 2
Fc (y)
dy.
0
x 0
xy
-


sin xy
sin xu
2 d
Fc (y)
dx
dy =
du 0
x
xy
0


Fc (y)
sin xu sin xy
d
2
dx =
=
dy
du 0
y
x2
0

d
Fc (y)
=
min(u, y) dy =
du 0
y
 u



d
Fc (y)
Fc (y)
=
Fc (y) dy + u
dy =
dy.
du 0
y
y
u
u
1

. , , . XII, . 14. [
 f (t)
x
(x) = 1 0 f (t) dt, (x) = x
dt. , x
t
f L2 (0, ). t = 1 , x = 1 ,
u
y
 
1
1
2
L (0, )
f
u
u
2

2
 
   y

1

1
f (t) 
1


dt dx =
f
du dy;


t
y 0 u
u
0
0
0
,
.
x
f1 (x) = 0 f (t) dt. ,
 x
2
f1 (x)  x
f 2 (t) dt
0

f12 (x)  2f12 () + 2[f1 (x) f1 ()]2  2f12 () + 2(x )

f 2 (t) dt.

, 1 f12 (x) 0 x 0 x . 0 < a < b < .


x
,
b
 b
 b
 b
dx
f12 (x) 
2
2
(x) dx =
f1 (x) 2 =
+
2
(x)f (x) dx 
x
x a
a
a
a
&
&
b
 b
 b
f12 (x) 
2 (x) dx

+
2

f 2 (x) dx.
x a
a
a
a 
0, b


2
1
2
2
(x) dx  2 0 f (x) dx, f1 (x)
0
x
. . .]

3.17]

107


. , y < u

 1/u
 1/y
 

 sin xu sin xy 
y
dx

 dx 
uy
dx
+
=
dx
+


2
x2
0
0
1/u x
1/y x

u
u
y,
= y + y ln + y = 2 + ln
y
y
u < y;



 u
y
|Fc (y)|
u
dy + u
2 + ln
dy
|Fc (y)| 2 + ln
y
y
u
0
u
, Fc L2 .
3.16. .
70. f L, g L2 ,



|x|
1
lim
f (x)g(x) dx.
F (x)G(x) dx =


|x|
F (x)G(x) dx =
1



|x|
1
1
=
eixt f (t) dt =
G(x) dx



|x|
1
ixt
1
f (t) dt
e
G(x) dx,
=

. 59,
 
2 sin2 12 (t + u)
2
g(u)
du.

(t + u)2

, g(u) ,

2g(t) t.
.
3.17. . , f (x) L2 ,

|f (x)|2
dx < .
x
0

L2

108

[. iii

71. xk f (x) L2 .
 a
F(s, a) =
f (x)xs1 dx (Re s = k)
1/a

(ki, k+i)
F(s);
 k+ia
1
F(s)xs ds
f (x, a) =
2i kia
f (x) ,

lim
|f (x) f (x, a)|2 x2k1 dx = 0,
a


1
|f (x)| x
dx =
|F(k + it)|2 dt.
2
0
.
72. xk f (x) x1k g(x) L2 .

 k+i
1
f (x)g(x) dx =
F(s)G(1 s) ds.
2i ki
0

2 2k1

49.
73. xk f (x) xk g(x) L2 .
 k+i
1
f (x)g(x),
F(w)G(s w) dw
2i ki
,

 k+i
1
s1
f (x)g(x)x dx =
F(w)G(s w) dw
2i ki
0
t.
g(x)
g(x)xs1 .

IV
L-

4.1. Lp.
2 p.
p

p =
p1
.
741 . f (x) Lp (, ), 1 < p  2.
 a
1
eixt f (t) dt
(4.1.1)
F (x, a) =
2 a
a p .
F (x), f (x),


p

|F (x)| dx 

1
1 

(2) 2 p 1

|f (x)| dx
p

p1

(4.1.2)

, ,
x

eixt 1
1 d
f (t)
F (x) =
dt,
(4.1.3)
it
2 dx

1 d
eixt 1
f (x) =
F (t)
dt.
(4.1.4)
it
2 dx
L2 , F (x, a)
 b
1
F (x, a, b) =
eixt f (t) dt,
2 a
a b .
4.2.
(2.1.11). k ,
1

Titchmarsh (2).

110

L-

[F (x)]k

k (x) =

f (uk1 ) duk1 . . .

[. iv

1
k1 k (x),
(2) 2

f (u1 )f (x u1 . . . uk1 ) du1 .

1 .
. ( .) f (x) g(x)
1
1
L 1 L 1 , > 0, > 0,
+ < 1,





f g dx 


|f |

1
1

|g|

1
1

1 

dx

|f |

1
1

dx

|g|

1
1

dx

.

 



1
1
1



dx 
|| dx
|| dx
|| dx ,


+ + = 1, > 0, > 0, > 0.


1

|| = || || ,

||1+ = |f |,

||1+ = |g|

= , = , .
.

Fp (f ) =

(x) =

|f (x)| dx
p

p1
.

f (t)g(x t) dt,

1
1

()  F

1
1

(f ) F

1
1

(g).

1 


 1
1
1
1
1
F 1 (f )
F
|f (t)| |g(x t)|
dt
|(x)| 

1
1

. , , , . 169173.

 1
(f )
.

74 p = 2k/(2k 1)

4.3]



1
1
|(x)|
dx 

|f (t)|

1
1

dt

111

|g(x t)| 1 dx


 (1)(1)
 (1)(1)

F 1 (g)
=
F 1 (f )
1
1

1
1


 1
 1
(1+ 1
(1+ 1
)
)
= F 1 (f )
F 1 (g)
,
1

.
2k
. f (x) L 2k1 , k (x) L2 ,


2k1

2k
2
[k (x)] dx 
|f (x)| 2k1 dx
.

.

f (t)k1 (x t) dt.
k (x) =

,
F

1
1 k
2k

(k )  F

1
1 k1
2k

(k1 )F

1
1 1
2k


1
 F k2
(k2 ) F
1

2k

(f ) 

1
1 1
2k

2

(f )  . . .  F

1
1 1
2k

k
(f ) ,

.
2k 1 .
2k 1
, f (x) g(x) L2
.

1

g(u1 )f (x u1 ) du1
2
4.3. 74 p =

(, 64) F (x)G(x).
k 1 ,
1
, [F (x)]k
k1 k (x) (2) 2
1

, (W.H. Young)
. . ,
.

112

L-

[. iv

L2 .


1
2k
|F (x)| dx =
|k (x)|2k dx 
k1
(2)

2k1
2k
1

|f (x)| 2k1 dx
.
(2)k1

(4.1.2) p = 2k .
2k 1
2k
f (x) L 2k1 . , f (x) x (b, a) (a, b)
x, .
  a  b

2k1

2k
1
2k
2k1
|f (x)|
|F (x, b) F (x, a)| dx 
+
dx
.
(2)k1

b
a
a , b .
, F (x, a) F (x).



2k
|F (x)| dx = lim
|F (x, a)|2k dx 

1
 lim
a (2)k1

|f (x)|

2k
2k1

2k1
dx
=

1
(2)k1

|f (x)|

2k
2k1

2k1
dx

,


  a
1
F (x) dx = lim
F (x, a) dx = lim
dx
eixt f (t) dt =
a
a
2 0
0
0
a
 a

it
e 1
eit 1
1
1
f (t)
f (t)
= lim
dt =
dt,
a
it
it
2 a
2
x
1 d
F (x) =
2 dx

f (t)

eixt 1
dt.
it

, 0 < < a

eiu 1
1

F (u, a)
du =
iu
2

 a

iu
1
1
iut e
f (t) dt
e
f (t) dt,
du =
=
2 a
iu

4.4]

113

u. a ,



eiu 1
1

F (u)
f (t) dt,
du =
iu
2
0
iu
2k
1 L 2k1
e
. ,
iu

eixu 1
1 d

F (u)
du = f (x)
iu
2 dx

x > 0. x < 0.
4.4. p. p
.
. cm (n  m  n)
1
 p

p1

  
n
 n

1
imx
p

cm e  dx 
|cm |
.
(4.4.1)
2 m=n
m=n
:
.
(I)1 . f (t) L(, ),

1
eimt f (t) dt (m = 0, 1, . . .).
(4.4.2)
cm =
2
:


p1
1
p
Jp (f ) =
|f (t)| dt
2

Sp (f ) =

|cm |

(4.4.3)

p1
.

(4.4.4)

m=

, f (t)
J p  S p
1

Hausdor (1).

(1 < p  2).

(4.4.5)

114

L-

[. iv

p 2k ,
2k 1
, .



imx
cm e , g(x) =
m eimx ,
f (x) =
m=

f (x)g(x) =

m=

imx

dm e

dm =

m=

ck mk .

k=

1
1

(f g)  S

1
1

(f )S

1
1

(g),

, , ,

k
k
S2 (f )  S 1 1 (f ) .
1

(4.4.6)

(4.4.7)

2k


S2 () = J2 ().

(4.4.8)

,
S2 (f k ) = J2 (f k ) = [J2k (f )]k ,
(4.4.7) (4.4.5) p = 2k .
2k 1
(4.4.5) p

, .. p
, Jp , 
Spp n. Spp , Jpp xm , ym
cm = xm +iym ,
.

n

1

2
2 p/2
(xm + ym ) ,
=
|f (t)|p dt.
=
2
m=n

ym
xm
=
=

xm
ym

(m = n, . . . , n).

115

4.4]

+i
xm
ym
=

+i
xm
ym

(m = n, . . . , n).

1
p

2 2 1
+i
= p(xm + iym )(x2m + ym
)
= p|cm |p1 sgn cm .
xm
ym

,
|f (t)|2 = f (t)f (t),

|f (t)| = f (t)
f (t) + f (t)
f (t) = f (t)eimt + f (t)eimt ,
xm
xm
xm

2|f (t)|

2|f (t)|

|f (t)| = f (t) ieimt f (t) ieimt .


ym

2|f (t)|
|f (t)| = 2f (t)eimt ,
+i
xm
ym

|f (t)| = eimt sgn f (t),


+i
xm
ym

p
+i
=
xm
ym
2

eimt |f (t)|p 1 sgn f (t) dt.

,

p imt

e
|f (t)|p 1 sgn f (t) dt = p|cm |p1 sgn cm
2

(m = n, . . . , n).

(4.4.9)
cm m.
p
2
..

n


p

|f (t)| dt = p

m=n


p Jpp = pSpp .
1

|cm |p .

sgn z = z (z = 0), sgn(0) = 0.


|z|

(4.4.10)

116

L-

[. iv

(4.4.9) 2n + 1 
|f (t)|p 1 sgn f (t).

2

n 

 p



1
p1
 |cm | sgn cm  
|f (t)|p 1 sgn f (t)2 dt,
 p

2
m=n
. .


n
1
2 p 2 

2p2
|cm |

|f (t)|2p 2 dt,

2
p m=n
2


2p2
2p 2
2 p2 S2p2
 p 2 J2p
 2 .

(4.4.11)

(4.4.10) (4.4.11) ,

p 1
J2p
Jpp
 2
(4.4.12)
p 
p1 .
Sp
S2p2

r = 2p 2,

r=

2
.
3p

,


p1 p p
Srp 1  S2p2
Sp ,

(4.4.13)

(4.4.12) (4.4.13)

J p
Sp

p

Jr 
Sr

p 1
.

(4.4.14)

, (4.4.5) p =
= r . (4.4.14) ,

p = r + 1 , , ,
2
.
p = 2k. ,
p = k + 1,

k+3 k+7
,
,...,
2
4

.. ,
. ,
a Sp Jp p ,
(4.4.5) .

4.4]

117

(II)1 . . ,
,
 p1 
 1



p
am bm 
|bm |p
|am |p


, |am |p |bm |p .
4.2.
Sp Jp , ,
n


fn (x) =

cm eimx .

m=n

Sp (fn )
f M =
Jp (f )
J  (f )
= M (n) = Mp (n), p n Sp (fn )



cm M = M (n) = Mp (n); n p . , M M 
, .. n.
, Sp (fn ) = 1.

1
m.
|cm |p 
2n + 1

1
1
 |cm | 
|f (x)| dx  Jp
(2n + 1)1/p
2

, ,

Mp (n)  (2n + 1)1/p .


, ,

gn (x) = |fn (x)|p 1 sgn fn (x)

1
m =
2

eimx gn (x) dx.


Jpp (fn )

1
=
2

fn (x)gn (x) dx =

n


c m m 

m=n

n


|cm m | 

m=n
1

 Sp (fn )Sp (gn )  M Sp (fn )Jp (gn ) = M Sp (fn )Jpp1


(fn ). (4.4.15)

1

Jpp1
(fn ), , M  , M   M .

1

Hardy and Littlewood (1). . F. Riesz (1).

118

L-

[. iv

,
hn (x) =

n


|cm |p 1 sgn cm eimx ,

m=n

( )

1
p
Sp (fn ) =
f (x)hn (x) dx 
2

 Jp (f )Jp (hn )  M  Jp (f )Sp (hn ) = M  Jp (f )Spp 1 (fn ),


M  M  . , M = M  . f (x) = 1
, M  1.
fn (x) ,
J  (f )
M  p n ( Sp (fn )
cm , ). M = M  ,
(4.4.15) , ,
. ,
,
|cm |p = |m |p

(n  m  n),

m. ,


Spp (fn ) = Spp (gn ).


fn , ,
(4.4.15),
Spp1
(gn )
Jpp1 (gn )

Jp (fn )
Sp (fn ) =
.
=
=
M
M
Mp

= M p Spp pp (gn ).
2

r = 2p 2,

r=

2
.
3p

, ,
1
S22 (gn ) 
2

r

r

r

r

|gn |2 dx = J (fn )  Mr Sr (fn ) = Mr

pr 

= Mr Mp

r
r

r
 p1

1

r (p1 p1
)
r (g )
Sp (gn )
.
S p1
n

r
p

r
 p1
r (g )
S p1
=
n

119

4.5]

|m |

r
p1



|m |

 p1

3p

|m |

p
p1

 2(2p)
3p


S22 (gn ).


1  Mrr Mppr

, ,
Mr  Mpp  Mp .
p r r
s = 2 , . 3r
p, 1 ( r 2 = 2(p 2)
..), Mp .


Mp (n)  (2n + 1)1/p 1


n p 1, p . , Mp (n) = 1.
4.5. 74 ,
3.2. f (x) Lp , 1 < p < 2. a n (x), 3.2.
, ,
1
 p

p1

  

n
 n

p
ix 
p

|n (x)| dx =
a e  dx  2
|a |
.


=n

(+1)/

|a | 

p1

(+1)/

|f (x)| dx

=n

dx

,


p

|n (x)| dx  2

1
p1

|f (x)|p dx

(+1)/

|f (x)|p dx.
/

p1

3.2, ,
1
  a  b

p1

1
p
p
|f (x)| dx
|F (x, b) F (x, a)| dx 
+
.
1 
(2) 2 p 1

b
a
F (x, a) a p F (x).
, p = 2k.
74

120

L-

[. iv

. ; . , 9.2.
4.6. .
75. f (x) G(x) Lp (, ),
1 < p < 2, F (x) g(x) ,
(2.1.1).
. , (x) Lp ,
(x, a) (x) p , 1

lim [(x) (x, a)](x) dx = 0.
(4.6.1)
a

 b

 a
 b
1
F (x, a)G(x) dx =
G(x) dx
eixt f (t) dt =
2 b
b
a
 b
 a
 a
1
ixt
f (t) dt
e G(x) dx =
f (t)g(t, b) dt.
=
2 a
b
a
a
(4.6.1),
 b

F (x)G(x) dx =
f (t)g(t, b) dt.
b

b (4.6.1) ,
(2.1.1).
5862.
4.7.
.
76. f (x), F (x)


Lp , Lp , g(x), G(x) Lp , Lp , (2.1.9) , (2.1.8)
x.
64.
77. f (x), F (x) napa

Lp , Lp , g(x) L, (2.1.9)

Lp , Lp .
65.
1

, , 12.53. [,
,
 

 1 
 p1
p


p
|(x) (x, a)| dx
|(x)|p dx ,
 [(x) (x, a)](x) dx 
(4.6.1). . .

121

4.7]

78. f (x), F (x)




Lp , Lp , g(x), G(x) Lq , Lq ,
1 1
+ > 1.
p q

F (x)G(x),

(4.7.1)

f (y)g(x y) dy


LP , LP ,

pq
P =
.
p + q pq
. , f g
LP , 4.2, 1 = 1 , 1 = 1 . ,
p
q

F G LP ,
,


P

|F G| dx 

p

|F | dx

P 
p

q

|G| dx

P
q

(4.7.1) , p < q  , q < p . , , p < q.


p < p , .. p < 2.
, 1 < P   2. F G
,

1
eixu 1

F (u)G(u)
du.
iu
2
ixu
1 L Lq , , Lp , G(u) e
iu
74,

 x+y
1
eixu 1 iyu
g() d =
G(u)
du,
e
iu
2
y
.. , , ixu
1 . , 75,
G(u) e
iu

 xy

eixu 1
F (u)G(u)
f (y) dy
g() d =
du =
iu

y

 x
 x 
=
f (y) dy
g(u y) du =
du
f (y)g(u y) dy,

x, .

122

L-

[. iv

, 1 < P < 2.

1

f (y)g(x y) dy
2
,
 ixu

1
e 1
du
f (y)g(u y) dy.
2 iu

a 1
 ixu
 a
e 1
1
f (y)g(u y) dy =
du
2 iu
a
 a

1
eixu 1
du,
=
f (y) dy
g(u y)
2 a
iu

( q, q  )
 x ivy
2
e G(v) dv.
0

,
 x
 a
1

f (y) dy
eivy G(v) dv =
2 a
 a
 x
 x 0
1
ivy
=
G(v) dv
e f (y) dy
G(v)F (v) dv,
2 0
a
0
G(v) Lp (0, x).
.
p = 1 q = 1, P = 1; . 41.
4.8. . , 2 .
79. |f (x)|q |x|q2 q > 2
L(, ), F (x) f (x)
Lq ,


q
|F (x)| dx  K(q)
|f (x)|q |x|q2 dx.

. (1) q = 4.

1
2

. . . dy = l.i.m.

(P )

Hardy and Littlewood (1).

. . . dy.
a

4.8]

123

, f (x) L2
. F (x)
2
2
L , 2[F (x)]

(x) =

f (y)f (x y) dy,

L2 .


4
|F (x)| dx =
2

|(x)|2 dx.

f (x) = 1 g(x), g(x) L4 . ,


|x|


g(y)g(x y)
g(y) g(x y)
dy
(x) =
1
1 dy =
1
1
3
3 ,
|x y| 8 |y| 8 |x y| 8
|y| 2 |x y| 2
|y| 8


|g(y)|2 |g(x y)|2
dy
2
|(x)| 

dy
1
1
3
3 =
|x y| 4
|y| 4
|y| 4 |x y| 4

|g(y)|2 |g(x y)|2
A

dy,
=
1
1
1
|x| 2 |y| 4
|x y| 4


 
|g(y)|2 |g(x y)|2
2
|(x)| dx  A
1
1
1 dx dy =

|x| 2 |y| 4 |x y| 4
 
1
1
|g(y)|2 |y| 16 |g(x y)|2 |x y| 16
=A
dx dy <
1
5
1
5
|x| 4 |y| 16
|x| 4 |x y| 16
 
1
1

|g(y)|4 |y| 8
|g(x y)|4 |x y| 8
dx dy =
<A
1
5 +
1
5
|x| 2 |y| 8
|x| 2 |x y| 8



1
|y| 8
4
=A
|g(y)| dy
|g(y)|4 dy.
1
5 dx = A

|x| 2 |x y| 8


|F (x)| dx < A
4

x2 |f (x)|4 dx.

. f (x) , , x2 f 4 (x) L. f (x)


(a, b) , , 4.3,
 a  b


4
x2 |f (x)|4 dx.
|F (x, a) F (x, b)| dx < A
+

124

L-

[. iv

, F (x, a) 4, .
(II). q. , ,
q .
, 1 .
, f (x)
cm ,



q
|f (x)| dx  K(q)
|cm |q (|m| + 1)q2 .

m=

, a n (x), ,
q
  

n

 n

q
ix


|n (x)| dx =
a
e
dx

K(q)
|a |q (|| + 1)q .




=n

 1

|a | 
q

(+1)/

=n

1
|f (x)| dx  q2

(+1)/

xq2 |f (x)|q dx,

q1

 2; ,
 1/



1 2q 2q 1
|a0 | = 
f (x)x
x
dx 
0




1/

q2

|f (x)| dx
q

1q 

1/

2
q


1

q
q1

1 1q
dx


1
= o 1/q

a1 . , ,
 a  b


q
|x|q2 |f (x)|q dx.
|F (x, b) F (x, a)| dx < K(q)
+

, .
4.9.
802 . f (x) Lp (1 < p < 2),


p2
p
|x| |F (x)| dx  K(p)
|f (x)|p dx.

. g(x) Lp ,
1
2

, , 9.4.
Hardy and Littlewood (1).

4.10]

125

(a, b), a > 0.


Lp . , 75,


F (x)g(x) dx =
f (x)G(x) dx.

, 79 q = p ,


p
|G(x)| dx  K(p)

,

 



F (x)g(x) dx 



 K(p)

|f (x)| dx
p

|f (x)| dx
p

|x|p 2 |g(x)|p dx.

p1 

p1 

p

|G(x)| dx
p 2

|x|

p

1
p

|g(x)| dx

1
p

, ,
g(x) = |x|p2 |F (x)|p1 sgn F (x)


 b
p2
p
|x| |F (x)| dx  K(p)

,


(a  x  b).

|f (x)| dx
p


|x|

|F (x)| dx  K(p)
p

|x|

p2

|F (x)| dx
p

1
p

b
p2

p1 

|f (x)|p dx.

a 0, b , (0, ).
(, 0).
4.10. .


81. f (x) |G(x)|p |x|p 2 Lp L
, 1 < p < 2. , F g f G, (2.1.1).
75,

 b
 b
1 2
1 2
[F (x, a) F (x)]G(x) dx =
[F (x, a) F (x)]|x| p G(x)|x| p dx
b

p2

, , 80, F (x, a)|x| p p2


F (x)|x| p p. , , , 74,
79.

126

L-

[. iv

4.11. 75 79 p > 2. ,
p > 2, , , 80. , f (x) Lp ,

|F (x)|p , |F (x)|p |x|p2 ,
r

|F (x)|r |x| p

(p  r  p ).

(4.11.1)

 ,


Lp1 , Lp1 Lp .
f (x) Lq (q > 2),
Lq1

Lq .
, f (x) Lq1 (q > 2), f (x)

Lq . -, , - , |f (x)|,
, f (x)

Lq .
a b , 0 < a < 1 a < b. 1
 1
  1 cos 1b cos xt
 dt

1
2
1
t

f (x) =
dt =
cos xt + b a+1 +
0
t t
ta+1
2 0
 1
 dt

1
1
cos xt 1b a+1 = [(x) + (x)].
+
(4.11.2)
t t
2 0
2
(x)

(x) =

c1


c1 =

b
x

1
 b+1

c2

+
c1

= 1 + 2 + 3 ,
c2

 
= o 1 x .
x


 d sin xt + 1
tb ,
1 =
a+1
ab
xt
bt


, c2 =

b +
x

1
 b+1

ab 1 a+1 , bt xt
,
  ba
b b+1
tba
x


.
x
x b tb+1
x
1

Titchmarsh (2).

4.11]

75 79 p > 2

127

, ,


a2b1
1 = O 1 x b+1 .

3 a+1 1 ab ,
xt
bt
, 1 . ,
 1
 1




b + b+1 b b+1
1
 a+b+1 
x b+1 x
x
x
|2 | 
= O x b+1 .
=O
a+1
 a+1


x b+1
b b+1
x
= x 2b+2 , , x
 2ab 
(x) = O x 2b+2 .
3b+2



 d sin xt 1
tb .
(x) =
xta+1 + btab

1
xta+1 + btab
ab
Kx b+1 , K a b,
.
 ab 
(x) = O x b+1 .

, x

 2ab 
f (x) = O x 2b+2

, , f (x) = O(1) x 0. , q, 2, f (x) Lq1


b.
f (x) F (x)
q
L ,


sin xu
d
2
F (x) =
f (u) du.
dx 0
u
, (4.11.2) f (u),
,

1
1
a+1 cos b (0 < x < 1),
x
x
F (x) =
0
(x > 1),
, , Lr r  1. ,
.

128

L-

[. iv

,
 1

sin xu
1
1
(1 cos ut) a+1 cos b dt,
du
u
t
t
0
0
, , ,

 1
1
1
sin xu(1 cos ut)
lim
cos
dt
du = 0.
0 ta+1
tb
u




sin xu(1 cos ut) 

du =

u





 x
sin v  1  x + t 
1  (x+t) sin v
dv
dv   ln
,
= 
2
v
v
2
x t
x

|xt|

, , .
4.12. . , f (x) Lp (1 < p < 2).
821 . f (x) ,
x > 0, f () = 0, xp2 f p (x) (1 <
p < 2) L(0, ). F (x) Lp .
. f (x) f () = 0,

 
f (y) cos xy dy
F (x) = Fc (x) = 2
0
x > 0.
 
  1/x
2
f (y) cos xy dy + 2
f (y) cos xy dy = F1 (x) + F2 (x).
F (x) =
0
1/x



 
  sin x sin 1
2
2
1
F2 (x) =
cos xy dy =
f
f 1
.

x 1/x

x
x


 
|F2 (x)|  2 2 1 f 1 ,
x
x

 $

 %p
p
1
1
|F2 (x)| dx < A
dx = A
tp2 f p (t) dt,
f
x
x
0
0
0

. Hardy and Littlewood (3).

4.12]

129

, , . ,
  1/x
f (y) dy,
|F1 (x)|  2
0
, , , ,
 x
1
f (y) dy
x2/p 0
Lp . , f (x) = g(x)x p 1 , g(x) Lp .

 x
 x
 x
2
1
1
1
1
f (y) dy = 2/p
g(y)y p dy 
g(y) dy,
x2/p 0
x
x 0
0
2

, 1 , Lp , .
, f (x) 
Lp ,
 x
 p2
p2 p
p
x
K>
t f (t) dt  f (x) x
f (x) < K

p1
2
2
x/2
x p

f p (x) < Kf p (x) xp2 .
83. f (x)
(x), Lp , ..
1


f (x) = 
2 1
p

2p

p

(x t) p 2 (t) dt.
2

Fc (x) Lp .
.
  a


2

a (x) =
dt.
(t) sin xt +
0
p
2

, 80, x1 p a (x) p
g(x). Gc (x) -

g(x). Gc (x) Lp . ,
 y
 
 
2
sin xy
sin xy
2
Gc (x) dx =
g(x)
x1 p a (x)
dx = lim 2
dx =
0
0
a
x
x
0

 a


sin xy
2
dt =
= lim
dx
(t)
sin
xt
+
p
a 0
x2/p
0
1

. , , . XII, . 14. [. . 106.


. .]

130

L-

[. iv



sin xy

dx,
(t) dt
sin xt +
p
x2/p
0
0
.

  (y t) p 1 (t < y),

2 2
p

0
(t > y).
= lim 2
a

, ,
 y
 y
 y
2
1
1
p


Gc (x) dx =
(y t) (t) dt =
f (x) dx.
0
0
0
2
p
, Gc (x) = f (x) x, g(x) = F (x) Lp .
4.13. . , , L-.

1 .
84. f (x) Lp (1 < p  2), h 0

|f (x + h) f (x h)|p dx = O(hp ) (1 <  1).
(4.13.1)

F (x) L ,
p
p
<
.
p + p 1
p1
. h f (x + h) eixh F (x). f (x+h)f (xh),
x, 2i sin xh F (x). ,
1


p1

p
p
|2 sin xh F (x)| dx < K(p)
|f (x + h) f (x h)| dx
<

p

< K(p)h

| sin xh| > Axh x  1 , ,


h
 1/h



xp hp |F (x)|p dx.
A
0
1

. Titchmarsh (12).

4.13]

131

1/h

xp |F (x)|p dx = O(h(1)p ).
0

|xF (x)| dx

() =
1


< p

() 

|xF (x)| dx

p 

dx

,



|F (x)| dx =
1

1 p




= O 1+ p .


 (x)
(x)
()
dx = +
dx =

+1
x

1
1 x






1+ p
+ p
1+ p
=O
+O
,
x
dx = O

, 1 +  0, ..
p

p
.
>
p + p 1
(, 1), .
, ,
, > 1 ,
p
F (x) L(0, ),

eixt F (t) dt

x.
, , ,
f (x) =

xa

1
+x

(x > 0),

0 < a < 1 . x > 2h


p
|f (x + h) f (x h)| = 2h|f  (x + h)|

(1 < < 1),


  


 2h|f  (x h)|  2hf  x ,
2

132

L-

[. iv

|f  (x)| .
    

  x p
p
|f (x + h)f (x h)| dx = O hp
f 2  dx =
2h
2h
  1


dx
dx
p
= O(h1ap ).
+
=O h
(a+1)p
2
x
x
2h
1



p
|f (x + h) f (x h)| dx = O
2h

2h

dx
|x h|ap

= O(h1ap ).

, = 1 a. F (x)
p
1

1
a1
. F (x) Kx
L >
x ,
1a
1
F (x)
/ L 1a .
< 1, p = 2 ,
.
85. f (x) L2 ,

|f (x + h) f (x h)|2 dx = O(|h|2 ) (0 < < 1),
(4.13.2)

 X 

|F (x)|2 dx = O(X 2 ) (X )
+
(4.13.3)

.
.


2
2
4 sin xh|F (x)| dx =
|f (x + h) f (x h)|2 dx.
(4.13.4)

, (4.13.2) . (4.13.4)

 1
h
2
|F (x)| dx < A
sin2 xh|F (x)|2 dx = O(h2 ).
1
2h



2
|F (x)| dx =
X

2X

4X

+
2X


1
1
1
+ ... = O
+
+ ... = O
X 2 (2X)2
X 2

(, X).
, (4.13.3), ,

(X) =
|F (x)|2 dx,
X
1

., , 126127.

Lp

4.14]

 X

x |F (x)| dx =
x (x) dx = X (X) + 2
0
 X
O(x12 ) dx = O(X 22 ).
2
2

133

x(x) dx 

 
sin xh |F (x)| dx = O h2
2

 

1
h

1
h


x |F (x)| dx +
2

1
h

+O

1
h

|F (x)| dx
2

(4.13.2) (4.13.4).
< 2
 2X

/2 
 2X

2
|F (x)| dx 
|F (x)| dx
X

= O(h2 ),

1/2

2X

dx

= O(X )O(X 1/2 ) = O(X 1/2 ),


1 ( p = 2 + 12
84). , , .

, F (x) L , >

4.14. Lp. Lp
f (x) ,

|f (x)|p
dx < .
x
0
.
86. F(k +it) Lp (1 < p < 2),

f (x) xk f (x) Lp .
xk f (x) Lp , F(s) f (x)

F(k + it) Lp .
87. F(k + it) Lp x1k g(x) Lp ,
 k+i

1
F(s)G(1 s) ds =
f (x)g(x) dx.
2i ki
0

74 75.
( 77
78).

134

L-

[. iv

88. F(k + iv), xk f (x)




Lp , Lp , xsk g(x), G(s k iv) Lp , Lp ,
(2.1.15).
89. F(k + iv), xk f (x)


Lp , Lp G(s k iv), xsk g(x) Lq , Lq ,

(2.1.16) LP , LP .
. 1 , f (x) Lp , 1 < p < 2, (3.11.2)
, . f (x) 79, f (x) ln x
L2 (1, ) ( (2n , 2n+1 )). (3.11.2), 62,
x.

Zygmund (2).

5.1.
.


f (x) =
[a(t) cos xt + b(t) sin xt] dt,
(5.1.1)
0

f (u) cos ut du,


a(t) =

b(t) = 1
f (u) sin ut du.

(5.1.2)

(5.1.1), , y 0

eyt [a(t) cos xt + b(t) sin xt] dt = U (x, y),
(5.1.3)
0



eizt [a(t) ib(t)] dt = (z),

(5.1.4)

z = x + iy.
(z)

eyt [b(t) cos xt a(t) sin xt] dt = V (x, y).

(5.1.5)

V (x, 0) = g(x),



b(t) cos xt a(t) sin xt dt,
g(x) =
0
 
1
=
dt
f (u) sin(u x)t du.
0

(5.1.6)
(5.1.7)

(5.1.7)
. (5.1.1) a b b a.

136

[. v

, , . ,
f (x) g(x) -, .. ,
.
,


1 
1 
F (t) + F (t) ,
b(t) =
F (t) F (t) ,
a(t) =
2
i 2




1
g(x) =
F (t) F (t) cos xt dt
i 2 0


1

F (t) + F (t) sin xt dt =


2 0



1
ixt
ixt
=
e F (t) dt
e F (t) dt =
i 2 0
0

1
eixt F (t) sgn t dt.
=
i 2
,
G(t) = iF (t) sgn t.

(5.1.8)

f (x) , b(t) = 0, g(x) -


- f (x), . , f (x) , g(x) -
- f (x).
,
 
1
dt
f (u) sin(u x)t du =
g(x) = lim
0


1 cos (u x)
1
= lim
f (u)
du =

ux

1 cos t
1
= lim
[f (x + t) f (x t)]
dt.
0
t
f (x) , , cos t, ,


f (x + t) f (x t)
1
dt;
(5.1.9)
g(x) =
0
t


g(x + t) g(x t)
1
f (x) =
dt.
(5.1.10)
0
t

5.2]

L2

137

, (5.1.9), (5.1.10), , , ,
.
(5.1.9), (5.1.10)


f (t)
g(t)
1
1
dt, f (x) = P
dt,
(5.1.11)
g(x) = P

t x
t x
P t = x.

f (x), g(x):



1 (0 < x < a),
1 ln  a + x  ;
a x
0 (x < 0, x > a),
1
,
1 + x2
cos x,

x
;
1 + x2
sin x.

(z),
. VII
:
H (|x|)
J (|x|)
,

sgn
x
|x|
|x|
(7.1.11) (7.2.8);
sgn x |x| J (|x|),

|x| Y (|x|)

(7.11.2) (7.11.3);


 
sgn x 2 K0 (2 |x|) + Y0 (2 |x|)



u
a
1
+
, (7.12.8).
(7.11.2), = 0 x =
2 a u

J0 (2 |x|),

5.2. L2 . .
.
901 . f (x) L2 (, ).


d
x 

1
g(x) =
f (t) ln 1  dt
(5.2.1)
dx
t
1

Titchmarsh (5).

138

[. v

g(x), L2 (, ). x


x 
d

1
f (x) =
g(t) ln 1  dt,
(5.2.2)
dx
t



2
f (x) dx =
g 2 (x) dx.
(5.2.3)

,
. , ;
, .
90. F (x) f (x), G(x) = iF (x) sgn x g(x)
G(x).




2
2
2
|g(x)| dx =
|G(x)| dx =
|F (x)| dx =
|f (x)|2 dx

1 d
g(x) =
2 dx

eixy 1
1 d
G(y)
dy =
iy
2 dx

F (y)

eixy 1
dy.
|y|

ixy

1
|y|

 
ixy
1
cos(x + u)y cos uy
1
iuy e

e
dy = 2
dy =

|y|
y
2
0


cos(x + u)y cos uy
2
lim
dy =
=
0
y


 cos v
cos v 
2
dv
dv =
lim
=
0 |x+u| v
v
|u|


 |u|
 |u|



 u 
cos v
dv
2
2
2

.
=
lim
lim
ln
dv =
=
0
0
x + u
v
v

H(y) = e

|x+u|

|x+u|








eixy 1
u
 du,
F (y)
f (u) ln 
dy = 1

|y|
x u

(5.2.1). F G, ,
f g, -, (5.2.2).

5.3]

L2

5.3.
911 . f (x) L2 (, ).

f (x + t) f (x t)
1
dt
g(x) =
0
t

139

(5.3.1)

g(x) L2 (, ).

g(x + t) g(x t)
1
dt,
(5.3.2)
f (x) =
0
t



2

f (x) dx =

g 2 (x) dx.

(5.3.3)

g(x) 90 91 , ..
x.
. (5.1.2), a(t) b(t),
,

a(t) ib(t) = 2 F (t).

H(t) eizt t > 0 0 t < 0.



1
1
eiztiut dt =
.
h(u) =
2 0
i 2(u z)
,


F (t)H(t) dt =

f (t)h(t) dt,

(5.1.4)
(z) = 1
i

f (t)
dt (Im z > 0).
tz

,

y
1
U (x, y) =
f (t) dt,
(t x)2 + y 2

tx
1
V (x, y) =
f (t) dt.
(t x)2 + y 2
1

(5.3.4)

(5.3.5)
(5.3.6)

(1). . Hardy (14).

140

[. v

g G, 5.2, .
 
 
izt
2
(z) =
e F (t) dt = i 2
eizt G(t) dt =
0
0
 
 
2
= i
G(t)H(t) dt = i 2
g(t)h(t) dt =



g(t)
1
=
dt.
(5.3.7)
t z


tx
1
U (x, y) =
g(t) dt,
(5.3.8)
(t x)2 + y 2

y
1
V (x, y) =
g(t) dt.
(5.3.9)
(t x)2 + y 2
( 1.17), U (x, y) f (x)
y 0 x V (x, y) g(x) x.
91 .
f (x)
L(1, ). V (x, y)
92. f (x) L(0, 1)
x
(5.3.6). x


f (x + t) f (x t)
1
lim V (x, y) +
dt = 0.
(5.3.10)
y
y0
t
. ,
 y
|f (x + t) f (x t)| dt = o(y)
(y) =
0

x. x - ,
.

f (x + t) f (x t)
1
V (x, y) +
dt =
y
t
 y

t[f (x + t) f (x t)]
y 2 1 f (x + t) f (x t)
1
dt +
=
dt +
0
t2 + y 2
y
t(t2 + y 2 )

y 2 f (x + t) f (x t)
dt = J1 + J2 + J3 .
+
1
t(t2 + y 2 )
y 0
1
|J1 | 
2y

|f (x + t) f (x t)| dt = o(1),
0

5.4]

L2

141

|f (x + t) f (x t)|
dt =
t(t2 + y 2 )
y
1

y2
(t)  y 2 1 3t2 + y 2
=
+
(t) dt 
t(t2 + y 2 ) y y t2 (t2 + y 2 )2
 1

y 2 (1)
3t2 + y 2
2

+o y
dt =
2
2 2
1 + y2
y t(t + y )
 1/y

3u2 + 1
2
= O(y ) + o
du = o(1),
u(u2 + 1)2
1
, , J3 = o(1). .
, , V (x, y) g(x), (5.3.1)
(5.3.10). , f g -,
(5.3.2). (5.3.3)
, . , 91
.
y2
|J2 | 

5.4. , .
(z), .
93. (z) ,
y > 0,

|(x + iy)|2 dx

y .
y 0 (x + iy)
(x), (x + iy) (x) x.
y>0

(u)
1
du.
(z) =
2i u z
(z) = U (x, y) + iV (x, y), (x) = f (x) ig(x), U , V ,
f g , , , f
g .
.
. (z)

|(x + iy)|p dx
(p > 1)

y1  y  y2 . (x + iy) 0
x y1 +  y  y2 .

142

[. v

. y1 +  y  y2 . 0 < 

 2
1
(w)
1
dw =
(z) =
(z + ei ) d.
2i |wz|= w z
2 0

 2

2
1
d
(z + ei ) d,
(z) =
2
2 0
0

p1   2

1 p1


2
1
2
|(z)| 
||p d d
d d

2
2 0 0
0 0
 y2  x+

p1
p
 K()
dv
|(u + iv)| du .
x

y1

x+

|(u + iv)|p du
x

y1  v  y2 x v.
, ,
.
.
 a
1
eitx (x) dx.
a (t, y) =
2 a
a y
(t, y). , ,

eitz (z) dz,
a + iy1 , a + iy2 ,
0 < y1 < y2 .

 y2
 y2
it(a+iy)
ita
e
(a + iy)i dy = ie
ety (a + iy) dy,
y1

y1

, , y1 y2 , a . ,
. , a
 a
 a
it(x+iy1 )
e
(x + iy1 ) dx
eit(x+iy2 ) (x + iy2 ) dx 0,
a

..
ety1 a (t, y1 ) ety2 a (t, y2 ) 0.

L2

5.4]

143

t , ..
ety1 (t, y1 ) = ety2 (t, y2 )
t. (, , (t) = et (t, 1))
(t, y)
(t, y) = ety (t),
(t) y.
, ,


2ty
2
e
|(t)| dt =

|(x + iy)|2 dx.

y ,
(t) 0 t < 0; ,


2
2y
|(t)| dt  e
e2ty |(t)|2 dt < Ke2y 0,

|(t)|2 dt = 0.

y 0, (t)
L2 (0, ).
, (t)(ety1 ety2 ) (x + iy1 ) (x + iy2 ).


2
|(x + iy1 ) (x + iy2 )| dx =
|(t)|2 (ety1 ety2 )2 dt,

y1 0, y2 0. (x + iy) y 0
(x).
, y > 0

(w)
1
dw,
(z) =
2i
wz

a + iv1 , a + iv2 , a > |x| v1 < y < v2 . ,
a
,


1
1
(u + iv1 )
(u + iv2 )
(z) =
du
du.
2i u + iv1 z
2i u + iv2 z

144

Ho






2
(u + iv2 ) 
du 
u + iv2 z


2

|(u + iv2 )| du

[. v

(u

x)2

du
K
,
<
2
+ (v2 y)
v2 y

v2 .

1
(u + iv1 )
(z) =
du,
2i u + iv1 z
, v1 0,

1
(u)
(z) =
du.
2i u z

(5.4.1)

(5.4.2)

(z) = U (x, y) + iV (x, y), (u) = f (u) ig(u),


,
(5.3.5) (5.3.9) , (z) (x)
x.
94. (z) y > 0, (z)
y 0 x.
(z)

,
z+i
, , .
, (t)
(x). , (t) (x), y 0


ty
2
|(t) e (t)| dt =
|(x) (x + iy)|2 dx 0,

|(t) (t)|2 dt = 0,

(t) (t).
5.5. .
95. , (x)
L2 (, ) z x (z),
,


|(x + iy)|2 dx < K,

:
(I) (x) = f (x) ig(x), f g
L2 ;

L2

5.5]

145

(II) (x) (x) x < 0.


. (I)
.
(II) 93. , (x) 0 x < 0 .
 a
1
eixu (x) dx.
(u) = l.i.m.
a
2 0


1
eix(u+iv) (x) dx (v > 0).
(u + iv) =
2 0
(u + iv) v > 0,



2
2xv
2
|(u + iv)| du =
e
|(x)| dx 
|(x)|2 dx.

, 93, (u+iv) ,
(u);
 ixU
 U
e 1
1
(x) dx =
(u) du =
ix
2 0
0
 U
 U
 ix(U +iv)
1
e
1
= lim
(x) dx = lim
(u + iv) du =
(u) du.
v0
v0 0
ix
2 0
0
,
(u) (u).

. , ,
, f g , 5.1, , (5.1.8),
 a
1
eixu [f (u) ig(u)] du =
(x) = l.i.m.
a
2 a
= F (x) iG(x) = 0
(x < 0).
, (x) 0 x < 0. (u) = f (u) ig(u), a(x) b(x) f , , (x) (x)
g.
a(x) + ib(x) i[(x) + i(x)] = 0

(x < 0),

..
a(x) = (x),

b(x) = (x)

(x < 0).

g f , (II) (I).

146

[. v

5.6.
96. , (x) y 0
(z), ,

|(x + iy)|2 dx = O(e2ky ),

, (x) 0 x < k.
k , (x) 0 x < k,

1
lim ln
|(x + iy)|2 dx = 2k.
y y

. (z) .
(z) = eikz (z).

|(x + iy)| dx = e
2

2ky

|(x + iy)|2 dx = O(1).

(z) (x) x, (x)


(x) x < 0.
 a
1
eixu (u) du =
(x) = l.i.m.
a
2 a
 a
1
= l.i.m.
ei(x+k)u (u) du = (x + k).
a
2 a
(x) 0 x < k. , .
.
, (x + iy) euy (u),



2
2uy
2
|(x + iy)| dx =
e
|(u)| du =
e2uy |(u)|2 du.



2ky
e

(u) =

2uy

e
k

|(u)|2 du;
|(u)|2 du,

|(u)| du = 2y
2

e2uy (u) du 

5.8]

L2


 2y(k + )

k+

147

e2uy du = ( k)e2(k)y .

.
5.7. , , :
97. (z) ,
y1 < y < y2 ,

|(x + iy)|2 dx

y1 < y < y2 .
(x + iy1 ) (x + iy2 ) ,
(x + iy).
y1 < y < y2


(u + iy1 )
(u + iy2 )
1
1
(z) =
du
du.
2i u + iy1 z
2i u + iy2 z
(x+iy) ety (t), ety (t)
L2 y1  y  y2 .
, , , (x + iy) y y1
y y2 x. , ,

(u + iy1 )
du
u + iy1 z
, y y1 ,


(u + iy2 )
du
u + iy2 z
y < y2 , ,
y y1 . y y2 .
5.8.
98. f (x) L2 (, ).
f (x) = f+ (x) + f (x),
f+ (x) L2 (, ) f+ (z), Im z > 0, ,
, f (x) f (z),
Im z < 0.

148

[. v

. F (x) f (x),

 0
1
1
izu
e
F (u) du, f (z) =
eizu F (u) du.
f+ (z) =
2 0
2
, f+ (z) f (z) y > 0 y < 0 .
, 5.4.
99. f (x) L2 (0, ).
f (x) = f(+) (x) + f() (x),
f(+) (x) L2 (0, )
arg z +0 f(+) (z),
arg z > 0, , , f() (x)
arg z 0 f() (z), arg z < 0.

z ( ) e .
. ,
 1/2
 1/2+i
1
1
s
f(+) (z) =
F(s) z ds, f() (z) =
F(s) z s ds,
2i 1/2i
2i 1/2
5.9.
1001 . f (x) L(, ),

f (x + t) f (x t)
dt
t
0
x.
. , f (x)  0. U (x, y) V (x, y) , (5.3.5) (5.3.6) ,

1 f (t)
dt
(y > 0).
(z) = U (x, y) + iV (x, y) =
i t z
U (x, y) , .

(z) = e(z) = eU (x,y)iV (x,y) .


U (x, y)  0, |(z)|  1. (z) y 0 x ( 94);
, U (x, y)
x f (x). ,
1

Plessner (1). , , .

Lp

5.10]

149

(z) , .
(z) , , V (x, y) .
92.
5.10. Lp.
101. f (x) Lp (, ), p > 1.

f (x + t) f (x t)
1
g(x) =
dt
(5.10.1)
0
t
g(x) Lp (, ).

g(x + t) g(x t)
1
dt
(5.10.2)
f (x) =
0
t
,


p
p
|g(x)| dx  Mp

|f (x)|p dx,

(5.10.3)

Mp p.
91, . 1 .
. .
(I) p .

1 a f (t)
a (z) =
dt = Ua (x, y) + iVa (x, y) (y > 0)
i a t z


[a (z)]p dz,
, R
 +
 iy
R + iy, . a (z) = O 1
|z|
a |z| . , R ,



p
[a (x + iy)] dx = 0, ..
(Ua + iVa )p dx = 0.

 
p
p
p
p2 2
p4 4
p
Va
V
Ua +
V
Ua . . . Ua dx = 0.
2 a
4 a

M. Riesz (1), (2). . Titchmarsh (7).

150

Vap

[. v




p
p2 2
dx 
Va Ua dx + . . . +
Uap dx.
2

Vap2k Ua2k

dx 

Vap

X p = 

p2k
p

dx

Uap

2kp
dx

Vap dx
,
Uap

dx

, ,

p
p
p
p2
X
+
X p4 + . . . + 1.
X 
2
4
X

p
p
X p2 . . . 1 = 0
X
2
, ,
X  Mp ,
Mp p, ..


p
p
Va dx  Mp

Uap dx.




 y a
f (t)
|f (t)|
y  a

|Ua (x, y)| = 
dt 
dt,
2
2
a (t x) + y
a (t x)2 + y 2

p1


yp
|f (t)|p
dt
p
|Ua (x, y)|  p
dt
=
2
2
(t x)2 + y 2
(t x) + y

|f (t)|p
y
dt,
=
(t x)2 + y 2




dx
y
p
p
|Ua | dx 
|f (t)| dt
=
|f (t)|p dt.
2 + y2

(t

x)

(5.10.4)




|Va (x, y)|p dx  Mpp

|f (t)|p dt.

5.10]

Lp

a ,
Va (x, y) V (x, y) = 1

151

tx
f (t) dt,
(t x)2 + y 2

(5.10.5)

y 0, 92 100, ,
V (x, y) g(x) x. (5.10.5) 1
(5.10.3).
(II) p .
, f (t)  0. U (x, y) > 0, Ua (x, y) > 0 y > 0,
a > a0 .
p- .

p
V
p
2
2
(U + iV ) = exp
ln(U + V ) + ip arctg
,
2
U
< arctg V < U > 0. U 0,
2
U
2

1
|V |p e 2 ip ,
(V > 0),
(iV )p =
1
ip

|V |p e 2 , (V < 0).

 U +iV



p
p
p1

z
dz  
|(U + iV ) (iV ) | = p
iV

p1
2

 pU (U 2 + V 2 )
Ua , Va ,





p
p

[(Ua + iVa ) (iVa ) ] dx  Kp


, ,

2

p1
2

p(U p + U |V |p1 ).


Uap

dx +

Ua |Va |

p1

dx .

(Ua + iVa )p dx = 0,

. , , 10.8.1. [. . . ,
, . 125. : E fn(x)  0
x  E n; fn (x) f (x) x E, E f (x) dx 
 lim En fn (x) dx. n

, E ;
, , , , .
, , , E . . .]

152






  
 
(iVa ) dx  Re

 

 

p
(iVa ) dx = cos 
2
p

[. v

|Va |p dx.







p
p
cos p 
|Va | dx  Kp
Ua dx + Kp
Ua |Va |p1 dx,

2 

(5.10.1) (5.10.3) , .
, p
. , , (5.10.2) .


p
p 

y
f
(t
+
x)

f
(x)
 <
|U (x, y) f (x)|p  p 
dt


t2 + y 2

|f (t + x) f (x)|p
y
dt,
<

t2 + y 2


y
|U (x, y) f (x)| dx <

dt
2
t + y2

|f (t + x) f (x)|p dx.

t t 0.1
,

Kp y

dt
+ ()y
2
t + y2

dt
<
+ y2

dt
dt
y
+ ()y
< Kp + ().
2
2
2
t

2
0 t +y

t2

 0

< Kp y

, y, , . ,
p


lim

y0

|U (x, y) f (x)|p dx = 0.

1
. , , . XII, . 1719. [
f (x), , ; Lp ,
, ,
Lp . . .]

Lp

5.10]

, (5.10.4),


p
|U (x, y) Ua (x, y)| dx 

153

|f (t)|p dt 0,

a , y.

|Ua (x, y) f (x)|p dx 0

(5.10.6)

a , y 0.
,

1
a (z)
P
dz = a ( + i)
i
y= z i

( > 0)

, ,

Ua (x, )
1P
dx = Va (, ).

x
, Va (x, y) Ua (x, y) (5.10.3) , p


p
|Va (x, y) + g(x)| dx < Kp
|Ua (x, y) f (x)|p dx.
(5.10.7)

(5.10.6) (5.10.7), ,

|a (z) [f (x) ig(x)]|p dx 0

y 0, a .
, ,

1
a (z)
dz = a ( + i)
2i z i

(y < ).

a , y 0, ,

1
f (x) ig(x)
dx = ( + i),
2i x i

1
2i

( + i)
ig(x)
dx =
.
x i
2

154

[. v

,

x
1
g(x) dx = U (, ).
(x )2 + 2
0 , 92,
g(x),
( ) f (x).
(5.10.2) .
(III) p
, - p,
2p. , ,
p ,
p.
, , [a (z)]2 ,


1 [a (x + iy)]2
(y > 0),
dx = [a ( + iy)]2
i
x
..
1
i

Ua2 Va2 + 2iUa Va


dx = Ua2 (, y) Va2 (, y) + 2iUa (, y)Va (, y).
x

, Ua2 Va2 2Ua Va . (x) Ua2 (x) Va2 .


(x) (x) = 2Ua Va ,

|(x)|p  2p |(x)|p + 22p |Ua Va |p ,




p
p
p
2p
|(x)| dx  2
|(x)| dx + 2
|Ua Va |p dx.

&
|Ua Va | dx 
p


|Ua

|2p

dx

|Va |2p dx

(5.10.3) ( p),


p
|(x)| dx < Kp
|Ua |2p dx,




|Va |2p dx < Kp


|(x)|p dx.

Lp

5.11]

,
&


|Va |2p dx < Kp
|Ua |2p dx + Kp


|Ua

|2p

155

dx

|Va |2p dx .

2p ,
. .
5.11.
1021 . f (x), g(x) Lp h(x), k(x) napa

p
.
Lp , p =
p1


f (x)h(x) dx =
g(x)k(x) dx.
(5.11.1)

. p = 2 p = 2, (5.3.3)


2
[f (x) + h(x)] dx =
[g(x) + k(x)]2 dx,
(5.11.2)

.
Ua (x, y), Va (x, y), ,
Pb (x, y), Qb (x, y) h k. , Ua Va ; , Pb Qb .
L2 ,



Ua (x, y)Pb (x, y ) dx =
Va (x, y)Qb (x, y  ) dx.
(5.11.3)

a , y 0, b , y  0, Ua Va
p f g, Pb Qb
p h k.
.
. h(x) = 1 |x a| > = 0 |x a|  .
xa


h(u)
1
du =
k(x) = P

u x
 a


du
du
1
+
=
= P

(u a)(u x)
a+ (u a)(u x)


a + x
1

.
=
ln
(a x)  a x 
1

. Riesz (1), (2).

156

[. v




 a + x  dx
f (a + x) f (a x)
1


g(x) ln 
dx =
=

x
a x a x



 + t  dt
1


=
g(t + a) ln 
.
(5.11.4)

t t

(5.11.1)
101 p.

h(x), k(x) Lp .
p , , (5.11.3)
b , y  0,


Ua (x, y)h(x) dx =
Va (x, y)k(x) dx.


 




V
(x,
y)k(x)
dx
a



|Ua | dx
p

 Mp

p1 

p

|h(x)| dx

p1 
|f (t)| dt
p

1
p

p

|k(x)| dx

1
p

(5.10.4) (5.10.3), p . k(x)



Lp .
k(x) = |Va (x, y)|p1 sgn Va (x, y).


|Va |p dx  Mp


|Va | dx 
p

p1 
|f (t)|p dt

Mpp

|Va |p dx

1
p

|f (t)|p dt.

p .
, , Mp ,
(5.10.3), Mp  Mp .
p p , Mp = Mp .
5.12.
103. (z) ,
y > 0,

|(x + iy)|p dx < K
(p > 1)
(5.12.1)

5.12]

Lp

157

y. (x + iy) y 0 ,
p, f (x) ig(x), f (x), g(x) napa
Lp .
.
. n (x) , (a, b) ,
 b
|n (x)|p dx < K.
a


(x) Lp
 b
n (x)(x) dx 0.
a

. , (a, b)
. 1 n (x) 0 E b a ,

n (x)(x) dx 0.
E

,

 

p1 

1
p


p
p



(x)(x)
dx

|
(x)|
dx
|(x)|
dx
<
n
n


CE
CE
CE

1

p
p
|(x)| dx ,
<K
CE

n.
.
b = , a = , X ,




1
p



p

n (x)(x) dx  K
|(x)| dx
< ,

X

(a, X). a = , b < a = , b = .


.
(z) f (x)ig(x), , f g
Lp . (5.4.1) , , (5.4.2) (5.4.1)

1
, , 10.5.2. [. . .
. H. , ,
3- ., . 182, . . .
, . 89. . .]

158

n (u) = [(u + iv) f (u) + ig(u)]

(x) =

u x + iy
u x + i(v y)

[. v

(n = v)

1
.
u x + iy

(z) = 12 (U + iV ) 12 i(P + iQ),


U V (5.3.5), (5.3.6), P , Q
g f . y 0. f
, f , g , g,

f ig = 12 (f if ) 12 i(g ig ).
, f = g , g = f x.
(z) p f (x) ig(x) , 5.10.
(z) x 1 2 . . (z) ,
93 [(z)]p/2 .
, z (z) y > 0,


n
'
z z z + i  z + i 

Bn (z) =

z z z + i  z + i 
=1

( , z i). n, |Bn |  1 y  x. (z) = Gn (z)Bn (z).


y 

K
|Gn (x + iy)|p dx <
.
(1 )p

Gn (x + iy  ), Gn (x + iy) (y < y  ) , (z),


f (x) ig(x), , 5.10 (, ,
(5.10.4)), ,

|Gn (x + iy)|p dx < K 

y, K K p.
(z) , 3
,
1
2
3

Hille and Tamarkin (5).


, , 7.53.
, , 3.7.

Lp

5.13]

159

 Im z
1 + |z |2
, B(z) = lim Bn (z) G(z) = lim Gn (z)
. , (z) = G(z)B(z), G(z) (5.12.1) K , a |B(z)|  1.
G(z), , ,
, 94, B(z).
5.13.
104. f (x) Lp (p > 1), g(x)
. , , (x) Lq , q > 1, pq  p + q,


h(x) =
(t)f (x t) dt, k(x) =
(t)g(x t) dt.

pq < p + q h(x) k(x)


pq
.
LP , P =
p + q pq
pq = p + q, h(x) k(x) ,

h(x + u) h(x u)
1
k(x) =
du
0
u
x.
. (1) , pq < p + q.
, 4.2, h(x) k(x) LP .
, .
(z) ,
f (x) ig(x),

(t)(z t) dt
(y > 0).
(5.13.1)
(z) =

5.4 , (z) 0 < y1 


 y  y2 .
 T 
  T


p
1 qp


q  |(z t)|
(t)(z

t)
dt
|(t)|

|(z

t)|
dt 


T


 K(y1 , y2 )

T

1q 
|(t)| dt
q

T

1
q
|(z t)| dt .
p

, (5.13.1) y1 
 y  y2 , , (z) y > 0. , 4.2,


Pq 

Pp

P
q
p
|(z)| dx 
|(t)| dt
|(z t)| dt ,

160

[. v

;

|(z) h(x) + ik(x)|P dx 




Pq 
|(t)| dt
q

Pp
|(z t) f (x t) + ig(x t)| dt ,
p

y 0. , 103, h(x) k(x) .


(II) pq = p + q, h(x) k(x)
x 1 . , h(x),
.

h(x + u) h(x u)
1
du =

u


du
1
(t)[f (x + u t) f (x u t)] dt =
=
u


f (x + u t) f (x u t)
1
du =
(t) dt
=

u


=
(t)[g (x t) g (x t)] dt,

g (x) = 1

f (x + t) f (x t)
dt.
t

0,
g (x t) g(x t),

g (x t) 0

. , , . XII, . 20, 21. [,


1 + 1 = 1. ,
p q


p1 

q1
|h(x + ) h(x)| 
|f (x + t) f (x t)|p dt
|(t)|q dt

0 (. . 152). ,
 x/2
 


 




|h(x)|  
f (x t)(t) dt + 
f (x t)(t) dt,

x/2

, ,


p1  x/2

q1  x/2

p1 
p
q
p
|h(x)| 
|f (t)| dt
|(t)| dt +
|f (t)| dt
x/2

, , x . . .]

x/2

|(t)| dt
q

q1
,

161

p = 1

5.14]

t. , 5.12, ,


|g (x)|p dx < K

. (5.11.4)
1
g (x) = 2

 + t  dt


g(t + x) ln
 .
t t

1
|g (x)|p  2p

 
 dt 


+
t


|g(x + t)|p ln

t  |t|

 
  + t  dt p1

ln
,
 t  |t|

t = u,
 



p
p   + t  dt
|g (x)| < K
|g(x + t)| ln
.

t  |t|

x ,
.
5.14. p = 1. , f (x) Lp ,
p > 1. 101 p = 1, f (x) L.
( 100), g(x) . , g(x) L. ,
,

1
(t > 0),
f (t) = t ln2 t

0
(t  0).
x > 0
g(x) = 1 P

f (t)
dt > 1 P

t+x


0

1
dt
,
2 =
2x ln x
2tx ln t

, g(x) L. , g(x) L ,
, .
, 1 .
105. f (x) L(, ).

f (x + t) f (x t)
1
dt
(5.14.1)
g(x) =
0
t
1

; . Littlewood (1),
Titchmarsh (13), , , 7.24.

162

g(x) x,

|g(x)|p
dx
2
1 + x

[. v

(5.14.2)

0 < p < 1.
.
, f (t)  0 f (t) . , ,

1 a f (t)
(y > 0).
dt = Ua + iVa
a (z) =
i a t z

y
Ua (x, y) =

f (t)
dt > 0
(t x)2 + y 2

a. 0 < p < 1


p
Va
p
p
2
2
[a (z)] = (Ua + iVa ) = exp
,
ln(Ua + Va ) + ip arctg
2
Ua
 
V

a
< arctg
(|z| ),
< . a, a (z) = O 1
2
Ua 2
|z|


[a (z)]p
(0 < y < 1).
dz = [a (i)]p
2
z + 1
 
1
|a (i)| = 
i








f (t)  1
|f (t)| dt.
dt 
t i 


(Ua + iVa )p 
dz  < Kp .
z2 + 1

U > 0, |V |  1,

 

|(U + iV ) (iV ) | = p
p

U +iV

iV

p1

(5.14.3)



dz   pU |V |p1  U,

U > 0, |V | < 1,
|(U + iV )p (iV )p |  (U + 1)p + 1  U + 2.


 


(Ua + iVa )p (iVa )p 
Ua + 2

Ua dx + 2 =
dz  
dx 

2
z2 + 1

x + 1

5.15]

y
=

163

dx

f (t) dt
+ 2 =
(t x)2 + y 2

f (t) dt + 2 

f (t) dt + 2.

(5.14.4)

(5.14.3) (5.14.4) ,



(iVa )p 

dz < Kp .

z2 + 1 

Ho
p
p
p
2xy sin
(x2 y 2 + 1) cos
(iVa )p
p
2
2 > K |Va |
= |Va |
Re 2
p 2
z +1
(x2 y 2 + 1)2 + 4x2 y 2
x +1
y x.

|Va |p
dx < Kp ,
2
x + 1
, 101.
5.15. .
1061 . f (x) Lp (p > 1)

(0 < < 1)
(5.15.1)
|f (x + h) f (x)| < K|h|
h 0 x (, x 0 < h  1).
(5.1.9), (5.1.10)
x. g(x) Lp , f (x).
. (5.1.9),
, x.
, f (x) ,
,
x . , f (x) , ,
|f (x)|  > 0, .
(x1 , x2 ) x1 ,
 x2
p
(x2 x1 ) 
|f (x)|p dx 0.
x1

|f (x1 )| = ,
|f (x)|  |f (x1 )| + |f (x) f (x1 )|  + K|x x1 |  + K|x2 x1 | ,
x1 . , f (x) 0.
1

Titchmarsh (5). . . , , 7.4.

164

[. v

, (5.15.1)
h, h K.
y 0


1
t
1
[f (x + t) f (x t)] dt =

V (x, y) + g(x) =
0
t t2 + y 2

 1

y 2 f (x + t) f (x t)
t
2
=
dt = O(y ).
dt = O y
2 + y2
0
t(t2 + y 2 )
t
0
,
 2
(t x)2 y 2
t y2
1
f
(t)
dt
=

f (t + x) dt =
2
2 2
(t2 + y 2 )2
[(t x) + y ]
 2
t y2
1
[f (t + x) f (x)] dt =
=
(t2 + y 2 )2

 2
|t y 2 |
|t| dt = O(y 1 ).
=O
2 + y 2 )2
(t

V
= 1

h > 0
|g(x + h) g(x)| 
 |g(x + h) V (x + h, h)| + |V (x + h, h) V (x, h)| + |g(x) + V (x, h)| =


 x+h


V
(,
h)
 O(h ) + O 
d  + O(h ) = O(h ),

x
g(x) .
(5.1.10), , ,
x,
x, .
= 1,

 1 2
V
|t y 2 |
dt
=
|t|
dt
+
O
=O
2
2 2
x
t2
1 (t + y )
1
 1/y 2



|u 1|
1
1 ln 1 ,
=O
|u|
du
+
O(1)
=
O
y 1/y u2 + 1
y
y
,

1
g(x + h) g(x) = O |h| ln
.
|h|

165

5.16]

5.16.
. (5.1.7), g(x). .
107. f (x) L(, ). (C, ) g(x) x,

f (x + t) f (x t)
1
dt
(5.16.1)
g(x) =
0
t
,
 h
|f (x + t) f (x t)| dt = o(h),
(5.16.2)
0

, x.
. , ,
0 < < 1.



u
1
du
f (x + t) sin ut dt =
lim
0



u
1
[f (x + t) f (x t)] dt
sin ut du.
= lim
0

0
Ho


0

 1
u
1
sin ut du =
(1 v) sin tv dv =

0
1  1
1

(1 v)1 cos tv dv =
= (1 v) cos tv  +
t
t
0
0
 t
1

cos(t w)
= + +1
dw.
t t
w1
0






u
1
K()

1
sin ut du  < +1 .


t
t
0
, > 0



u
sin ut du =
1
[f (x + t) f (x t)] dt
lim

0

f (x + t) f (x t)
=
dt.
t

[f (x + t) f (x t)] dt
1/

u
1

sin ut du =

166

=
1/

f (x + t) f (x t)
dt + O
t

1/

[. v

|f (x + t) f (x t)|
dt ,
t+1

, (5.16.2),
"t=
!
 t

1

|f
(x
+
u)

f
(x

u)|
du
+

t+1 0
t=1/

 t
+ 1 dt
+
|f (x + u) f (x u)| du =
1/ t+2 0


1
dt
= o(1),
= o(1) + o
1/ t+1
, , . ,





u

1
sin ut du < K


 1/





u

1
[f (x + t) f (x t)] dt
sin ut du <


0
0
 1/
|f (x + t) f (x t)| dt = o(1).
< K
0

.
5.17. .
.
. , f (x) Lp (1 < p < 2),

f (x) F (x), Lp ,
F (x) = l.i.m. F (x, a). ,
f (x) = l.i.m. f (x, a),
 a
1
f (x, a) =
eixt F (t) dt.
2 a
1 .
108. f (x) Lp (1 < p < 2), f (x) = l.i.m. f (x, a).
. ( 58),

sin(x u)a
1
du =
f (u)
f (x, a) =

xu
1

Hille and Tamarkin (3).

5.17]

167



f (u) cos ua
f (u) sin ua
sin xa
cos xa
=
P
du
P
du =

xu

xu

= a (x) sin xa a (x) cos xa,


u = x.
101,



p
p
|a (x)| dx < Kp
|f (u) cos ua| du < Kp
|f (u)|p du,

a (x).



p
p
p
p
p
|f (x, a)| dx 
[2 |a (x)| + 2 |a (x)| ] dx < Kp

|f (u)|p du.

|f (x) f (x, a)|p dx

a . ,
.
f (x) , |x| > X
,


|f (x) f (x)|p dx < .




|f (x) f (x, a)| dx


p

p1

|f (x) f (x, a)| dx


p




p1

|f (x) f (x)| dx
p

p1

|f (x, a) f (x, a)| dx


p

p1
=

= J1p + J2p + J3p .


, |J1 | < , ,
|J3 | < Kp |J1 | < Kp .
, f (x, a) f (x) (, ). > 2X,
p
   X

 2

sin(x

t)a


 dx <
|f (x) f (x, a)| dx =
f
(t)
dt


xt

X
p
 X

p
  X


|f (t)| 
dx

p

|f (t)| dt .
dt dx < Kp
< Kp

(x X)p X

X x X

168

[. v

,
( a) ; , ,
,

|f (x) f (x, a)|p dx 0.

,
5.18. . ,
(2.1.1) , f G Lp
(1 < p < 2). f g , 
Lp Lp ,
, G ;
,

109. f Lp (1 < p < 2), g L2 Lp ,


lim
F (x)G(x) dx =
f (x)g(x) dx.

. G
g.

G(x) (|x| < ),
0
(|x| > )
g(x, ), , (3.1.2),
L2 , Lp .

Lp , Lp , 75




F (x)G(x) dx =

f (x)g(x, ) dx.

, ,
l.i.m.(p )g(x, ) = g(x),

.

110. f Lp (1 < p < 2), g Lp , ,
g,
0 <  x  ,
 


F (x)G(x) dx =
+
f (x)g(x) dx.
lim
0

. , ,

5.18]

169

G(x)
(  |x|  ),
0
(|x| < , |x| > )


sin (u x) sin (u x)
1
du.
g(u)

ux
, , ,
,


sin (u x)
lim
f (x) dx
g(u)
du = 0.
0
ux







sin (u x) 
g(u)
du 
ux


 x+1/

|g(u)| du +

x1/

x1/

+
x+1/

|g(u)|
du 0
|u x|

0 x. , ,
p - .
5.12.

VI

6.1. . , ,

a0 
(an cos nx + bn sin nx) = 0
+
2
n=1
x (0, 2), , an = 0, bn = 0 n.
, ,



a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy dy = 0
(6.1.1)
0

x, , a(y) = 0, b(y) = 0. , ,
f (x) , ,



a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy dy = f (x),
(6.1.2)
0

, .., ,


1
1
f (x) cos xy dx,
b(y) =
f (x) sin xy dx.
a(y) =


, , , . , a(x) b(x) ;
.
, , a(x) b(x) L(0, )




a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy dy = 0
0

6.2]

171

x.
, x x, ,


a(y) cos xy dy = 0,
b(y) sin xy dy = 0
0

x. 14 ( )

 
u
2
cos xu du
1
lim
a(y) cos uy dy = a(x)
0

0
x.
x, a(x) = 0 x. ,
b(x) = 0 x.
22.
, a(y) L2 (0, )

a(y) cos xy dy = 0
0

x. ,
, , a(x), 48,
, a(x), , , .

, x,
(3.1.1), , a(x) b(x)
L-.
 , ,
,
an cos nx
, an 0,

a(y) cos xy dy
0

, a(x) 0 x ; , ,
a(x) = ex cos e2x .
6.2.
(x + h) + (x h) 2(x)
(6.2.1)
h0
h2
(x). 1 :
(x)
lim

. , , 13.8.4. [. - ,
, . II, . IV, 7.]

172

[. vi

, (x) .
, f (x), .
1111 . (x) (a, b)

f (x), L(a, b).
 x  u
du
f (v) dv + a0 + a1 x
(a  x  b),
(6.2.2)
(x) =
a

a0 a1 .
.
1. (x) (a, b),
(x + h) + (x h) 2(x)
h0
h2
lim

(6.2.3)

x (a, b).
y = (x)
.
. ,
(x1 , x2 ) P Q.
(x) = (x) + 12 (x x1 )(x x2 )

( > 0).


y = (x) . M ,
P Q , , x
M . , ,
P Q x,
(x + h) (x)
 ,
h

(x) (x h)
 .
h

(x + h) + (x h) 2 (x)  0,
. .
(x + h) + (x h) 2(x)  ,
h. ,
.
2. (x) (a, b),
(6.2.3) x (a, b),
. y = (x)
.
1

- , . . I, . VII, 4.

6.2]

173

. (6.2.3) , . , E 0, (6.2.3) .
(x) , ,
 (x) = + E (b) (a) < 1 .
 x
1 (x) =
(u) du.
a

x E, M > 0,
(x + u) (x u)
M
(|u|  ).
2u
h 
 h
1
1 (x + h) + 1 (x h) 21 (x)
= 2
[(x + u) (x u)] du 
h2
h 0
 h
1
2uM du = M,
 2
h 0
, , h 0.

(x) = (x) + 1 (x).

(x + h) + (x h) 2(x)
0
h0
h2
x (a, b),
y = (x) .
,
y = (x).
111.
lim

p(x) = min[f (x), n],

q(x) = max[f (x), n].

p(x)  f (x)  q(x), f ,


p q.
1
., , , , 11.8.2. [ E O1 , O2 , . . . , On , . . . , O1 O2 . . .,
m(On ) < n , m(A) A. fn (x) 2
n

fk (x) (x) = lim n (x).
On , n (x) =
n
k=1
x
a n (x) dx < , (x) . ,
x
x
(x) = a (t) dt = lim a n (t) dt .
n

. .]

174


p1 (x) =

p(u) du,

p2 (x) =

[. vi

p1 (u) du
a

q. q2 (x) (x)
q(x) f (x)  0,
 h  x+u
1
q2 (x + h) + q2 (x h) 2q2 (x)
= 2
du
q(v) dv 
h2
h 0
xu
 h  x+u
1
 2
du
(n) dv = n.
h 0
xu
q2 (x) (x)
. , y = q2 (x) (x)
.
, a b,

xa
[q2 (b) (b) + (a)] (a),
y=
ba

xa
(a  x  b).
q2 (x) (x) 
[q2 (b) (b) + (a)] (a)
ba
y = p2 (x)(x)
, ,
xa
p2 (x) (x) 
(a  x  b).
[p2 (b) (b) + (a)] (a)
ba
n p2 (x) q2 (x)
 x  u
f2 (x) =
du
f (v) dv.
a

,
xa
[f2 (b) (b) + (a)] (a)
ba
.
f2 (x) (x) =

(a  x  b),

6.3.
112. a(y) b(y) ,
y = 0.

[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy] dy = f (x)
0

x - .

6.4]

175

dy
y2
0
x , f (x).
. , (x), , .
(x) =

[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy]

hy cos
cos
cos
cos
xy,
(x + h)y +
(x h)y
xy = 4 sin2
sin
sin
sin
2 sin

hy

4 sin2
(x + h) + (x h) 2(x)
2 dy,
=
[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy]
2
2
2
h
hy
0
(6.3.1)
, h h > 0.


[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy] dy = r(Y ),
Y

|r(Y )|  Y  Y0 ().





[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy]

Y0

hy 
2 dy  =

2
2
hy

4 sin2

!



2 hy "
2 hy



4
sin
4 sin2 hY0
4
sin

d


2
2
2 +
 +
=  r(y)
dy  
r(y)
2y2
2Y 2


h2 y 2 Y0
dy
h
h
Y0
0

+


hy


4 sin2

d
2
 dy < +


 dy
h2 y 2

Y0


4 sin2 u 
d
2
 du = A


 du
u2

h > 0, .
6.4. ,
a(y)
b(y)
L(0, ). ,
2
1+y
1 + y2
.
a(y)
b(y)
1131 .

L(0, ),
1 + y2 1 + y2


[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy] dy = f (x)
(6.4.1)
0
1

Pollard (3), Jacob (2).


Oord (7).
.

176

[. vi

x, f (x) . y


|x|
1
f (x) cos xy dx,
(6.4.2)
1
a(y) = lim


|x|
1
b(y) = lim
1
f (x) sin xy dx.
(6.4.3)

, f (x) = 0, a(y) = 0, b(y) = 0.


(6.4.1) x,
a(y) 0, b(y) 0 y .
. (6.4.1) x x
, ,
. , , .
, b(y) = 0. , a(y) =
= 0 0 < y < ,

a(y)
cos xy dy.
(6.4.4)
(x) =
y2
0
112, (x) f (x), f (x) . , 111,
 x  u
du
f (v) dv + p + qx,
(x) =
0

p q ; q = 0,
f .
 u
f1 (u) =
f (v) dv,
0


(x) =

f1 (u) du + p,
0


0



x
cos xy
x
1
f1 (x)
f (x) cos xy dx =
+ 1
y sin xy dx =

"

cos xy
x
= (x)
+ 1
y sin xy  +

0





x
2y sin xy
2
(x)
+
y 1
cos xy dx =

6.4]

() cos y p 2y
=
+

(x) sin xy dx y
0

2
0

177

x
1
(x) cos xy dx.

(6.4.5)

a(y)
L, (6.4.4) 14 ,
y2


x
a(y)
1
lim
(x) cos xy dx =
0

2 y2

(6.4.6)

y. , 1, (x) 0 x ,
(6.4.5) .

x
f (x) cos xy dx = a(y),
(6.4.7)
1
lim
0

2
, , .
, a(y) = 0 (0, ),

a(x), x  ,
a (x) =
0,
x < ,



a(y) cos xy dy = (x).


0


x

lim
1
[f (x) (x)] cos xy dx = a (y)
0

2
y. , 14,


x
lim
1
(x) cos xy dx = 0
0

y (, ).


x

1
lim
f (x) cos xy dx = a(y)
0

2
y (, ) , , , y (0, ). ,
.
a(y) = 0, , b(y) = 0 (0, ).

b(y)
sin xy dy.
(6.4.8)
(x) =
y2
0
, , ,
 x  u
(x) =
du
f (v) dv + qx,
0

178

[. vi

"
!

x
x
sin xy
1
f (x) sin xy dx =
1
y cos xy dx =
[f1 (x) + q]

0
0



x
() sin y 2y
2
1
=
(x) cos xy dx y

(x) sin xy dx.

0
(6.4.9)
, .
, (6.4.1) , ,
 x  u
du
f (v) dv
(6.4.10)
y = (x)
0

. ,

|a(y)|  ,
|b(y)|  ,
y  ,






[a(y) cos xy + b(y) sin xy]




hy 
2 dy  

2
2
hy

4 sin2

[|a(y)| + |b(y)|] dy + 2
0

hy
2 dy < K() + A .
2
2
hy
h

4 sin2

(6.3.1) h , h, ,



(x + h) (x) (x) (x h)

= 0.
lim
h0
h
h
, x , ,
(6.4.10),
x, . , (6.4.10)
,
, .
6.5. , a(y) b(y), .
114.

f (t) cos yt dt
0


, ,


F (y),

2 c

6.5]

179

 
y
2
1
lim
Fc (y) cos xy dy = f (x)
0

x.
20;


f (t) dt,
0

, , .
,
, , .
1151 . xn , ,
xn  k n1 xn1

(n = 2, 3, . . .),

k > 1. (, )
(, ) y1 , y2 , . . . , ,

(6.5.1)
xn (2yn + 1) 0.
. , 0 < < ,
(, ) : (, ), (, ), (, ). x
xn ,

3
6
x > max
,
.
(k 1)( )
2y + 1
(, ). ,
y ,
x
x > 6 . y+1 , y+2 , . . . ,




x 
(n = , + 1, . . .).
(2yn+1 + 1) (2yn + 1) xn+1   1
n
- yn+1 ,
; y+1 , y+2 , . . . .
y1 , . . . , y1 .
2y +1
,
xn yn n
xn
; ,
,


 2yn+m + 1 2yn + 1 
1
1


 xn+m xn   xn+1 + . . . + xn+m 0.
1

Cantor (1).

180

[. vi

,





2y
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
1
n


+
+ ... 
+ 2n + . . . =
,


n
n
xn
xn+1 xn+2
xn k
k
xn (k 1)
(6.5.1) . , (, ),





1

1
 2y + 1  

<
.



x
x (k 1)
x (k 1)
3
116.

(u) sin xu du
0

x, n
 n+
(u) du 0.
rn = max
01

. , n , |rn |  ,
n ,
n  21 n1 . ,


x 0, y1 , y2 ,. . . ,
8
2xn
(2y + 1) 0.

, ,





1
xn y +
  .

2
8
, n  u  n +,  1, xuy
3 , , sin xu 4
4
| sin xu|  1 . , , sin xu ,
2
, ,
 n +
 n +
 n +
1
(u) sin xu
du =
(u) du =
(u) sin xu du,
sin xu
sin xn n
n
n
. .
117.

f (t) sin yt dt
(6.5.2)
0

6.6]

181

 Fs (y),
2

 
y
2
lim
1
(6.5.3)
Fs (y) sin xy dy = f (x)
0

x.
. ,
(6.5.2) (6.5.3), .



1 cos (x t) 1 cos (x + t)
1
dt.
(6.5.4)
f (t)

0
(x t)2
(x + t)2

 N 

 (n+1)

2
2
f (t) cos t
f (t) cos t
I=
dt
=
+
dt,
2
n
(x t)2
(x

t)
T
T
n=N 2
T > x N , 2T .

 (n+1)

2
1
f (t) cos t
dt = O  2
f (t) dt ,
n
(x t)2

n
2

(n + 1)
n  < 
. 116
2
2
n > 2 .


1

=o
=o
I=o
+
2
2
N
n
N
T
n=N
.
(6.5.4), t  T .
, , t < T ,
T f (x). .
6.6.
118. 113 , a(y)
b(y) ,
(6.4.1).
. (x) (6.4.4),
(x) x . ,

182

[. vi

a(u) du

a1 (y) =
0

y ( (6.4.1) x = 0!),


 Y
 Y
a1 (Y ) cos xY
x sin xy 2 cos xy
a(y)
dy,
cos xy dy =
+
a1 (y)
+
y2
Y2
y2
y3
0
0
(6.4.4) . (6.4.6) 114. , 1,



x sin xy 2 cos xy
dy = o(x)
a1 (y)
+
(x) =
y2
y3
0
x , , y,




x sin xu
o(1)
(x) sin xy dx =
a1 (u)
du sin xy dx =
u2
0
0
y+1


1 a1 (u) sin (u y) 1 cos (u y)
= o()

2 y+1 u2
uy
uy

sin (u + y) 1 cos (u + y)

+
du = o()
u+y
u+y
. (6.4.7) (6.4.5).
, , (6.4.8) , x = 0 (6.4.1) ;
115117.

 m 
 y2

 y2
n  (+1)
2x
2x
b(y)
b(y)
sin
xy
dy
=
+
+
sin xy dy.
2
(n+1)

y2
y
y1
y1
=m 2x
2x



(+1)
2x

2x

2

x
b(y)
sin xy dy = O 2
b(y) dy ,
y2

( + 1)
 < 
, o(1) ,
2x
2x
 
x o 1 , x 0 (
x
 
1
O
rn 116). x 0
x



 y2
1 1
x+1
b(y)
2
.
sin xy dy = o x 1 +
=o
y2
x m
y1
y1

6.7]

183

, (6.4.8) ,
(x) = o(x)
x . , ,
(x), ,

(x) cos xy dx =
0


1 b(u) 1 cos (u + y) 1 cos (u y)
= o()
+
du = o()
2 y+1 u2
u+y
uy
. ,
.
, ,
.
119. f (x)
,


f (t) cos xt dt,
lim
f (t) sin xt dt,
lim

x,
x .




|u|
1
1
f (t) cos u(x t) dt du.
lim
f (x) = lim

6.7. .
.
120. F (y)
,

1
eixy F (y) dy = f (x)
(6.7.1)
lim

2
x, f (x)
. y


1
|x| ixy
e f (x) dx.
1
(6.7.2)
F (y) = lim

2
, f (x) = 0, F (y) = 0 y.
,




ixy
[F (y)+F (y)] cos xy i[F (y)F (y)] sin xy dy,
e
F (y) dy = 2

184

[. vi

118.
f (x) = 0
1 .
 x
F1 (x) =
F (u) du.
0

ixy

F (y) dy = e

ix


F1 () e

ix

F1 () + ix

x x ,


F (y) cos xy dy = [F1 () F1 ()] cos x + x

eixy F1 (y) dy.

F1 (y) sin xy dy.

, ,

F1 () F1 () =
F (y) dy 0

lim x

, ,

F1 (y) sin xy dy = 0

[F1 (y) F1 (y)] sin xy dy = 0

lim

x = 0 , x = 0
, .
118 ,
F1 (y) F1 (y) 0.
b(y) ,
(x) . , ,
F (y) + F (y) 0.
,
F (y) eiy F (y) ,
eiy F (y) + eiy F (y) 0
y . , F (y) 0.
1

Oord (6).

6.9]

185

1 : F (y)
, (6.7.1) (C, 1) x, ..


|y| ixy
1
F (y) dy = 0
e
lim
0

x, F (y) = 0 y.
, , , , (C, 1)
(C, 1 + ) . ,

eixu du = 0 (C, 1) (x = 0)

ueixu du = 0 (C, 1 + )

x.
6.8. .
, .
, f g , f
L(, ), G , ,
g L(, ). 35, , g G. , .
121. f (x) L(, ), g(x)
,

1
eixt g(t) dt
(6.8.1)
lim
G(x) =
2
x, G(x) L(, ).
(2.1.1).
g(x) 0 x , (6.8.1) x.
, 120, g(x)
G(x), 35.
6.9. .
, (6.4.1)
, .
1

Oord (7).

186

[. vi

1221 . eyt a(t), eyt b(t) L(0, )


y,

eyt [a(t) cos xt + b(t) sin xt] dt
U (x, y) =
0

y > 0 x.
lim U (x, y) = f (x)

y0

x,


|x|
1
a(t) = lim
f (x) cos xt dx,
1


|x|
1
b(t) = lim
1
f (x) sin xt dx

t.
.

eizt [a(t) ib(t)] dt
(z) =
0

, U (x, y), (z) = e(z) . |(z)| .


, 94, (z) y 0
, , x. (z),
, U (x, y) x.
f (x) U (x, y). y > 0, > 0


1
U (x, y) dx =
( x)2 + 2


cos xt
yt
1
=
e a(t) dt
dx +
2
2
0
( x) +


sin xt
yt
1
+
e b(t) dt
dx =
2
2
0
( x) +

=
eyt [a(t)et cos t + b(t)et sin t] dt = U (, y + ),
0

. y 0,


1
f (x) dx.
U (, ) =
( x)2 + 2
1

Verblunsky (2).

6.9]

187

14, y


|x|
yt
1
e a(t) = lim
1
U (x, y) cos xt dx =



1
1
d
U (x, y) cos xt dx
= lim
0

(6.9.1)

t.



y
1
U (x, y) cos xt dx =
cos xt dx
f (u) du =
2
2

(x u) + y


y cos xt
1
=
f (u) du
dx =
2
2

(x u) + y



y cos xt
y cos xt
1
dx =
[f (u) + f (u)] du
+
=
0
(x u)2 + y 2 (x + u)2 + y 2
0
     

= 1
= 1 (J1 + J2 + J3 ).

+
0 0

0
,

0

y cos xt
y cos xt
+
2
2
(x u) + y
(x + u)2 + y 2

,
J1 = e

yt

y cos xt
dx =
2
2
(x u) + y
= eyt cos ut.

dx =

[f (u) + f (u)] cos ut du.

(6.9.2)

, ,


 2

y
y cos xt

dx 
,

2
2
(x + u) + y
t (u + )2 + y 2




 2
y
y
cos
xt


dx
,


(x u)2 + y 2
t (u )2 + y 2



y

dx = .
2
2
(x u) + y
, |f (u) + f (u)|  M ,



2M
2M y
y dx
y dx
|J2 | 
+
+ M
dx =

t 0 (x + )2 + y 2
t 0
( x)2 + y 2
y

2M

2
2M
1

=
arctg
arctg
+
arctg arctg
+ M y.
t
y
y
t
y
y

188

[. vi

, u > ,



 2
y
cos
xt
y


dx
,


2
2
2
t u + y2
0 (x + u) + y


 2

y
y cos xt

dx 

2
2
t (u )2 + y 2
0 (x u) + y
, ,
 .

 +y

2M
y du
y du
+
+ M
du =
u2 + y 2
t +y (u )2 + y 2

2M

2M
1

=
arctg
+
arctg
+ M y.
t
2
y
t
2
y

2M
|J3 | 
t

y1 , y2 , . . . y,
, E t,
(6.9.1) y. E
0. t , E.
y = yn , J2 J3 (6.9.1)
> 1. y
(6.9.2),


 

 yt
e a(t) eyt 1
d
[f (u) + f (u)] cos ut du < 2

0
0
. ,
 
1
a(t) = lim
d
[f (u) + f (u)] cos ut du.
0
0
b(t).
6.10. . - - .
123. f (x) (0, ),
(0, 1) x . Fs (x)  0.
.
 (n+1)
 
 
x
2
2
f (y) sin xy dy =
f (y) sin xy dy.
Fs (x) =
0

n
n=0

. , .

6.11]

189

124. f (x) ,
x . Fc (x) L(0, ).
. , f (x)
f  (x), , x ; f (x) , . -
.


2
1
f  (y) sin xy dy,
Fc (x) =
x 0
, , . ,
x = 0 , 6,
 
f (+0)
2
Fc (u) du =
.
0
2
, Fc (x) L(0, ).
- - . ,

1 (0  x  1),
f (x) =
0
(x > 1),

Fc (x) = 2 sin x , .. . f (x) =
x
x
= e , Fs (x) = 2 x 2 , .. ,
1+x
L(0, ). , Fs (x) L(0, ), f (x) 0
x 0, x , .
6.11. f (x), Fc (x) (0, ), 1 . ,
,
(x) =

bn sin n x

n=1

bn  0,

bn

n=1

|(x)|
dx.
x

,
1

. Szidon (1).

190

1/n

Ho

[. vi


 1 
 n1
 dx
dx


bn | sin n x|
b
sin


 x
x
1/n
1/n =1

 1  

 dx



b
sin


 x = J1 J2 J3 .
1/n =n+1

|(x)|
dx 
x




sin
u


J1 = b n
 u  du > Abn ln n ,
1
 1
n1
n1

J2 <
b dx =
b ,


n 

=1

=1


dx
J3 <
b
b .
= ln n
x
1/n =n+1
=n+1
1

J3 < 12 J1 , b = k k; J1 ,
1 +...+n1
bn

J2 = o(J1 ), , , 1 = 1 n = 2

 1
|(x)|
dx ,
x
1/n

. ,

.
125. f (x), x , , Fc (x)
/ L(0, ).
.
. f (x) = cn (an1 + , an ),
cn 0, an 0 < < 1;
f (x) . , a0 + = 0,

 an



F (x) =
cn
cos xt dt +
c
2
an1 +
n=1

 an +

cn + cn+1 (cn cn+1 )(an t)
+
+
cos xt dt =
2
2
a

n
n=1



sin(an )x sin(an1 + )x 
sin(an + )x
=
cn+1
cn
+

x
x
n=1
n=1

sin(an )x cn cn+1
+
[cos(an )x cos(an + )x] =
cn
x
2x2

sin x 
=
(cn cn+1 ) sin an x.
x2 n=1

6.12]

191

cn an ,

 1 


 (cn cn+1 ) sin an x dx

 x
0

n=1

|Fc (x)| dx,


,
0
sin x 1 x 0.
x
, ,
g(x),
, f (x) g(x) L(0, ). - f (x) g(x) , g(x) L(0, ).
6.12. Fc (x) Fs (x)
x 0 x x.
1 .
(x)
126. f (x) = , 0 < < 1 (x)
x
(0, ).

Fc (x) (+0) 2 (1 ) sin x1
(x ),
2

Fc (x) () 2 (1 ) sin x1
(x 0).

2
Fs (x) sin cos .
2
2
. , (x) (0, ). x .


 

F (x) =
1 (t) cos xt dt = x1
1 u cos u du =
c
x
2
t
u
0
0
 

= x1
= x1 (I1 + I2 ).
+
0

,

   

cos u du = O 1
I2 =

x
u

x. , ,
 $
 %
(+0) u cosu du =
x
u
0
1

Titchmarsh (9).

192

= (+0)
x

(+0)
0

% 

[. vi


 
cos u du = O (+0) = o(1),
u
x

cos u du (+0)
u


0

cos u du = (+0)(1 ) sin .


u
2

.
x 0 .
127. f (x) f  (x) , x = 0. ,
, x+1 f  (x) x f (x) 1 x (x 0).
x
x 0 (x )

Fc (x) 2 (1 ) sin x1 .

2
Fs (x) sin cos .
2
2
. x .

 /x 

F (x) =
f (t) cos xt dt =
+
= I1 + I2 .
c
2
0
0
/x
,



sin

I2 = f

f  (t) sin xt dt =
x
x
x /x
 



 1 
1
x
1 dt = O x1 .
+
=O
O

x /x

t+1


m() = max |x f (x) 1|, m() 0 0.




x

 /x
cos
xt
dt +
[t f (t) 1] cosxt dt =
I1 =

t
t
0
0

  1
cos u du + O m
=
= x1
u
x x
0


  

1
cos u du + O x1 + O m 1 ,
=x
u

x x
0
/x

, x ,
.
x 0 .
6.13. .
, . , (1 + |x|n )f (x) L(, ),

6.13]

193


1
F (x) =
eixt f (t) dt
2
n . ,
F (x), F  (x), . . . , F (n) (x) x .
f (x), f  (x), . . . , f (n1) (x)
x , f (n) (x) L,
 n 1 
F (x) = i
eixt f (n) (t) dt.
x
2
, xn F (x) 0 x .
, (1+|x|n )f (x) L2 (, ), F (x), F  (x),
. . . , F (n1) (x) x , F (n) (x)
L2 (, ), .
26.
, ,
,
1 . :
128. f (x) Fc (x) -
2
O(ex /2 ) x .
f (x) = Fc (x) = Cex

2 /2

.
. (z) , , (z) = O(ea|z| )
z (x) = O(eax ) x ,
a . (z) = Ceaz .
. , C ,
|(rei )|  Cear ,
|(x)|  Ceax ,
0 < < . , 2 ,
|(rei )|  CerH() ,

(0   ),




sin

a sin( ) + a sin
2
.
H() =
=a

sin
sin
2
.
1

Hardy (19), Ingham (1), Morgan (1); , ,

19.
2

. , , 5.7.1; = 0.

194

[. vi

H() a cos , ,
|(z)|  Cear cos

(0  < ).

<  0;
= . ,
eaz (z) , , .
.
 
f (t) cos zt dt.
Fc (z) = 2
0
, f (t), z,
|z| = r

2
2
|Fc (z)|  K
et /2 ch rt dt = Ker /2 .
0

Fc ( z) , a = 12 , ,

Fc ( z) = Cez/2 ,
Fc (z) = Cez

2 /2

, ,
f (z).
. , ,
f (x) = O(x2k ex

2 /2

),

Fc (x) = O(x2k ex

2 /2

),

k . Fc (z) ,


d2k t2 /2
t2 /2 2k
|Fc (z)| < K
e
t ch rt dt = K 2k
e
ch rt dt =
dr 0
0
d2k 2
2
= K 2k er /2 = O(r2k er /2 ).
dr

(z) = Fc ( z). (z) , a0 , . . . , ak1 ,


$
%
2k
k1 z/2
(z) (a0 + a1 z + . . . + ak1 z )e
.
(z) = z
(z) , , Cez/2 .
,
Fc (z) = (a0 + a1 z 2 + . . . + ak z 2k )ez
f (z) .

2 /2

VII

7.1. - . - :


1 (0 < x < a),
2 sin ax ,
(7.1.1)

0,
(x > a),
x



sin a(1 x) sin a(1 + x)


1
cos x (0 < x < a),

+
,
(7.1.2)
0,
(x > a),
1x
1+x
2



1
1 cos a(1 x) 1 cos a(1 + x)
sin x, (0 < x < a),

+
,
0,
(x > a),
1x
1+x
2
(7.1.3)

1
2
ex ,
.
(7.1.4)
1 + x2
, -
 
, O 12 x ,
x
; -


x2
x
1

,
sin +
e
.
(7.1.5)
2
1 + x4
2 4

1
.
(7.1.6)
2 ch x
2
, ,

 
1
2
x2/2
2
e
cos xu dx =
eixux /2 dx =
0
2

2
u2/2 
e
eu /2 2/2
2
(xiu)2/2
=
e
dx =
e
d = Ceu /2 .
2
2
1
,
ch x

C a m p b e l l and
F o s t e r, Fourier Integrals for Practical Applications.

196

[. vii

- C 2 = 1, C = 1, C > 0.
,
ex /2 ,
2

ex /2 .
2

(7.1.7)

L-.
2
, - cos x
2

 


2
2
1
y
y
2
cos xy dy =
xy dy =
cos
cos
0
2
2
2



 2 2
 
x u du = a cos x2 + b cos x2 ,
 = 1
= 
cos

2
2
2
y =x+u
2
a b , . 2
2
2
, - sin x a cos x b sin x .
2
2
2
, , a = b = 1 .
2a


2
u
1
sin v
dv > 0,
sin du =
2
v
2 0
0
sin v, a = b = 1 .
2
,

2
2
2
1 cos x + sin x ,
(7.1.8)
cos x ,
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
1 cos x sin x .
(7.1.9)
sin x ,
2
2
2
2
11, (I).
-ro
 +2n
(1)n x

2
J (x) =
( > 1).
(7.1.10)
n!
(
+
n
+
1)
n=0
1
 1

1
2 2

(1 y )
0

cos xy dy =


(1)n x2n
(2n)!

12 2n

(1 y 2 )

dy =

 


(1)n + 1 n + 1

1
2
2
=
x2n =
2 n=0
(2n)! ( + n + 1)
n=0

, , . 1, 3.3 (2). .

7.2]

197



(1)n x2n
+1
.
2n n! ( + n + 1)
2
2
2
n=0

, -



1
1
(1 x2 ) 2 (0 < x < 1),
2 2 + 1 x J (x).
(7.1.11)
2
0
(x > 1),


L2 , > 0, Lp , Lp ,
1 > 1 , > 1 .
p
2
2
,
 - f (x)
 ,
1 F x , -.
c
7.2. - .

x
2 x .
(7.2.1)
e ,
1 + x2
, -
 
, O 1 x ,
x
.

1
1
1
1

,
,
(7.2.2)
x
2
x
2
e
1 x 2
e
1 x 2
  
1
1
    ,
(7.2.3)
th x 1.
2
x
sh x
2
2

2
2
xex /2 ,
xex /2
(7.2.4)
(7.1.7). 1 ,




1 cos(1 x)y cos(1 + x)y
1  1 + x 
sin y
sin xy dy =
dy = ln
.
y
2 0
y
2
1 x
0

sin x
,
x



1 + x
1
.


ln
2  1 x 

(7.2.5)

> 12 , (7.1.11)
1

, 5.2.

198

32

x(1 x2 )
0

(0 < x < 1),


(x > 1),

32


1
x1 J (x).

2

[. vii

(7.2.6)

1
 +2n+1
n x

(1)

 2


( > 32 ).
H (x) =
(7.2.7)
3 +n+ 3
n=0 n +
2
2


 1


1
(1)n x2n+1 1
1
2 2
(1 y )
sin xy dy =
(1 y 2 ) 2 y 2n+1 dy =
(2n + 1)! 0
0
n=0


1
n

n!
(1)

+
1
2
 x2n+1 =

=
3
2 n=0 (2n + 1)! + n +
2





(1)n x2n+1
 
.

=
+1
2
3
3
2
2n
+n+
n=0 2 n +
2
2
, -



1
1
(1 x2 ) 2 (0 < x < 1),
(7.2.8)
2 2 + 1 x H (x).
2
0
(x > 1),
7.3. . (2.1.4) (2.1.6), f g .
, , f (x) = 2 1 2 , Fc (x) = eax , g(x) =
2
x +a

1

= 2
, Gc (x) =
ebx .
2
x + b2


dx
ax bx

=
.
(7.3.1)
e e dx =
2
2
2
2
2 0
2(a + b)
0 (x + a )(x + b )


1 (0 < x < a),
f (x) =
0
(x  a),
Fc (x) = sin ax , g, Gc ,
x
a b.


min(a,b)

sin ax sin bx
dx =
dx = min(a, b).
(7.3.2)
2
x
2 0
2
0
1

, 10.4.

7.3]

199

(2.1.6) (7.2.5), (7.3.2),


 

 

a + x b + x
sin ax sin bx




ln
dx = 2 min(a, b);
ln
dx = 2


2
a

x
b

x
x
0
0
(7.3.3)
91.
52.
- 1 . (a)

(a) =
ex xa1 dx
(a > 0),
(7.3.4)
0

c(a) =

xa1 cos x dx

(0 < a < 1),

(7.3.5)

xa1 sin x dx

(1 < a < 1).

(7.3.6)


s(a) =

- xa1
 
 

a1
a
2
2
y
cos xy dy = x
ua1 cos u du = xa 2 c(a).
0
0


, - xa1 xa 2 s(a).

,
 a

x
(1 < a < 1).
(7.3.7)
dx =
2
1+x
2 cos a
0
2
(2.1.4) f (x) = ex , g(x) = xa1 . , , , 35 37:
 a
c(a)
x
2
(0 < a < 1).
(7.3.8)
c(a) dx =
(a) =
0 1 + x2
cos a
2
(2.1.6)
 1a
s(a)
x
2
(0 < a < 1).
(7.3.9)
s(a)
dx
=
(a) =
0 1 + x2
sin a
2
,
, - 
2
a
c(a)
x

. Hardy (3).

200

[. vii

xa1 2 c(a)c(1 a);

, 6, xa1 , , ,
(0 < a < 1).
(7.3.10)
c(a)c(1 a) =
2

(0 < a < 1).


(7.3.11)
s(a)s(1 a) =
2
(7.3.8) (7.3.10),
(a)(1 a) =

c(a)c(1 a)
=
.
1
sin a
sin a
2

(7.3.12)

,
  
  
 
1

1
=
=
c
(7.3.13)
, s
, 1 = .
2
2
2
2
2
-

a1
2 (a) cos a xa (0 < a < 1)
x ,
(7.3.14)

2
-

a1
2 (a) sin a xa
x ,

(0 < a < 1).

(7.3.15)

7.4. , .
(2.1.4), (7.1.11) (7.3.14) 1


1
(a) cos a  1
a1
2 2 a
2
2 

J (x)x
dx =
(1

x
)
x dx =
12
0
0
2 +1
2
 


 
+ 1 1a
2a1 a
(a) cos a
2
2 
2 
 2
= 
.
(7.4.1)
=

a
a
1
1
2
2 + 1
+1
+
2
2
2
> 12 , 0 < a < 1 37,

1
2 2
(0 < x < 1),
f (x) = (1 x )
0
(x > 1)
g(x) = xa . 0 < a < + 32 ,

.
(2.1.6), (7.2.8) (7.3.15) 2
1
2

, 13.24 (1).
, 13.24 (2).

7.4]

201

H (x)x
0

a1

1
(a) sin a  1
2 2 a
2 

dx =
(1

x
)
x dx =
1
0
2 2 + 1
2
 
2a1 a tg a
2

2
=
(1 < a < + 32 ). (7.4.2)
a
+1
2

(2.1.8) 12 < < 0,



f (x) = 2 (2 + 1) cos |x|21 sgn x,
F (x) = |x|2 sgn x

(7.3.15),

1
2 2

(1 x )
 (|x| < 1),
g(x) = 2 12 + 1
G(x) = |x| J (|x|).

0
(|x| > 1),
(7.1.11). x = 1


(2 + 1) cos


2
t J (t) sin xt dt = 2
21
0
2 +1
2
 1
1

(1 u2 ) 2 |x u|21 sgn(x u) du.

(7.4.3)

37, f g g(u) g(u + x).


x > 1, 1


1
2
 1
+
22
1
2
(1 u2 ) 2 (x u)21 du =
.
(2 + 1) (x2 1)+ 12
1
0 < x < 1, . ,

1
(1 w2 ) 2 (x w)21 dw.
,
R, R . , (1, 1) , ,
1, x 1, ,
.
1

. , , . I, . 19. [ u =
(2t 1)x + 1
=
. . .]
2t 1 + x

202

, - 1

1
2+ 2



(x > 1),
1 (x2 1)+ 21
x J (x),

2
0
(0 < x < 1).

[. vii

(7.4.4)

(7.4.3) < 12 ,
.

(7.4.4) Lp , Lp ,
p>

1
2

(  0),

1
2

1
1
<p<
2

( 12 < < 0).

(7.4.5)

(2.1.6), , (2.1.20) (7.2.6), (7.4.4),


0 < a < b:

(ax) J (ax)(bx)1 J (bx) dx =
0

1
=
ab


a

1
3

 12 2 32
2  2
2+ 2  x2
x
x



 2 1
1 2
dx,
b
b
1 a
1
2
2

0 < b  a .
+1 2 2 1

a (b a )
2
(0 < a < b),
+1
x
J (ax)J (bx) dx =
( )b

0
0
(a  b).
(7.4.6)
14 < < 0 > 1
L2 . ,
.


(|x| < 1),
sin x
2
,
F (x) =
f (x) =
x
0 (|x| > 1),


J0 (x) (x > 0),


0
(x < 0),


(|x| < 1),


2(1 x2 )
1
eixy J0 (x) dy =
G(x) =

i sgn x
2 0

(|x| > 1),



2(x2 1)
g(x) =

, 6.13 (3).

7.5]

203

(7.1.11) (7.4.4). (2.1.8) 1


 1


sin(x t)

1 1 eixt
cos xt

J0 (t)
dt =
dt = J0 (x).
dt =
2
2
xt
2 1 1 t
2
1t
0
0
(7.4.7)
p
f (x) G(x) L , 1 < p < 2.
(7.2.1), (7.4.4) (2.1.6) 2

1
 
x
2+ 2
ax
2


e x J (x) dx =
dx =
1
1 a2 + x 2
0
1 (x2 1)+ 2
2


1


1
1
2 +
2
2 2
2

= 
(7.4.8)
1 du =
1 .
+
2
2
(a + 1)+ 2
1 0 (a u + 1)(1 u) 2
2
Lp , p (7.4.5).
, > 12 .
7.5. .3
 iu2 ixu
e
(x) =
du.
ch u

(x + i) + (x i) = 2

iu2 ixu

du =

(7.5.1)

ix2
i
2e 4 4 .

(7.5.2)

, (7.1.8) (7.1.9), eix


ix2
i
1
e 4 4 , 1 1 x .
ch x
2
2 ch
2
, (2.1.8),
2

1
(x) =
2

i(xu)2
i
4
e 4

ix2
i
e 4 4

eiv ixv
dv.
ch v
2

du =
ch u

2
, , , (7.5.2).
2
2

2
i(xi)
i
ix
i(x+i)
iv 2 ixv
4
4
4
4
(x+i)+e
(xi) = 2e
e
dv = 2e
,
e

1
2
3

, 13.55 (4).
, 13.2 (5).
Ramanujan (2), (5), Watson (5).

204

..

x2

e 2 (x + i) + e

[. vii

i
4

(x i) = 2e

(7.5.3)

(x i)


x
e2

ix
x
i 
x 
e 2 (x + i) = 2e 4 1 e 4 2 ,
2

(7.5.4)

, x x i,
i

ix2

e 4 ie 4
(x) =
.
ch x
2
,

(7.5.5)

2
sin x + 1
cos u cos xu
4
2
du =
,
(7.5.6)
x
ch u
2 ch
0
2
2
x

1
cos
sin u2 cos xu
4
2
.
(7.5.7)
du =
x
ch
u
2
ch
0
2
sh u , .


u
2
iu2 ixu e
(x + i) =
e
eiu ixu (1 + th u) du =
du =
ch u


ix2
i

2
= e 4 4 2i
eiu sin xu th u du.
(7.5.8)

, (7.5.4),
(x + i)

ix2
i
e 4 4

i
e 4

ix2
x
1e 4 2

sh x
2

ix2
e 4

i

ix2
e 4 
4 ch x .
1e
=
2
sh x
2

sin uv
dv.
sh v
0
2
(7.5.8)


sin uv
2i iu2
e
sin xu du
dv =

0
sh v
0
2

2i dv
2
eiu sin xu sin vu du =
=
v
0 sh
2 0
th u = 1

7.6]

205

, -

ix2
i
1
e 4 4

iv 2

ix2
i  iy 2
e 4 sin xv
e
sin xy
2 dv = 2e 4 4
dy.
v
sh y
sh
0
2

,

0

ix
x e 4
ch
e
sin xy
2
,
dy =
sh y
2 sh x
2
iy 2

..


2
ch x cos x
cos y 2 sin xy
2
4 ,
dy =
x
sh y
2 sh
0
2
2

sin x
sin y 2 sin xy
4 .
dy =
sh y
2 sh x
0
2

(7.5.9)

(7.5.10)

7.6. , -1 .
 /2
(a 1)
 
 (a > 1)

(7.6.1)
eixt cosa2 t dt =
/2
2a2 a + x a x
2
2

 
a2
w+ 1
wx1 dw,
w
, ,
i, i, .

a1

2 cosa2 t 


,

ixt
|t|
<
e
2
(a 1)
 
 dx =

(7.6.2)



a + x a x

0
|t| 
,
2
2
2
y
, a = + , x = 2u + , t = ,
2


+2 iy()


2 cos
e 2
eiuy
2
(|y| < ),
du =
( + 1)

( + u)( u)

0
(|y|  ).
(7.6.3)
1

Ramanujan (4), (6).

206

[. vii

1
= O(|u|1 )
( + u)( u)
u . F (u), f (y), (7.6.3),
+ > 2 Lp (p  1); 1 < +  2

Lp , Lp , p( + 1) > 1. (7.6.3) ,
-,
59 Lp .
, y = 0

2+2
du
=
( + > 1).
(7.6.4)
( + 1)
( + u)( u)
F (u) =


sin mu
= ei(m1)u + ei(m2)u + . . . + ei(m1)u ,
sin u
(7.6.3) = :

23

2
du
sin mu
(m ),
= (2 1)
sin u ( + u)( u)
0
0
(m ).
(7.6.5)
, = n + 1 ( n )

2n
2

2 (n!) (m ),
sin mu du


(2n)!
2 
2
2 = 2
0
u 1 u2 1 u2 . . . 1 u2
0
(m ).
1
2
n
(7.6.6)
, (2.1.1)
1
1
F (x) =
,
G(x) =
.
( + x)( x)
( + x)( x)
, (7.6.3), + + + > 3

dx
=
( + x)( x)( + x)( x)
 

iy
1
1
y +++4 2 ( +)
2 cos
=
e
dy =
2
2 ( + 1)( + 1)
=

( + + + 3)
,
( + 1)( + 1)( + 1)( + 1)

(7.6.7)

(7.6.1). F g Lp , 2
< 1 < + 1.
p

7.6]

, -

207

(2.1.8) x = , + = +

eix
dx =
( + x)( x)( + x)( x)
i
 
()



1
e2
y +2
y +2
=
dy =
2 cos
2 sin
2
2
2 ( + 1)( + 1) 0
i

()

e2
 

= 
.
(7.6.8)
+
+

( + 1)
2
2
2
,

1
cos x
dx =
.
(7.6.9)
2
2
4(2 1)2 ()
( + x) ( x)
.
, 2( ) = ,

eix
dx =
( + x)( x)( + 2x)( 2x)


i
( )
+++3

2+++5 e 2
2

.
(7.6.10)
= 
+
( + 1)(2 + 2)

2
+ + + = 4,

cos (x + + )
dx =
( + x)( x)( + 2x)( 2x)
1
=
.
(7.6.11)
2( + 1)(2 + 2)(2 + 2)
2( ) = + k, k 1 2,

sin (2x + )
dx =
( + x)( x)( + 2x)( 2x)
223


.
=
1
(2 + 2)
+ +
2
3( ) = + k, k 1 2,

sin (2x + )
dx =
( + x)( x)( + 3x)( 3x)
33+4 (2 + 2)
=
.
4( + 1)(3 + 3)
k.

(7.6.12)

(7.6.13)

208

[. vii

, .



 
( + x) ixt
=
e dx = 
I=
Im < 0 
( + x)

eixt
1
dx.
(7.6.14)
=
( + x)(1 x) sin ( + x)


2i
1
= 2i
ei(2m+1)(+x) ,
= i(+x)
sin ( + x)
e
ei(+x)
m=0

I = 2i



m=0

eixti(2m+1)(+x)
dx.
( + x)(1 x)

(7.6.3) y = (2m + 1) t.
, I = 0 t  0. t > 0,
%
$
m = t ;
2
, I (7.6.3).


( + x)( x) eixt dx.
(7.6.15)

Im < 0

( + x)
eixt

dx =
(1 + x) sin ( x)


( + x)
= 2i
eixti(2m+1)(x) dx.
(1

+
x)
m=0
, (7.6.15) (7.6.14).

, , 1 . (7.6.4),

J+x (a) Jx (b)
dx =
+x
bx
a




(1)m+n a2m b2n
dx
=
=
++2m+2n
m! n! 2
( + x + m + 1)( x + n + 1)
m=0 n=0
1

, 13.8.

7.7]

=
=



(1)m+n

r=0

..

2++2m+2n

m! n!

m=0 n=0

a2m b2n

209

2++m+n
=
( + + m + n + 1)



(1)r
a2m b2r2m
(1)r (a2 + b2 )r
=
,
r ( + + r + 1) r!
2r ( + + r + 1) m=0 m! (r m)!
2
r=0


J+ { 2(a2 + b2 )}
J+x (a) Jx (b)
dx =
.
+
 2
a+x
bx
a + b2 2
2


(7.6.16)

J+x (a)Jx (a) dx = J+ (2a).

(7.6.17)

, einx ,
(7.6.3).
7.7. .
f (x) = ex ,

F(s) = (s) ( > 0).

f (x)xk1 L(0, ), k
L(k i, k + i) k > 0.


as
1 (x < a),
0 (x  a),
s

a
ln
(x < a),
as
x
0 (x  a),
s2
1
,
(s)(s)
x
e 1
1
,
(s)L(s)
ex + ex

(7.7.1)

> 0, F(s)

( > 0),

(7.7.2)

( > 0),

(7.7.3)

( > 1),

(7.7.4)

( > 0),

(7.7.5)

L(s) (9.12.1). f (x)xk1


k > 0 L(0, ) , (7.7.4),
L(0, ) k > 1.
, f (x) F(s)

,

 x f (x) F(s + ), f (x )
1 F s . .

210

[. vii


 k+i
1
(s)(a s)(b s) (c)
f (z) =
z s ds,
2i ki
(c s)
(a)(b)

(7.7.6)

Re a > 0, Re b > 0, c 0, 1, . . . 0 < k < min(Re a, Re b).



(s)(a s)(b s)
= O(e|t| |t|Re(a+bc)1 ),
(c s)

|z s | = r et ,

(7.7.6) z, r > 0, < < . z = x, 0 < x < 1,



s = 0, 1, . . . .
f (x) = 1

a(a + 1) b(b + 1) 2
ab
x+
x . . . = F (a, b; c; x),
c 1!
c(c + 1) 2!

, . f (x) x > 1
F (a, b; c; x) ( , ,
). , ,
f (x) = F (a, b; c; x),

(s)(a s)(b s) (c)


F(s) =
(c s)
(a)(b)


0 < < min(Re a, Re b) .
(7.7.7)

:
1
,
1+x
1
,
(1 + x)a
ln(1 + x)
,
x

1x
1
Pm1
,
(1 + x)m
1+x

sin s
(s)(a s)
(a)

(1 s) sin s

(0 < < 1),

(7.7.8)

(0 < < Re a),

(7.7.9)

(0 < < 1),

(s)2 (m s)
(1 s)2 (m)

(0 < < m),

(7.7.10)
(7.7.11)

Pn (x) n- .
F( + it) L(, ) . (7.7.8), (7.7.9) (7.7.10)
,

7.7]

f (x)xs1 dx

211

(7.7.12)

F(s).



a

1+as
(s)
2
x +1x
2 


(0 < < Re a + 1).


, F(s) =
f (x) =
2
1
+
a
+s
s
x +1
2
2
(7.7.13)
(7.7.12)
y
.
x=
2 y+1


(s)(a)
(1 x)a1 (0 < x < 1),
( > 0, Re a > 0),
0
(x  1),
(s + a)
(7.7.14)

(a s)(1 a)
0
(0 < x  1),
( < Re a < 1),
a
(x 1)
(x > 1),
(1 s)
(7.7.15)

0
(0
<
x

1),

(x x2 1)a + (x x2 1)a

(x > 1),
2
x 1
(7.7.16)
 



s
1
+
a

2
2

(
<
|
Re
a|
+
1),

s
2 (1 s)


1 + x
s
,
tg
(1 < < 1).
(7.7.17)
ln
1 x
s
2
f (x) 0 < x < 1 x > 1, a xk1 f (x) L(0, )
k. (7.7.14) (7.7.15) (7.7.12) 

. (7.7.16) x = 1 y + 1 .
2
y
(7.7.17)

 1
 1
x3
1 + x s1
x dx = 2
+ . . . xs1 dx =
x+
ln
1

x
3
0

0
1
1
+
+ ... ,
=2
1 + s 3(3 + s)

212

[. vii

 1
1 + x s1
1 + u 1s du
1
1
ln
ln
=2
x dx =
u
+
+ ... ,
1x
1u
u2
1 s 3(3 s)
0

s
1
1

.
F(s) = 4 2
+ 2
+ . . . = tg
2
2
1 s
3 s
s
2

7.8. , -. (2.1.12) f (x) = xa ex , F(s) = (s + a), g(x) = xb1 ex , G(s) =


= (s + b 1). a < k < b

 k+i
(a + b)
1
(a + s)(b s) ds =
xa+b1 e2x dx =
. (7.8.1)
2i ki
2a+b
0
42.
(7.7.9).
b = a, ,


(2a)
|(a + it)|2 dt =
(a > 0).
(7.8.2)
22a
0
.

xb
(b + s)(a b s)
,
F(s) =
,
a
(1 + x)
(a)
g, G , a, b c, d.
 k+i
(b + s)(a b s)(d + 1 s)(c d 1 + s)
1
ds =
2i ki
(a)(c)

(b + d + 1)(a + c b d 1)
xb+d
dx =
=
,
a+c
(1 + x)
(a + c)
0
f (x) =

, c d 1 = , b = , 1 + d = , a b = 1 ,
 k+i
1
( + s)( + s)( s)( s) ds =
2i ki
( + )( + )( + )( + )
=
( + + + )
( < k, < k, > k, > k).


f (x) =

xb (1 x)a1 (0 < x < 1),


0
(x > 1),

F=

(7.8.3)

(b + s)(a)
,
(a + b + s)

g, G , a, b c, d.
1

Barnes (1); . , , 14.52.

7.8]

1
2i

213

, -

k+i

ki

(b + s)(a)(d + 1 s)(c)
ds =
(a + b + s)(c + d + 1 s)

xb+d (1 x)a+c2 dx =
0

(b + d + 1)(a + c 1)
,
=
(a + b + c + d)
, a = , b = , c = , d = 1,
 k+i
1
( + )( + 1)
( + s)( s)
ds =
(7.8.4)
2i ki ( + s)( s)
( )( )( + 1)
( < k, < k, > k, > k).
f (x), , g(x), (7.8.3),

 k+i
1
(b + s)(a)(d + 1 s)(c d 1 + s)
ds =
2i ki
(a + b + s)(c)
 1 b+d
x (1 x)a1
dx.
=
(1 + x)c
0
, c =
= 1 a;


b + d + 1 (a)
 1 b+d1
 1

1
2
.
xb+d (1 x2 )a1 dx =
y 2 (1 y)a1 dy = 
b
+
d
+
1
2
0
0
2 a +
2
b = , a = 1 , d = 1,


+
 k+i
( + )

1
( + s)( + s)( s)
2
 (7.8.5)
ds = 

2i ki
(1 + + s)
2 1 +
2
( < k, < k, > k, + 1 < k).
1 :
 k+i
( + s)( + s)( + s)( s)(s)
1
ds =
2i ki
( + s)
()()()( + )( + )( + )
,
=
( )( )( )

(7.8.6)

+ + + = .

 k+i
 
 
1
F1 (s)F2 (s)F3 (s) ds =
f1 (u)f2 (v)f3 1 du dv ,
uv uv
2i ki
0
0
1

Barnes (2).

214

[. vii

(2.1.19) n = 2.
x
,
(1 + x)+
x
f2 (x) =
,
(1 + x)

x (1 x)1 (0 < x < 1),
f3 (x) =
0
(x > 1),

f1 (x) =

( + s)( s)
,
( + )
( + s)(s)
,
F2 (s) =
()
( + s)( )
F3 (s) =
.
( + s)
F1 (s) =

(7.8.6) I,

1

1
u
v
1
du dv
( )
1
I=
.
+

( + )()
(1 + u)
(1 + v) (uv)
uv
uv
uv>1

u = 1 1, v = 1 1
x
y

x+1 y 1 (1 x) (1 y) (1 x y)1 dx dy,
x+y<1

, y = z(1 x),
 1
 1
1
1
z (1 z)
dz
x+1 (1 x)1 (1 z + xz) dx.
0

+ + + = ,
-, , 1
()( + )
1
.
( + + ) (1 z)


()( + )()( )
()( + ) 1 1
z (1 z)1 dz =
,
( + + ) 0
( + + )( )
. .
7.9. . (7.4.1) a = s , , 0 < < + 32 . ,
2
1
. , , . I, . 19. [ x =
(1 z)t
=
. . .]
1 zt
2
, 6.5 (7).

7.9]

215

 
2s1 s
2 

s
+1
2

x J (x),

(0 < < + 32 ).

(7.9.1)



2s1 s +
2 

( < < 32 ),

s
+1

2


2s+1 s +
2 

(2 < < 32 )
s
1 +1
2

J (x),

x J (x),

x J (x),

2 s+ + 1
2
4

s + 3
2
4
s 12

(7.9.2)

(7.9.3)


(

1
2

< < 1).

= 12 , = 12 ,
s
s1
2

2 = (s) cos s (0 < < 1),



cos x,
2
1s
2


2s1 1 + s
2

sin x,
= (s) sin s (1 < < 1).
2
s
1
2

(7.9.4)

(7.9.5)

(7.9.6)

J (x) cos J (x)


.
sin
(7.9.2), Y (x)





+s
s
s1
s1

2
1
2 
2 

cos 
=

+
s
sin s + 1
1
2
2
 


s

s
+



%
$


2s1
2
2
s
+

=
cos sin
=
sin
2
2
sin  




s1
= 2
s + s cos s .

2
2
2
Y (x) =

, 1
1

, 13.24 (5).

216

Y (x),
x Y (x),

[. vii

 



s1 
s + s cos s
(|| < < 32 ),
2

2
2
2
(7.9.7)



s1   
s s cos s
( + || < < + 32 ).
2

2
2
2
(7.9.8)

(7.9.2)
 

s 
J (x) + J (x), 2 s + s sin s cos

2
2
2
2
J (x) J (x),

(|| < < 32 ),


 

s
+

cos s sin

2
2
2
2
s

(7.9.9)
(|| < < 32 ).
(7.9.10)

, (7.9.1) (7.9.8),
x [J (x) + iY (x)] =
 k+i
  

1
2s1 s s
= 2
2
2
2 i ki


%
$

sin s i cos s xs ds =
2
2
 k+i




s
1
2s1 s s ei( 2 ) xs ds,
= 2
2
2
2 ki
( ) x ix. 1
i 2 i
x e 2
e 2 K (x) =
i
 k+i

  
is
s
1
= 2
2s1 s s ei( 2 ) xs e 2 ds.
2
2
2 ki
, 2
 
  


s2
s
s

> max(0, 2) ;
x K (x),
2

2
2

(7.9.11)


x K (x),

  
 

2s+2 s s +
> max(0, 2) .
2
2

, K (x) . =
(7.9.12) (7.7.1).
1
2

, 3.7 (8).
, 6.5 (36).

(7.9.12)
1
2

7.10]

217

(7.4.2)

 
s tg s
2
2

 2 (1 < < + 32 );

x H (x),
(7.9.13)
s +1
2
.
, , , (7.9.1). (7.4.1) .
 
 k+i 2s1 s
J (x)
1
2  s

x ds =
.
(7.9.14)
lim
2i ki s + 1
x
2
s1

0 < k < + 12 28, 0 < k  + 1 30. x J (x)


1
x 2 (a cos x + b sin x). 30
1

(x) = e(k 2 )x ,

(x) = ex ,

(1.12.1) k  + 1.
(7.9.14)
. (7.4.1).
t
 



s1
i(1)
s
2
+ i(t ln t t)
1
a
2
1
2
 =e

1+ +O 2 ,
t
t
t
s +1
2
29, 0 < k < .
11;
(t) = tk1 ,

(t) = t ln t t,

(1.12.1) k < + 32 .
7.10. . (2.1.16) (7.9.1)
x J (x)J (x)

 

 k+i 2w1 w 2sw1 s w
1
2  
2 

dw.
2i ki 1 + w 1 + s w
2
2
w = 2w (7.8.4),
1
1

, 13.41 (1), (2), 13.33 (1).

218

J (x)J (x)
,
x+

 
2s1 s (1 + + s)
  2
 
.

s
1+ s 1++ s
1+
2
2
2

[. vii

(7.10.1)

K (x)K (x)
, (7.9.11), +
x

 k+i
 
  



1
2w2 w w 2sw2 s w s w dw,
2
2
2
2
2i ki
(7.8.3)
  
 
 

s s s s
s1

2
K (x)K (x)
2
2
2
2
,
.
x+
(s )
(7.10.2)
J (x)K (x)
(7.9.1) (7.9.11), 2
x



sw
sw1
 k+i




2

1
2 

dw,
2w2 w w
2
2
s

w
2i ki
1+
2
(7.8.5)
  

s
s
s22

J (x)K (x)
4
2

.
(7.10.3)
,
x2
1+ s
4
(7.10.1),

  

s s +

1
2  2
.

(7.10.4)
J (x)Y (x),
s
s
+
1
2
1+
2
2
(7.10.1)

s +  1
s1

2
  2
2 
.

(7.10.5)
J (x) cos x,
1+ s 1s 1+s
2
2
2
 



2s1 1 + s + 1 s
  2
 2
.

J (x) sin x,
(7.10.6)

+
s
1
+

s
1
1+ s

2
2
2

7.10]

,
eix J (x) =

1
2i

k+i

ki

219



1
i(s+)
2s (s + ) 2 s

e 2 xs ds.
(1 + s)

(7.9.11), x ix



(s + ) 1 s
2

ex I (x),
.
(7.10.7)
2s (1 + s)
, (7.10.1) (7.10.4),
J (x)[J (x) + iY (x)]

   

is
s + s 1s

2
ie
2 
2
 2
.

s
2
1+
2
, x ix,

   


s + s 1s
2
2
2

I (x)K (x),
.
(7.10.8)

s
4 1+
2
, eix [J (x) + iY (x)]
i(s)

ie 2 cos  1

s (s + )(s ),

2
2s1
x ix, 1

cos  1
x

s (s + )(s ).
(7.10.9)
e K (x),
2
2s
, .,
73. , , xk x J (x)
L2 , 0 < k < + 12 , xk x J (x)
L2 , 0 < k < + 12 . k,
, > 12 , > 12 .
(7.10.5);
(1 cos x)J (x), xk (1 cos x), L2 , 2 < k < 0.
, .
1

, 6.51.

220

[. vii

7.11. , .
, .
(7.7.15)
 



1
1

s
1
2

+
2
(x > 1),
(x2 1)
2

.
(7.11.1)
0
(x < 1),
2 1 s
2
(7.9.6), (7.9.3), (2.1.22) 1

sin ax
dx =
+ 21
2
1 (x 1)
 
 


1
s
1
+
s
 k+i

+

1
2 
2
2

as ds =
2s1 
=
s
1
+
s
2i ki
1
2
2
2





1  k+i
+s
2
2  s
s1

a ds =
=
2
s
4i
ki
1
2




= +1 1 a J (a)
( 12 < < 12 ).
(7.11.2)
2
2
( - )
(7.4.3). , (7.9.5) (7.9.7), 2



cos ax
1
dx = +1 a Y (a)
( 12 < < 12 ). (7.11.3)
+ 21
2
2
2
1 (x 1)
42, 14 < < 12 . ,


1+s



1
2  s
a = O |t|k 2 ,
F(s) = 2s1 
1 s
2
L, k < 12 , k 2 1 + 1 L,
x (x 1) 2
1
1
1
2 k < < 2 . 2 < < 12
.
43. , 0 < < 1
1
2

, 6.13 (3).
, 6.13 (4).

7.11]

221

xs1 sin x dx = O(1),


a

s1

sin x dx = x

s1

 b
b

cos x + (s 1)
xs2 cos x dx =
1

= O(1) + O(|t|) = O(|t|).


, = 1 k

xs1
1

(x2 1)+ 2

dx = O(1),

12 k < < 12 . , 12 < < 12


. k 1, .
,


2s+ + 1 + s
 2  ,
(7.11.4)
x+1 J (ax),
as++1 1 s
2

  
s
s

+
1

1
2
2
,
(7.11.5)
2
+1
(x + 1)
2( + 1)
( (7.9.3) (7.7.9)), 1
 +1
x J (ax)
dx =
2
+1
0 (x + 1)
 
 


 k+i 2s+ + 1 + s 1 s + 1 + s
1
2
2
 2 
ds =
=
2i ki as++1 1 s
2( + 1)
2
 k+2+1+i

   
1


=
2s 1 as + s s + ds =
2
2
4i( + 1) k+2+1i
a K (a)
,
(7.11.6)
=
2 ( + 1)
(7.9.12). F(s) (7.11.4)
L(k i, k + i), 2 1 < k < 1, k 2 1 +1 x (x + 1)
L, 2 1 < k < 1.
0 < < 2, 42.
1 < < 2 + 32 .
1

, 13.6 (2).

222

[. vii

, 43.

1 :


1 K (a)


2

1
2
eax (x2 1) 2 dx =
,
(7.11.7)
a
1



2 + 1
2
eax J (x)x dx =
(7.11.8)
1 ,
2
(a + 1)+ 2
0
(=7.4.8)


( 1 + a2 a)

eax J (x) dx =
,
(7.11.9)
1 + a2
0
2

a4b
a
bx2
+1
e
J (ax)x
dx =
e
,
(7.11.10)
(2b)+1
0
2

2

a
a8b
bx2
e
J (ax) dx = e
I/2
,
(7.11.11)
8b
2 b
0

(2a) (2b) ( + + 1)
K (ax)J (bx)x++1 dx =
,
(7.11.12)
(a2 + b2 )++1
0

a
a
J (ax)

K/2
,
(7.11.13)
dx = I/2
2
2
x2 + 1
0


J (ax)x+1
a J (a)K (a)
 .

(7.11.14)
1 dx =
(x4 + 4)+ 2
0
23 + 1
2
2

J (ax)J+1 (x) dx =
0




 k+i 2s1 + s 2s 1 + s
1
2 
2  s


a ds =
=

+
s
2i ki 1 + s
1+
2
2
 k+i s
1
a
=
ds
(k > ),
2i ki + s

a , (0 < a < 1),
1
,
(a = 1),
=
(7.11.15)
2
0,
(a > 1).
1

: 6.15 (4), 13.2 (5), 13.2 (8),


33.3 (4), 33.3 (5), 13.45 (1), 13.6 (3), 13.6 (5).
2
, 13.42 (8).

7.11]

223

a = 1 (7.11.15) 43. ()

J (ax)J+1 (x) dx.
() =
0

(7.11.1). a = 1, ()
= 1, (1) .
, , (1) =
(1 + 0) + (1 0)
, =
2
, , , ; , ,



dx
d  +1
J (x)J+1 (x) dx =
x J+1 (x) x+1 J+1 (x) 2+2 =
dx
x
0
0

+1

+1
x J (x)
x J+1 (x)
+1
dx,
x J+1 (x)
(2 + 2)
=
x2+2
x2+3
0


 2
J+1 (x)
J (x)J+1 (x) dx = ( + 1)
dx.
x
0
0
(7.10.1) = , s = 2, ,
1 .

2 + 2
(7.8.6) , (7.9.12)
(7.10.8),

1
K (2x)I (x)K (x) dx =
x
0
 k+i 

1
1
s 1

2
4
8 2i ki

 
  
1

s
1

s
 +


s
2
2
2
s+ 1

ds =

2
4
+ 1+s
2
 1 (k1)+i 

2
1
1

=
s + 1
2 4
4 2i 12 (k1)i



 ( s ) 1 + s (s )
2

s + + 1
ds =
2 4
(1 + + s )
 
 
 



1+
+1
+1+
1
4 2
 4 2
 4 2 .
4 2
(7.11.16)
=

3
3
+
4 + +
4 2
4 2

224

[. vii

(7.7.11) (7.11.4) = 0


1 x2
1
xJ0 (ax) dx =
P
2 n n1 1 + x2
0 (1 + x )
 
 


 k+i 1 + s 1 s 2 n 1 s
1
2 
2
2

2s 
=
as1 ds =
1

s
1
+
s
2i ki
2

2
(n)
2
2
 k+i


1
s1 2
1

s
as1 ds =
2 n
=
2
2
2i (n) ki
 k+2n1+i
  
1
s 2n 2 s
as 2+2n ds =
2

=
2
2i 2 (n) k+2n1i
1  a 2n2
K0 (a).
(7.11.17)
= 2
(n) 2
7.12. .
(7.9.5) (7.9.6),
 
1 s cos s ,
cos x ,
(7.12.1)

2
 
1 s sin s .
sin x ,
(7.12.2)

2
(7.12.1), = 1 = 2,

cos x2 cos ax dx =
0
 k+i


1
(1 s) s
s
1

s
cos
=
(s) cos

a ds =
2
2
4
4i ki
 k+i
 
1
(1 s) s
a ds =
2s1 s cos
=
2
4
4i ki

a2

=
cos
,
(7.12.3)
2
4
(7.12.1) (7.12.2) = 2.


a2

2
sin x cos ax dx =
sin
.
(7.12.4)
2
4
0
(7.1.8) (7.1.9). 39. 7.11,

xs1 cos x dx = O(|t|)

. ,

7.12]

cos(ax x ) dx =
2

a
1
2

a
+1
2

+
a
1
2

225

a
+1
2

= J1 + J2 + J3

( , > a 1 < a + 1). ,


2
2
J2 = O(1). ,


1
d sin(ax x2 )
J3 =
d sin(ax x2 ) = O(1).
=
a 2x
2 x= a2 +1
x= a2 +1
J1 = O(1). , 39 .
= 1 = 3 (7.12.1).

 k+i



1
(1s) s
3
s
1s
cos
cos x cos ax dx =
(s) cos

a ds.
2
3
6
6i ki
0

 3s 12   
 
 


1

s
=
(s)
s 1+s 2+s 1s =
3
3
3
2 3   3 
1+s
s
1
3s 2 3
3
=
.
(1 s)
2
sin
3
, , ,
"   
 k+i
1 !

s
1
(1 s)
2
s 1 + s as ds.
1 + 2 cos
3
3
3
3
24i ki

s = 3s , , (7.9.12),
2

 2k +i 3s   
3

  3s
1
2
2
1
s
s

+
a
3
ds =
2
3
2
16i 3 2k3 i
 2k +i  1
   
  
3
s + 2
1
3
s 1 + s 2 a 3/2 s ds =

=
2

2
3
2
3
4i 3 2 3 2k3 i

 3/2
a
.
=
K1/3 2 a
3
6

s = 3s 1 , , (7.9.9),
2
 2k+1 +i 3s
  
 3s 1
3
  
1
1
2
2
s
s
s
1
1
3
sin
ds =

+
a
2
2
6
2
6
8i 2k+1
i
3
 2k+1 +i
  
  3/2 s
3
  
a

=
2s sin s s 1 s + 1 2 a
ds =
2
2
6
2
6
3
24i 2k+1
i
3

226

[. vii

 3/2
 3/2 %
a$
+ J1/3 2 a
.
= J1/3 2 a
3
3
6 3
1


 3/2
 3/2 %
a$
3
+ J1/3 2 a
+
cos x cos ax dx = J1/3 2 a
3
3
6 3
0

 3/2
a
+
.
(7.12.5)
K1/3 2 a
3
6


 3/2
 3/2 %
a$
3
+ J1/3 2 a

sin x cos ax dx = J1/3 2 a


3
3
6 3
0

 3/2
a

.
(7.12.6)
K1/3 2 a
3
6
,
39. ,
  s

1
s1

1
x cos x dx =
cos d = O(|t|)


0 < < 1. ,


cos(ax x3 ) dx
0

a.
,
 k+i
 2 s
2
1
1
a
x
cos
(s) cos s x1 a
ds =
=
x
2
x
2i ki
 1k+i
1
(1 s) 2+2+2s s
a
(1 s) cos
x ds.
=
2
2i 1ki

cos x 2

2
cos x cos a x1 dx =
x
0
 k+i
1
(s ) 22s
=
(s) cos s (s ) cos
ds =
a
2
2
2i ki
 2k2+i 
%
    $
1
(s + ) s 
a ds =
+ s s cos + cos
=
2
2
2
2
8i 2k2i
1
2

, 6.4.
, 6.23.

7.13]

227


a 

J (2a) J (2a) ,
= cos
(7.12.7)
a K (2a) +

2
4 sin
2
(7.9.12) (7.9.10).

2
sin x sin a x1 dx =
x
0

a 

a K (2a)
J
(2a)

J
(2a)
.
(7.12.8)
= cos

2
4 sin
2
, .
7.13. .
f (x) (s), (1.4.1), (1.4.2),
1
ex ,
,
(7.13.1)
1+s
s
,
(7.13.2)
cos x,
1 + s2
1
sin x,
,
(7.13.3)
1 + s2
()s ,
(7.13.4)
x1 ,


1/x
e2 s .
e ,
(7.13.5)
s
x



2 + 1
2
x J (x),
(7.13.6)

1
(1 + s2 )+ 2
(7.4.8);

( 1 + s2 s)

J (x),
(7.13.7)
1 + s2
(7.11.9);

J (x)
( 1 + s2 s)
,
(7.13.8)
x

(7.11.9) a;

x/2 J ( x),
(7.11.10).

 x
1
cos u
du,
C(x) =
u
2 0

1
4s
1
e
2 s+1

1
S(x) =
2


0

(7.13.9)

sin u
du,
u

(7.13.10)

228

[. vii




1
cos u
xs
du
e C(x) dx =
exs dx =
u
2
0
0
u
&

1
s
cos u us
1
1
e du =

+
, (7.13.11)
=
2s
u
1 + s2 1 + s2
2 s 0
, (7.13.7). ,
&
1
s
1

S(x),

.
2s
1 + s2 1 + s2

(x) = 1 + 2

(7.13.12)

en x ,
2

(7.13.13)

n=1

xs


(x) dx =

xs

e
0

dx + 2



n=1

e(s+n

2 )x

dx =


1
1
1
.

+2
=
2
s
s
+
n
s
th
s
n=1

(7.13.14)

s
, .
7.14. (2.1.20) . , f (x), (s) (7.13.4), a g,
, .
 k+i
 x
1
exs
()() +1
1
1
y (x y)
dy =
()() + ds =
.
x
2i ki
s
( + )
0
(7.14.1)
(2.1.20)
 kx
1
e f (x) (x > 0),
(k + it)
0
(x < 0),
2
g . ekx
, f g , . L2
, > 12 > 12 . > 0,
> 0. ,
, 38.

7.14]

229

.
f (x) (s) (7.13.6), , g,
. 1
 x
y J (y)(x y) J (x y) dy =
0
 k+i + 
 

exs
1
2
=
ds =
+ 1 + 1
2
2 (1 + s2 )++1
2i ki
 


1
1
1
+
+
+ +
2
2
2
=
J++ 1 (x).
(7.14.2)
x
2
2 ( + + 1)
= 12 , = 0
 x
J0 (x y) sin y dy = xJ1 (x).

(7.14.3)

, ,
, 12.21.
= 0, = 0
 x
J0 (y)J0 (x y) dy = sin x.
(7.14.4)
0

, (7.13.8)
 x
 k+i
J (y)J (x y)
1
( 1 + s2 s)+ exs ds =
dy =
y(x

y)
2i
0
ki
+ J+ (x)
.
(7.14.5)
=

x
f , (7.13.8), , a g,
(7.13.7),
 x
 k+i
J+ (x)
1
J (y)J (x y)
( 1 + s2 s)+ xs

e ds =
dy =
.
y
2i ki

1 + s2
0
(7.14.6)
g, (7.13.7), a f , , ,

 k+i
 x
1
( 1 + s2 s)+ xs
J (y)J (x y) dy =
e ds =
2i ki
1 + s2
0

% exs

1 k+i $
++1
++3
2
2
( 1 + s s)
( 1 + s s)
+ ...
ds =
=
i ki
1 + s2


= 2 J++1 (x) J++3 (x) + . . . .
(7.14.7)
1

Hardy (10), , 12.212.22.

230

[. vii

+ , ;
,
 k+i xs
 x
e
1
J (y)J (x y) dy =
ds = sin x.
(7.14.8)
2i ki 1 + s2
0
,
f (x) = x

/2

J (a x),

a
a
(s) = +1 e 4s ,
2 s

a g, , a, b, . 1
 x

y /2 J (a y)(x y)/2 J (b x y) dy =
0

2
 k+i
a b
a + b2
1
+ xs ds =
exp
=
2i ki 2+ s++2
4s


2a b
= 2
J
(a2 + b2 )x .
(7.14.9)
++1
2
(++1)/2
(a + b )
g, , f , (7.13.4), 2
 x

y 1 (x y)/2 J (b x y) dy =
0
2

 k+i
1
b
()b
=
exp + xs ds =
2i ki 2 s++1
4s

 
2 () /2
x J+ b x .
=

b
(7.13.11) (7.13.12) 3
 x
 k+i
x sin x
exs
1
ds =
,
C(y)S(x y) dy =
2
2
8i ki s (1 + s )
4
0

0

(7.14.10)

(7.14.11)

 k+i
1
exs
C(y)C(x y) S(y)S(x y) dy =
ds =
4i ki s(1 + s2 )
 k+i 
1
1 cos x
s  xs
1
e ds =

,
(7.14.12)
=
2
4i ki s 1 + s
2

x

, J0 , J1 .
1
2
3

, 12.13 (1).
. 12.11 (1).
Humbert (1).

7.14]

231


. 1 , (x). (7.13.14)

 k+i
 x
exs
1
(y)(x y) dy =
ds.
2i ki s th2 s
0

d
1
1
1

=
.
ds th s
2 s 2 s th2 s

Ho

xs

 k+i xs

1
e
e
1 k+i d
1
ds =

ds
2i ki s
i ki ds th s
s

 k+i
x
1
1
1
exs ds =

=1+
i ki th s
s 2s s
 x
= 1 + 2x(x)
(u) du,
0


 x
0

1
(u) du =
2i

k+i

ki

exs
1
ds

2i
s s th s

k+i

ki

ds
,
s s th s

, , . ,
 x
 x
(y)(x y) dy = 1 + 2x(x)
(u) du.
(7.14.13)
0

. Hardy (10).

VIII

8.1. .


k(xu) du
k(uy)f (y) dy,
(8.1.1)
f (x) =
0


f (x); k(x) = 2 cos x


2
- , a k(x) =
sin x - .

, , ; ,

(8.1.2)
k(x) = x J (x).



k(xu) du
f (x) =
0

h(uy)f (y) dy,

(8.1.3)

. ,

h(x) = x H (x).
(8.1.4)
k(x) = x Y (x),
, (8.1.1)


g(x) =

f (y)k(xy) dy,

(8.1.5)

g(y)k(xy) dy.

(8.1.6)


f (x) =

k(x), (8.1.1),
. 1 .
(8.1.5) xs1 0 .
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (8), (2).

8.2]

233




s1
s1
g(x)x dx =
x dx
f (y)k(xy) dy =
0
0
0




s1
s
=
f (y) dy
k(xy)x dx =
f (y)y dy
0

k(u)us1 du,

.., Me,
G(s) = F(1 s)K(s).

(8.1.7)

F(s) = G(1 s)K(s).

(8.1.8)

(8.1.6)
s 1 s
,
K(s)K(1 s) = 1.
(8.1.9)
, , k(x)

 c+i
1
k(x) =
K(s)xs ds,
(8.1.10)
2i ci
- , K (8.1.9).
8.2. , (8.1.9)
.
k(x) ,

 x
k1 (x) =
k(u) du,
(8.2.1)
0


k1 (u)
1 (0 < x < ),
du =
k(xu)
0
(x > ).
u
0
, (8.1.1)

1 (0 < x < ),
f (x) =
0
(x > ),

(8.2.2); , (8.2.2),


 x
k1 (xu)
f (y) dy =
f (y) dy
k(yu)
du =
u
0
0
0


k1 (xu)
k(uy)f (y) dy,
=
du
u
0
0
(8.1.1) .

(8.2.2)

234

(8.1.10)
 c+i
1
x1s
K(s)
ds.
k1 (x) =
2i ci
1s

[. viii

(8.2.3)

(2.1.20)


 c+i

 
k1 (u)
K(1 s) s s
1
=
k(xu)
K(s)
du =
x ds = 
c>0
u
2i ci
s
0

 c+i  s
1
1 (0 < x < ),
ds
=
=
x
s
0
(x > ).
2i ci
(8.2.2), , ,
(8.1.9).
8.3.
, (8.1.3).

k(xu)g(u) du,
(8.3.1)
f (x) =
0
g(u) =
h(uy)f (y) dy,
(8.3.2)
0

:
F(s) = G(1 s)K(s),
G(s) = F(1 s)H(s),

(8.3.3)
(8.3.4)

, F G,
K(s)H(1 s) = 1.

(8.3.5)

(8.3.2)
(8.3.1) g(u), h(x),

 c+i
 c+i
xs
1
1
s
H(s)x ds =
h(x) =
ds.
2i ci
2i ci K(1 s)
8.4. . , , .
(1)



+
s
1

+
1
2
4
( > 1),
K(s) = 2s 2 
s + 3
2
4

8.4]

235

k(x) =

x J (x),

; = 12 =
- - .
2 < < 1,
 
x

2
,
k(x) = x J (x)
( + 1)

1
2

, m 1 < < m,

 +2n

m (1)n x


2
k(x) = x J (x)
,
n! ( + n + 1)
n=0

m + 1 J (x).
(2) 1

k(x) = x Y (x),
, (7.9.7),
1
2s 2  s + 1   s 1  $ s 1  %

cos
.
K(s) =
+
+
+

2
4
2
4
2
4

(8.1.9), k(x)
. (8.3.5)


+s + 1
$
 %

1
2
4
H(s) = 2s 2 
tg s + + 1 .
2
4
s + 3
2
4

(7.9.13) ,
h(x) =

x H (x).

(3) ,
2 , k(x) h(x) .
.
1 > 0, 1 2 ,
,
= 1 1 2 + 1 ,
2

1
2

Titchmarsh (3).
Fox (1).

236

[. viii

 


s
s

1 +
2 
2
.
K(s) = 2s1 
s
s
2 +
1 +
2
2
,
 2 n

  
x
(1 + n)
4
x
k(x) =
=
2
(
+
n)(
+
n)
n!
1
2
n=0

  
x2 ,
= x
1 F2 1 ; 1 , 2 ;
2
4
,
. H(s) (8.3.5), h(x)
, ,
h(x) = h1 (x) + h2 (x),

h1 (x) =


sin(1 1 )  x 21 +1 
x2 ,
1 F2 1 1 + 1 ; 1 2 + 1 , 1 ;
4
sin(2 1 ) 2

h2 (x) h1 (x) 1 2 . p = 1.
K(s) - .
1 = 1, 1 = 32 , 2 = + 32 (2). 1 = 1, 1 = a + 1, 2 = + a + 1
, 1 2 .
1 = + 32 , 1 = + 1, 2 = 2 + 1

   

d 2  x 
,
h(x) = J x Y x
k(x) =
xJ
2
2
2
2 dx
3 . 1 = + a + 12 , 1 = + a + 1,
2 = 2 + a + 1 4 . 5.2
.

 
 


s
s
s
a +
a
a1 +
1
2   2 2   3 2
,
K(s) = 2s 2 
b1 + s b2 s b3 s
2
2
2
1
2
3
4

Hardy (13).
Cooke (1).
Bateman (1), (2).
Titchmarsh (6).

8.4]

237

a 1 + a2 + a 3 + 1 = b 1 + b 2 + b 3 ,
2
. ,
++1
1
,
a2 =
,
a3 = 1 ,
a1 =
2
2
2
+1
+1
b1 = 1,
,
b3 =
,
b2 =
2
2
k(x) h(x) , ,

 
 
   %
$

x
x
k(x) =
J
J x J x ,
x J
2 2
2
2
( + )
2 2 sin
2
 
   %

d $ x
J x + J x J x
.
h(x) =
x J
2
2
2
2
( ) dx
2 2 cos
2
(4)
%
$
k(x) = x Y (x) + 2 cos a K (x) ,

, (7.9.7) (7.9.11),
 


s+ + 1 s+ + 5
4
8  4
8

K(s) = 22s1 
1
a

s
7
a
s

+ +

4
8 2
4
8 2
 


s + 1 s + 5
4
8  4
8
.

s + 1 a s + 7 + a
4
8 2
4
8 2
h(x) .
. = 0, a = 1,


1
2 s
+

4 8
,
K(s) = 22s1 
2 3 s
8 4
(8.1.9),
%
$
2
k(x) = x Y0 (x) K0 (x)

(7.9.7), (7.9.11) . = 2, a = 0,


9
2 s
s3

+
4
8
2s1
4
8,


K(s) = 2
s+1
11
s
2

8
4 4 8

238

K(s)K(1 s) = 1,
k(x) = h(x) =

[. viii

%
$
x Y2 (x) + 2 K2 (x) .

.. 1 .
2 3 .
(5)
K(s) = e

2

ia s 12

H(s) = e

(a > 0),

2

ia s 12

c = 1 (8.1.10), ,
2
i

i ln2 x
4

1
e
2
iat
k(x) =
e cos(t ln x) dt =
e 4a
2 x
2 ax
h(x) . . ,
 i ln2 xu
 i ln2 uy

1
du
f (y)
4a

f (x) =
e
e 4a dy;
4a 0
uy
xu 0
, a = 1
2

x=e ,

u=e ,

y=e ,

g() = e

i 2 +
2

f (e ),



1
i
e
d
ei g() d.
g() =
2

, , 0 .
(6)
K(s) = e

3

a s 12

(a > 0),

k(x) . c = 1 (8.1.10) 2
(7.12.5) (7.12.6),
1
2
3

Hardy (17); . Hardy and Titchmarsh (8).


Steen (1).
Kuttner (1).

8.4]

239


1
k(x) =
cos(at3 + t ln x) dt =
x 0

"

2( ln x)3/2
2( ln x)3/2
ln x

J1/3
+ J1/3
(0 < x < 1),

3 3ax
3 3a
3 3a
=

3/2

ln
x
2(ln
x)

(x > 1).
K1/3
3 ax
3 3a
(7)
 i s 1  
2
= exp(iet )
K(s) = exp ie

(s =

1
2

+ it),

H(s) = exp(iet ).

1
k(x) =
2

exp(ie )x

1
it
2

1
2

x
=
2


ve

i i ln x
2

x 2
dt =
2

eiu ui ln x

0
1
2

du
=
u

dv
x
=
(i ln x),
v
2

h(x) 1 .
(8)
K(s) = 1,
(8.1.9) , (8.1.10) . , , (8.2.3) 0 < c < 1 k1 (x),


 c+i 1s
x
1
0 (0 < x < 1),
ds =
k1 (x) =
1
(x > 1).
2i ci 1 s
(8.1.5), (8.1.6)

1
f (y) dk1 (xy),
g(x) =
x 0

f (x) = 1
x

g(y) dk1 (xy),


0


 
 
g(x) = 1 f 1 ,
f (x) = 1 g 1 ,
x
x
x x
.
1

, , 16.

240

[. viii

(9) K(s) . ,
c = 1 ,
2


K 1 + it = i sgn t.
2
H, (8.3.5), K. (8.1.10) ,


 0

1
1
i
it
it

x dt
x dt =
sin(t ln x) dt =
,
2 x 0
x 0
x ln x

(C, 1).


g(y) dy
f (y) dy
1
1
,
g(x) =
.
f (x) =
0 xy ln xy
0 xy ln xy
x y e e , ,
.
(10)
K(s) = ctg s ,
2
(8.1.9) . (8.1.10)
, (9).
1
k(x) = 2
,
1 x2
.
(11) ,


K 1 + it = ei/t .
2
(8.1.9) ,




1
1
i/t it
1
k(x) =
t ln x dt.
e x dt =
cos
t
2 x
x 0
x = 1 (C, 1)

(2 ln x)
J1
(0 < x < 1),
x ln x

0
(x > 1).
x = 1, k(x) ,
k1 (x) , (8). ,

L2 -

8.5]

241

   1/x J (2 ln(xy) )


1
1

g(x) = f 1
f (y) dy.
x
x
xy ln(xy)
0

x = e ,

y = e ,

e/2 f (e ) = (),


() = ()

e/2 g(e ) = (),

J1 (2 + )

() d.
+

. 1


J1 (2 )
J1 (2 x + ) J1 (2 x + )

( < ).
dx =
x+

x+

(12) , , 2.9 , . , , 2.9

2 cos 2x,
4K0 (4 x) 2Y0 (4 x),

(1 s)
,
(s)

2 (1 s)
.
2 (s)

, ,
(8.1.9).
, k(x) a k(ax) x(1)/2 k(x )
.
8.5. L2 -.
: .
; , , .
K(s)
= 1 . (8.1.9)
2
 


1
1
+ it K
it = 1.
(8.5.1)
K
2
2


1
K + it = (t) (t)(t) = 1; ,
2
1

, 13.47 (10).

242

[. viii

,
.

 
 1 it
1
1
K
(8.5.2)
+ it x 2 dt.
k(x) =
2
2
,
. , k1 (x), (8.5.2) , ,
,


 T K 1 + it
1
it
x
2
x 2 dt.
(8.5.3)
l.i.m.
k1 (x) =
2 T T 1 it
2
, , K(s)
s, (8.5.1)
 

 1

(8.5.4)
K 2 + it  = 1.


K 1 + it
2

L2 (, ), (8.5.3) 1 it
2
k (x)
L2 (0, ).
, 1
x
, k(x), k1 (x). , , (8.2.2) . , x

k1 (xu)k1 (u) du2 = min(x, ).
(8.5.5)
u
0
, (8.5.5)
.
, (8.5.5) .
.


129. K 1 + it t,
2
(8.5.1) (8.5.4),


1
K
+ it
2
1 it
2
2
L (, ). k1 (x) ,
(8.5.3). f (x) L2 (0, )

8.6]

129, 130

243


d
du
g(x) =
k1 (xu)f (u)
(8.5.6)
dx 0
u
g(x),
L2 (0, );

du
d
k1 (xu)g(u)
f (x) =
(8.5.7)
dx 0
u
,


2
f (x) dx =
0

g 2 (x) dx.

(8.5.8)



130. K 1 + it
2
k1 (x)
2
129,
L (0, ), (8.5.5).
x
k (x)
131. k1 (x) , 1
L2 (0, )
x
(8.5.5) x .
129.
, 129 130 131.
.
1 .
f (x) g(x), (8.5.6), (8.5.7),
k-, (8.5.8)
k-.
8.6. 129, 1302 . f (s)
L2 (0, ) F(s)




,
 



 1
1
1
2
F + it L (, ). K + it  = 1, K + it F 1 it
2
2
2
2
L2 . g(x) .
3
 1 +i
 x
2
1
x1s
ds.
g(u) du =
K(s)F(1 s)
2i 12 i
1s
0
k (x)
K(s)
1

. , x
1s
,

 1 +i
2
K(s)
k1 (xy)
1
s
F(1 s)x ds =
f (y) dy.
2i 12 i 1 s
xy
0
1

Watson (2).
Busbridge (1).
3
72,
(2.1.23).
2

244

g(u) du =
0

[. viii

k1 (xy)
f (y) dy.
xy

, (8.5.6).
, k- g(x) f (x) K(s)F(1 s) ( = 12 ). k- g(x)
K(s)K(1 s)F(s) = F(s).
, k- g(x) f (x).
L2 , . ,
  

 
2
1

 1
2
1
g (x) dx =
K 2 + it F 2 it  dt =
2
0

  
2
1

 1
=
f 2 (x) dx,
F 2 + it  dt =
2
0
.. k-.
130
k (x)
. 1
x
K(s)

, ,
1s
K(s),
 1 +i

2
1
k1 (ax) k1 (bx)
K(s)as K(1 s)bs1
dx =
ds =
ax
bx
2i 12 i 1 s
s
0
 1 +i s s1
2
a b
1
ds.
=
2i 12 i (1 s)s
a > b, ; 1 . a < b, ,
a
, 1 . , b
, , a = b. .
8.7. 1311 . , f (x)

x.
1

Titchmarsh (15); . Plancherel (6).

8.7]

245

131

g1 (y) =
0

k1 (xy)
f (x) dx =
x

k1 (u)
u
f
du.
u
y

g1 (y), , ,



1
1

 u
k1 (u)f
k1 (xy)f  (x) dx,
du =
g(y) = g1 (y) = 2
y 0
y
y 0




dy
2

g (y) dy =
k1 (xy)f (x) dx
k1 (y)f  () d =
2
y
0
0
0

 0
k1 (xy)k1 (y)
=
f  (x) dx
f  () d
dy =
y2
0
0
0



=
f (x) dx
f  () min(x, ) d =
0
0







=
f (x)x dx
f () d +
f () d
f  (x) dx =
0
x
0


 

= 2
f (x)f  (x)x dx = xf 2 (x) +
f 2 (x) dx =
0
0
 0
=
f 2 (x) dx.
0

, , f (x)
.
f (x) L2 (0, ). ,
, fn (x), , f (x), ,


2
f (x) fn (x) dx = 0.
lim
n

gn (x) fn (x), g(x) f (x).






2
2
gm (x) gn (x) dx =
fm (x) fn (x) dx,
0

, m n . gn (x)
g(x).




2
2
2
g (x) dx = lim
gn (x) dx = lim
fn (x) dx =
f 2 (x) dx,
0

.. f (x) g(x) .
,

246

g(u) du = lim

[. viii

gn (u) du =


k1 (xy)
k1 (xy)
= lim
fn (x) dx =
f (x) dx,
n 0
x
x
0

d
k1 (xy)
g(y) =
f (x) dx,
dy 0
x

.. g(y) k- f (x).
(x) L2 (0, ) (x) k-.


g(x)(x) dx =
f (x)(x) dx.
0


(x) =


0

k1 (xy)
(x) dx =
x


d
(y) =
dy
,


0


0


0
uy

1 (x  u),
0 (x > u).

k1 (xy)
dx =
x

uy

k1 (x)
dx,
x

k1 (uy)
k1 (x)
dx =
.
x
y

k1 (ux)
g(x) dx =
x

f (x) dx,
0

(8.5.7).
8.8. 1311 . ,
, k1 (x) K(s), . , ,

 x
k1 (xu)
f (y) dy =
g(u) du,
(8.8.1)
u
0
0

 x
k1 (xu)
g(y) dy =
f (u) du
(8.8.2)
u
0
0

1 (x  ),
f (x) L2 (0, ). f (x) =
0 (x > ).
(8.8.2)
1

Busbridge (1).

8.9]

g(y) dy =
0

k1 (xu)
du =
u


0

247

k1 (v)
dv,
v

k1 (x)
.
x
(8.8.1),

k1 (xu)k1 (u)
du = min(x, ).
u2
0
g(x) =

k (u)
L2 (0, ).
, ( x = = 1), , 1
u
K(s)
k (x)

1 , 1s
x

 1 +i

2
min(a, b)
K(s)as K(1 s)bs1
k1 (ax) k1 (bx)
1
ds =
dx =
.
2i 12 i 1 s
s
ax
bx
ab
0
, ,
 1 +i s s1
2
a
b
min(a, b)
1
ds =
.
2i 12 i 1 s s
ab
( b = 1) ,
 1 +i
2
1
1 K(s)K(1 s) s
a ds = 0
2i 12 i
(1 s)s
a. ( L2 ) L, 32
, , ..
K(s)K(1 s) = 1.
8.9. . , 

(8.3.5).
1
, H
+ it K 1 + it
2
2
h1 (x) k1 (x)


.
x
x




K 1 + it
H 1 + it
2
2

. f (x) L2 (0, ) 1 it
1 it
2
2
:


d
d
h1 (xy)
k1 (xy)
f (y) dy, gk (x) =
f (y) dy.
gh (x) =
dx 0
y
dx 0
y

248

[. viii

k- gh (x) h- gk (x) f (x).




gh (x)gk (x) dx =
f 2 (x) dx
0




2
|gh (x)| dx < c
f 2 (x) dx,
0
0
|gk (x)|2 dx < c
f 2 (x) dx.
0

129 .
131



1
1
K + it H + it ,
2
2
gh (x)gk (x) = |gh (x)|2 . ,
, (8.3.5), 8.8,
, 129.
8.10. . k1 (x), . (8.1.5), (8.1.6)
1
.
,



1
+ it
132. : (I) K
2
k (x)
(8.5.1) (8.5.4), 1 , k1 (x)
x
(8.2.3) c = 12 , L2 (0, ), (II) k1 (x)
k1 (x)
k(x), (III)
.
x

 x
1
(y) dy,
(8.10.1)
f (x) =
x 0
(y) L2 (0, ).


f (x) =
k(xu) du
0

k(uy)f (y) dy
0

x.
.
&

 x
x
1
1
|(y)|2 dy
dy = o
|f (x)| 
x
x
0
0
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (8); . Morgan (2).

(8.10.2)

8.10]

249

x 0; ,
&

 x


1
1
1 X
|(y)| dy +
|(y)|2 dy
dy = o
|f (x)| 
x 0
x
x
X
0
x , , X, x.
(x) k- (x). (x) L2

 x
k1 (xu)
(y) dy =
(u) du.
u
0
0


(v)
g(u) =
dv.
(8.10.3)
v
u

 x

(y) dy =
k1 (xu)g  (u) du =
0
0





k(xu)g(u) du .
(8.10.4)
= lim k1 (xu)g(u) + x
0

&

|g(u)| 


|(v)|2 dv

dv
1
=o
2
v
u

u ; ,
&




 
 (v) 
1
dv


|(v)|2 dv
=o
|g(u)| 
 v dv +
2
v
u

0
u
u 0, , , u.
(8.10.4) ,


1 x
f (x) =
(y) dy =
k(xu)g(u) du.
(8.10.5)
x 0
0
, (8.10.3)

(v)(v) dv,
g(u) =
0

0 (v < u),
(v) =

1/v (v > u).

(v)(v) dv,
g(u) =
0

d
(v) =
dv


0

k1 (vt)
d
(t)
dt =
t
dv


u

k1 (vt)
dt =
t2

250

[. viii

 

k1 ()
k1 ()
d
k1 (uv)
v
.
=
d =
d
2
2
dv

uv
uv
uv
,



k1 ()
k1 (uv)
g(u) =
(v) dv
d

(v)
dv = g1 (u) g2 (u).
2
uv
0
uv
0
(8.10.6)

!
" 


k1 ()
k1 (uv)
 +
d
vf
(v)u
dv.
(8.10.7)
g1 (u) = vf (v)

2
u2 v 2
uv
0
0

, vf (v) = o( v), ,
k ()
1 L2 ,


1
k1 ()
d = o ,
2

v
uv
g(u).
" 
!

k1 (uv) 
k(uv)
k(uv)
g2 (u) = vf (v)
dv +

vf (v)
vf (v)
dv,

uv
v
uv 2
0
0
0
(8.10.8)
(uv)
k1
= O(1).
,
v
(8.10.6), (8.10.7) (8.10.8) ,

g(u) =
k(uv)f (v) dv.
(8.10.9)
0

(8.10.5) (8.10.9) .
8.11.
1 .

k(xy)l(y) dy
m(x) =
0

k(x) l(x).
, k(x) l(x) , m(x) .
, ,
 
m(xu)m(ut)f (t) du dt =
0
0
   
=
k(xuy)k(utz)l(y)l(z)f (t) du dt dy dz,
0
1

Hardy (20).

251

8.11]

k l , t = v , y = zw
z
 
 
 
l(z)l(zw) dz dw
k(xzwu)k(uv)f v du dv =
z
0
0
0
0
 
=
l(z)l(zw)f (wx) dz dw = f (x).
0


. K L k
l, m



s1
s1
m(x)x dx =
x dx
k(xy)l(y) dy =
M(s) =
0
0
0




s1
s
=
l(y) dy
k(xy)x dx =
l(y)y dy
k(u)us1 du =
0

= L(1 s)K(s).

M(s)M(1 s) = K(s)K(1 s)L(1 s)L(s) = 1,


. ,
.
L2 - .
133. k1 (x) l1 (x)  
k (x)
131, m1 1 l- 1 .
x
x

131.
m1 (x)
 
. m1 1
x
 x


1
l1 (xu) k1 (u)
m1
du =
du.
u
u
u
0
0
 
k (ax)
. , m1 a l- 1
x
x
l-,



a
b
m1 (ax)m1 (bx)
dx =
m1
m1
dx =
2
x
x
x
0
0

k1 (ax)k1 (bx)
dx = min(a, b),
=
x2
0
. 
0 (x < 1),
, , s1 (x) =

1 (x  1),
 
 
g(x) = 1 f 1 , f (x) = 1 g 1 .
x
x
x x

252

[. viii

s. k1 = l1 ,

 x

1
k1 (t)k1 (xt)
m1
dt = min(1, x),
dy =
y
t2
0
0
m1 s1 . l1 = s1 ,
 x

 x


1
1
k1 (t)
m1
dt =
k1
dy =
dt,
2
y
t
0
1/x t
0
m1 k1 . , k k s, k s k.
.
(1) k - l -,



x 1
1
1
,
,
m(x) = 2
m1 (x) = ln


1 x2
x+1
m-

f (t)
2
g(x) =
dt.
0 1 x2 t2
f ,


1
1
f (t)
1
g
=
dt,

x
x
x t
.. f (t).
k

k(xt)
2
m(x) =
dt,
0 1 t2
, k(x) ,

k(t)
1
dt.
m(x) =
0 xt
, , , .

x (x < 1),
(2) l1 (x) =
(8.5.5).
0 (x  1)
, k(x) ,

 1

1 x
k(xt) dl1 (t) =
k(xt) dt k(x) =
k(u) du k(x).
m(x) =
x 0
0
0

0
(x < 1),
, l1 (x) =
,
ln x 1 (x  1)

k(u)
du k(x)
u
x

253

k-

8.12]

.
 

(3) t J (t)
J 1 1 J21 (2 t).
t
t t

(4) 2 cos x 2 1 cos 1 ( 7.12)

x
x


2 K (2 x) Y (2x);
0
0


2
sin x 2 1 sin 1

x
x
2 K (2x) + Y (2x).
0
0

J
0 (2 x).

(5) J0 (2 x) cos x sin x, J0 (2 x) sin x


cos x. , 7.12.
(6) x = 1


x
0

2 sin x 2
tJ (xt)J (t) dt =

1 x2

(C, 1),

x = 1

cos
dt.

x J (x)

x J (x) m1 (x) x = 1.


2 sin
m1 (x) =

1
2

t
dt +
1 t2

0
(x < 1),
cos (x  1).


2 sin
g(x) =


0

+
cos
1
(xt) 2
f (t) dt +
f
2
2
1x t
x
x

2 cos x J (2x),
(7) m(x)
1/2

 
m(x) 1 m 1 ,
2x
2x



%
$ 
2x cos x J3/4 (x) + sin x J1/4 (x) .
8
8
1

, 13.61 (1), 7.12.

254

[. viii

8.12. k-. .
8.4, K(s) -. ,
3.
1341 . K(s) 1 < < 2 ,
1 < 0, 2 > 1, , ,
, K(s)
t , ,





1
1
K0 (s) + + O
,
K0 (s) + + O
,
s
|s|2
s
|s|2

K0 (s) = (s) cos s


2
cos x. K(s)
(8.1.9) k(x) K(s).
, f (y) L(0, ) y = x (x > 0),


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
k(xu) du
k(uy)f (y) dy =
.
(8.12.1)
2
0
0
K0 (s) 1 < < 2 ,
 0. t
,



1

a
1
2 i(t ln tt)
1+ +O 2 ,
e
K0 ( + it) = Ct
t
t
C a a ; K0 ( it)
.

(s) sin s ,
2

(s)

cos s
2 ,
1s

(s)

sin s
2
2s


sin x,
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (8).

sin x
,
x

sin x x cos x
x2

8.14]

k-

255






1
1
1
, K0 (s) + O
,
K0 (s) i sgn t + O
|s|2
s
|s|2




i sgn t
1
.
K0 (s)
+O
s
|s|2
K0 (s) ,
a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ,
K(s) = K(1) (s) + K(2) (s) + K(3) (s),

K(1) (s) = a1 (s) cos s + a2 (s) sin s ,


2
2
s
s
cos
sin
2 + a (s)
2
K(2) (s) = a3 (s)
4
1s
2s





K(3) (s) = O |K0 (s)s2 | = O |t|5/2
s . k (1) (x), . . . K(1) (s), . . . .
8.13.
. k(x) x.
. k (1) (x) k (2) (x),
 c+i
1
(3)
k (x) =
K(3) (s)xs ds.
2i ci
x  1, 
+ , 0 < < 12 , 1 + < 2 .
 c = 1 (3)
(3)
3/2
, k (x) , ,
K (s) O |s|
1
). 0 < x  1, c = , 1 < < 0.
O(x
 +i
1
(3)
k (x) =
K(3) (s)xs ds + ,
2i i

. ,
, , K(3) (s) =

= O |s|5/2 . , k(x) x.

256

8.14.
.

[. viii

k(xu)k(yu) du,

(, x, y) =

(8.14.1)

1/

> 1 x .
|| < B(x, )

(8.14.2)

y, |y x|  .
.

(, x, y) =
k(xu)k(yu) du =
1

 (1)


k (xu) + k (2) (xu) k (1) (yu) + k (2) (yu) + k (3) (yu) du +
=
1

k (3) (xu)k(yu) du.
+
1

, k (3) (xu) = O(u1 ), k(yu) .


, k (p) (xu)k (q) (yu), p,q .
1,1 , , . , 1,2 ,

 1/y

sin yu yu cos yu
sin yu yu cos yu
sin xu
du =
sin xu
du +
2
2
y u
y 2 u2
1
1


sin xu sin yu
sin xu cos yu
+
du
du.
2
2
y u
yu
1/y
1/y
cos x 0 < x < 1,
sin xx
x2

 1/y
(sin 1 cos 1)
sin xu du,
u1

0 < u1 < 1/y.


 u3
 u2
sin xu sin yu du,
sin xu cos yu du,
1/y

1/y

u2 > 1/y, u3 > 1/y. , ,


1,2 . , 1,2 .

8.15]

k-

257

2,1 2,2 . ,
2,2

 1/y 
sin xu sin yu
du =
+
=
xu
yu
1
1
1/y

 u2
sin xu
sin y u1 sin xu
du +
sin yu du,
=
y
xu
xu
1
1/y
.
1,3
 c+i

1
cos xu du
K(3) (s)(yu)s ds.
2i 1
ci
K(3) , c = 0
,


1
cos xu
(3)
it
K (it)y dt
du.
2
uit
1
t > O() = O(t), 0 < t <
O(t)

$ sin xu %
$ cos xu % it(it + 1)  cos xu
cos xu


du =
du,
 it 2 it+1 
it
it
u
xu
xu
x2
uit+2
t
t
t
t
O(t). K(3) (it) = O(|t|5/2 ) t,
.
,
, s = i C.
K(3) (s) = C(s i ) + K(4) (s),

k (3) (x) = Cxi ex + k (4) (x).

K(4) , K(3) ,

 
cos xu
i
yu cos xu
i
e
du
=
Cy
du = O(1)
Cy
ui
ui
1
1
, . , 1,3 . , 2,3 , .
8.15.
.

k(xu)

(, x, y) =
1/

k1 (yu)
du,
u

258


k1 (x) =
0

1
k(u) du =
2i

c+i

K(s)
ci

[. viii

x1s
ds.
1s

|| < B(x, ) > 1, x > 0 0 < x < y < z + , (, x, y)


()

0 (y < x),
1
(y = x),
2
1 (y > x).
. k(u) = O(1), k1 (u) = O(u) u, (1/, 1) .
k(x)
k(x) = k (1) (x) + k (5) (x),
k (1) , .


(1)
k1 (yu)
k (yu)
du =
du +
k(xu)
k (1) (xu) 1
u
u
1
1


(5)
(1)
k1 (yu)
k1 (yu)
(5)
+
k(xu)
k (xu)
du +
du.
u
u
1
1


a1 sin yu + a2 (1 cos yu)
(a1 cos xu + a2 sin xu)
du =
u
1


cos xu sin yu
cos xu cos(x + y)u
2
= a1
du + a1 a2
du +
u
u
1
1

sin xu(1 cos yu)
2
+ a2
du,
u
1
. , k(u)
(1)
k1 (u) ,


3
 1 + 

(5)
2
(1 + |t|)
u dt = O u 2
k (u) = O

( = 12 ), k1 (u), uk (3) (u), O(u ).


.
. ;
. , ,

(5)

k-

8.16]

259

k1 (u)k(xu)
du
u
0
x  , 0 < < 1, x = 1. , (x),

 x
k1 (u)[k1 (xu) k1 (u)]
(u) du =
du = min(x, 1)
u2

0
, ,

1 (x < 1),
(x) =
0 (x > 1).
x = 1,
 X
 X
 X 2
k1 (u)k(u)
k(u)k1 (u)
k1 (u)
k12 (X)
du,
du =

du +
u
X
u
u2
0
0
0
X ,
k 2 (X)
,
1
X
2
k (X)
, 1 2 L(0, ). ,
X

 2
k1 (u)k(u)
k1 (u)
2
du = 1.
du =
u
u2
0
0
8.16. ,
1 .
. f (t) L(a, b) (, t) L(a, b)
. (, t) (a, b),

(, t) dt 0

a  <  b.
 b
lim
f (t)(, t) dt = 0.

. , f (t)
(a, b).
 t
(, u) du = 1 (, t).
a

f (t)(, t) dt = f (b)1 (, b)
a
1

Hobson (1).

f  (t)1 (, t) dt.

260

[. viii

> 0
( > 0 (), a  t  b),

|1 (, t)| <


 b


 b





f (t)(, t) dt  |f (b)| +
|f (t)| dt

a

( > 0 ).

.
> 0
(t),
 b
|f (t) (t)| dt < .
a

(t), , , 0
,
 b




(t)(, t) dt <
( > 0 ).

a

, |(, t)|  M ,
 b
  b
  b


 
 


f (t)(, t) dt  
(t)(, t) dt + 
|f (t) (t)| (, t) dt 

a

 + M

( > 0 ).

.
8.17. 134.

k(uy)f (y) dy
0

1/  u  ,
k(xu) . ,



k(xu) du
k(uy)f (y) dy =
f (y)(, x, y) dy =
1/

=
0

0
x

+
x

x+

+
x

+
x+

= I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 + I 5 + I 6 .
,

|I1 |  B
|f (y)| dy < ,
0

= (), = (), > 2.


|I6 |  B

|f (y)| dy <

8.17]

134

,


(y) dy =

k(xu)

1/

261

k1 (u) k1 (u)
du = (, x, ) (, x, ).
u

< < x, x < < , , ,


. , ,
lim I2 = 0,

lim I5 = 0

, .
, f (y) (x , x + ).
f (y) f (x 0) = f1 (y) f2 (y),
f1 f2 , , y x0.



I3 = f (x 0) (, x, x) (, x, x ) +
 x
 x
+
f1 (y)(, x, y) dy
f2 (y)(, x, y) dy.
x

12 f (x 0).



(y) dy = f (x ) (, x, ) (, x, x ) ,
f1 (x )
x

x < < x, ,
( ), . .




1
 lim I3 2 f (x 0)  2.

I4 , ,


f (x + 0) + f (x 0)
k(xu) du
k(uy)f (y) dy =
.
lim
1/
2
0
u ,
u 0. , (8.12.1),
.
, K(s), , ,  12 ,
K, -,
.

262

[. viii

8.18. 1 .

, k(x) = x J (x). .
135. f (x) L(0, ) x,  12



f (x+0) + f (x0)

J (xu) xu du
J (uy) uy f (y) dy. (8.18.1)
=
2
0
0
. > 0 .
 x


J (xu) xu du
J (uy) uy f (y) dy =
0
0
 x


= x
y f (y) dy
J (xu)J (uy)u du =
0
0
 x xJ+1 (x)J (y) yJ+1 (y)J (x)
= x
y f (y) dy (8.18.2)
x2 y 2
0

 x
 x
y y f (y)
y f (y)
= O( )
J (y) 2
dy + O( )
J+1 (y) 2
dy
x y2
x y2
0
0
(8.18.3)
x .
 1/

 1/

y f (y)

J (y) 2
dy = O
(y) y |f (y)| dy =
x y2
0
0


 1/

 1/
1
+
1
1

2
y
|f (y)| dy = O
|f (y)| dy = o .
=O
0

0
y  1

1
A cos y + B sin y

+O
.
J (y) =
y
y y
O- (8.18.3)

 x
1
|f (y)|
O
dy =
y
1/

 x



 1/
1
1
1
|f (y)| dy + O
|f (y)| dy = o ,
=O
1/
0

, ,

 x
1
f (y)
1

(A cos y + B sin y) 2
dy = o .
x y2
1/

, . 14.

8.18]

263

(8.18.3) . , (8.18.2) .
,



J (xu) xu du
J (uy) uy f (y) dy,
0

x+

y . ,
(8.18.1) , , ,
y .
, f (y)
(x , x + ) .
y 1/2 f (y). (x, x + )
12

12

f (y) = x

f (x + 0) + 1 (y) 2 (y),

1 2 , .

 x+

J (xu) xu du
J (uy) uy f (y) dy =
0
x

 x+
$ 1
%

2
J (xu)u du
J (uy)y +1 x
f (x + 0) + 1 (y) 2 (y) dy.
= x
0



%
$



+1
+1
x f (x + 0)
du
J (xu) J+1 (x + )u (x + )
J+1 (xu)x
0


x f (x + 0) x 12 x = 12 f (x + 0),
(7.11.15).
 x+


J (xu)u du
J (uy)y +1 1 (y) dy =
x
0
x
 x+


+1
1 (y)y
dy
J (xu)J (yu)u du =
= x
x
0
 x+


+1
= x 1 (x + )
y
dy
J (xu)J (yu)u du =

= x 1 (x + )

%
$


J (xu) J+1 (x + )u (x + )+1 J+1 (u) +1 du,

x < < x + . x  x0  0, y  x0




2
J (xu)J+1 (yu) du = O(1) +
cos x
1
2
4
0
 



1 du = O(1)
sin y du +
O
2
4
xy u
u u
1

264

[. viii

. , 1 O().
, 2 .
, ,
, .
8.19. , . (7.4.6),
(7.11.6), (7.11.8)(7.11.15) (7.11.17) .
 


pq

x J (px)J (qx),
231 + 1

2
x

12




|p q| < x < p + q ,

[x2 (p q)2 ][(p + q)2 x2 ]

0
x.
(8.19.1)
1
1
1
(7.14.9) = 2 , = 2 , x = 1, y = sin2 .


1
12 J ( a2 + b2 )
+ 1
a
=
sin 2 J 1 (a sin )eib cos d. (8.19.2)

2
2 0
(a2 + b2 ) 2
+ 1

a = q sin , b = p q cos , sin 2 ,



J ( p2 + q 2 2pq cos )
sin2 d =

2
2
2
(p
+
q

2pq
cos
)
0
+ 12 
q
+ 1
=
sin 2 d
2 0

+ 1

sin 2 J 1 (q sin sin )ei cos (pq cos ) d =


+ 12

q
=

J (q)
q

+ 12

sin

eip cos d

+ 1

sin 2 J 1 (q sin sin )eiq cos cos d =


2

sin
0

+ 12

eip cos sin

12

 J (p)J (q)


d = 2 + 1
.
2
(pq)
(8.19.3)

,
p2 + q 2 2pq cos = .
1

. . , 11.41.

8.19]

265

x1 J (px)J (qx)J (ux) dx =


0

1
2
2

+ q)2 u2 ]} 2
{[u (p q) ][(p



=
231 + 12 (pqu)


|p q| < u < p + q ,

(8.19.4)


2 . , (7.11.12)
1

x++ 2 K (ax),

2+ a ( + + 1)

x+ 2
,
(a2 + x2 )++1

(8.19.5)



x++2+1 K (ax)K (bx) dx =

a b ( + + 1)( + + 1)

++2

=2

x2+1 dx
.
(a2 + x2 )++1 (b2 + x2 )++1
2

x = b tg 1 a2 ;
b



a = b =
1
2

1
K (ax)K (ax)x dx =
0

23  +   +     + + 

.
=

2
2
2
2
a ()
(8.19.6)
,

+ 21

x
+ 21
 x J (ax)K (ax),

(8.19.7)
x4 + 4a4
23 a2 + 12

(. (7.11.14))

J2 (ax)K2 (ax)x2+1 dx =
0

 
 


23
+ 1 2 + 1 3 + 1 .

2
2
2
a2+2 ( + 1)

(8.19.1), p = q,

p22
()(2)
4
14


.
J (px)x
dx =
2 2 + 12 (3)
0
1
2

. Titchmarsh (11).
, 13.46; Nicholson (1).

(8.19.8)

(8.19.9)

IX
,

9.1. . , -
- , .. f (x) ,
 
f (y) cos xy dy
(9.1.1)
f (x) = 2
0

 
f (x) = 2
f (y) sin xy dy.
0

(9.1.2)

(9.1.1)
1 ,
x

ex

2 /2

 1  .
ch x
2

(9.1.2)
1 ,
x

1
1 .
ex 2 1 x 2
,
, ..


f (x) =
f (y) xy J (xy) dy.
(9.1.3)

xex

2 /2

(9.1.1), (9.1.2), (9.1.3) Rc , Rs , R .


- , .. , (9.1.1), (9.1.2) (9.1.3)
. Rc , Rs , R .
,
, ( ) , L2 .
(9.1.1) .

9.1]

267

. g(x)
L2 , g(x) + Gc (x) L2 , , . , f (x), ,
f (x) + Fc (x)
f (x) + f (x)
=
.
2
2
, g(x) + Gc (x) .
, , , ,
( ), f (x) . , f (x) g + Gc ,
, ,
 
f (x) = g(x) + 2
g(y) cos xy dy.
(9.1.4)
0
11.15. ,
(9.1.1).
F(s) f (x). (9.1.1)


 
s1
2
F(s) =
x dx
f (y) cos xy dy =
0
0

 
2
=
f (y) dy
xs1 cos xy dx =
0
 0

= 2 (s) cos s
f (y)y s dy,

2 0
.. F(s)

F(s) = 2 (s) cos s F(1 s).

2
 
F(s) = 2s/2 s (s),
2
(s) = (1 s),
, ,
 c+i
 
1
f (x) =
2s/2 s (s)xs ds.
2
2i ci

(9.1.5)

(9.1.6)

(9.1.7)

, (9.1.7), (s) (9.1.6), .. 12 + s, Rc .

268

[. ix


f (x) = 2ex

(s) = 1,

2 /2

(9.1.2) , ,
(9.1.3). f (x) (9.1.3),


1/2
y f (y) dy
xs1/2 J (xy) dx =
F(s) =
0
0



+
s
1


+
2
4
s1/2


f (y)y s dy,
=2

s
3
0

+
2
4
..


+s + 1
2
4
F(1 s).
(9.1.8)
F(s) = 2s1/2 
s + 3
2
4


F(s) = 2s/2 + s + 1 (s),
2
4
(9.1.3)
 c+i


1
s/2
1

+
s
f (x) =
+
(s)xs ds,
2
(9.1.9)
2
4
2i ci
(s) (9.1.6).
9.2.


(s) =

es

2 x2 /2

f (x) dx.

(9.2.1)

(9.1.1)

 
s2 x2 /2
2
e
dx
f (y) cos xy dy =
(s) =
0
0

 y2
 
2
s2 x2 /2
2
1
f (y) dy
e
cos xy dx =
e 2s f (y) dy,
=
0
s
0
0
..
 
(9.2.2)
(s) = 1 1 .
s
s

(s) = 4 s ( s),
 
(s) = 1 .
(9.2.3)
s
(9.2.1)

su f ( 2u)

e
( s) =
du,
2u
0

9.3]

269

 c+i

f ( 2u)
1

esu ( s) ds,
=
2i ci
2u

 c+i
x
2
esx /2 (s)s1/4 ds.
(9.2.4)
f (x) =
2i ci
, (9.2.4), (s) (9.2.3), Rc .

23/4 1
f (x) =  1  .
x
4

(s) = 1,

(s) =

es

2 x2 /2

f (x)x+1/2 dx

(9.2.5)

. (9.1.3)



s2 x2 /2 +1/2
(s) =
e
x
dx
f (y) xy J (xy) dy =
0
 0

2 2
=
f (y) y dy
es x /2 x+1 J (xy) dx =
0

 
y2
1
y
2
2s
=
f (y) y 2+2 e
dy = 2+2 1 .
s
s
s
0
+1

(s) = s 2 ( s) (9.2.3),

x2
f (x) =
2i

c+i

+1
x2 s

e 2 (s)s 2

ds.

(9.2.6)

ci

9.3.
2
ex /2 , . , ,

 2

x J1/4 x .
2
, pee,

 
 2 2

(s) =
sx J1/4 s x f (x) dx = 1 1 ,
2
s
s
0
f (x) (s). 1 .
1

Mehrotra (3).

270

[. ix

9.4. L2 .
.
L2 - .
1361 . , f (x) L2 (0, ) - ,
, f (x) (9.1.7), c = 12 ,
,

 


1 it 
+
(9.4.1)
F 1 + it = 2 4 2 1 + it 1 + it
2
4
2
2

L2 (, ) (9.1.6), ..


1 + it t.
2
. L2 -
, f (x)
(9.1.6).
sin xy
L2 (0, ),
f (y)
y

1


 $
 % x 2 it
1 + it cos 1 + it
.
2
2
2 1 it
2

 
sin xy
2
f (y)
dy =
0
y
1
  
 
 $
 % x 2 it
2
= 1
dt.
F 1 it 1 + it cos 1 + it
2
2
2
2
2 1 it
2
,


 x 2 it
1
1
dt.
f (y) dy =
F
+ it
2
2
1 it
0
2
f ,
, L(, ), 


1
( 32). ,
+ it .
2


, 1 + it , , ,
2
, , f .
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (4). .

Lp

9.5]

271

9.5. Lp.
137. f (x) Lp (0, ), 1 < p < 2, -,
(9.1.7),
 
s/2
F(s) = 2 s (s)
2
, (I)


p
1 << 1
p =
,
(9.5.1)

p
p1
p
(II) s
(III) (9.1.5);
(9.1.7)
(9.5.1).
,
.
. f (x) Lp , 
Lp , f (x)

Lp Lp ,
Lq . , L2 , , 136.


F(s) s = 1 + it F 1 + it 2
2
136, ,
(9.5.1). ,

|f (x)|x1 dx 
0

p

|f | dx

1 
p

p1

1
p(1)

dx

|f | dx
p

p1 

p (1)

1
p

dx

.
, F(s) (9.5.1) .
, F(s)
  

f (x)x1 xit dx = F1 (s) + F2 (s) + F3 (s).


+
+
F(s) =
0

> 0
1 +   1 .
p
p


|F1 (s)| 

p

|f | dx
0

1 
p

p1

x
0

(9.5.2)

p(1)

dx

= O( )

272

[. ix

0, , |F1 (s)| <


s (9.5.2). , , |F3 (s)| < .
, F2 (s) 0 s
(9.5.2). , F 0 (9.5.2).
136 , F(s) (9.1.5)
s = 1 + it, , (9.5.1).
2
, F(s) , , (9.1.7).
136 c = 12 , ,
c, , 5.4.
9.6. ,
,
L2 , , , 136. ,
,
.
, f (x) Lp (0, ), 1 < p < 2,
x f (x) L2 (0, )
0 = 1 + 1 < < 1 1 = 0 .
p 2
p 2
, f (x) Lq (0, 1) q  2.
, p < q < 2. < 0 , 2q >
> 2 q,



|f |q dx 

q 
x2 |f |2 dx

2q
2q

2q
dx

< ,

f (x) Lq (0, ). , , f (x)


- ,

Lq . , f (x) Lp

L-, Lp Lp ,
.
, Lp Lp .

. , ,
h(x) = 2n

(n! 1  x  n! + 1, n = 2, 3, . . .)

h(x) = 0 x. h(x)
Lr
 rn

r, Lp , 2

9.7]

273


,
(n!)2 22n .
- h(x)
   n!+1


1
cos n!x ,
2
cos xy dy = 2 2 sin x
Hc (x) =
n

2 n!1
x
2n
 
x O 1 , Hc (x) x
Lr r > 1 Lp 1 < p < 2. , h(x) + Hc (x)
, Lr r > 1,
Lp .
138. , f (x) Lp (0, )
- , , (9.1, 7), F(s) (I), (II), (III) 137 (IV)
t, L2 (, ) , (9.5.1).
. (I) .
f (x) Lr p < r < p , ,
F(s) (IV).
,

1
1

+ it
2
2
f (x)x
x
dx,
F(s) =
0



1
< 0 , .. 1 < < 1 .
x
2
p
p
(II) . F(s) L2
s = c + it, (9.1.7) c , ,
c. f (x),
c.

1
1
1
it
c
2
F(c + it)x 2
dt
x f (x) =
2




c 1  < 0 , L2
2
c, f (x) Lp . , 136, f (x)
.
12



f (x) L , 
2

9.7. . , f (x) A(, a), 0 <  , a < 12 , (I)


x = rei , r > 0, || < , (II)
O(|x|a ) x O(|x|a1+ ) x, ||  < .

274

[. ix

139. , f (x) A(, a) - , , (9.1.7), (s)


(9.1.6)

a < < 1 a;

(9.7.1)

  a + |t| 
(s) = O e 4

(9.7.2)

, (9.7.1), , , c
(9.7.1).
. (I) . ,


f (x)xs1 dx

(9.7.3)

a < < 1 a, F(s)


(9.7.1). , f (x) L2 , 136 ,
F(s) (9.1.5) = 1 , ,
2
(9.7.1), , , (s)
(9.1.6). , f (x) 31, =
b = 1 a.
F(s) 2s/2
  ,
(s) =
s
2

1
  
|t|  
2



 s 
,
 2  Ce 4  2t 

, (s) .
(II) , 31 136,
, .
9.8. .
; f (x) L-
A(, a)-.
140. f (x)
; , ,
 
f (y) cos xy dy
(9.8.1)
Fc (x) = 2
0
x, , ,

f (x)xs1 dx
F(s) =
0

(9.8.2)

9.8]

275





 1  < , > 0. ,
2
x Fc (x) = f (x),



, F(s) (9.1.5)  1  < .
2
. 1 < < 1 + ,
2
2
 x
g(x) =
f () 1 d.
1

g(x) . <
 X
 X
s1
f (x)x dx =
g  (x)xs dx =
1

(s )
g(x)xs1 dx =
1

 X
1
x
dx = O(|t|)
= O(1) + O |s|

= g(X)X

X. ,


f (x)xs1 dx = O(|t|)
1/X

> 1 . ,
2
 X
f (x)xs1 dx = O(|t|)
1/X





,  1  < .
2
,
1
2i

1
+i
2

x3s
ds =
1
(s 1)(s 2)(s 3)
i
2
 s
x

 1 +i
3
2
1
x

=
f () d
ds =
1
2i 0

i (s 1)(s 2)(s 3)
2

1 x
=
f ()(x )2 d,
2 0

1
2i

F(s)

1
+i
2
1
i
2

(s) cos s
2
F(1 s)x3s ds =
(s 1)(s 2)(s 3)

276

1
=
2i

[. ix

1
+i
2

(s 3) cos s F(1 s)x3s ds =


2
1
i
2
 1 +i

2
x3
f () d
(s 3) cos s (x)s ds =
=
2
1
2i 0
i
2
 5 +i

2
1
f ()
d
(s) sin s (x)s ds =
=
3
2
2i 0

52 i

sin x x
f ()
d.
=
3
0

, F(s) (9.1.5),

 
1 x
x sin x
2
f ()(x ) d = 2
f ()
d.
0
2 0
3
, 118, (9.8.1)
 x  u
 
1 cos x
du
Fc (v) dv = 2
f ()
d.

2
0
0
0
,
(0, x) ;
 x   u

1 x
2
f ()(x ) d =
d
du
Fc (v) dv.
2 0
0
0
0
, , f (x) = Fc (x) x.
, f (x) = Fc (x) x, ,

 1 +i F(s) 2 (s) cos s F(1 s)
2
1

2
xs ds = 0
2i 12 i
(s 1)(s 2)(s 3)
x. L, ( 32).
F(s) (9.1.5) = 12 , , .
, f (x), 32, (9.1.7) (C, 1).

9.9. . ( f (x) = 1/ x)
(9.8.2) s,
, (9.1.5),
F+ (s), F (s).
, .

9.9]

277

141. (w) a1  v  a2 ,
(u + iv) L(, ) ( L2 (, )) u
v . , ,
(w) b1  v  b2 , b2 < a1 ,
x
 ib+
 ia+
ixw
e
(w) dw +
eixw (w) dw = 0,
(9.9.1)
ia

ib

a1 < a < a2 , b1 < b < b2 . b1 < v < a2 ,


, u
.
. ,
L. (9.9.1) eix , = + i, a < < a2 ,
x 0 . ,

 ib+
 ia+
(w)
(w)
(9.9.2)
dw +
dw = 0 (a < < a2 ).
ia w
ib w
, ,
v = a2 .
 ia2 +
 ib+
(w)
(w)
dw +
dw = 2i () (a < < a2 ). (9.9.3)
ia2 w
ib w
b < < a2 . 2i() .
, (9.9.1) eix , b1 < < b, x
0, (9.9.2) b1 < < b. , , = b1 ,
 ia+
 ib1 +
(w)
(w)
dw +
dw = 2i () (b1 < < b). (9.9.4)
ia w
ib1 w
2i()
b1 < < a.
b < < a, ,
(9.9.3) (9.9.4) .
() = ()
.
,






ia2 +

ia2



(w)
dw 
w

278

[. ix

 U 

 U
1
1
|(u + ia2 )| du +

+
|(u + ia2 )| du,
|a2 |
|U | U
U
, , U , .
(9.9.3). , () 0 .
, L2 , (9.9.2)
(9.9.1) , , ;

 ia2 +
 & U
 U


(w)
du



|(u + ia2 )|2 du +


dw 

2
ia2 w
|w |

&

 U

1
du
+

|(u + ia2 )|2 du +


|(u + ia2 )| du,
2
|U | U
U |w |
U
U , .
9.10. .
142. f (x)
x ,
 
f (x) = 2
f (y) cos xy dy
(9.10.1)
0
x.

 +i
 +i
1
1
s
F+ (s)x ds +
F (s)xs ds
(9.10.2)
f (x) =
2i i
2i i
( < 0, < 1),
(C, 1). F (s)
< 0, F+ (s) > 1,


2
s

F+ (s)
F (1 s)(s) cos
,

2

(9.10.3)

2
s

F (s)
F (1 s)(s) cos
+
2
0   1, , ,
s = 0, .
.
 x
 x
f (u) du,
f2 (x) =
f1 (u) du
f1 (x) =
0

9.10]

279

.. , 113, (9.10.1)
 
1 cos xy
f (y)
dy.
(9.10.4)
f2 (x) = 2
0
y2


F (s) =

f (x)x

s1

dx,

f (x)xs1 dx.

F+ (s) =
0

, , , < 0 > 1.
, (C, 1)- 24 ,
(9.10.2).
 1 +i
2
x2s
1
F (s)
ds
(x) =
2i 21 i
(s 1)(s 2)
 1 +i 
2
x2s
1
2
s
F (1 s)(s) cos
ds +

+
2 (s 1)(s 2)
2i 12 i
 3 +i
2
x2s
1
F+ (s)
ds
+
2i 32 i
(s 1)(s 2)
 3 +i 
2
1
x2s
2
s
F (1 s)(s) cos
ds =


2 (s 1)(s 2)
2i 32 i
= 1 (x) + 2 (x) + 3 (x) + 4 (x).
, , F (s), F+ (s), .
 1s
x
 1 +i

2
x
y
f (y) dy
1 (x) =
ds =
1
2i 1
(s

1)(s
2)
2 i
 x

f (y)(x y) dy (x > 1),


=
1

0
(x < 1),
 1s
x
 3 +i
 1
2
x
y
3 (x) =
f (y) dy
ds =
3
2i 0
i (s 1)(s 2)
2
 1

yf (y) dy
(x > 1),

0
=
 x
 1

yf (y) dy x
f (y) dy (x < 1),

280

f (y)(x y) dy x

1 (x) + 3 (x) =
0

[. ix

f (y) dy
0

x > 0. ,
 1 +i
 1

2
x2
2
f (y) dy
(s 2) cos s (xy)s ds =
2 (x) =
2i 0
2
21 i
x2 y 2
  1
cos xy 1
2 dy,
= 2
f (y)
0
y2
 3 +i


2
x2
2
4 (x) =
f (y) dy
(s 2) cos s (xy)s ds =
2i 1
2
3
i
2



cos xy 1
f (y)
dy.
= 2
1
y2

 
1 cos xy
(x) = f2 (x) 2
f (y)
dy + ax + bx2 ,
0
y2
a b . , (9.10.4),
 1 +i 

2
F (s) 2 F+ (1 s)(s) cos s +

2
1
2 i

s1
x2s
+ a + 2b
ds +
s
(s 1)(s 2)
 3 +i 

2
F+ (s) 2 F (1 s)(s) cos s
+

2
3
i
2

s1
x2s
a 2b
ds = 0
s
(s 1)(s 2)
x. 141.
, f (x)
, (9.10.1) x. , s 3.
9.11. . , 9.2. , ,

9.11]

281

. , f (x)
A (, a), 0 <  , 0 < a < 1 , (I) f (x)
4
2
x = rei , A , r > 0,
 a 1 + 
 a 1 
2
x O |x| 2

|| < , (II) f (x) O |x|


x,
||  < .
143. , f (x) A (, a)
- , , (9.2.4), c
, , .. (c iT, c + iT ), (s)
:
(I) (s) = (ei ) s,
B(, a), > 0, || < + 2;
 a 
 a +  2
(II) (s) O |s| 2
s O |s| 2
s,
||  +
2
+ 2 < + 2;
2
(III) (s) B(, a) (9.2.3).
.
31. , ,
(9.2.3) , f (x) .
(9.2.4),
 c+i x2 s/2
 c+i
e
1
1
1
2
1/4
(s)s
f1 (x) =
ds =
ex s/2 (s)s5/4 ds,
2i ci
s
2i ci
,
, . .
 c+i 2 y2

sin xy
x s
4s s3/2 ds,
e
=
y
4i ci

 c+i


y2

sin xy

x2 s 3/2
dy =
f (y)
e s
ds
f (y)e 4s dy =
y
4i
0
ci
0
 c+i



2
=
ds =
ex s s3/2 1
4i ci
2s
 c+i
 
2
2
=
ex s/2 s5/4 1 ds,
s
4i ci

282

[. ix

. ,
!

"
 c+i
 
1
sin xy
1
x2 s/2 5/4
2
(s)
f1 (x)
f (y)
e
s
dy =
ds,
0
y
2i ci
s
(9.2.3) , .
9.12. .
2
(1) (9.1.7) (9.1.9) (s) = 1, f (x) = 2ex /2
2
- f (x) = 2(32)/4 x+1/2 ex /2
. 139 ( a fortiori )
.


(s) = P 1 s , P (u)
2
, 1, ,

 2 n

1 
1
f (x) = 2
x
P 2n +
2
2
n!
n=0

- . P (u) 2
, f (x) = ex /2 Q(x2 ), Q(u) .
()
(2) Tn (x) 1
Tn() (x) =

n

k=0

(1)nk xk
.
k! (n k)! (k + + 1)

f (x) = ex/2 x Tn() (x),

(s) =

esx f (x) dx =

=
=

n

k=0
n

k=0

(1)nk
k! (n k)! (k + + 1)

e(s+1/2)x xk+ dx =

1
n
s
1
1
(1)nk
2
=
.




k! (n k)! s + 1 k++1
n! 1 + s n++1
2
2


L()
n (x) =

n

(n + + 1)
k=0

(x)k
(k + + 1) k! (n k)!

. E.G.A.

( > 1),

9.12]

g(x) = ex


(s) = s

(+1)/2

ex

2 s/2

(+1)/2

s/2

e
0

2 /2

283

x+1/2 Tn() (x2 ),

x+1/2 g(x) dx =

1 1 s
n
2  1/2
1/2
s +s
f () d =
.
n!
1+s

 
(s) = (1)n 1 ,
s
g(x) R , n.1
Dn (x) n

2n
2
Tn(1/2) (x2 ) =
ex /2 D2n (x 2)
(2n)!

2n+1/2
2
ex /2 D2n+1 (x 2).
(2n + 1)!

, D2n (x 2) Rc , D2n+1 (x 2) Rs , , n. ( 3.8). , ,

H2n+1 (x) = (2n + 1)! xTn(1/2) (x2 ).


H2n (x) = (2n)! Tn(1/2) (x2 ),
= 1
2

 c+i
1
sx 2
e f (x) dx =
(w)(s w) dw =
2i ci
0



1 w n 1 s+w n
 c+i
1
2
2
=

n+3/2 
n+3/2 dw.
2
2i (n!) ci 1
1
+w
+sw
2
2
(s) w = w + 1 ,
2
2
$
%
1 s w2 n
 c +i
1
2
(s) =
dw .

$
%
2
2i (n!) c i
1 + s 2 w2 n+3/2
2
xTn(1/2) (x2 ) =

A. Milne (1), B.M. Wilson (1).

284

[. ix


s 1 w = w , ,
s
s
 
1 = s2 (s).
s


2
2
1 (s) = s
x1/2 D2n+1
(x) ex s/2 x3/2 dx,
0

[(2n + 1)!]2
s(s),
22n+1
(s) (9.2.3). 1 ,
1 (s) =

2
x1/2 D2n+1
(x)

R1 .
( ) n

2
ex /4 txt2 /2 n1
e
t
dt.
Dn (x) =
(n) 0
,




n+s
(s)

2
2
xs1 ex /4 Dn (x) dx = (n+s)/2+1
.
2
(n)

9.1 , 2
x+1/2 ex
R .
(3) f (x) =

2 /4

D23 (x),

x1/2 ex

2 /4

D2 (x)

 1  , ,
ch x
2
 s/2
F(s) = 2 2
(s)L(s),

L(s) =


(1)k
(2k + 1)s
k=0

(9.12.1)

F(s) (9.1.5) L(s) ( 2.11). 139.

1
1
,
f (x) =
ex 2 1 x 2
1
2

Mitra (1), Watson (4).


Varma (1).

9.12]

285

, F(s) = (2)s/2 (s)(s). = 1


2
9.1,
 
s (s)

1
(s)
2
(s) =
=
,
s/2
2

s(s 1)
(s) - . 139
- .
, L- , . , ,
 
x
ch
1
2

,
  
ch(x )
2 ch x 2 + 1
3
Rc ;


1
1
k
L1 (s) =
,
(1)
+
s
s
(4k
+
1)
(4k
+
3)
k=0



1
1
L2 (s) =
.

s
s
(3k
+
1)
(3k
+
2)
k=0
,

 
x
sh
2

,
ch(x )

  
sh x
6
  
2 ch x 2 1
3
Rs ;


1
1
k
L3 (s) =
,
(1)

s
s
(4k
+
1)
(4k
+
3)
k=0


1
1
k
L4 (s) =
.
(1)

(6k + 1)s (6k + 5)s


k=0
(4) (7.1.8), (7.1.9),

 2
f (x) = cos x
2
8
- . L-, 140.
(9.8.2) 0 < < 2,


 
F(s) = 2s/21 s cos s 1
2
2 4
(9.1.5).

286

[. ix

(5) f (x) = 1 -x
142.
1
1
,
F (s) =
,
F+ (s) =
1
s
s 1
2
2



1 2 (s) cos s

2 ;
2
s
F (1 s)(s) cos
=
F+ (s)

2
1
s
2
s = 0
> 0.


 

2(1a)/2 1 a
2a/2 a
2
2
+
(0 < a < 1).
f (x) =
xa
x1a
(6) (7.5.6) (7.5.7) ,
2
2
cos x + sin x
2   2
ch x
2

Rc , (7.5.10)
2

sin x
 2 
sh x
2
Rs . 139 143, (s) (s)
.
(7)
 2

f (x) = x J/2 x ,
2

 
,

(s) =
2(2+3)/4 5 + + s 7 + s
8
4
8
4
(s) = (1 s). 140, f (x)
. , f (x)
x+1/2 x x1/2 x L2 , Lp p  2.
= 1
2
 
 2
 2

y
2
cos xy dy = x J1/4 x .
y J1/4
0
2
2

9.12]

287

x,
 
 2
 2
y
2
cos xy dy = x5/2 J1/4 x .
y 5/2 J1/4
0
2
2
, (C, 1),
. ,
, 1 .
(8) b > 0

0
(0 < x < b),

f (x) =
1/2
2
2 (1)/4
2
2
(x b )
J(1)/2 (b x b )
(x > b).
x
, (7.11.6),


F(s) =
xs1/2 (x2 b2 )(1)/4 J(1)/2 (b x2 b2 ) dx =
b

s/2
=b
(1 + u2 )(2s23)/4 u(+1)/2 J(1)/2 (b2 u) du =
0
(1)/2

K(12s)/4 (b2 )
,

2(22s1)/4 3 + s
4
2
K (x) , , F(s) (9.1.8).
 +1 

1 
f (x) O (xb) 2 x = b O x 2
=

;
L2 , > 0, Lp Lp ,




> 1 2 . 1 <  0 140.
p
(9)


x+1/2
a x 2 + a2
(a > 0)
f (x) = 2
K
(+1)/2
2
(+1)/4
(x + a )
2


K (a y 2 + a2 ) +1
y J (xy) dy =
(y 2 + a2 )/2
0
2

1


x
x + a2
K1 a x2 + a2
=
a
a
R . 3
1

Mehrotra (8).
, 13.47 (2). [. .. , , 2- .,
. 151, (31).]
3
, 13.47 (6). [. .. , , 2- .,
. 151, (34).]
2

288

[. ix

2
K (a x2 + a2 ) 2+1
x
dx
=
( + 1)K1 (a2 )
(x2 + a2 )/2
a

 (+1)/2
(s) = 25/4 2
K(2s1)/4 (a2 ).
a

9.13. .
1 .
r(n) n
,

P (x) =
r(n) x,
(9.13.1)
0nx

, x
12 .

 2

1
x
f (x) = P
1
(9.13.2)
2
x x
R2 .

, , f (x) = O( x) x 0.
,
, P (x) = O( x) x ,

2
3

, P (x) = O( x). f (x) = O(x5/6 )


x . , f (x) L2 Lp Lp
p > 65 .


F(s) =
0

x2
P
2

2s3 


5
4
 2s7
(2)
s
P (x) 1 x 4 dx,
1 x 2 dx =
2
0

, F(s) 12 < < 56 .



2s7
2s7
  
  

4
+
r(n) x x
dx =
r(n) x x 4 dx,
s
1
0
1
+
1nx
1nx
2 4
F(s)
< 12 , F(s) s = 12 .
< 12 ,

2s7

(x)x 4 dx =
s+1
1
2 4
1
2

. Hardy (17), Hardy and Titchmarsh (4), 212213.


L a n d a u, Vorlesungen u
ber Zahlentheorie, Bd. 2, S. 204208.

9.13]

289


1

2s7
r(n) x 4

dx =

1nx



k=1

k+1 

 2s7
r(1) + . . . + r(k) x 4 dx =




 (k + 1)

2s3
4

k
r(1) + . . . + r(k)
=
s3
k=1
 2 4

2s3
Z 3s
1 
4 2
4
=
r(k)k
=
,
s3
3s
2 4 k=1
4 2

Z(s) =


r(n)
n=1

ns

2s3
4

= 4(s)L(s),

L(s) (9.12.1).


3s
2s3 Z
1
4 2
F(s) = (2) 4
.
3
2
s
4 2

(s)
Z(s),
Z(1 s) = 12s
(1 s)
(s) L(s) (.
. 76 78), 1 .
F(s) (9.1.8) = 2, , , f (x) R2 .
136 J2 - , (9.1.3), = 2, . ,
..
 2


 2

y
1
1
P
1 =
1 J2 (y) y dy (9.13.3)
P
2
y y
2

0
. 58 J2 -. ,
,
8.18.



J (xu) xu du
J (uy) uy f (y) dy
0

. f (x) L2 ,
, 1

., , Mordell (2), Potter (1).

290

[. ix

,
. ,
8.18.

(9.13.3) y = t , = 2x,



 2

2
t
t
J
J2 (t)
1
P (x) 1
(t)
2
P
P
=
1
dt =
dt .
2
2
2x
4 x
t
4 x
t
2
0
0

t
J2 (t)

P
dt =
2
4 x
t
0


N  2 (n+1)x 

t2 J2 (t)
dt =
r(0) + . . . + r(n)
=

4x
t
2
nx
n=0



N


 J1 (2 nx) J1 (2 (n + 1)x)


r(0) + . . . + r(n)

2
nx
2
(n
+
1)x
n=0
 2(N +1)x
1
tJ2 (t) dt =

4x 0


N

 J1 (2 (N + 1)x)
J1 (2 nx) 

r(n)
=
r(0) + . . . + r(N )
2 nx
2 (N + 1)x
n=0




 

1

J1 (t) dt + o(1)
2 (N + 1)x J1 2 (N + 1)x + 2
4x
0
 

N x. , J1 2 (N + 1)x ,





 J1 (2 (N + 1)x)

= O N 1/4 ,
r(0) + . . . + r(N ) (N + 1)
2 (N + 1)x


J1 (t) dt = 1, 1
2

(N +1)x

P (x) =


r(n)
J1 (2 nx).
x
n
n=1

(9.13.4)

2 3 , rp (n) n p ,
1
2
3

. Hardy and Landau (1), Hardy (15).


Walsz (1), (2).
Oppenheim (1).

9.14]

Pp (x) =

291



(x)p/2
,
rp (n) 
p

1
+
0nx
2

Pp (x) = xp/4


rp (n)
n=1

np/4

Jp/2 (2 nx),

. ,
 2


x
(1+p)/2

Pp
1
x
2
R1+p/2 . p = 3 ,
 43 
P3 (x) = O x 58 + , , f (x) 136.
p.
p = 1, ,
"


!
1 x
x

,
f (x) =
x
2
2
[u] u, R3/2 , .
9.14. , ,
1 .
:
1. f (x) - (-)
,


g(x) =

ext f (t) dt

(9.14.1)

- (-) .
, , f (x) ,

 
 
2
2
g(t) sin xt dt =
sin xt dt
ety f (y) dy =
0
0
0

 
 
x
ty
2
=
f (y) dy
e sin xt dt = 2
f (y) 2
dy.
0

x + y2
0
0

2 2 x 2 - exy , f (y)
x +y
-.
1

Phillips (1), Hardy and Titchmarsh (6), Mehrotra (1), (6).

292

[. ix

-

 
x
2
f (y) 2
dy =
exy f (y) dy = g(x),
0
x + y2
0
.
 
1



, g(x) = 2
f (t) =
f (t) sin xt dt
0

ch t
2
. 1 .
2. f (x) R
 c+i
 


1
+s
s
1
1

+
s

(s)xs ds, (9.14.2)


k(x) =
2
+
+
4
2
4
2
2i ci

(s) = (1 s),


g(x) =

(9.14.3)

f (y)k(xy) dy

(9.14.4)

R .
, f (x)
 c+i


1
+s
(s)xs ds,
2s/2 1 +
f (x) =
4
2
2i ci

(9.14.5)

(s) = (1 s). (2.1.22),


 c+i


1
s
(1 s)
2(1s)/2 3 +
g(x) =
4
2
2i ci
 


+s
2s 1 +
1 + + s (s)xs ds =
4
2
4
2
 c+i


1
2s/2 1 + + s 1 (s)xs ds,
=
4
2
2i ci

1 (s) =

 


s
+s
2 3 +
1+
(1 s)(s).
4
2
4
2


1 (s) = 1 (1 s),
g(x) , (9.14.5), . 2.

9.14]

293

, , R R , .
= 12 , = 12 , , ,
Rc Rs ( ):

2 c+i
(s)(s)xs ds,
k(x) =
2i ci
1 (s) (9.14.3). (s) =
2
1.

 

1
3
1
 
,
,
  
s 1 2 s ,
(s) = 
3
3
4
2 1+s 1 s
s 1s
2
2
2
2
, ,
 
k(x) = J0 (x), xJ0 (x), ex/2 x1/6 K1/6 x .
2
(s) = 2
k(x) =

+3
2
,

++1
x 2 K

(x);
2

, K0 (x) Rc .

1
2 2

 
,
(s) = 
+s
s
3
1
+

4
2
4
2

k(x) =

+1
x 2 J

+ (x);
2

2 2
 
,
(s) = 
1 + +s 3 + s
4
2
4
2

k(x) = x

+1
2
J

+ (x).
2

, , ,
, 1.

294

[. ix

9.15. ,
. , , 1,



f (t)
xy
yt
e
dy
e f (t) dt =
dt
(9.15.1)
g(x) =
x+t
0
0
0
, Rc (Rs ), f (x) Rc (Rs ).
.


 
y
1
dy,
(9.15.2)
f (y)k
g(x) =
x 0
x
k(u) = 1 . 1+u
.
3. f (x) R ,
 c+i 
 

1
+s
3
1

(s)xs ds,
k(x) =

(9.15.3)
+
+
4
2
4
2
2i ci
(s) = (1 s), (9.15.2) R .
, f (x) (9.14.5), (2.1.17)
 c+i


1
s/2

+
s
1
+
1 (s)xs ds,
2
g(x) =
4
2
2i ci

 


+s
s
3
1
1 (s) =
+

+
(s)(1 s).
4
2
4
2
, .
, = , (9.15.3)
 c+i
1
k(x) =
1 (s)xs ds,
2i ci
1 (s) = 1 (1 s),
 
(9.15.4)
k 1 = xk(x).
x

4. f (x) R , k(x)
(9.15.4), g(x), (9.15.2), R .
, .

1
k(x) =
(1 + x )1/
, ,

9.15]

k(x) =

295

x(1)/2
.
(1 + x )

f (x) = ex /2 x+1/2 , R , = 2,
= 1 , ,

 +1/2 

2
y
y 2 1
1
g(x) =
ey /2 y +1/2
dy =
1+ 2
x 0
x
x

2
+1/2 x2 /2
=x
e
et /2 t21 dt
2

( x + y = t ) R . 1 ,

2
x2 /2
e
et /2 dt
2

Rs .
2
f (x) = ex /2 x+1/2 , 4 R :

2 2
+1/2
g(x) = x
ex y /2 y +1/2 h(y) dy,
0

 
h(y) = h 1 .
y
= 12 , = 12
5. f (x) Rc ,

1 c+i (s) s
k(x) =
x ds,
2i ci sin s
2
(s) = (1 s),

 
y
1
g(x) =
dy
f (y)k
x 0
x
Rs .
, (s) = 1,


f (y)
1

g(x)
=
x
dy.
k(x) =
1 + x2
x2 + y 2
0

 
 ,
(s) = 
1+s 1 s
2
2

 x
1
(0 < x < 1),
f (y)
2
1

x

k(x) =
dy .

g(x) =
x2 y 2
0
0
(x > 1)
1

Hardy (1).

296

[. ix

, , Rs Rc .
9.16. .

1 . , 2.

.
144. f (x) k(x) L2 (0, ),
f (x) R .

f (y)k(xy) dy
(9.16.1)
g(x) =
0

L (0, ). , g(x)
R , , K(s) k(x)
 


+s
s
1

+
s
1
+

+
(s),
(9.16.2)
K(s) = 2
4
2
4
2
2

 (s) = (1 s),
 (9.16.2)
L2 12 i, 12 + i .
. 72, g(x) k(xy),
 1 +i

2
1
f (y)k(xy) dy =
F(s)K(1 s)y s1 ds.
1
2i
0
i
2

g(x)
G(s) = F(1 s)K(s).
136 R ,


+s
s/2
1
+
(s),
F(s) = 2
4
2
(s) = (1 s). g(x) R ,


G(s) = 2s/2 1 + + s (s),
4
2
(s) = (1 s).



2s/2 1 + + s (s)
2 
4
K(s) =
,
s
3
(1s)/2
+
(1 s)
2

4
2

.. K(s) (9.16.2)
1

., , Mehrotra (1).

9.17]

(s) =

297


 
 (s)
+s
s
2 1 +
3+
,
4
2
4
2
(1 s)

(s) = (1 s). (9.16.2)


. ,
, .
9.17.

!
"


x
1 x

,
f (x) =
x
2
2
R3/2 . k(x) , Rc R . , 3,
 c+i

  
1
s
1
s

+
s

(s)xs ds,
k(x) =
2
+
2
4
2
2i ci


 

1 c+i s 

1
s

+
s

(s)xs ds
2 1+
+
xk (x) =
2
4
2
i ci
, R3/2 R .

 n2



y

n + 1 k  (xy) dy =
f (y) xy k (xy) dy =
x
g(x) =

2
0
(n1) 2
n=1

 n2


n 2
y
1

n + 1 k(xy)
=

k(xy) dy =

2
2 (n1)2
(n1) 2
n=1


1
=
k(nx 2)
k(u) du
2
x
0
n=1
R .
.
 c+i
1
K(s)xs ds
(c > 0).
k(x) =
2i ci

1
k(nx 2) =
2i
n=1

c +i

K(s)
c i

c +i

(nx 2)s ds

(c > 1),

n=1

1
K(s)(2)s/2 (s)xs ds =
2i c i
 c+i
1
K(1)
=
K(s)(2)s/2 (s)xs ds +
.
2i ci
2 x
=

298

 c+i
1
K(s)(2)s/2 (s)xs ds.
g(x) =
2i ci
k(x) Rc R , , 3,

  
K(s) = 2s s 1 + + s (s),
2
4
2
(s) = (1 s).


G(s) = K(s)(2)s/2 (s) = 2s/2 1 + + s 1 (s),
4
2

 
s/2
1 (s) =
s (s)(s).
2
, (s),
1 (s) = 1 (1 s).
, (9.1.9), g(x) R .
, k(x) = ex , = 12 ,
g(x) =

ex

1
2

1
x 2

Rs , 9.12 (3).
k(x) = J0 (x) Rs 1





1
1

J0 (nx 2)
1.
= 2
2 2n2

2
x
x
2
x
n=1
n<
2

k(x) = x

R .

2+1 (x),
4

2+1

(nx 2) 4 K

n=1

2+1
4 K

. 2.10 (VI).
Watson (1).

2 ,

2+1 (nx
4

2)

25
4



2 + 3
4
x

[. ix

10.1. . . ( ) , , ,
, - ,
.
.
, ,
.
.
, , . , . ,
.
, ,
a priori .
10.2. . , 1 . ,
, 33 34.

2
d
d
d

dt2 4 dt x dt 1 y = 0,

(10.2.1)

d
d
d

+6 x+
y = 0,
dt
dt2 dt
1

Bromwich (1).

300

[. x

x(0) = x0 , x (0) = x1 , y(0) = y0 , y  (0) = y1


.
a priori, x(t) y(t) . ,
y
x (t) + c1 x (t) + c2 x (t) + c3 x(t) = 0,

x(n+3) (t) + c1 x(n+2) (t) + c2 x(n+1) (t) + c3 x(n) (t) = 0.


|x(m) (t)|  K m (t) m = 1, 2, . . . , n + 2, ,


|x(n+3) (t)|  |c1 | + |c2 | + |c3 | K n+2 (t)  K n+3 (t),
, K(t)  1, K(t)  |c1 | + |c2 | + |c3 |. x(t)
,



 x(n) (0) tn  
K n (0) |t|n



= eK(0)|t| ,
|x(t)| = 

n!
n!
n=0
n=0
x(t) . y(t).
, 33,


1
1
wt
x(t) =
e (w) dw,
y(t) =
ewt (w) dw,
(10.2.2)
2i C
2i C
(w) (w) |w| > R R
, C , |w| = R.





ewt (w)(w2 4w) (w)(w 1) dw = 0,



C
(10.2.3)



wt
2

e (w)(w + 6) + (w)(w w) dw = 0.
C

(w)(w2 4w) (w)(w 1) = p(w),


(w)(w + 6) + (w)(w2 w) = q(w).

(10.2.4)

p(w) q(w) |w| > R, . , 34,


w, ,
p(w) = a + bw,

q(w) = + w.

(10.2.5)

10.3]

, (10.2.2),
1
x0 =
2i


(w) dw,
C

1
x1 =
2i

301


(w)w dw,
C

, ,


1
x1
x0
+ 2 +O
(w) =
w
w
|w|3

(10.2.6)

|w|.


y0
1
y1
(w) =
.
+ 2 +O
w
w
|w|3

(10.2.7)

(10.2.5), (10.2.6), (10.2.7) (10.2.4) ,


p(w) = (w 4)x0 + x1 y0 ,
q(w) = x0 + (w 1)y0 + y1 .
(10.2.4) ,
wp(w) + q(w)
,
(w + 1)(w 2)(w 3)
(w + 6)p(w) + (w2 4w)q(w)
.
(w) =
(w2 1)(w 2)(w 3)
(w) =

3 x(t) y(t) (10.2.2)


. , w = 1 x(t)

p(1) + q(1) t 6x0 x1 y0 + y1 t


e =
e .
12
12
, .

2
dx
dx

2 + 2n + n2 x = 0,

dt
dt
2

d y + 2n dy + n2 y = dx ,
dt2
dt
dt


x(0) = 0, x (0) = , y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0.
J e f f r e y s, Operational Methods, 3.31, .
10.3. ,
m, , ,
m , -

302

[. x

m-
. , ,


1 dz
2
d2 z
+
+ 1 2 z = 0,
dx2 x dx
x
> 0. z = x y,
d2 y 2 + 1 dy
+
+ y = 0.
dx2
x dx
,
.

1
exw (w) dw.
y=
2i C

xy


1
=
exw  (w) dw,
2i C

1
=
exw w(w) dw,
2i C



1
=
exw 2w(w) + w2  (w) dw,
2i C

dy
dx
d2 y
x 2
dx
,



exw (1 + w2 )  (w) (2 1)w(w) dw = 0.
C

. , 34,
(1 + w2 )  (w) (2 1)w(w) = a,

dw
2 1/2
+ b(1 + w2 )1/2 .
(w) = a(1 + w )
2
+1/2
(1 + w )
(w) , b = 0,

d
2 1/2
(w) = a(1 + w )
,
2 +1/2
w (1 + )
(1 + w2 )1/2 (1 + 2 )+1/2 ,
, ,
i i.


d
a
xw
2 1/2
e (1 + w )
dw
.
y=
2 +1/2
2i C
w (1 + )

10.4]

303

.
w 0 i w , .. i.

d

2 1/2

(w) (w ) = a(1 + w )
2 +1/2
w (1 + )

d
2i(1/2)
2 1/2
ae
(1 + w )
.
(1 + 2 )+1/2
w

d
= e2i(+1/2)
(1 + 2 )+1/2

,
+1/2
(1 + 2 )1
1 ,
i i i i.

d

2 1/2
(w) (w ) = a(1 + w )
= aK(1 + w2 )1/2 ,
+1/2
2
(1 + )1
w

K . ,
 1
 1
ixv
2 1/2
e (1 v )
dv = K2
(1 v 2 )1/2 cos xv dv.
y = K1
1

10.4. z = x y, x2 = 4t,
dy
d2 y
(10.4.1)
t 2 + (1 ) + y = 0.
dt
dt
, z = J (x),
. y(t),
y(t) = O(ect ) t c, y(0) = 0.
24, .


y(t) (t > 0),
f (t) =
0 (t < 0).
F (w) = 0, F+ (w)
1
Y (w) =
2

eiwt y(t) dt

(10.4.2)

v > c. y(t)
, 24
 ia+
1
eiwt Y (w) dw
(10.4.3)
lim
y(t) =
2 ia
t > 0, a > c.

304

(10.4.2) ,


1
eiwt y  (t) dt
2 Y (w) =
iw 0

[. x

(10.4.4)

( ). ,




1 iwt 

iwt
2 Y (w) =
e ity(t) dt =
e y(t) + ty  (t) dt. (10.4.5)
w 0
0
(10.4.1),



1

2 Y (w) = 2
eiwt 2y  (t) + ty  (t) dt =
iw 0



1
= 2
eiwt ( + 1)y  (t) y(t) dt.
(10.4.6)
iw 0
, , (10.4.4);


eiwt 
2 y(t) + ty  (t)
iw
t
0.
(10.4.2), (10.4.4) (10.4.6) ,


+1
1

Y (w) =
2 Y (w).
w
iw

 ia+ iwt + iw1


e
K
y(t) =
dw.
w+1
2 ia
(7.13.9)

t/2 J (2 t).
1

e iw
Y (w) = K +1 ,
w

10.5. .
d2 y
+ k 2 y = (t)
(t  0),
dt2
O(ect ) t . v > c,
,



y(0) y  (0)
1
iwt
e y(t) dt =
eiwt y  (t) dt.
2 Y (w) =
2 2
iw
w
w
0
0

10.6]

305




1
e (t) dt =
eiwt y  (t) + k 2 y(t) dt =
2 0
0

iwy(0) y (0)
+ k 2 Y (w),
= w2 Y (w) +
2
2

1
(w) =
2

iwt

..

(w)
1 iwy(0) y  (0)

.
k2 w2
k2 w2
2
, a, , a > k,

 ia+
1
(w)
1 iwy(0) y  (0)
iwt
y(t) =
dw.
e

lim
k2 w2
k2 w2
2 ia
2
Y (w) =

, (w)
, .
 ia+ iw(xt)


1
1 t
e
(x) dx
dw =
(x) sin k(t x) dx,
2
2
2 0
k 0
ia k w
.

y(0) cos kt + y  (0)

sin kt
.
k

,

sin kt 1 t

(x) sin k(t x) dx.
y(t) = y(0) cos kt + y (0)
+
k
k 0
10.6. .
v(x, t)
v
2v
=
t
x2

( < x < , t > 0)

(10.6.1)

,
v(x, 0) = f (x)

( < x < ).

, v , t x
1 .
1

R i e m a n nW e b e r, 2, 36; , , 16.

306

[. x

.

1
eix v(x, t) dx.
V (, t) =
2
, , ,


2
V
1
1
ix v
ix v

=
dx =
e
e
dx =
t
t
x2
2
2

2
eix v dx = 2 V.
=
2
,

V (, t) = e t A(),
2

A() . t = 0

1
A() =
eix f (x) dx = F (),
2
F f . ,
V (, t) = e t F (),
2


1
v(x, t) =
2

2 tix

F () d.

f (x),


1
2 tix
v(x, t) =
e
d
eiu f (u) du =
2


1
2
=
f (u) du
e ti(xu) d =
2

 (xu)2
1

=
e 4t f (u) du.
2 t

(10.6.2)

, v(x, t) f (x) t 0,
.
, , L(, ). ,
, .
, |v(x, t)| < Kec|x| c t
v(x, t), .
.

10.6]

307

v(x, t) f (x) t 0 x.
|f (x)| < Kec|x| .


 0
1
1
ix
e v(x, t) dx, V (, t) =
eix v(x, t) dx,
V+ (, t) =
2 0
2
= + i. V+ > c, V
< c. > c

2
V+  ix v
ix v
2
e
e
dx =
=
dx =
t
t
x2
0
0




v
ix v 
i
eix
= e
dx =

x 0
x
0




 ix 
ix v 
2
= e
i e v 
eix v dx =
x 0
0
0

2
= vx (0, t) + iv(0, t) 2 V+ (, t).
,
(., , 10.5)
2 

e t t 2 
2 t
vx (0, ) iv(0, ) d.
A()
e
V+ (, t) = e
2 0
t 0,

1
A() = lim V+ (, t) =
eix f (x) dx = F+ (),
t0
2 0
, ,
v(x, t) f (x) x
|eix v(x, t)| < Ke(c)x .
,

V+ (, t) = e t F+ () (, t),
2

(, t) , .
, V , ,
V (, t) = e t F () + (, t),
2

, 24,
 ia+

 2
1
v(x, t) =
eix e t F+ () (, t) d +
lim
2 ia
 ib+
 2

1
eix e t F () + (, t) d.
+
lim
2 ib

308

[. x

, , , . , F+ ,

 ia+
1
2 tix
e
d
eiu f (u) du =
2 ia
0
 ia+

1
2
f (u) du
e ti(xu) d
=
2 0
ia
(
)
 (xu)2
1

=
e 4t f (u) du.
2 t 0
, F ,
(10.6.2).
, , v(x, t) .
f (x), v(x, t) -
. , , v(x, t) (10.6.1),

2
x
1
1 x4t
e
v
, ,
t
t
t
v(x, t) = x ,
2

x x
e 4t
t t
, .
, t 0 x, . ,

x = 0 t 0 ( , , , x = t), , ,
.
10.7. v(x, t)
2v
v
=
(x > 0, t > 0)
t
x2
, v(x, 0) = 0 (x > 0), v(0, t) = f (t) (t > 0).
1 ,
0, ,
f (t) t.
1

R i e m a n nW e b e r, 2, 40; , , 22.

10.7]

309


 
v(x, t) sin x dx.
Vs (, t) = 2
0

 
Vs
v
= 2
sin x dx =
0 t
t


  2
v
v
2
2
cos x dx =
sin x dx =

=
2
0 x

x
0






2
=
v cos x +
v sin x dx = 2 f (t) 2 Vs ,

0
0

 t

2
2 t
2 t
2
Vs = e
A() +

e u f (u) du.
e

0
v(x, 0) = 0, Vs (, 0) = 0 A() = 0. ,

 t
2
2 t
2
v(x, t) =
e
sin x d
e u f (u) du =
0
0

 t
2
f (u) du
e (ut) sin x d =
= 2
0
0
 t
x2
x
f (u)

=
e 4(tu)
du.
(t u)3/2
2 0
, t 0 f (x), ,
, 13.
, v(x, t)
.

1
eix v(x, t) dx
( > c).
V (, t) =
2 0
, ,


V  ix v
2v
e
eix 2 dx = vx (0, t) + if (t) 2 2 V.
2
=
dx =
t
t
x
0
0
,
2 

e t t 2 u 
2 t
V (, t) = e
if (u) vx (0, u) du.
A() +
e
2 0
, A() = 0. f (u) vx (0, u)
,


 t
1
2 t
2 u
e || du = O
O e
.
||
0

310

[. x

, L2 - ,
 ia+
 t
ix

1
1 d
2 
2 t e
e
e u if (u) vx (0, u) du
d
v(x, t) =
2 dx ia
i
0
x > 0 v(x, t) = 0 x < 0. ,
, ,
, a 0. ,
f (u),

 t
1 d
2
f (u) du
(1 eix )e (ut) d =
2 dx 0

 t
 t
x2 
x2
f (u)
f (u)
1 d
x

4(tu)
4(tu)

1e
=
e
du,
du =
(t u)3/2
2 dx 0
4 0
tu
x. x x ,
, .
10.8.
2v
v
2 v
=
t
x2
, v(x, 0) = 0 (x > 0), v(0, t) = f (t) (t > 0).
, ,

  2

Vs
v
2
2
=
v sin x dx = 2 f (t) 2 Vs 2 Vs ,
2

t
x
0

 t

2
2
( 2 +2 )t
( 2 +2 )t
2
Vs = e
A() +

e( + )u f (u) du.
e

0
, A() = 0,

 t
2
2
2
v(x, t) =
f (u) du
e( + )(ut) sin x d =
0
0
 t
x2
2
x
f (u)
(t u)
4(tu)
=
e
du.
(t u)3/2
2 0
, .
10.9. 1
2v
v
2 v
(0 < x < l, t > 0)
=
t
x2
, v(0, t) = v0 , v(x, 0) = 0, vx (l, t) = 0.
1

. J e f f r e y s, Operational Methods, p. 70.

10.9]

311

t , |v(x, t)| < Kec|t| x.



1
eit v(x, t) dt
( > c).
V (x, ) =
2 0



2
1
1
2V
it v
it v
2
=
e
dt =
e
+ v dt =
x2
x2
t
2 0
2 0


i
2
1  it 
it
e v 
e v dt +
eit v dt =
=
0
2
2 0
2 0
= (2 i)V
, ,
V = A() ch(x

2 i) + B() sh(x

x = 0
v0
V (0, ) =
2


2 i).

v0
eit dt = .
i 2

v0
A() = .
i 2

, x = l V = 0,
x


A() sh(l 2 i) + B() ch(l 2 i) = 0.
,




2 i) sh(x


2 i)
sh(l
v0
2

ch(x i)
V =
=
i 2
ch(l 2 i)

v0 ch((x l) 2 i)

=
.
i 2
ch(l 2 i)

t > 0
v0
v(x, t) =
2i

ia+

ia

eit


ch((x l) 2 i) d

.

ch(l 2 i)

2 i = 2 = 2 + 2 2i   , ,


v0

(2 + 2 )t cos (x l)
v(x, t) =
e
d  ,

2
2
i
cos l
+
2 2 = (2 + a).

312

[. x

10.10. 1
2 v 1 v
v
= 2+
(t > 0, r > a)
t
r
r r
, v(r, 0) = 0 (r > a), v(a, t) = f (t).
, v(r, t) = O(ecr+ct ).

1
V (r, ) =
eit v(r, t) dt
( > c),
2 0

2

V
1 V
v
2
+
eit
=
dt =
2
r
r r
t
0



it 
eit v dt = i 2 V.
= e v  i
0




(1)
(2)
V (r, ) = A()H0 (r i) + B()H0 (r i),

(1)

(2)

H0 (z) = J0 (z) iY0 (z).


H0 (z) = J0 (z) + iY0 (z),

= + ik, i =  =  + i  .
2 2 = k,
..  , , .


Aer
Aer
(1)
(2)
,
|H0 (r  )| 
,
|H0 (r  )| 
|r  |
|r  |
V (r, ) = O(ecr ),
B() = 0.
, r a

1
eit f (t) dt = F ().
V (r, )
2 0

F ()
A() = (1) ,
H0 (a i)

 ik+
(1)
1
it H0 (r i)
e
F () d,
v(r, t) =
(1)
2 ik
H0 (a i)
1

. Nicholson (2), Goldstein (2).

10.11]

313


(1)

2
2 t H0 (r )
v(r, t) =
e
F (i 2 )  d  ,
(1)

i
H0 (a )

2 2 = k.
f (t), ,
k 0 ,
.
10.11.
2v 2v
+
=0
x2 y 2
,

(x > 0, 0 < y < b)

f (x) (y = 0, 0 < x < ),


0
(y = b, 0 < x < ),
v=

0
(x = 0, 0 < y < b).

, 1 .

 
v(x, y) sin x dx.
Vs (, y) = 2
0

  2
  2
v
v
2
sin x dx = 2
sin x dx =
0 y 2
0 x2

 



v
v
2
2


sin x  +
cos x dx =
=
x

x
0
0

 
  2 2
2
v cos x  +

v sin x dx = 2 Vs ,
=

0
0

2 Vs
=
y 2

Vs = A() ch y + B() sh y.
y 0,
 
A() = 2
f (x) sin x dx,
0
A() - f (x), A() = Fs ().
y = b,
A() ch b + B() sh b = 0,
1

, , 45.

314

[. x

B() = Fs () cth b.
,


sh (b y)
Vs = Fs () ch y sh y cth b = Fs ()
sh b

 
sh (b y)
sin x d.
v(x, y) = 2
Fs ()
0
sh b
f ,


sh (b y)
2
v(x, y) =
sin x sin u d =
f (u) du
0
sh b
0


1
1
y
=

f (u)
sin
(x u)
(b y)
2b
b 0
+ ch
cos
b
b

1

du.
(x + u)
(b y)
+ ch
cos
b
b


1
, 2 f (x + 0) + f (x 0) ,
, 18,
sh (b y)
sh y
= ey eb
,
sh b
sh b
, , 0.
, v(x, y) = O(ecx ) x
y, < c < 2 .
b
b


1
V (, y) =
eix v(x, y) dx,
2 0
2
c < <
.
b


2
2
2V
ix v
ix v
2
=
e
dx
=

e
dx =
y 2
y 2
x2
0
0





 ix 
ix v 
2
ix
+
i
e
v
+

e
v
dx
=
g(y)
+
2 2 V,
= e

x 0
0
0
g(y) = vx (0, y). ,

 y
1
g(u) sh (y u) du.
V (, y) = A() ch y + B() sh y +
2 0
y 0, , ,

10.11]

1
A() =
2
y b,

315

eix f (x) dx = F (),

 b
1
0 = A() ch b + B() sh b +
g(u) sh (b u) du.
2 0
,

sh (y b) y
sh (b y)
+
g(u) sh u du
V (, y) = F ()
sh b
2 sh b 0
 b
sh y

g(u) sh (b u) du.
2 sh b y
, c < a < 2
b
 ia+
sh (b y)
1

eix F ()
d +
sh b
2 ia
 y
 ia+
sh (y b) sh u
1
d
g(u) du
eix
+
2 0
sh b
ia

 ia+
 b
1
v(x, y) (x > 0),
ix sh y sh (b u)

g(u) du
e
d =
0
(x < 0).
2 y
sh b
ia
x x , , x > 0 v(x, y) ,
eix 2i sin x.
, a 0,
0; a > , = i
b
b
y x
K sin
sh
.
(10.11.1)
b
b
, F () ,
, , .
( = i )
b

f (u)(u) du,
0

1
y
(u) =
sin
2b
b

(x u)
(b y)
+ ch
cos
b
b

1
x u/b
.

e
4 sh
(x + u)
(b y)
b
+ ch
cos
b
b

316

[. x

, , (10.11.1),
f = 0. ,
, , .
10.12.
2y
2y
=
t2
x2

( < x < , t > 0)

, y(x, 0) = f (x), yt (x, 0) = g(x).


, y ,
x , t.


1
eix y(x, t) dx.
Y (, t) =
2
, ,


2
2
2Y
1
1
ix y
ix y

=
e
dx
=
e
dx = 2 Y,
t2
t2
x2
2
2

Y = A() cos t + B() sin t,


, , A() = F (), B() = G(). ,


1
G()
1
ix
e
F () cos t d +
eix
sin t d.
y(x, t) =

2
2



 i(x+t)

f (x + t) + f (x t)
1
i(xt)
e
d
+e
eiu f (u) du =
,
4
2




1
ix sin t
e
eiu g(u) du =
d
2




1 x+t
sin t cos (x u)
1
g(u) du
g(u) du.
d =
=

2 xt
0
,

f (x + t) + f (x t) 1 x+t
y(x, t) =
g(u) du.
+
2
2 xt

10.12]

317

, y(x, t) = O(ec|x| ),
y(x, t).

 0
1
1
ix
Y+ (, t) =
e y(x, t) dx,
Y (, t) =
eix y(x, t) dx,
2 0
2
Y+ > c, Y < c.

2
2 Y+  ix 2 y
ix y
2
=
e
dx
=
e
dx =
t2
t2
x2
0
0





 ix 
ix y 
2
i e y 
eix y dx =
= e
x 0
0
0

2
= (t) + i(t) 2 Y+ ,
(t) = yx (0, t), (t) = y(0, t). ,
 t


1
Y+ = A() cos t + B() sin t
(u) i(u) sin (t u) du,
2 0
A() = F+ (), B() = G+ (). ,
Y+ (, t) = F+ () cos t +

G+ ()
sin t + (, t),

, = + ik, .
,
Y (, t) = F () cos t +

1
lim
y(x, t) =
2

ia+

ix

e
ia

G ()
sin t (, t).

1
Y+ (, t) d +
lim
2

ib+

eix Y (, t) d,

ib

a > c, b < c. , (, t), 0. ,


F ,
 ia+
1
ei(x+t) + ei(xt)

d +
F+ ()
lim
2
2 ia
 ib+
ei(x+t) + ei(xt)
1
f (x + t) + f (x t)
F ()
+
d =
.
lim
2
2
2 ib
, G+ ,
 ia+

1
sin t
g(u) du
ei(ux)
d
2 0

ia

318

[. x

( ). , xt < u < x+t,


0 . , G , ,
.
10.13. 1
2y
2y
=
t2
x2

(0 < x < l, t > 0)

, y(0, t) = 0, y(l, t) = 0, y(x, 0) = f (x) yt (x, 0) = 0.


, y , x
, t.
, y(x, t) O(ect ) c.


1
eit y(x, t) dt
Y (x, ) =
2 0
> c.


2
2
2Y
it y
it y
=
e
dt
=
e
dt =
2
x2
x2
t2
0
0




y
it y 
i
eit
= e
dt =

t 0
t
0


 it 
2
= i e y 
eit y dt = if (x) 2 2 Y,
0

i
Y = A() cos x + B() sin x +
2

f (u) sin (x u) du.


0

Y (0, ) = 0, Y (l, ) = 0. A() = 0


 l
i
f (u) sin (l u) du = 0.
B() sin l +
2 0
,

 x
i sin x l
i
Y =
f (u) sin (lu) du +
f (u) sin (xu) du =
2 sin l 0
2 0


i sin x l
i sin (lx) x
f (u) sin u du
f (u) sin (lu) du
=
sin l
2
2 sin l x
0
1

R i e m a n nW e b e r, 2, 85.

10.13]

1
y(x, t) =
2i
+

1
2i

ia+

it

e
ia
 ia+
ia

eit

319

 x
sin (l x)
d
f (u) sin u du +
sin l
0
 l
sin x
f (u) sin (l u) du.
(10.13.1)
d
sin l
x

t t + 2l , 2ieil sin l,
t > 0 a .
, 2l, , 0 < t < 2l. (10.13.1)
e2il
1
= 2ieil +
.
sin l
sin l
a , (10.13.1) .

. , (10.13.1)

 x
 ia+
 i(2lxt)



1
i(xt)
e
d
e
f (u) eiu eiu du.
4 ia
0

 1
2 f (2l x t) 2l 2x < t < 2l x,
0
.

f (x + t) + f (x t)
,
2
f (x) (0, l)
2l.
f  (x) ,
.
,
.
, ,

x
0  x  12 l,
f (x) =
l x 12 l  x  l.
f  (x) = 1 1, f  (x) = 0 , . ,
, , y -

320

[. x


y
y
2 x2

=
y dx
x x=x2
x x=x1 t2 x1
t , , x,
y
x t.
x
!

"



y
Y
Y
1
y
it
dt =

=
e

x x=x2
x x=x1
x x=x2
x x=x1
2 0
! 2  x2
"

1
it
=
e
y dx dt =
t2 x1
2 0


 x2
 x2


2
i
it
it

y dx 
e dt
y dx
=
e
2
2 0
x1
x1
0



x2
,
y dx 0 t 0
t x1
 x2
 x2
i
2
f (x) dx
Y dx.
=
2 x1
x1
2Y
if (x)

2 Y ,
x2
2
, .
1
2y 2y
2 =g
(0 < x < l),
t2
x


g = const, y(x, 0) = g lx 12 x2 , y(0, t) = 0, yt (x, 0) = 0.
10.14. 2 ,
f (t), , ,

2
2
1
2
(r > 0, t > 0),
=c
+
t2
r2
r r

lim 2r
= f (t)
(t > 0).
r0
r


1
eit (r, t) dt.
(r, ) =
2 0
1
2

J e f f r e y s, Operational Methods, p. 59.


, , . 297.

10.15]

321


2
2 1
1
it

+
e
dt.
=
c
r2
r r
t2
2 0
, (r, 0) =
= 0 t (r, 0) = 0, ,
2 . 1
 
 
(1) r
(2) r
+ B()H0
.
(r, ) = A()H0
c
c
2

Im > 0, B() = 0. ,





1
it
it
F () =
e f (t) dt = lim 2 r
e
dt =
r0
r
2 0
0


 

2r
(1) r
= 2A().
= lim
A()H1
= lim 2r
c
r0
r0
r
c
,

 
1
(1) r
,
F ()H0
c
2
 ia+
 
1
(1) r
it
(r, t) =
d =
e
F
()H
0
c
(2)3/2 ia

 ia+
 
1
(1) r
d.
= 2
f (u) du
ei(ut) H0
c
4 0
ia
0 t < u + r
c
2
(r, ) =

2
(t u)2 r2
c

t. ,
 t r
 1ct 

c
f (u) du
1
1
ch
r
(r, t) =
=
f t r ch d.
c
2
2 0
2 0
(t u)2 r2
c
10.15. 2
2u
=u
x y

(x > 0, y > 0),

, u(x, 0) = a, u(0, y) = a.
1
2

, 3.6.
B a t e m a n, Partial Dierential Equations, p. 125.

322

1
U (, y) =
2

[. x

eix u(x, y) dx

> c.


U
1
u
eix
=
dx =
y
y
2 0


ix

2
1
1
U
e u 
ix u

e
dx = ,

x y
i
2 i y 0
i 2 0

( ) uy (0, y) = 0.
U (, y) = eiy/ A().
y 0
1
A() =
2


0

a
eix a dx = .
i 2

, (7.13.9),
 ik+ ix+iy/
e
a

d = aI0 (2 xy).
u(x, y) =
2i ik

10.16. - .
-
m 
n


a, f () (x + b ) = g(x).

=0 =0


.
.

f  (x) =

f (x + h) f (x h)
2h

, f (x) = O(ec|x| ).
, f (x) , O(ec|x| ). ,
f (x)
f (x) = f (x) f (0) xf  (0),
f (0) = 0, f  (0) = 0, , f (x) f (0) = 0, f  (0) = 0.

10.16]

323

F+ (w) F (w), , v > c v < c .



1
1
ixw 
e f (x) dx = O
F+ (w) =
|w|3
2 w2 0
|w| , F (w).
a > c, b < c
 ia+
 ib+
1
1
ixw
e
F+ (w) dw +
eixw F (w) dw,
f (x) =
2 ia
2 ib
 ia+
1
(iw)eixw F+ (w) dw +
f  (x) =
2 ia
 ib+
1
(iw)eixw F (w) dw,
+
2 ib

 ia+
eihw eihw
ixw
e
F+ (w) iw
dw +
2h
ia

 ib+
eihw eihw
ixw
e
F (w) iw
dw = 0.
+
2h
ib
141 ,

eih eih
i +
F+ () = (),
2h

eih eih
i +
F () = (),
2h
() b   a, () 0 . ,
 ia+
(w)
1
f (x) =
eixw
dw
ihw
eihw
2 ia
iw + e
2h
 ib+
(w)
1
eixw
dw.

ihw
ihw

e
e
2 ib
iw +
2h
, , b < v < a. w = 0
x. . ,

eixw ,
f (x) = A + Bx + Cx2 +
w sin hw hw, | Im w |  c.

324

[. x

10.17. 1
f

(n)

(x) +

n1


a f () (x + b ) = g(x),

=0

O(ec|x| ).

(x) = f (x)

n1 (k)

f (0) xk

k!

k=0


(n1)

(0) = 0,
(0) = (0) = . . . =



1
(1)n
ixw
+ (w) =
e (x) dx =
eixw (n) (x) dx.
2 0
2 (iw)n 0
, wn + (w) L2 (ia , ia + ) a > c.

(n)

(x) +

n1


a () (x + b ) = (x),

=0

(x) g(x) n 1.
, ,
 ia+


eixw + (w)K(w) + (w) dw +
ia

ib+



eixw (w)K(w) (w) dw = 0,

ib

K(w) = (iw) +

n1


a (iw) eib w ,

=0

. , 141,
+ (w)K(w) + (w) = (w),

(w)K(w) (w) = (w),

(w) b  v  a. ,
 
 
(w) = G (w)
+ (w) = G+ (w) +
1 ,
1 ,
w
w

n 1.
1

. Schmidt (1).

10.17]

1
(x) =
2

ia+

ia

325

 
G+ (w) + (w) +
1
w
ixw
dw +
e
K(w)
 
1
 ib+
G
(w)

(w)

1
w
ixw
+
e
dw,
K(w)
2 ib

a b , b  w  a
K(w), c  v  c, .
,
, .
K(x) c  v  c w ,

p(x) +
C eixw ,
p(x) , C . w ,
C x, ..
 ia+
 ib+
G (w)
1
1
ixw G+ (w)
e
eixw
f (x) =
dw +
dw +
K(w)
K(w)
2 ia
2 ib

+
C eixw + q(x),
q(x) .
,
q (n) (x) +

n1


a q () (x + b ) = 0.

=0

, a0 = 0, x q(x) , , q(x)
. , a0 = 0
a1 = 0, q(x) , ..
,
 ia+
 ib+
1
G (w)
1
ixw G+ (w)
e
eixw
dw +
dw +
f (x) =
K(w)
K(w)
2 ia
2 ib

+
C eixw ,
C p 1, w p-
K(w).
L2 - , , ,
, .

326

[. x

10.18. . . , ,

f (x + 1) f (x) = g(x),
f g.

 ia+
 i(x+1)w

e
F+ (w) eixw F+ (w) eixw G+ (w) dw +
ia


+

ib+ 


ei(x+1)w F (w) eixw F (w) eixw G (w) dw = 0.

ib

F+ (w)(eiw 1) G+ (w) = (w),


F (w)(eiw 1) G (w) = (w),
(w) b < v < a. ,
 ia+
(w) + G+ (w)
1
eixw
dw
f (x) =
eiw 1
2 ia
 ib+
(w) G (w)
1
eixw
dw.

eiw 1
2 ib
, (w), 1, .
,
 ia+
G+ (w)
1

eixw iw
dw +
f (x) = f (x) +
e
1
2 ia
 ib+
G (w)
1
eixw iw
dw,
+
e
1
2 ib
f (x) 1.
L2 , g(x)ec|x| c > 0 L2 .
. , iw1

e
1
iw
e ,
f (x) = f (x) g(x) g(x + 1) . . . ,
, , , .

XI

11.1. .


b

k(x, y)f (y) dy,

f (x) = g(x) +
a

g(x) k(x, y) , f (x) .


; , ,
k(x, y) , .
,
.
k(x, y) = k(x y) ,


k(x y)f (y) dy
( < x < ).
(11.1.1)
f (x) = g(x) +

.




1
ixu
F (u) =
g(x) +
e
k(x y)f (y) dy dx =
2



1

= G(u) +
f (y) dy
eixu k(x y) dx =
2



1
= G(u) +
f (y) dy
ei(y+t)u k(t) dt =
2

(11.1.2)
= G(u) + 2 F (u)K(u).

F (u) =

G(u)

,
1 2 K(u)



1
G(u)

eixu
f (x) =
du.
2
1 2 K(u)

(11.1.3)

(11.1.4)

328

[. xi

(11.1.4)



G(u)
1
ixu

f (x) g(x) =
e
G(u) du =
2
1 2 K(u)

G(u)K(u)

eixu
=
du.
1 2 K(u)

m(x)
M (u) =

K(u)

,
1 2 K(u)

f (x) = g(x) +

m(x t)g(t) dt

(11.1.5)

 
dy
f (y)k x
y y

(11.1.6)

f (x) = g(x) +
0

(11.1.1), .


 
dy
s1
=
x dx
f (y)k x
F(s) = G(s) +
y
y
0
0  
dy
= G(s) +
f (y)
k x xs1 dx =
y
y
0
0

= G(s) +
f (y) y s1 dy
k(u) us1 du =
0

= G(s) + F(s)K(s),

1
f (x) =
2i

c+i

ci

G(s)
xs ds.
1 K(s)

(11.1.7)

, (11.1.5).
, , ,
.
145. g(x) L2 (, ), k(x) L(, ),
sup K(u) < 1 . (11.1.4) , 2
L2 , L2
x.

11.2]

329

G(u)
L2 , (11.1.4)
1 2 K(u)
L2 f (x) L2 . 3.13,

k(x y)f (y) dy
h(x) =
. ,

x L2 , 65, F , H, K
f , h, k,

2 G(u)K(u)

.
H(u) = 2 F (u)K(u) =
1 2 K(u)
g(x) + h(x)

2 G(u)K(u)
G(u)

G(u) +
=
= F (u),
1 2 K(u)
1 2 K(u)
,
g(x) + h(x) = f (x)
x, . . (11.1.4).
, f g L2 , k L (11.1.1), 65
(11.1.2), , (11.1.4). .
k L2 , K M ,
(11.1.5) (11.1.4).
11.2. . , L2
.
, L2 .
(11.1.1),


k(x y)f (y) dy
( < x < ).
(11.2.1)
f (x) =

f (x) = eax , a
,

eat k(t) dt = 1.
(11.2.2)

, (11.2.1).

330

[. xi


146. 0 < c < c , ec |x| k(x)


L, ec|x| f (x) L2 (, ). , f (x) (11.2.1),
q

C,p xp1 eiw x ,
(11.2.3)
f (x) =

p=1

w 1 2 K(w),
| Im w |  c, C,p q w .
. , (11.2.3)
(11.2.1), . ,
K(w) c < v < c ,
F+ (w) v > c F (w) v < c. c < a < c

 ia+
1
f (x) (x > 0),
ixw

e
F+ (w) dw =
0
(x < 0)
2 ia
, 65
 ia+

k(x y)f (y) dy =
eixw F+ (w)K(w) dw
0

ia

. F (w) a b,
c < b < c. , (11.2.1)
 ia+



eixw F+ (w) 1 2 K(w) dw +
ia

ib+



eixw F (w) 1 2 K(w) dw = 0

ib

.


141 , F+ (w) 1 2 K(w)



F (w) 1 2 K(w)
b < v < a, F+ (w) = F (w). F+ (w)
F (w)
, ,
, 1 2 K(w).

 ia+
 ib+
1
1
ixw
e
F+ (w) dw
eixw F+ (w) dw,
f (x) =
2 ia
2 ib
F+ (w) 0 u , , .

, , k(x) = O(ec |x| )
f (x) = O(ec|x| ), 0 < c < c .

11.3]

331

L2 -. , c < a < , ,
 ia+T

 ia+T
F+ (w)
1
dw
eixw f (x) dx =
dw = lim
lim
T iaT w
T
2 iaT w 0

 ia+T ixw


1
e
=
f (x) dx lim
eix f (x) dx,
dw = 2 i
T

2 0
iaT
0

 ia+T
F+ (w)K(w)
lim
dw =
T iaT
w

 ia+T iw(x+y)

1
e
=
f (x) dx
k(y) dy lim
dw =
T iaT
2 0
w





i(x+y)
it
f (x) dx
e
k(y) dy = i
e dt
k(t x)f (x) dx.
=i
x

 ia+
ia



F+ (w) 1 2 K(w)
dw =
w




it
e dt f (t)
= 2 i
0


k(t x)f (x) dx .



 ib+

 0

F (w) 1 2 K(w)
it
e dt
k(t x)f (x) dx.
dw = 2 i
w
ib
0

, , 141 146 1 .
11.3. .
(I)
g(x) = e


|x|

k(x) =

ex (x < 0),
0 (x > 0).



1
1
G(u) =
eixu|x| dx = 2
,
1 + u2
2
 0

1
K(u) =
eixu+x dx =
.
2
2 1 + iu

[Bochner (2)].

332

[. xi

L2

eixu
1
du.
f (x) =
(1 iu)(1 + iu)
, , 0 < < 1.
 x
2
e
(x  0),

f (x) =
(1)x
(x < 0).
e
2
, , ,
L2 . .


|x|
x
+ e
ey f (y) dy
(11.3.1)
f (x) = e
x

.

ey f (y) dy,  (x) = ex f (x).
(x) =
x

x > 0

 (x) = e2x + (x),


(x) =
x < 0

e2x
+ Cex .
2

 (x) = 1 + (x),

1
(x) = + C  ex .

(x) x = 0 , C  = C + 1 + 1 .
2

2 ex + Ce(1)x (x > 0),


2

f (x) = 
2 + C e(1)x (x < 0).

2
, ; ,
f (x) = e(1)x



f (x) =
exy f (y) dy,
x

(11.3.2)

11.3]

333

w = i(1 )

1 2 K(w) = 1
.
1 + iw
(II) 1 k(x) = e|x| ( < 12 ).



2
K(u) =
,
, M (u) = 2
1 + u2
1 + u2 2

e|x| 12
m(x) =
,
1 2

g(x) L2 , L2


e|tx| 12 g(t) dt.


f (x) = g(x) +
1 2
,

1 + w2 2
1 2 K(w) =
,
1 + w2

Aex 12 + Bex 12
, > 0.
2
(III) , k(x) = ex /2 .
(IV) = 1 , k(x) = 1 1 2 , g(x) = x 2 .

1+x
1+x
e|u|
K(u) = ,
2

G(u) = ie|u| sgn u,


1
ie|u| sgn u
f (x) =
eixu
du =
1 e|u|
2

 sin xu

1
du = 2
cth x
.
= 2
eu 1
2
2x
0

,
f (x) L2 .
(V) k(x) = (11.1.6)2 . K(s) = ,
1+x
sin s
 c+i
G(s)
1
xs ds,
f (x) =

2i ci 1
sin s

 c+i

1
G(s)xs ds.
f (x) = g(x) +
2i ci sin s
1
2

Picard (1).
A.C. Dixon (1).

334

[. xi

= sin , 0 < < 12 ,


 c+i
1
tg u u1+
sin
,
us ds =
2i ci sin s sin

1 u2
, ,
 1+  
y

x
tg
x
y
f (x) = g(x) + x
g(y)
dy.
2 x2

y
0
(VI)

f (x) =
0

f (y)
dy
x+y

(11.3.3)


x = e ,

y = e ,

e/2 f (e ) = ()

()
d.
2 ch
2
, () = O(ec|| ), 0 < c < 1 , .
2


k() =
,
K(w) =
,

2 ch w
2 ch
2

1 2 K(w) = 1
.
ch w
,
1 < v < 1 . , = 1 ,
2
2

w = 0 ,
() =

() = A + B
, . .
f (x) =

A + B ln x

(11.3.3).
1 , (11.3.3) .
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (3).

11.4]

(VII)
 x

x f (x) =
(x y)1 f (y) dy
() 0

x = e ,

y = e ,

() =
()

(0 < < 1)

335

(11.3.4)

e f (e ) = ()

(e 1)1 () d.


(e 1)1 (  0),
k() = ()

0
( < 0),

(1 iw )
K(w) =
2 (1 iw)


v > (1 ) .

11.4. . .
, 1

 x
1
y
f (x) = g(x) +
k
f (y) dy.
(11.4.1)
x
0 y
x = e , y = e
f (e ) = (),

g(e ) = (),


() = () +

k(e ) = (),

( )() d.

(11.4.2)

() = 0 > 0.

 x

y
k
f (y) dy.
(11.4.3)
g(x) =
x
0
 x
f1 (x) =
f (t) dt k ,

0
1


y
1 x  y
k
k
f (y) dy = k(1)f1 (x)
f1 (y) dy,
x
x 0
x

Browne (1).

336

[. xi

k(1) = 0

 x
g(x)
1 1 y  y
f1 (x) =
+
k
f1 (y) dy
k(1)
x
0 y k(1) x
(11.4.1).
11.5. . , (11.1.1) f (x), g(x)
k(x) x.

 x
f (x) = g(x) +
k(x y)f (y) dy
(x > 0),
(11.5.1)
0
1

2 . , 145
, .
147. c
ecx g(x) L2 (0, ), ecx k(x) L(0, ). f (x) (11.5.1) ,

ec x f (x) L2 (0, ) c ;

 ia+
1
G(w)

eixw
f (x) = l.i.m.
dw
(11.5.2)
2 ia
1 2 K(w)
a.
. (11.5.1) , f (x), g(x) k(x) eax f (x), eax g(x) eax k(x).
, , ,
11.1 K(u + ia) .. K(u).
a

1
1
eax |k(x)| dx < ,
|K(u + ia)| 
2 0
2
, .
(11.5.2)
 ia+
K(w)

eixw G(w)
dw.
(11.5.3)
f (x) = g(x) + l.i.m.
ia
1 2 K(w)
, ecx k(x) L2 . K(w),

1
2

Doetsch (1), (2).


Fock (1).

11.5]

337

K(w)

(11.5.4)
1 2 K(w)

 ia+
1
eixw M (w) dw
m(x) = l.i.m.

2
ia
2
L .
a , , m(x) = 0
x < 0.
 x
m(x y)g(y) dy.
(11.5.5)
f (x) = g(x) +
M (w) =

(11.5.4)
 x
m(x t)k(t) dt;
m(x) = k(x) +

(11.5.6)

, (11.5.5) (11.5.1) ,
(11.5.5) (11.5.1), (11.5.6) .
(11.5.4)

n1 

n
(2) 2 K(w) ,
M (w) =
n=1


m(x) =

k (n) (x),

n=1


(1)

k (x) = k(x),

(n)

k(t)k (n1) (x t) dt.

(x) =
0

(11.5.1), 1 .
2 , k(x) L(0, ), , (11.5.6)
h(x), L(0, ),
, 1 2 K(u) = 0 u.
, .
.
(I)
 x
e (x > 0),
k(x) =
0 (x < 0).
1
2

. , , . 3, 548549.
, , 18.

338

2 K(w) =

,
1 + iw

M (w) =
,
2 1 + + iw

[. xi

m(x) = e(1+)x .

exy f (y) dy

f (x) = g(x) +
0




(x) =

e(1+)(xy) g(y) dy.

f (x) = g(x) +
0
x

ey f (y) dy, -


 (x) (x) = ex g(x).
f (x) Ae(1+)x ;
A = 0, x < 0.
(II) 1 k(x) :
k(x) = P epx + Qeqx + . . .

(x > 0).


1
Q
P
K(w) =
+
+ ... .
2 p + iw q + iw
M (w)

(p + iw)(q + iw) . . .
M (w) =
K(w),
( + iw)( + iw) . . .

i, i, . . . 1 2 K(w).
 (p )(q ) . . .
m(x) =
ex ,
( )( ) . . .

2 K(i) = 1.

, k(x) .
(III) 2 g(x) = k(x) = J0 (x).


1
eixw J0 (x) dx =
,
G(w) = K(w) =
2 0
2 1 w2
1
2

E.T. Whittaker (1).


Fock (1).

11.6]

339


 ia+
 a+i

eixw
exs

f (x) =
dw =
ds (a > 0),
2 ia
2i ai
1 w2
1 + s2

 a+i
 a+i
1 + s2 s
s

xs
e
ds +
exs
ds +
=
2
2
2i ai
1 +s
2i ai
1 2 + s2
 x
 a+i

 J1 (y)
2

exs
2 (x y)

+
ds
=
sin
1
dy +
2i ai 1 2 + s2
y
12 0




2
+ cos x 1 2 +
sin x 1 2 ,
1 2
(7.13.2), (7.13.3) (7.13.8).
11.6. . ,
,

k(x y)f (y) dy.
(11.6.1)
g(x) =



1
ixu
G(u) =
e dx
k(x y)f (y) dy =
2



1
=
f (y) dy
eixu k(x y) dx =
2



1
=
f (y) dy
ei(y+t)u k(t) dt =
2

= 2 F (u)K(u),

, ,
1
f (x) =
2

eixu

G(u)
du.
K(u)

(11.6.2)

(11.6.3)

, , K(u)
.
148. g(x) L2 (, ), k(x) L(, ). ,
f (x) (11.6.1), L2 (, ), ,
G(u)
L2 (, ).
K(u)
. , g, k f
L- (11.6.1) . ,
65, (11.6.2), F

340

[. xi

L2 , , , G L2 .
K
G
L2 , f ,
,
K
(11.6.3), L2 , 65 (11.6.1)

1 G(u)
2 K(u)
= G(u).
2 K(u)

, (11.6.1) . , ,


g(x) =
k(xy)f (y) dy.
(11.6.4)
0






s1
G(s) =
x dx
k(xy)f (y) dy =
f (y) dy
k(xy)xs1 dx =
0
0
0
0

s
s1
=
f (y)y dy
k(u)u du = F(1 s)K(s),
0

F(s) =

1
f (x) =
2i

G(1 s)
,
K(1 s)

c+i

ci

G(1 s) s
x ds.
K(1 s)

(11.6.5)

11.7. .

g(x) =
exy f (y) dy.
(11.7.1)
0


1
f (x) =
2i

1
+i
2
1
i
2

G(1 s) s
x ds
(1 s)

(11.7.2)

(11.6.5).

. , (11.7.1)

eixy f (y) dy,
g(ix) =
0

11.7]


1
eixy g(iy) dy (x > 0),
f (x) = 2

0
(x < 0).

341

(11.7.3)

g(x) x,
(11.7.3) . (11.7.2), G,
g(x) x;
1
,

(1 s)
. , g(x).
(11.7.1) g(x) ,
g(z), x > 0,
g(x) .
, , (11.7.2) (11.7.1), L2 (0, ), , g(x) ,
g(z), | arg z| < ,
2


|g(rei )|2 dr < K
(11.7.4)
0

< < .
2
2
, f (x) L2 (0, ). , g(z) Re z > 0, . .
| arg z| < . , 99, f (u)
2
f (u) = f(+) (u) + f() (u)
f(+) (w) arg w > 0, f() (w) arg w < 0. ,
< < ,
2
2


i
i
rei u
g(re ) =
e
f(+) (u) du +
ere u f() (u) du.
0


, .
2
2
1

 i  12  
i 2
i
ir
g(re ) = e
d +
e
f(+) e
0


 i  12 +  
i 12 +
ir
+e
d,
e f() e
0

342

[. xi

(11.7.4), f(+) (u) f() (u) L2


arg w = const.
, , g(z) .

g(x)xs dx.
G(1 s) =
0

t > 0, ,
2


i
t
i
 s

G(1 s) = i
g(iy) ye 2
dy = ie 2 e 2
g(iy)y it dy.
0

= 1 et/2 L2 (0, ).
2
t < 0 , G(1s)
2
e|t|/2 L2 (, ). , ,




 |t| 
1

=O e 2 ,
 (1 s) 
(11.7.2) . , f (x)
(11.7.1), 72.
1 2 .
11.8. .
, . .


xy
e f (y) dy,
h(x) =
exy g(y) dy,
g(x) =
0




xy
h(x) =
e
dy
eyu f (u) du =
0
0

(x+u)y
=
f (u) du
e
dy =
0

f (u)
du
x+u

(11.8.1)

. 3 .

x = e ,

y = e ,

e/2 h(e ) = (),

e/2 f (e ) = ()

(11.8.1)
1
2
3

Widder (1).
, , 13.
. Hardy (7); , , 14.

11.8]

() =

()
d.

2 ch
2

343

(11.8.2)

(11.6.1)

1
1
k() =
,
K(u) =
,
2 ch u

2 ch
2


1
() =
eiu (u) ch u du =
2

 i(+i)u

( +i) + ( i)
1
i(i)u
e
(u) du =
=
+
e
,
3/2
(2)
2

(11.8.3)


%
i $  i 
f (x) =
(11.8.4)
h xe h xei .
2
, ,
.
, , (11.8.3) (11.8.2), L2 (, ),
, (z) ,
< y < ,

|(x + iy)|2 dy < K

< y < .
5.4,
(x + i) (x i), L2 (, ).
L2 (11.8.2), (z), ,
< y < , 64

izu (u)
(z) =
e
du,
2
ch u
.



2
2
2
2
2yu (u)
2
2|u| (u)
du


du.
|(x + iy)| dy =
e
e
ch2 u
ch2 u

, .
, ,

1
u
eiu ( i) du
e (u) =
2

344

[. xi

L2 (0, ) L2 (, 0).
(u) ch u L2 (, ), (11.8.3)
L2 . , (11.8.2),
64.

, (11.8.1) L2 ,
, g(z) = g(rei ) < <

|g(rei )|2 dr

< < .
, (11.8.4) ,
. , (11.8.4) (11.8.1),


i
h(uei )
h(uei )
i
du
du.
2 0 x + u
2 0
x+u
2 u = xei , ,
h(x).
11.9. 1 .
.
f (x),

xn f (x) dx = cn
(n = 0, 1, . . .),
0

c0 , c1 , . . . .

, f (x)ek x L(0, ) k.




(1)n cn s2n
(1)n xn s2n
(s) =
f (x)
=
dx =
(2n)!
(2n)!
0
n=0
n=0



f (x) cos(s x) dx = 2
f ( 2 ) cos s d.
=
0

,
, |s| < k,



xn |s|2n
dx =
|f (x)|
|f (x)| ch(|s| x) dx.
(2n)!
0
0
n=0
1

. Hardy (7).

11.9]

345

, s = + it, k < t < k.


(s) , ,
(s) 0, . ,


s
2
1
1
(s) cos s ds
f ( ) = lim
0

. , f (x) .
, .

n+1 2n

 ia+ is
(1)
( > 0),
e
1
(2n)!
ds
=
(a > 0).

2i ia s2n+1

0
( < 0)



n
x f (x) dx = 2

2n+1 f ( 2 ) d =

 ia+ is
(1)n+1 (2n)!
e
2
=
||f ( ) d
ds =
2n+1
i

ia s


(1)n+1 (2n)! ia+ ds
=
eis ||f ( 2 ) d =
2n+1
i
ia s

 ia+
n+1
(s)
(1) (2n)!
ds.
=
2n+1
i
ia s

, n > 0, s,
n =0; ,
ia+

. ,

lim

ia




( + ia)
(  + ia)
(  ia)

d
=
d
=

d  ,
2n+1
 + ia)2n+1
 ia)2n+1
(
+
ia)
(
(

. , ,
 ia+  ia+


1 ia+ (s)
(s)
1
(1)n+1 cn
ds
=

ds
=
,
i ia s2n+1
2i ia
s2n+1
(2n)!
ia
.

346

[. xi

, , , cn f (x) . , cn = 1 n,
(s) = cos s, , .
.
cn = 1 ,
n+1
2(s sin s + cos s 1)
,
(s) =
s2


(0 < < 1),
2
sin
s
1

cos
s
cos s ds =

f ( 2 ) = 1
2
0
s
s
0
( > 1).
,




n+1
(n + 1)
1
n x cos
sin
x e
sin x sin dx =

0
> 0 0 < < ,
2



f (x) = ex cos sin x sin


, , 1 , ,
2

xn f (x) dx = 0
(n = 0, 1, . . .).
0

,


, f (x) = O ekx , < 1 .
2
11.10. .


x

k(x y)f (y) dy

g(x) =

(x > 0)

(11.10.1)

(11.6.1),
f (x) k(x), , g(x), x < 0.
11.6 , ,

(11.10.2)
G(w) = 2 F (w)K(w),

1
f (x) =
2

ia+

ia

eixw

G(w)
dw.
K(w)

(11.10.3)

11.10]

347

, , , , K(w) ,
G(w) K(w) .
149. ecx g(x) L2 (0, ), a ecx k(x) L(0, ). , (11.10.1) f (x) ,
ecx f (x) L2 (0, ), ,
G(u + iv)
, u, L2 (, ) v  c.
K(u + iv)
(11.10.3), a  c.
, (11.10.1)
 x
ax
ea(xy) k(x y)eay f (y) dy,
e g(x) =
0

a  c, 148.
, (11.10.1) , ,
, .
150. ecx f (x), ecx k(x)
c L(0, ),
 x
k(x y)f (y) dy = 0
(x > 0).
0

k f .
. ,


1
f (y) dy
ei(t+y)w k(t) dt =
F (w)K(w) =
2 0

0
1
=
f (y) dy
eixw k(x y) dx =
2 0

 yx
1
=
eixw dx
k(x y)f (y) dy = 0,
2 0
0
. F (w) K(w) v > c, ,
, ,
14 k f .
, , . 1
.
1

[Titchmarsh (8)]. ; . ,
, . V.

348

[. xi

, . .
n

anm xm = 0
(n = 0, 1, . . .),
m=0

. , , ;
, .
11.11.
151.

 b
1
F (z) =
eizt f (t) dt,
(11.11.1)
2 a
a b , a < b f (t) a b.
zn = rn ein F (z)


y2
(y) =
(11.11.2)
ln 1 + 2 .
r
n
n=1

(y)
= b a.
y y
. ,
a = 1, b = 1. ,

b a (a+b)z/2 1 it
F (z) = e
e g(t) dt,
2 2
1



a
+
b
b

a
g(t) = f
+
t ,
= b a z.
2
2
2
n , |n | = n ,
,


1 $ b a %2
(y) =
y
(b a)y,
ln 1 + 2
2
n
lim

n=1

.
, F (0) = 0. ,
F (0) = 0,
 b
iz
F (z) =
eizt f1 (t) dt,
2 a
 t
F (z)
,
f1 (t) =
f (u) du,
z
a
z = 0 .
.

11.11]

( a = 1, b = 1).
.
(y)
 2.
lim
y y
,

er| sin | 1
|F (z)| 
|f (t)| dt.
2 1
n(x) rn , x,
 r
n(x)
N (r) =
dx.
x
0

349

(11.11.3)

(11.11.4)

, 1 ,


1
2r
1
i
ln |F (re )| d ln |F (0)| 
r| sin | d K =
K.
N (r) =
2
2

" 
!

 rn+1

y2
y2
2y 2
(y) =
=
n ln 1 + 2 ln 1 + 2
dr =
2 + r2 )
r
r
r(y
r
n+1
n
n
n=1
n=1


n(r)
rN
(r)
dr.
dr = 4y 2
= 2y 2
2
2
2
2 2
0 r(y + r )
0 (y + r )

,


8y 2
r2
r
2
(y) 
dr Ky
dr = 2y O(1),
2
2
2
2
2 2
0 (y + r )
0 (y + r )
.
.
ln |F (iy)|
lim
= 1.
(11.11.5)
y
y
, (11.11.4), F (iy) = O(ey ). ,
F (iy) = O(e(1)y ), 0 < < 1. F (x) = O(1) x, 2 ,
F (z) = O(e(1)r sin )

(11.11.6)

.
 2
1
iz
e F (z) =
eizu f (u 1) du
2 0
1

, , 3.6.1. [ ,
, . IX, 3.]
2
, , 5.7.1.

350

[. xi

, 22,
 u

1
eizu 1
f (v 1) dv =
eiz F (z)
dz.
lim
iz
2
0
(11.11.6),
, u < .
, f (v 1) (0, ), , , .
151. ,


'
(+i)z
z
1
ez/zn
F (z) = F (0)e
zn
n=1

,
2 2y

|F (iy)| = |F (0)| e
2


'
n=1

n
2y sin n y 2 2y sin
r
n
1
+ 2 e
.
rn
rn

iz

e F (z) , a
eiz F (z) ,
 | sin n |
rn
1 . |F (iy)|2


'
2y sin n y 2
2
2 Cy
1
|F (iy)| = |F (0)| e
+ 2
r
rn
n
n=1
C,
2 ln |F (iy)| = 2 ln |F (0)| + Cy +


n=1


2y sin n y 2
ln 1
+ 2 .
rn
rn

2y
sin

n
2y sin n y 2
y2

rn
ln = ln 1
+ 2 ln 1 + 2 = ln1
.
y2
rn
rn
rn
1+ 2
rn

2|y sin n |
,
ln  ln 1 +
rn

, , 3.7.1.

11.11]

351



2|y sin n |
|y sin n |
= O(N ln y) +
= o(|y|),
ln 1 +
O
rn
r
n
n=1
n=N +1

, , N = [ y]. ,
2 ln |F (iy)|  Cy + (y) + o(|y|).

(11.11.7)

(y)
.
y y
, , L  2. , , 2  C + L. , C  0. y , C  0.
, C = 0.
,

 R
 R/rn
ln
2u sin n du
ln 1
dy =
>
y
1 + u2
u
0
0

 R/rn
R
| sin n |
> A
du > A| sin n | min
,1 ,
1 + u2
rn
0
L = lim

| sin n |  1 R  rn . | sin n |  1 R  rn ,
2
2
2
2


 R
du
2u
R
ln
ln 1
dy 
= A > A| sin n | .
2
y
1+u
u
rn
0
0
,
 R

n=1

 | sin n |

ln
1 AR
> o(R).
dy > A
y
rn

rn < R

rn  R

 R
ln |F (iy)|
(y)
dy 
dy + o(R),
2
y
y
0
0
(11.11.7), C = 0, 
.

 1/2
 1
1
1
izt
e f (t) dt +
eizt dt,
G(z) =
2 1
2 1/2


, y +,
G(iy) = F (iy) + O(ey/2 ),

y
G(iy) = e + O(ey/2 ).
y

352

[. xi

G(iy) G(iy) ,
 R
 R
ln |F (iy) + O(ey/2 )|
ln |G(iy)|
dy =
dy =
y
y
0
0
 R
ln |G(iy)|
dy + o(R) = R + o(R).
=
y
0
,
 (1+)R
ln |F (iy) + O(ey/2 )|
dy R.
y
R
, (R, R + R), R > R0 (),
, |F (iy)| > e(1)y , , (11.11.7), ,
(y) > (2 3)y. (y) ,
,
(y)
 2.
lim
y y
.
152. f (x) k(x) L(0, ),
 x
k(x y)f (y) dy = 0
0

x (0, ). f (x) = 0 x (0, )


k(x) = 0 x (0, ), + = .
. , ,

1 ( < x  + 1),
f (x) = k(x) =
0
(x > + 1).

k(x y)f (y) dy

g(x) =

(0 < x < ).

g(x) = 0 x < x > 2 + 2. 2 + 1 < x < 2 + 2


 +1
g(x) =
dy = 2 + 2 x.
x1

F , G, K f , g, k.

G(w) = 2 F (w)K(w).
1 , 2 , K G,
151 F ,
2 (y) = (y) + 1 (y).

11.12]

353

, f (0, ), k (0, ) g (0, ), 151


,
(2 + 2) = ( + 1) + ( + 1) ,

+ = .

153. f k
, k
 x
k(x y)f (y) dy = 0
(0 < x < ),
0

f (0, ).
, f (0, ),
+ = ; , .
11.12. . 1 (11.10.1). . : (I)
; (II)
,
T ,
; (III)
T .
,
, , , ,
.
, t,
k(t),

1 t (t  T ),
T
k(t) =
0
(t > T ).
, +
f ( ) . , t >
k(t )f ( ) d . ,
, t
 t
k(t )f ( ) d.
0

, f
 t
1 k(t) =
k(t )f ( ) d.
0
1

Bateman (6).

354

1
K(w) =
2

T
iwt

e
0

[. xi

1
t
1
1 eiwT
+
1
dt =
T
iw
w2 T
2


1
1
1 1 eiwT
eiwt dt K(w) =
.
G(w) =
K(w) =
2 w2 T
2 0
2 iw
Im w > 0
 ia+
1
1 eiwT
f (t) =
eiwt
dw
(a > 0).
2 ia
1 + iwT eiwT
.
,
w = ib, b > 0,
 ib+
1
1 eiwT
2
eiwt
dw,
f (t) =
T
2 ib
1 + iwT eiwT

t . 1 .
11.13. 2


f (x) =
nJn ()Jn (x).

(11.13.1)

n=1

|Jn (x)|  1 n x,
 


|Jn (x)| =  x Jn1 (x) + Jn+1 (x)   x
2n
n  1 x  0. , n ,


(/2)n
.
Jn () = O
n!
J (t x)
(11.13.1) 0
x
0 t.
 t
 t


f (x)
Jn (x)
nJn ()
J0 (t x) dx =
J0 (t x) dx =
x
x
0
0
n=1
=


n=1

1
2

. Goldstein (1).
, 16.32.

Jn ()Jn (t) =

J0 (t ) J0 ()J0 (t)
,
2

11.13]

355

(7.14.6) 1 .
f (x)
(11.10.1):

x
f (x)
f (x)
,
.
x
x
(11.10.3).

1
1
eixw J0 (x) dx = 
,
K(w) =
2 0
2(1 w2 )
u > 0 , .



1
G(w) =
eixw J0 (x ) J0 (x)J0 () dx =
2 2 0 



1
1
=
eixw J1 (x ) J1 (x)J0 () dx
2 2 iw 0
( ). ,

 ia+



f (x)
1
1 w2
ixw
e
eitw J1 (t ) J1 (t)J0 () dt,
=
lim
dw
x
4 ia
iw
0
a > 0.
J1 (x ) J1 (x)J0 ()
=
2
 ia+



1
ixw
=
e
dw
eitw J1 (t ) J1 (t)J0 () dt,
lim
4 ia
0
, ,
f (x) J1 (x ) J1 (x)J0 ()
+
=
x
2
 ia+



1
1 w2 + iw
ixw
=
e
eitw J1 (t ) J1 (t)J0 () dt =
dw
4 ia
iw
0

 ia+



1
1 w2 + iw
J1 (t ) J1 (t)J0 () dt
ei(tx)w
=
dw.
4 0
iw
ia
t  x ( , a ), t < x, (7.13.8), t
J (t x)
. ,
2 1
tx
1

8.]

, 2.4. [. .. , , 2- ., . III,

356

[. xi

(7.14.6),
f (x) J1 (x ) J1 (x)J0 ()
+
=
x
2
 x

 J1 (t x)
1
=
J0 (t ) J0 (t)J0 ()
dt =
2 0
tx

J1 (t x)
1 x
J1 (x)J0 ()
J0 (t )
=
dt
,
2 0
tx
2
, (7.14.6),

f (x)
J1 (t x)
1 x
J1 (x )
J0 (t )
=
dt
=
x
2 0
tx
2

1
J1 (t x)
=
J0 (t )
dt.
2 0
tx
11.14. .
 x
f (y)
g(x) =
dy
(0 < < 1).

0 (x y)
(11.10.1) k(x) = 1 .
x

1
(iw)1 (1 )
dx

K(w) =
eixw =
,
x
2 0
2
(iw)1 .
 ia+
1
G(w)
eixw
dw.
f (x) =
(iw)1
2 (1 ) ia
L2 ,
 ia+
1
1 eixw G(w)
f1 (x) =
dw =
iw
(iw)1
2 (1 ) ia
 ia+ ixw

e
1
1
=
dw
eiwt g(t) dt =
2 (1 ) ia (iw)
0
 ia+ iw(tx)

1
e
eiwt
=
g(t) dt
dw.
2 (1 ) 0
(iw)
ia
t > x ( , a ). 0 < t < x , eiwt ,
;

11.15]

357

, ,

ev(tx) v (ei ei )(i)dv = 2 sin (1 )(x t)1 .
0

,
sin
f1 (x) =

(x t)1 g(t) dt,


0


1 :
 x
sin d
f (x) =
(x t)1 g(t) dt.
dx 0
11.15. .

f (x) = g(x) +
k(x + y)f (y) dy.
(11.15.1)

, 2 . . ,


1
ixu
F (u) = G(u) +
e dx
k(x + y)f (y) dy =
2



1
= G(u) +
f (y) dy
eixu k(x + y) dx =
2



1
= G(u) +
f (y) dy
ei(ty)u k(t) dt =
2

= G(u) + 2 F (u)K(u).
u,
F (u) = G(u) +

2 F (u)K(u)

, F (u),

G(u) + 2 G(u)K(u)
F (u) =
.
1 2K(u)K(u)

,
1
f (x) =
2
1
2

ixu

G(u) + 2 G(u)K(u)
du.
1 2K(u)K(u)

(11.15.2)

. Bosanquet (1).
Fox (2).

358



k(ux)f (u) du,
f (x) = g(x) +

[. xi

(11.15.3)

(11.15.1) . ,
 c+i
G(s) + K(s)G(1 s) s
1
(11.15.4)
x ds.
f (x) =
2i ci
1 K(s)K(1 s)
154. g(x) L2 k(x) L,
K(u)K(u) 1 . (11.15.1)
2
L2 , (11.15.2).
. 11.1, f (x),
(11.15.2), L2 . , , L2 ,


k(x + y)f (y) dy,
(11.15.5)
f (x) =

F (u) = 2 F (u)K(u).

F (u) =
, ,

(11.15.6)

2 F (u)K(u)



F (u)F (u) 1 2K(u)K(u) = 0.

, F (u), F (u)
u. , (11.15.6), F (u) = 0, F (u) = 0. ,
F (u) = 0 u, , f (x) = 0 x.
; , , ,


1 2K(u)K(u)  A > 0.
.
(I). (11.15.3)


k(x) =

K(s) = (s) cos s


2

2 cos x.

K(s)K(1 s) = 2 .

11.16]

359

, 2 = 1,
 c+i $
%
1
s xs ds =
G(s)
+
G(1

s)(s)
cos
f (x) =
2
2i(1 2 ) ci
 

g(x)
2
+
g(u) cos xu du.
=
2
1
1 2 0
- .
(II) (11.15.3)

0 (0 < x < 1),
ex
ln(1 + x)

k(x) = ,
g(x) =
(x > 1).
x

(s)
1

K(s) = ,
1 ,
G(s) =
1 s sin s

 c+i

1
(s 1) xs ds =
f (x) =
2i ci 1 s

1 ex
0 (0 < x < 1),

=
(x > 1).
x
x
11.16. .

(0, )
.
, 1 , v(, z) , , z.

V (u, z) =

2 v 1 v 2 v
+
= 0.
+
2 z 2

(11.16.1)

v(, z)J0 (u) d

(11.16.2)

(z > 0).

2V
=
z 2
1


0

2v
2 J0 (u) d =
z

R i e m a n nW e b e r, 1, 134.


0

2 v v
2+
J0 (u) d,

360

2v
2 J0 (u) d =

2V
=
z 2


0

[. xi


v 
J0 (u) + uJ0 (u) d.




v

v J0 (u) + uJ0 (u) d =
uJ0 (u) d = u

 0
= u2
vJ0 (u) d = u2 V,
0

V = A(u)euz + B(u)euz ,

, , B(u) = 0. ,

euz uA(u)J0 (u) du.
v(, z) =
0

,
v
= 0 (z = 0, > 1).
z
f (u) = uA(u)

f (u)J0 (u) du = g()
(0 < < 1),
(11.16.3)
0

uf (u)J0 (u) du = 0
( > 1),
(11.16.4)
v = const (z = 0, 0 < < 1);

g() .
1 .


1s
s
 k+i

2
1
2  s1

ds = g()
F(s)
(0 < < 1), (11.16.5)
1
+
s
2i ki

2


s
1s
 k+i
2

1
  2 s2 ds = 0
F(s)
( > 1),
(11.16.6)
2i ki
s
2
0 < k < 1.
 
2s s
2 
(s),
(11.16.7)
F(s) = 
1

2
1

. I. Busbridge (2).

11.16]

361


 
 k+i s
1
 2  (s)s1 ds = g()
(0 < < 1),
(11.16.8)
2i ki 1 + s
2


 k+i 1 s
1
2

(s)s1 ds = 0
( > 1).
(11.16.9)
2i ki 1 s
2
, -,
(11.16.8) , > 0,
(11.16.9) < 1.
(11.16.8) w , u > 0, 0 1,

 
 k+i s
 1
(s)
1
2


g()w d = G(1 w) (u < k).
ds =
2i ki 1 + s s w
0
2
= k  < u,
 
 
w
 k +i s

(s)
1
2
2 


(w).
ds = G(1 w) 
1
+
w
2i k i 1 + s s w

2
2
u > k  , , u > 0 ( k 
, u).
u > 0 , ,


1
+
w

 2  G(1 w).
(w)
w
2
( ),


1
+
s

 k+i

1
ds
2
  G(1 s)
= 0 (u < k). (11.16.10)
(s)
2i ki
sw
s
2
, (11.16.9) w , u < 0,
1 ,


 k +i 1 s
1
2  (s)

ds = 0
(u > k  ).
2i k i 1 s s w
2

362

[. xi



1 s
2
(s), , (s),
, 
1

2
< 1.
 k +i
1
(s)
ds = 0
(u > k  ).
2i k i s w
= k  = k > u,

 k+i
1
(s)
ds = (w)
(u < k).
(11.16.11)
2i ki s w
(11.16.10) (11.16.11)


 k+i 1 + s
G(1 s)
1
2
(w) =
ds
(u < k),
(11.16.12)
2i ki
sw
s
2
(11.16.7)
f (x).
g() = v0 = const,
 1
v0
s d =
,
G(1 s) = v0
1s
0



 k+i 1 + s
v0
v0
2   ds
(w) =
=
2i ki (1 s) s s w
(1 w)
2
( s = 1).
 
 
s
s
s
s1
v

2
0
v0
2
2
= 
,

F(s) =
(1 s) 1 s
3s
2
2
, (7.9.6),
2v0 sin u
f (u) =
.
(11.16.13)
u


sin u
2v0 zu
e J0 (u)
du =
v=
0
u
2v0
2

=
arcsin 
2
2

( 1) + z + ( + 1)2 + z 2
, .

11.16]

363

1

y f (y)J (xy) dy = g(x)
(0 < x < 1),
(11.16.14)
0

f (y)J (xy) dy = 0
(x > 1).
(11.16.15)
0




 k+i 1 + + s
1
2

 (s)xs1 ds = g(x) (0 < x < 1),
2i ki 1 + + s
2
(11.16.16)


 k+i 1 + s
1
2
 (s)xs1 ds = 0

(x > 1), (11.16.17)
2i ki 1 + + s
2


1
+

+
s
s
2
2
 (s).
F(s) = 
1++s
2
(11.16.16) xw , u > 0, 0 1,



 k+i 1 + + s
 1
(s)
1
2


g(x)xw dx = G( w + 1).
ds =
2i ki 1 + + s s w
0
2
= k  < u,


 k +i 1 + + s
(s)
1
2


ds =
2i k i 1 + + s s w
2


1
++w
2
 (w) + G( + 1 w).
= 
1
+

+
w

2
u > 0, , ,



1++s

 k+i

1
ds
2
 G( + 1 s)

(s)
= 0 (u < k).
2i ki
sw
1++s
2
, (11.16.17), , (11.16.11).
1

. King (1).

364

[. xi


1
+

+
s
k+i
G( + 1 s)
1
2


(w) =
ds =
2i ki
sw
1++s
2


 1
 1
 k+i 1 + + s
1
2
s
 ds

g()
d
sw1 d =
=
1
+

+
s
2i ki
0
0

2


 1
 k+i 1 + + s
s
 1

1
2


=
g() d
w1 d
ds =
2i 0

0
ki
1++s
2

+1

1
 1
 1
2
2 2

w1
=  
1 2
g() d

d =


2

+1

1
 1

2 2
2
w1

1 2
=  

d
g()
d =

0
0

2
 1
 1

2
1
w

d
g()+1 (1 2 ) 2 d.
=  
0
0

2
,


 k+i 2s 1 + + s
1
2
 (s)xs ds =

f (x) =
2i ki 1 + + s
2
 1
 1

1
1
 
=
d
g()+1 (1 2 ) 2 d
0
0
i
2


 k+i 2s 1 + + s
2
 (x)s ds =


1
+

s
ki
2


1  1
1

(2x) 2
1
1+
2 J+ (x) d
g()+1 (1 2 ) 2 d.
=  
2
0
0

2
,
> 0; = 0,
= 1.
, = 1, = 0, g(x) = 1,


f (x) = 2 sin2x cos x .
x
x


11.17]

365

11.17. 1 .


k(x y)f (y) dy
(0 < x < ).
(11.17.1)
f (x) =
0

.
. (w) , 1 < v < 1,

|(u + iv)|2 du < K = K()

1 <  v  < 1 ( , , 5.4, (u + iv) 0 u


).
1 <  v  < 1 1(w)
. , w1 , . . . , wn ,
1 (w)
(11.17.2)
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn ),
1 (w) =
2 (w)
1 (w) v  ,
2 (w) v  ,

n
k
2
,

|1 (w)| > K|w|

|2 (w)| > K|w| 2

(11.17.3)

k , .

k


wi
(w2 + 1)n/2
(w) = 1 (w)
,
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn ) w + i
(w2 + 1)n/2  v  ,
w wn , k
. (w) 1 u , k
, ln (w)
. k, ln (w) ,
u .
 


,
(w) = 1 (w) 1 + O 1
|w|
1

Wiener and Hopf (1). H o p f, Radiative Equilibrium, Chap. IV; ,


, . IV.

366

[. xi

| ln (w)| L2 .
 i+
 i+
ln (z)
ln (z)
1
1
ln (w) =
dz
dz =
2i i z w
2i i z w
= 1 (w) 2 (w)

( < v < ),

0 < < < 1, , (w)


< v  . 1 (w) v >
v  ; , 2 (w)
v  .
n
k

e1 (w) (w i) 2
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn ),
1 (w) = 2 (w)
n
k
e
2
(w + i)
.
, f (x) (11.17.1)
x, k(x) = O(e|x| ), , ,
e|x| k(x) L2 (, ) < 1. ,
f (x) = O(ec|x| )

(0 < c < 1).

F+ (w) v > c, F (w)


v < c K(w) 1 < v < 1.



f (y) (y > 0),
k(xy)f (y) dy =
k(xy)f1 (y) dy, f1 (y) =
0
(y < 0),
0

, 64,


k(x y)f (y) dy =
0

ia+

eixw F+ (w)K(w) dw

(c < a < 1).

ia

(11.17.1)
 ia+




ixw
e
F+ (w) 1 2 K(w) dw +

ia+

ia

ia

eixw F (w) dw = 0.

, a  v  a,



F+ (w) 1 2 K(w) +F (w) = 0.

w1 , . . . , wn 1 2 K(w) a  v  a,
, ,
F+ (w)

1 (w)
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn ) + F (w) = 0,
2 (w)

1 2 .

11.18]

367

F+ (w)
F (w)
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn ) =
,
2 (w)
1 (w)
v  a, v  a. , .
(11.17.3), , n k. ,
2
2 (w)P (w)
F+ (w) =
,
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn )
P (w) , , ,
 ia+
1
2 (w)P (w)
eixw
f (x) =
dw
(w w1 ) . . . (w wn )
2 ia
(11.17.1) ( x < 0).



|x|
1
,
0<<
k(x) = e
2


2
1
K(w) =
e|x|+ixw dx =
,
2
2 1 + w2

2
w2 (2 1)
=
1 2 K(w) = 1
.
1 + w2
w2 + 1

w = 2 1 = w1 , w2 ,

(w w1 )(w w2 )
1 2 K(w) =
,
(w i)(w + i)
1
1 (w) =
, 2 (w) = w + i ,
wi
w+i
F+ (w) = 2
P (w), P (w) = const,
w 2 + 1
 ia+
C
w+i
f (x) =
eixw 2
dw =
w 2 + 1
2 ia

1 2
1 2

x 12 1 +
x 12 1

=C e
e
.
2 1 2
2 1 2
11.18. . .
1
 1
f (t)
f (x) = g(x) +
dt.
(11.18.1)
0 x+t
1

A.C. Dixon (2).

368


 1
f (x) = g(x) +
g(t)(x, t) dt,

[. xi

(11.18.2)

(x, t)
 1
1
(y, t)
(x, t) =
+
dy.
x+t
0 x+y

(11.18.3)

x = e , y = e , t = e
 /2
e
(e , e )
e/2
/2

d,
(e , e ) =
+
e

e +e
0
2 ch
2
, e/2 (e , e ) = (),

e/2
()
() =
d.
+

e +e
0
2 ch
2

(11.18.4)

, () = O(ec|| ), 0 < c < 12 . c < a < 12 .


(11.18.4)
 ia+
 ia+
ixw
e + (w) dw +
eixw (w) dw =
ia

ia

 ia+
  ib+
iw+/2
+ (w)
ixw e

e
eixw
dw +
dw,
=
2 ib
ch w
ch w
ia

12 < b < 12 . b = a. ,

eiw+/2
+ (w) 1

(11.18.5)
2 ch w
ch w
(w) a < v < a. ,
(11.18.5) v < 12 , , + (w)
v < 12 , , ,
ch w . , , = sin , 0 < < 12 .
ch w
 


 


1 i, 3 i, . . . 1 + i, 5 + i, . . . ,
2
2
2
2

+ (w)
 

(w) = 
1
1

iw

+
iw

4
2
4
2
1
v < 2 .

11.19]

369

(11.18.5) 1 ch w

eiw+/2
+ (w) =
2


1
1
w = 2 i, . . . , n + 2 i, . . .


1
1
i =
n+
2
2

e(n+1)
 
 = an .
1

2
2


, ,
 (1)n
i
a
 ,
 n

(w) = 
1
1
n!
i

w+ n+
iw n=0
2
2

, .
(11.18.4)

()
() =
d,
(11.18.6)

0
2 ch
2
(11.17.1).

1 2 K(w) = 1
=
ch w 
 

2 1 iw 1 + iw
2
 
  2
 
=
= 

iw
1

+
iw
1

3 + + iw 3 + iw

4
2
4
2
4
2
4
2
1 (w)  1 iw  1 + iw 
=

,
2
4
2
2 (w) 4


1
2
+ iw
2 
,
1 (w) = 
3 iw 3 + + iw
4
2
4
2
 


3 + iw 3 + iw
4
2
4
2
2 (w) =
1
iw

, 11.17.

370

[. xi

11.19. 1 . , , x, x = 0.
I ( x )
, x.
k , . B ( x) , x.


k
I d


k

B d = kB.

a, x
x x . , x ,
,
, I(x , )a.
I(x, )a x

k(B I) dv
, v .
a 0, 0
 x
k(B I)

I(x , ) = I(x, )
d,
cos
x
, x x,
k(I B)
I
=
.
(11.19.1)
x
cos
,
, ,
.


 2
d
I sin d = 2k
I sin d,
4kB = k
0
1

E.A. Milne (1), Hopf (3); H o p f, Radiative Equilibrium.

11.19]

..

371

2B =

I sin d.

(11.19.2)

k dx
0

(11.19.1)

I B
I
=
.

cos

(11.19.3)

,
I=

cos
e



K
0

cost B(t)
e
dt .
cos

,
, .. I = 0 x = 0, <  .
2




cost B(t)

cos

< .
(11.19.4)
I = e
e
dt
2
cos
0
0 <  K , I
2
, ..



t B(t)
cos
I=e
e cos
dt
0< .
2
cos

(11.19.2)


1 /2 cos
t B(t)
B( ) =
e
sin d
e cos
dt
2 0
cos



1 cos
t B(t)
dt =

e
sin d
e cos
2 /2
cos
0


 /2 t
 t
1
1
cos

B(t) dt
e
tg d
B(t) dt
e cos tg d =
=
2
2
0
0
/2

k( t)B(t) dt,
(11.19.5)
=
0

1
k(x) =
2


0

/2

1
|x|
e cos tg d =
2

|x|

e
d.

, 11.17.
v < 1

372

[. xi





1
e
e
1
ixw
K(w) =
e dx
cos xw dx
d =
d =

2 2
2 0
|x|
x

1
1 arctg w
e
=
sin w d =
,

w
2 w 0
2

arctg w
.
1 2 K(w) = 1
w

1 < v < 1. , 11.17,

arctg w w2 + 1
(w) = 1
,
w
w2
. ,

 i+ 
dz
1
arctg z z 2 + 1
2 (w) =
ln 1
(v < ).
2i i
z
z2
zw
, P (w) = + w, ,
 ia+
1
+ w
B( ) =
ei w+2 (w)
dw.
w2
2 ia
11.20. 1 .
 x
B( ) d = f (x),
0

(11.19.5)
 y


 x+y
1 
1 ey
e

f (t) dt
f  (t) dt =
dy =
dy
f (x) =
2 0
2 0
y
|xt| y
max(0,xy)



1 x ey 
1 ey
=
f (x + y) f (x y) dy +
f (x + y) dy.
2 0 y
2 x
y
(11.20.1)
x


1 ey 

f (x) =
f (x + y) f (x y) dy.
(11.20.2)
2 0
y
155. f (x) = O(ec|x| ), 0 < c < 1, (11.20.2) x, f (x)
.
1

E.A. Milne (1), Hardy and Titchmarsh (1), (2). . Hopf (2).

11.20]

373

. 11.2.
 ia+
 ib+
1
1
ixw
e
F+ (w) dw +
eixw F (w) dw,
f (x) =
2 ia
2 ib
(11.20.3)
c < a < 1, 1 < b < c.
 ia+
2i
eixw F+ (w) sin yw dw . . . ,
f (x + y) f (x y) =
2 ia
 y

e 
f (x + y) f (x y) dy =
y
0
 ia+
 y
2i
e
ixw
=
e
F+ (w) dw
sin yw dy . . . =
y
2 ia
0
 ia+
2i
eixw F+ (w) arctg w dw . . . ,
(11.20.4)
=
2 ia
,
F (w). ,
 ia+
i

f (x) =
eixw F+ (w)w dw . . .
(11.20.5)
2 ia
(11.20.2)
 ia+


eixw F+ (w) w arctg w dw + . . . = 0.
ia

, 141, , F+ (w) F (w)


b  v  a, , ,
, w arctg w;
F+ (w) = F (w). (11.20.3) , f (x) .
,

ec |x| f  (x) L2 (, ) c > c.
, (11.20.2)

1 1 f (x + y) f (x y)

dy +
f (x) =
2 0
y
 1 y

1
e 1
+
f (x + y) f (x y) dy +
2
y

 0 y

(x) (x)
e 
f (x + y) f (x y) dy =
+
.
+
y
2
2
1

374

|f (x)|  Kec|x| ,

 1
 c|x+y|

c|xy|
e
dy +
+e
|(x)|  K
0

[. xi



ey ec|x+y| + ec|xy| dy < Kec|x| .

(x)
 x+1
f (t)
(x) =
dt,
x1 t x
t = x. .
 +2
f (t)
1 (x) =
dt.
2 t x
, (5.3.3),

 +1
2
|1 (x)| dx 


|1 (x)| dx =
2

+2

|f (t)|2 dt.

2
2

, 1 < x < + 1,
 x1
  +2


 

f
(t)
f
(t)
|1 (x) (x)|  
dt + 
dt 
2 t x
x+1 t x
&
&
 x1
 +2
 +2
x1
dt
dt
2

|f (t)| dt +

|f (t)|2 dt <

2
2
2 (t x)
2
x+1 (t x)
x+1
&
+2
<A
|f (t)|2 dt.
2


 +1

2
|(x)| dx < A
1

+2

|f (x)|2 dx < Ke2c|| .

+1

|f  (x)|2 dx < Ke2c|| ,

1
+1

e2c |x| |f  (x)|2 dx < Ke2(cc )|| ,

.
, (11.20.5) a > c
, wF+ (w) L2 (ia , ia + ). ,
(11.20.4) . ,

11.21]

375

sin yw O(eay ) y O(|yw|) |yw|,


O(eay |yw|1/4 ) y w;

 ia+
1/4
|F+ (w)w dw|
e(a1)y y 3/4 dy
ia

. .
1 ,
.
11.21. 2 . , f (x) (1.1.7) ,
(, = a) , . .

sin a(x y)
1
f (y)
dy
(11.21.1)
f (x) =

xy
a x.
(11.2.1), 11.2
, .
, f (x) L2 (, ).

(|x| < a),
sin ax
2
g(x) =
,
G(x) =
x
0 (|x| > a).
(2.1.8)

  a
sin a(x y)
f (y)
eixt F (t) dt.
dy =
2
x

a
,

(11.21.2)

 a
1
eixt F (t) dt,
(11.21.3)
f (x) =
2 a
. . f (x) . , f (x) (11.21.3), F L2 , (11.21.1)
(11.21.2). , :
156. , f (x),
L2 , (11.21.1), ,
(11.21.3), F L2 (a, a).
, (11.21.1), L2 ; , cos bx sin bx ,
a < b < a, , |b| > |a|.
.
1
2

Hardy and Titchmarsh (9).


Bateman (1), Hardy (2), Hardy and Titchmarsh (1), (2).

376

[. xi

f (x)
L2 (, ),
157.
1 + |x|


f (x) cos
f (x) cos
ax dx,
ax dx
x sin
sin
x
. , f (x) (11.21.1),

 a
eixu (u) du,
f (x) = f (0) + x
a

(u) L (a, a).


. ,

 a


2y sin a(x y) sin ay
ixu iyu
iya sgn u

.
e e
du =
e
x
xy
y
a
2

f (x) f (0) = 1

x
2
x
=
2

sin a(x y) sin ay

f (y) dy =
xy
y


 a


f (y)
eixu eiyu eiya sgn u du =
dy
y
a


a

f (y)  iyu
e eiya sgn u dy
eixu du
a
y

. ,
, , |y| < 1,
, eiya sgn u
f (y)
|y| > 1. ,
L2 (, 1) L2 (1, ),
y
 1

f (y)
iyu f (y)
e
eiyu
dy,
dy
y
y

1
. . y , L2 (a, a), .
158.
 a
f (x) = f (0) + x
eixu (u) du,
a

(u)
L(a, a).
a 2 u2

sin ay
1
lim
f (x y)
dy.
f (x) =

y

11.22]

377

. , f (0) = 0.

 a

sin ay
sin ay
f (x y)
(x y)
ei(xy)u (u) du =
dy =
dy
y
y

a


 a
 a
sin
ay
ixu
iyu
ixu
e
(u) du
e
e
(u) du
eiyu sin ay dy.
dy
=x
y
a

 a
x
eixu (u) du = f (x) a

.

 a
ixu
e
(u) du
sin ay sin yu dy =
2i
a
0

 a
sin (a u) sin (a + u)
ixu
= i
e
(u)

du,
au
a+u
a
, .
.
f (x) = sin bx (|b| < a) ; f (x) = sin ax
(11.21.1).
Jn (x)
, 0  m  n m
x
(11.21.1) a = 1. ,
 1
1
Jn (x)
xnm
ixy
2 n 2


=
e
(1

y
)
dy =

xm
1
2n n + 1
2
 1
nm
i
dnm
n 1

eixy nm (1 y 2 ) 2 dy.
= 
dy
1
2n n + 1
2
11.22. 1 . ( )
f (x) =

a2n+1 J2n+1 (x).

(11.22.1)

n=0

f (x) , a2n+1 . (, (7.10.1))




1
(m = n),
J2m+1 (t)J2n+1 (t)
4n
+2
dt =
(11.22.2)
t
0
(m = n).
0
1

, 16.4, Hardy and Titchmarsh (1).

378

[. xi

J2m+1 (t)
0 , t

J2m+1 (t)
a2m+1 = (4m + 2)
f (t)
dt.
(11.22.3)
t
0
(11.22.1)



J2n+1 (t)
(4n + 2)J2n+1 (x)
f (t)
dt =
t
0
n=0


f (t) 
=
(4n + 2)J2n+1 (x)J2n+1 (t) dt =
t n=0
0

, (11.22.1)

( , )

 x

J1 (t v) J1 (t + v)
1
f (t) dt
=
+
J0 (x v) dv =
2 0
tv
t+v
0



J1 (t v) J1 (t + v)
1 x
J0 (x v) dv
f (t)
+
dt,
=
2 0
tv
t+v
0
11.12.


J1 (u)
J1 (u)
f (u + v)
f (u v)
du +
du =
u
u
v
v
 v


 J1 (u)
J1 (u)
f (u + v) + f (u v)
f (v u)
du + 2
du,
=
u
u
0
0
, :
 v
 x
J1 (v u)
J0 (x v) dv
f (u)
du =
vu
0
0
 x
 x
J1 (v u)
=
f (u) du
J0 (x v)
dv =
vu
0
u
 x
 x
=
f (u)J1 (x u) du = f (x)
f  (u)J0 (x u) du.
0

f (x),
 x



 J1 ()
1 x

f ( + u) + f ( u)
f (u)J0 (x u) du =
J0 (x u) du
d.
2 0

0
0
, 150, ,

 J1 ()
1 

f ( + u) + f ( u)
f (u) =
d.
2 0

(11.22.4)

11.23]

379

11.23. (11.22.4) (11.22.1), .


. x > 0, t > 0



(4n + 2) |J2n+1 (x)J2n+1 (t)| = O min(x3 , x5/2 ) min(t3 , t1/2 ) .

n=0

1
Jn (x) = O
x
 
Jn (x) = O 1

x
,
2
( n x),


n


xe
(x/2)n
1
Jn (x) = O
( n x),
=O
n!
n 2n
, ,

1
(n  ex).
Jn (x) = O n
2

(11.23.1)
(11.23.2)

(11.23.3)

(11.23.4)

x > 1, 2ex  t





t/2
ex


n
n
n
O +
O n +
O n =
2
2 t
t
2n+1=3
ex
t/2
2

 At 
x
x
1
=O .
=O +O +O e
t
t
t
1 < x < t < 2ex


n
O(n) +
O n = O(x2 ) = O(x5/2 t1/2 ).
2
2n+1=3
ex
ex


x  1 < t

n 

n
 3

t/2

e
e
x
3
+
=
O n n
O x n n
2
2
t
2n+1=3
t/2
3

x
x
3 At
= O + O(x e ) = O .
t
t
x  1, t  1

2n



e
3 3
= O(x3 t3 ).
O xt
n
2
n=0

380

[. xi

159. f (x) , f (x)


L(, ). ,
(1 + |x|)3/2
f (x) (11.22.1)
(11.22.3), , f (x) (11.22.4).
. , f (x) .
, x



(4n + 2) |J2n+1 (x)J2n+1 (t)| = O min(1, t1/2 ) ,

n=0

.
(11.23.3) , f (x) (11.22.1), ( ) (
0 ). , , 11.22,
. f (x) .
, f (x) (11.22.4), ,
,
f  (u) , , 11.22,
.
11.24. . f (x) 11.22
, (11.22.4)

 J1 ()
1 

d,
(11.24.1)
f (u + ) f (u )
f (u) =
2 0


1
J1 (y)

f (x) =
f (x y)
sgn y dy.
(11.24.2)
2
y
, f (x) .
160. f (x) L2 (, ). ,
(11.24.2) x, ,
 1
eixu (u) du,
f (x) =
1

(u) L2 (1, 1).

11.24]

381

J (x)
. g(x) = 1
sgn x x

x
(|x|  1),
 


J1 (y)
2
2
sgn x

G(x) = i
sin xy dy = i
0

(|x| > 1).


y
|x| + x2 1
, F f ,

  1
J1 (y)
eixt F (t)

f (x y)
dt +
sgn y dy = i 2
|t| + t2 1
y

  1
  ixt
e F (t)
ixt
2

+i
e
tF (t) dt + i 2
dt.
1
1 t + t2 1
12 x
 1
 1
1
1
eixt F (t) dt

eixt F (t) dt +
+
2 |t| + t2 1 t
2 1
 ixt
1
e F (t) dt

+
,
2 1 t + t2 1 t
, III, , f (x) ,
, F (t) 0 |t| > 1.
.
161.
 1
eixu (u) du,
f (x) = f (0) + x
1

(u)

L(1, 1), f (x) (11.24.1).
1 u2
. f (0)
. 1

 J1 ()
1 
f (x + ) f (x )
d =
2 0


 1
1 J1 ()
=
ei(x+)u (u) du
(x + ) d
2 0

1

 1
1
J1 ()

ei(x)u (u) du =
(x ) d
2 0

1
1

, 13.42.

382

[. xi

J1 ()
sin u d +

1
0

 1
ixu
e
(u) du
J1 () cos u d =
+
1
0
 1
 1
ixu
= ix
e
(u)u du +
eixu (u) du = f  (x),

= ix

ixu

(u) du

.
, ix, ;
, ,

 T


K

J1 () cos u d  <

1 u2
0
T .

 T
 T
1
cos cos u
cos (1 u)

d =
d + . . . = O
+ ... ,

1u
1
1
.
f (x) = sin x.
f (x)
L2 (, )
162.
1 + |x|
f (x)
L(, ). , f (x)

(1 + |x|)3/2
,
 1
f (x) = x
eixu (u) du,
1

(u) L2 (1, 1).


. . f (x)
,
(11.22.1),




sin( x)
a2n+1 sin( x)
1
f (x)
dx =
J2n+1 (x) dx =

x

n=0
=

a2n+1 J2n+1 () = f ().

n=0

, f (x) ( a = 1)
1 1.
, - , , -

11.25]

383

.


f (x) a1 J1 (x) sin( x)
1
dx =


x3
x




a2n+1 J2n+1 (x) sin( x)
J2n+1 ()
=

a2n+1
=
dx =
3

x
x
3

n=1
n=1
=

f () a1 J1 ()
.
3

,
11.23 ,

  
 
 


 f (t)
 sin( x)   J2n+1 (x) 







(4n + 2)
 t J2n+1 (t) dt
 x   x3  dx
0

n=1
.
156 ,
 1
f (x) a1 J1 (x)
=
eixu (u) du,
x3
1
(u) L2 (1, 1).

1
f (x) a1 J1 (x)
(u) =
eixu
dx
2
x3

(1 < u < 1),

f (x) a1 J1 (x)
L2 (, ), (u)
x
, L2 . ,

 1
f (x) a1 J1 (x)
ix
ix
ix
ix
eixu (u) du,
= x(ae + be ) + (ce + de ) +
x
1
(u) L2 (1, 1). L2 (, ),
a, b, c d . .
11.25. . 1


f (x) =
(y x)1 f (y) dy
(11.25.1)
() x
.
, , p,
1

Hardy and Titchmarsh (7).

384

[. xi

f (x) x ,


f1 (x) =
f (y) dy, f2 (x) =
f1 (y) dy, . . .
x

(11.25.1)

dp z
= (1)p z,
dxp
z = fp (x).
.
(11.25.1) (11.2.1)

x1 (x > 0),
()
k(x) =
0
(x < 0).
11.2 , k(x) 146. ,
. f (x) = eax ,
: Re a > 0 = a , a e ln a ,
ln a . > 0, a

(r = 0, 1, . . .),
1/ e2ir/




 2r  < .  4, , , < 1,
2
a 1/ . ,
.
163. f (x)
0 < x1  x  x2 . , > 0, 0 < < 1,


f (x) =
f (y)(y x)1 dy
(11.25.2)
() x
x.
f (x) = Ceax ,
a = 1/ C = const.
F(s) f (x),




s1
x dx
f (y)(y x)1 dy =
F(s) =
() 0
x y


(s)
=
f (y) dy
xs1 (y x)1 dx =
F(s + ).
() 0
(s + )
0

11.25]

385

, ,
; ,
, , .
.
1
 c
1

f (x) =
f (y)(y x)1 dy
() x
x. > 0
 c
 c
1
1

1
f (x)(x )
dx =
f (y)(y )+1 dy,
()
( + )
..

(f ) = f+
.

(11.25.3)


 c
 c
1
(x )
dx
f (y)(y x)1 dy =

x
 c
 y
=
f (y) dy
(x )1 (y x)1 dx.

, ,
 c

...

... =
x

...
+

... ,
+

, 0
 +
 y
I=
f (y) dy
(x )1 (y x)1 dx 0

J=

(x )1 (y x)1 dx 0.

f (y) dy
+

()()
I=
( + )

f (y)(y )+1 dy,




f (y)(y )1 dy.

. Bosanquet (1).

386

f (y)(y )

J=
+

(x )

dy

[. xi

yx
y

1
dx,

y,
y = c O( ). J
.
163. f (x)
 c


1
f (y)(y x)
dy +
f (y)(y x)1 dy =
f (x) =
() x
() c

= f (x) + g(x),
c > 1 0 < x  c . , (11.25.3),
2
 c



f (y) + g(y) (y x)1 dy = f2


(x) + g (x),
f (x) =
() x

(x).
f (x) = g(x) + 2 g (x) + 2 f2
,

f (x) = g(x) + 2 g (x) + . . . + n g(n1)


(x) + n fn
(x),

(11.25.4)

 c
1
=
f (y)(y x)n1 dy.
(n) x
n , , n > 1, ,


1 c
|f (y)| dy,
(11.25.5)
|f (x)|  (x) +
2c x
(x) x 0. , f (x) x 0; ,
x, |f (x)|  f (y)
(x  y  c) |f (x)| , , ,

(x), f (x),
(11.25.5). , fn
0  x  c. f (x) x 0 f (0).
(11.25.4) , f  (x)
x = 0.
, , , ,

fn
(x)

f (x) f (0) = O(x)


.

(x 0),

11.25]

387

1


f (x) f (0) xs1 dx +

F(s) =
0

f (x)xs1 dx +

f (0)
,
s

0 < < , , F(s), 1 < < .



f (0)
f (0)xs1 dx =
( < 0),
s
1




F(s) =
f (x) f (0) xs1 dx
(1 < < 0).
0

f (x) f (0) (11.25.2),







s1
x dx
f (y) (y x)1 y 1 dy +
F(s) =
() 0
x
 x


s1
+
x dx
f (y)y 1 dy =
() 0
0
 y




f (y) dy
xs1 (y x)1 y 1 dx +
=
() 0
0



1
+
f (y)y
dy
xs1 dx =
() 0
y

(s)() s+1 y s+1


=
f (y)

y
dy +
() 0
(s + )
s


f (y)y s+1 dy =
+
s() 0

(s)
(s)
=
f (y)y s+1 dy =
F(s + ).
(s + ) 0
(s + )
, , < < 0.
, ,
y  N , , , , ,

 N


s1
(11.25.6)
x dx
f (y) (y x)1 y 1 dy
0

x
N

s1

dx



f (y) (y x)1 y 1 dy

N .

(11.25.7)

388

[. xi

,
!

1 " 



x
1
1
dy = 1
f (y) (y x)
y
1
f (y)y 1 dy;
N
N
N
,
!

1 "
 N
 1


x
1

1
x
1 dx = N
u1 (1 u)1 1 du = O(N )
N
0
0
(11.25.6). (11.25.7)




()
s1
s1
f (x)x dx
x dx
f (y)y 1 dy,

N
N
x
, , .

:
 x

s1
x dx
f (y)y 1 dy =
0
0
"
! s x


1
x
1
f (y)y
dy 
f (x)xs+1 dx,
=
s 0
s 0
0
x .

F(s)
(s) = s/
.
(s)

(s + ) = (s).
, (s) 1 < < 0,
, . ,

f (y)y 1 dy = o(1),
h(x) =
x

f (x)xs1 dx =
1

= O(1) + h(1) + (s )
h(x)xs1 dx =

F(s) = O(1) +

= O(|t|)

(1 < < 0).




(s) = O |t|A e|t|/2

11.26]

389

1 < < 0, , , .



ln z
2i


 /4 A 
O r ln r |z| = r O r/4 lnA 1
r
r 0. , (s) ,
F(s) = C(s)s/ ,
, 32,
 k+i
C
1/
f (x) =
(s)s/ xs ds = Cex
2i ki

(0 < k < ).

11.26. 1 .
f (x),

f (x) dx = 1,

, , 
x2

(x1 , x2 ),

f (x) dx, , , , x1

(x, x + x), x
f (x)x.
, P Q,
, p q, ,
, f (x) g(x). P + Q.
p q ,
p x, f (x), , q y, g(y), , p + q
,


f (x)g(y) =
f (x)g( x),
x, y
x+y=

. . f g.
f (x)x g(y)y



P o l y a (2).

f (x)g( x) dx,

390

[. xi

p + q.
. P { }
, . ,
 x
 x
f (u) du,
P {q  x} =
g(u) du.
P {p  x} =


f1 (x) =

f (u) du,

g1 (x) =

g(u) du




S=
g1 ( n) f1 {(n + 1)} f1 (n) .
n=

p q, n-

, p


n, (n + 1) , q  n; p + q  + .
, p + q  , , n, n  p  (n + 1)
q  n. ,
P {p + q  }  S  P {p + q  + }.
f L, g1 0
x 1 x ,
 (n+1)



f (t) g1 ( t) g1 ( n) dt = 0,
lim
0

n=

lim S =

f (t)g1 ( t) dt.

, p q, ,
,
lim P {p + q  + } = P {p + q  }.

,


f (t)g1 ( t) dt =
P {p + q  } =

f (t) dt

f (t) dt

g(u t) du =

g(x) dx =

du

f (t)g(u t) dt,

.
f (x)
  ,
1 f x . : a a

11.26]

391

 
f (x) 1 f x
a a
?
164. f (x)  0, f (x) x2 f (x) L(, ), x
   

 
xy
y
1f x = 1
f
dy,
(11.26.1)
f
c
c
ab a
b
a, b, c .
c2 = a2 + b2 ,
x
2

1
x
e 2k ,
f (x) =
2k
k .
. ,

xm f (x) dx = Km

m = 0, 1, 2. , (11.26.1),


   

 
xy
y
m
m
1
1
x
dx =
f
dy =
x f
x dx
f
c
c
ab
a
b

   
 
y
m
1
=
dy
f
(y + u) f u du,
ab a
b

m = 0, 1, 2
K0 = K02 ,
cK1 = aK1 K0 + bK0 K1 ,
c2 K2 = a2 K2 K0 + 2abK12 + b2 K0 K2 .

(11.26.2)
(11.26.3)
(11.26.4)

, , , f (x) , (11.26.2) K0 = 1. (11.26.3)


(a + b c)K1 = 0,

(11.26.5)

(c2 a2 b2 )K2 = 2abK12 .

(11.26.6)

(11.26.4)
, ,
K12 < K0 K2 = K2 ,
(11.26.6)
c2 a2 b2 < 2ab,
c < a + b.

392

[. xi

(11.26.5) K1 = 0, (11.26.6)
c 2 = a2 + b 2 .

= b.
= a,
c
c
, (11.26.1) x = c, y = c,
   


1
f
d,
f () =
f

(11.26.7)

2 + 2 = 1.

(x) =

2 F (x) =

(11.26.8)
eixt f (t) dt.

, 41, (11.26.7)
(x) = (x)(x).

(11.26.9)

(11.26.9) ,

(x) = (2 x)(x)(x)( 2 x),
, ,
(x) = (m,1 x)(m,2 x) . . . (m,m x),
m = 2n , m,1 , m,2 , . . . , m,m 2n ( +
+ )n .
2
2
2
+ m,2
+ . . . + m,m
= (2 + 2 )n = 1.
m,1

, m, p q , p + q = n; ,  ,

( = 1, 2, . . . , m)
m,  n
, , max m, 0 m .

f (x), xf (x) x2 f (x) L, (x),  (x)


 (x) ;

(0) =
f (t) dt = K0 = 1,



(0) =
itf (t) dt = K1 = 0,

11.27]



(0) =


393

t2 f (t) dt,

t2 f (t) dt k,

 (0) = k.
x = 0
ln (x) = u(x) + iv(x),
u(x) v(x) ,
u(0) = v(0) = u (0) = v  (0) = 0,

u (0) = k,

v  (0) = 0.

,
ln (x) =

m




u(m, x) + iv(m, x) =

=1
m

x2  2  

=
m, u (m, m, x) + iv  (m,
m, x) ,
2 =1

0 < m, < 1, 0 < m,
< 1. m m, , m, m, , .
,
m

kx2
x2  2 
k + o(1) =
+ o(1),

ln (x) =
2 =1 m,
2

..

kx2
kx
ln (x) =
(x) = e 2 .
2
( 27),

2
kx2
1
1
ixt
x2k
2
f (x) =
e
e
dx =
.
2
2k
, , , ( k).

394

[. xi

11.27. 1 .
, ,  ,

v+v

w+w

f (x) dx.
(v, x) dx v v + v,
v
w
, v, ,
w w + w. ,
, , , v  v  + v 
 v +v

g(x) dx,
v


f (v)(v, v  v) dv.
(11.27.1)
g(v ) =

g f , f


f (v)(v, v  v) dv.
(11.27.2)
f (v ) =

, . , v, ,

dV
= V
( > 0),
dt
t vet . ,
t u, ,
, u u + u,
(u)u, v, ,
v, (u)u. ,
(v, vet v + u) = (u),
(u) v, , , t. v  = vet + u
(v, v  v) = (v  vet ).
,

1

E.A. Milne (2): F o w l e r, Statistical Mechanics, 19.5. , .

11.27]

f (v ) =

f (v)(v  vet ) dv,

, ,

f (x) dx = 1,

395

(x) dx = 1.

F f .


1
iv 

F () =
e dv
f (v)(v  vet ) dv =
2



1

=
f (v) dv
eiv (v  vet ) dv  =
2



1
t
=
f (v) dv
eive +ix (x) dx = 2 F (et )().
2

, (x) , ,
t 0 . , ,
u , (u) = (u), ,
t 0 > 0


2
x (x) dx at,
(x) dx = o(t),
0

a .
, t 0



ix
2 () 1 =
(x)(e 1) dx = 2
(x)(cos x 1) dx =

0




2
2
4
=
x (x) dx +
(x)O(x ) dx + O
(x) dx =
0
0



= 2 at + o(t) + O( 2 t) + o(t),
, , t , ,

2 () 1 2 at.

F (et )[ 2 () 1]
a
F () F (et )
=

F ()
et
et

t 0, . .

a
F  () = F ().

396

[. xi

a
F () = Ce 2 ,
C = F (0) = 1 . ,
2

a 2
1
ix
2 d =
e
f (x) =
2

x
e 2a ,
2a

. . .
,


1
1
F ()
a 2
2t
() =
) ,
=
(1 e
exp
2
2 F (et )
2

&

x2

exp
.
(x) =
2a(1 e2t )
2a(1 e2t )

H. B a t e m a n, Partial Dierential Equations of Mathematical Physics,


Cambridge, 1932.
S. B o c h n e r, Vorlesungen u
ber Fouiriersche Integrale, Leipzig, 1932.
[ : . . . .:
, 1962.]
H. B u r k h a r d t, Trigonometrische Reihen und Integrale, Encyklopadie der Math. Wiss., II, 1 (ii). 8191354.
G.A. C a m p b e l l and R.M. F o s t e r, Fourier Integrals for Practical
Applications, Bell Telephone System Technical Publications, U.S.A., 1931.
H.S. C a r s l a w, Fouriers Series and Integrals, 3rd ed., London, 1930.
H.S. C a r s l a w, Mathematical Theory of the Conduction of Heat in
Solids, 2nd ed., London, 1921. [ : . .
. .: , 1947.]
R. C o u r a n t and D. H i l b e r t, Methoden der mathematischen Physik, I, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1931. [ : . . . . .: , 1951, . I, II.]
J. F o u r i e r, The Analytical Theory of Heat, translated by A. Freeman,
Cambridge, 1878.
R.H. F o w l e r, Statistical Mechanics, 2nd ed., Cambridge, 1936.
G.H. H a r d y, J.E. L i t t l e w o o d and G. P o l y a, Inequalities, mbridge, 1934. [ : .. , ..
. . . .: , 1948.]
W. H o b s o n, The Theory of Functions of a Real Variable, 2nd ed.,
Cambridge, 1925.
E. H o p f, Mathematical Problems of Radiative Equilibrium, Cambridge
tracts, No. 31, 1933.
E.L. I n c e, Ordinary Dierential Equations, London, 1927. [
: .. . .
: , 1939.]
H. J e f f r e y s, Operational Methods in Mathematical Physics, Cambridge tracts, No. 23, 2nd ed., 1931.
H. L a m b, Hydrodynamics, 6th ed., Cambridge, 1932. [ : . . . .: , 1947.]

398

H. L e b e s g u e, Lecons sur les series trigonometriques. Paris, 1906.


S. M a n d e l b r o j t, Series de Fourier et classes quasi-analytiques de
fonctions, Paris, 1935,
R.E.A.C. P a l e y and N. W i e n e r, Fourier Transforms in the Complex Domain, American Math. Soc. Colloquium Publications, XIX, New York,
1934. [ : . . .
. .: , 1964.]
M.H. S t o n e, Linear Transformations in Hilbert Space, and their Applications to Analysis, American Math. Soc. Colloquium Publications, XV,
New York, 1932.
E.C. T i t c h m a r s h, The Theory of Functions. Oxford, 1932. [
: .. . . .: , 1980.]
L. T o n e l l i, Serie trigonometriche, Bologna, 1928.
C. d e l a V a l l e e - P o u s s i n, Cours danalyse innitesimale, 3rd ed.,
Louvain, 1914.
G.N. W a t s o n, Theory of Bessel Functions, Cambridge, 1922. [
: .. . . .: , 1949.] ( .)
H. W e b e r, Die partiellen Dierential-Gleichungen der mathematischen Physik, nach Riemanns Vorlesungen, Braunschweig, 1900. (
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R. B a d e s c u
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W.N. B a i l e y
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399

(3) On a function which is its own reciprocal in the FourierBessel integral


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E.W. B a r n e s
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H. B a t e m a n
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(2) Report on the history and present state of the theory of integral equations.
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The solution of partial dierential equations by means of denite integrals,
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Some simple denite integrals derived from the formulae of Fourier and Abel,
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The solution of linear dierential equations by means of denite integrals,
Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc. 21 (1912), 171-196.
An integral equation occurring in a mathematical theory of retail trade,
Messenger of Math. 49 (1920), 134137.
The equation for the transverse vibrations of thin rods, Messenger of Math.
57 (1928), 145154.

F. B e r n s t e i n

4

das Fourierintegral 0 ex cos tx dx, Math. Annalen, 79 (1919), 265


(1) Uber
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(2) Die Integralgleichung der elliptischen Thetanullfunktion, Berliner Sitzungsberichte (1920), 735747.

F. B e r n s t e i n and G. D o e t s c h
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A.C. B e r r y
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R.P. B o a s
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400

S. B o c h n e r
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(2) Uber
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S. B o c h n e r and G.H. H a r d y
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L.S. B o s a u q u e t
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F.W. B r a d l e y
(1) An extension of the FourierBessel integral, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2)
41 (1936), 209214.

T.J.I.A. B r o m w i c h
(1) Normal coordinates in dynamical systems, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 15
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T.A. B r o w n
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P.J. B r o w n e
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J.C. B u r k i l l
(1) On Mellins inversion formula, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 23 (1926), 256260.
(2) The expression in Stieltjes integrals of the inversion formulae of Fourier and
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I.W. B u s b r i d g e
(1) On general transforms with kernels of the Fourier type, Journal London
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(2) Dual integral equations, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 44 (1938), 115129.

E. C a h e n

(1) Sur la fonction (s) de Riemann et sur des functions analogues. Ann. de lE.
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B.H. C a m p
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401

G. C a n t o r

trigonometrische Reihen, Math. Annalen, 4 (1871), 139143. (Werke,


(1) Uber
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F. C a r l s o n
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H.S. C a r s l a w
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L. C a s p e r

eine Erwelterung der Fourierschen Integralformel, Jahresbericht D.M.V.


(1) Uber
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A.L. C a u c h y
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(2) Memoire sur lintegration des equations lineaires, Oevres, Ser. 2, 1, 275357.
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J. C o s s a r
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L. C r i j n s
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D.P. D a l z e l l
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A.C. D i x o n
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Soc. (2) 22 (1923), 201222.
(2) On the solving nuclei of certain integral equations whose nuclei are homogeneous and of degree 1, and the solution of a class of linear functional
equations, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 27 (1926), 233272.

A.L. D i x o n and W.L. F e r r a r


(1) Innite integrals of Bessel functions, Quart. J. of Math. (Oxford), 6 (1935),
161174.

G. D o e t s c h
(1) Die Integrodierentialgleichungen vom Faltungstypus, Math. Annalen 89
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402

(2) Bemerkung zu der Arbeit von V. Fock, Math. Zeitschrift, 24 (1925), 785
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(3) Probleme aus der Theorie der Warmeleitung II, Math. Zeitschrift, 22 (1925),
293306.

(4) Die Anwendung von Funktionaltransformationen in der Theorie der Dierentialgleichungen und die symbolische Methode (Operatorenkalk
ul), Jahresbericht D.M.V., 43 (1934), 238251.

W. D o r n
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H. E y r a u d
(1) La sommation des integrales divergentes dans la theorie des spectres, Comptes rendus, 190 (1930), 254256.

W.L. F e r r a r
(1) Summation formulae and their relation to Dirichlets series, Compositio
Math. 1 (1935), 344360.

(2) Summation formulae and their relation to Dirichlets series, II, Gompositio
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V. F o c k

eine Klasse von Integralgleichungen, Math. Zeitschrift, 21 (1924), 161


(1) Uber
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R.H. F o w l e r
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C. F o x
(1) A generalization of the FourierBessel transform, Proc. London Math. Soc.
(2) 29 (1929), 401452.
(2) A note on Hankels theorem, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 30 (1929), 1822.

(3) Applications of Mellins transformation to integral equations, Proc. London


Math. Soc. (2) 38 (1935), 495502.

R. G i b r a t
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197 (1933). 1571-1574.

S. G o l d s t e i n
(1) Note on the operational solution of an integral equation, Journal London
Math. Soc. 6 (1931), 262268.

(2) Some two-dimensional diusion problems with circular symmetry. Proc.


London Math. Soc. 34 (1932), 5188.

(3) Operational representations of Whittakers conuent hypergeometric function and Webers parabolic cylinder function, Proc. London Math. Soc. (3)
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403

G. G r a z i a n i
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M.E. G r i m s h a w
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H. H a h n

die Methode der arithmetischen Mittel in der Theorie der verallgemein(1) Uber
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eine Verallgemeinerung der Fourierschen Integralformel, Acta Math. 49


(2) Uber
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G.H. H a r d y

1
2
2
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(5)
(6)
(7)

41 (1911), 102109.
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(8)
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(1919), 8591.
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(13) Some formulae in the theory of Bessel functions, London Math. Soc. Records.
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(14) On Hilbert transforms, Messenger of Math. 54 (1924), 2027 8188.

404

(15) The lattice points of a circle, Proc. Roy. Soc. (A) 107 (1925), 623635.
(16) Some further applications of Mellins inversion formula, Messenger of Math.
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(17) A discontinuous integral, Messenger of Math. 57 (1928), 113120.

(18) Summation of a series of polynomials of Laguerre, Journal London Math.


Soc. 7 (1932), 138139.
(19) A theorem concerning Fourier transforms. Journal London Math. Soc. 8
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G.H. H a r d y and E. L a n d a u
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G.H. H a r d y and J.E. L i t t l e w o o d
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(2) A point in the theory of conjugate functions, Journal London Math. Soc. 4
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G.H. H a r d y and E.C. T i t c h m a r s h


(1) Solutions of some integral equations considered by Bateman, Kapteyn, Littlewood, and Milne, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 23 (1924), 126.
(2) Additional note on certain integral equations, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2)
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(4) Self-reciprocal functions, Quart. J. of Math. (Oxford), 1 (1930), 196231.

(5) A note on Parsevals theorem for Fourier transforms, Journal London Math.
Soc. 6 (1931), 4448.
(6) Formulae connecting dierent classes of self-reciprocal functions, Proc.
London Math. Soc. (2) 33 (1931), 225232.
(7) An integral equation, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 28 (1932), 165173.

(8) A class of Fourier kernels, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 35 (1933), 116155.
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115.

F. H a u s d o r f f
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A.E. H e i n s
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E. H i l b

Integraldarstellung willk
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E. H i l l e
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E. H i l l e and J.D. T a m a r k i n
(1) On the theory of Laplace integrals, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci, U.S.A. 19 (1933),
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(2) On a theorem of Paley and Wiener, Annals of Math. (2) 34 (1933), 606614.
(3) On the theory of Fourier transforms. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 39 (1933),
768774.

(4) A remark on Fourier transforms and functions analytic in a half-plane, Compositio Math. 1 (1934), 98102.

(5) On the absolute integrabiHty of Fourier transforms, Fundamenta Math. 25


(1935), 329352.

E. H i l l e, A.C. O f f o r d and J.D. T a m a r k i n


(1) Some observations on the theory of Fourier transforms, Bull. Amer. Math.
Soc. 41 (1935), 427436.

E.W. H o b s o n
(1) On a general convergence theorem, and the theory of the representation of a
function by series of normal functions, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 6 (1908),
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E. H o p f

lineare Integralgleichungen mit positivem Kern, Sitz. Berlin, Akad.


(1) Uber
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eine Klasse singularer Integralgleichungen; Bemerkungen zur Methode


(2) Uber
von Hardy und Titchmarsh, Journal London Math. Soc. 4 (1929), 2327.
(3) Mathematisches zur Strahlungsgleichgewichtstheorie der Fixsternatmospharen. Math. Zeitschrift 33 (1931), 109.

P. H u m b e r t
(1) Sur les integrales de Fresnel, Mathematica 10 (1935), 3236 (Zentralblatt
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A.E. I n g h a m
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406

die Summierbarkeit der Fourierschen Integralformel, Tohoku Math.


(2) Uber
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(4) On Hankel transforms, Proc. Acad. Tokyo 5 (1929), 113115.

(5) Hankel transforms, Tohoku Math. Journal, 32 (1929), 5458.


(6) Remarks on Fourier integrals, Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University (1) 23 (1934), 484490.
(7) On the generalized Fourier integrals, Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial
University, 23 (1935), 880919.
(8) On Wieners proof of Plancherels theorem, Science Reports Tohoku 24
(1935), 5562.
(9) A remark on an integral equation, Proc. Imp. Acad. Tokyo 11 (1935), 210
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(10) On the Wieners formula, Science Reports Tohoku 24 (1935), 6376.

S. I z u m i and T. K i t a g a w a
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(3) On the linear operations, Tohoku Math: Journal 42 (1936), 5464.

M. J a c o b

die Ces`arosche Summierbarkeit des Fourierschen Integrales, Bull.


(1) Uber
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den Eindeutigkeitssatz in der Theorie der trigonometrischen Integrale,


(2) Uber
Math. Annalen 97 (1927), 663674.

den Eindeutigkeitssatz in der Theorie der verallgemeinerten trigono(3) Uber


metrischen Integrale, Math. Annalen 100 (1928), 278294.

die Summierbarkeit von Fourierschen Reihen und Integralen, Math.


(4) Uber
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S. K a c z m a r z
(1) Note on general transforms, Studia Math. 4 (1933), 146151.
T. K a m e d a
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L.V. K i n g
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..
(1) ,
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407

B. K u t t n e r
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H. L e b e s g u e
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N. L e v i n s o n
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P. L e v y
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(2) Sur une application de la derivee dordre non entier au calcul des probabilites,
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(3) Sur une equation integrale consideree par M. Picard, Bull. Sc. Math. (2) 52
(1928), 156160.

E.H. L i n f o o t
(1) A suciency condition for Poissons formula, Journal London Math. Soc. 4
(1928), 5461.

J.E. L i t t l e w o o d
(1) On a theorem of Kolmogoro, Journal London Math. Soc. 1 (1926), 229231.
H.M. M a c d o n a l d
(1) Some applications of Fouriers theorem, Proc. London Math. Soc. (1) 35
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M.S. M a c p h a i l and E.C. T i t c h m a r s h


(1) The summability of Fouriers integral, Journal London Math. Soc. 11 (1936),
313318.

M. M a t h i a s

positive Fourier-Integrale, Math. Zeitschrift 16 (1923), 103125.


(1) Uber
.. ..
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B.M. M e h r o t r a
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(3) A few self-reciprocal functions, Broc. Physico-Math. Soc. of Japan (3) 16
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408

(4) A list of self-reciprocal functions, Journal Indian Math. Soc. (New Series) 1
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(6)
(7)

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Some denite integrals involving self-reciprocal functions, Bull. Amer. Math.
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Theorems connecting dierent classes of self-reciprocal functions, Proc.
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An integral representing self-reciprocal functions, Bull. Calcutta Math. Soc.
26 (1934), 3538.
Self-reciprocal functions, Tohoku Math. Journal 40 (1935), 451485.

(8)
(9) A brief history of self-reciprocal functions, Journal Indian Math. Soc. (New
Series). 1 (1934), 209227.

H. M e l l i n

die fundamentale Wichtigkeit des Satzes von Cauchy f


ur die Theorien
(1) Uber
der Gamma- und der hypergeometrischen Funktionen, Acta Soc. Fennicae,
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den Zusammenhang zwischen den linearen Dierential- und Dieren(2) Uber


zengleichungen, Acta Math. 25 (1902), 139164.
(3) Eine Formel fur den Logarithmus transcendenter Functionen von endlichem
Geschlecht, Acta Math. 25 (1902), 165183.
(4) Abriss einer einheitlichen Theorie der Gamma- und der hypergeometrischen
Funktionen, Math. Annalen 68 (1910), 305337.

A. M i l n e
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32 (1914), 214.

E.A. M i l n e
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S.C. M i t r a
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function, Journal London Math. Soc. 11 (1936), 252256.

L.J. M o r d e l l
(1) Poissons summation formula and the Riemann zeta-function, Journal London Math. Soc. 4 (1928), 285291.
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G.W. M o r g a n
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409

(2) On the convergence of transform integrals, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 41
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..
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J. N e u f e l d
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(2) On multiplication of operational expressions. Tohoku Math. Journal 40
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F. N e v a n l i n n a

die Summation der Fourierschen Reihen und Integrale, Finska Vet. Soc.
(1) Uber
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J.W. N i c h o l s o n
(1) Generalisation of a theorem due to Sonine, Quart. J. of Math. 48 (1920),
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(2) A problem in the theory of heat conduction, Proc. Royal Soc. (A) 100 (1921),
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A.C. O f f o r d
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(2) On Hankel transforms, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 39 (1935), 4967.
(3) The uniqueness of a certain trigonometrical integral, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.
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(4) On Fourier transforms II, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 40 (1935), 281289.

(5) On Fourier transforms III, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 38 (1935), 250266.
(6) Note on the uniqueness of the representation of a function by a trigonometric
integral, Journal London Math. Soc. 11 (1936), 171174.
(7) On the uniqueness of the representation of a function by a trigonometric
integral, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 42 (1937), 422480.

A. O p p e n h e i m
(1) Some identities in the theory of numbers, Proc. London Math. Soc. (2) 26
(1927), 295350.

L. O r l a n d o
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(2) Nuove osservazioni sulla formula integrale di Fourier, Rom. Accad. L. Rend.
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(3) Sopra un nuovo aspetto della formula integrale di Fourier, Rom. Accad. L.
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410

W.M.F. O r r
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P.M. O w e n
(1) The Riemannian theory of Hankel transforms. Proc. London Math. Soc. (2)
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R.E.A.C. P a l e y and N. W i e n e r
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E.G. P h i l l i p s
(1) Note on a problem of Ramanujan, Journal London Math. Soc. 4 (1929),
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E. P i c a r d
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E. S c h m i d t

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: , ,
(/), .

15, 4 .:

n=0
n=1
(x2 y 2 )/2

104, 3 .: e

q
q1

(x y )/2
e

2
q


1

q1
x
146, 3 .: x
156, 8 .: O(x2 ) O(X 2 )






2y + 1 
2y + 1 
213, 5 .: 


x
x 
y cos xt
y cos xt
222, 7 .:

(x + u)2 + t2
(x + u)2 + y 2
y cos xt
y cos xt
222, 6 .:

(x u)2 + t2
(x u)2 + y 2
 2k
 2k
231, 6 .: d
d
dt
dr
 2k
 2k
231, 7 .: d
d
dt
dr
245, 9 .: F (x) F (u)
2 
s

3 
s

2
2
269, 4 .: 3 3
32
282, 13 .: a2 = 12 a3 = 12
 x

1
1
286, 2 .:
sin(t ln x) dt =
sin(t ln x) dt =

x ln
x ln x
0
0
293, 6 .: 0 (x > 0) 0 (x > u)


2
301, 5 .:
2
x

308, 3 .: k1 (x) k1 (u)






314, 8 .: sin x sin y
2
4
2
4
i cos (pq cos )
i cos (pq cos )
315, 6 .: e
e


1
323, 11 .:
|f (x)|x
dx
|f (x)|x1 dx

418

335, 1 .: n(+ r + 1) (n + r + 1)


341, 1 .:
... =
. . . dx =
b
b

344, 9 .: J (xy) xu J (xu) xu


363, 9 .: vx (0, t) iv(0, t) vx (0, t) + iv(0, t)


"
2 i (x t)}
2 i (x t)}
ch{ 
ch{ 
368, 3 .:

ch( 2 i t)
ch( 2 i t)
369, 11 .: veii dt veit dt




372, 9 .: t veix i veix

380, 9 .: 2r 2 r
381, 6 .: a, f (x + b ) a, f () (x + b )
382, 6 .: (Oec|x| ) O(ec|x| )

2: G(u)K(u)
2
G(u)K(u)
389, 15 .:

1 2 : K(u)
1 2 K(u)
393, 3 .: K(u) K(x)
393, 3 .: M (u) M (x)
395, 2 .: us du us ds
400, 4 .: eixu du eixu dx
400, 3 .: eixu du eixu dx
izu
izu
1
413, 2 .: 1 e
e
iz
iz
2J1 (t x)
2J1 (t x)
419, 10 .:

tx
tx
423, 4 .: J0 (u) du J0 (u) d
426, 3 .: s ds s d

437, 8 .: cos xw dw
cos xw dx
0

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