Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 100

-V

.-

................................................................................................
2
1. :
?
6
2. - ....
26
3. - : ..................
42
4. ?
60
5.
81
6. :
101
7.
115
8. :

131
9.
149
10. :

163

-, ^


, , : ,
?
, : , - :
, , , ?
, , , , : .
? - .
. , - .
?
: . ,
. , . ... - .
... ? - .
, . , , .
?...
, ! . ,
, !
,
?
, - , - - , ?
,
, - .
, - . -
, ? , .
, .
, - .
, . -
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
,
- 2

, , ,
, . , ,
,
, ,
, , , .
;
, ,
, ,
, .
, .
: , ...
, , , . ,
, , .

, , , ,
, ,
.
, , , , .
.

. 1 : ? , ,
. 2 , , , ( ),
. 4
3

.

,
,
.
,
,
, , -
.
, ( 3),
( 5), (
6), ( 7), ( 8)
( 9). , ,
, ,
, , , .
,
, , , .
,
.. .
,
. , , ,
, )
, ,
, .
, , , . , , - 1895. , , , ,
4

. , ,
.
, .

1. :
?

:
, , ,
,
, . , ,
, 1.
, ,
1930- , , , . : ?
, . ,
. . ,
, , . , , ,
,
- ,
- , , .

,
,
.
, , -

2
, Continuum. , , , , , , , -
, ,
.

, , , . ...
, , ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
- ,
- ,
, ,
,
-
, ,
. ,
,
, , , :
, ?
,
,
, , ,
, .

Murray
Kempton (19171997)

,
.
?

.
, - (
)
Zeitgeist. , ,
.
- - -
,
3.
? ,
, ,
:
,
. , ,
, , ,
, ,
: , , 4.
400
. .
, , . :
, , .
, ,
, . , , : , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, -... , ,

, , .
,
, : ,
, . ,
-,
. , ,
,
, , , , 5.
, : , , . ,
, , , ,

, ,
, ,
-
- 6.
, ,
,
.
,
.
7 Demystifying Therapy* , , ,

8 A
l

, , , , ,
-. ,
, ,
, , , , , , ,

,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
, ?
, ,
. ,

,
, ,
. , ,
, .
, , -, . ,
,
,
- . ,
,
"". ,
,
-
.
.
10

, ,
, , .
, ,
, , , , , , ,
,
.
, , , ,
,
,
, ,
. ,
9. , , .
,
, () , , *
.
, ,
, -
( ) , . ,
-,
. , , ,

, , , , . ,
,
, ( ) . , ,
11

, , ,
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
, -. !
, , , , ,
? , .
, , , , , , , ,
.
. , - ,,,
, , , -
,
,
, ,
, ,
?
, ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
, . ?
,
, , . ,
12

,
:
10. , , , .
11. ,
,
, , ,
.
12.
,
.
, , , .
,
, ,
( )
; ,
(, , ),
.
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
10.
, ,
, ,
. , 68- , . - , -
, .
, , - ,

. 13

pa, , , ,
,
.
,
?
, , , ,
, ,
,
, - , , .
, , - ,
,
,
.
, , . ,
,


, , , .
, , ( ).
,
,
, -
.
,
, , ..
-
, , ,
,
. ,
, -}
. .
,
, , ,
14

: , (
). ,
, - -
, .
,
. ,
, ,

. , , ,
, .
,
. , 11. , ,
, , , , , ,
( , ,
) , , ,
- ,
,
,
, .
? , , , , .
, , ,
, . ,
, ,

. ,
(
) , ,
11.
15


, /
, / , / , / , / , / , / / .
,

. ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
,
,
,
, , ,
,
,
,
- .
, ,
,
,
j
,
,
j
, i ,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
, , -
, ,
, , (
) , ,
, 16

,

, HI
. , ,

( ,
) ,
, -
. , , , , ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
i4)i
, ,
,
,
Til ( ),
', .
,
( )
, ,

,
. ,
, , ,
,
, - ,
. ,
; , ,
.
, , ,
, , -, 17

, , ,
.
, , , , I
, ,

, , ,
, . , ,
,

, , , ,
, ,

.
,
, ,
, . ,
, , , ,
. , , - .
,

, .
? ? , , . , , , , , , , ,
, , .

( )
.
,
iii.i , , ( )
. , -

, ,
, ,

, , ,
.
,
, , , ,
i.i ?
? .
? . , ,
? .
? (
) , ,
,
, . ,
, ,
? . , .
,
(, , ) .
. , , , ,

, , .

1

. i(
, ,
- , J
, ,
, .
, ,
, , , >
, , ,

(, )
) *
.
, (
,
-),
,
, ,
* 12. ,

,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , .
Est - " -".
, ,
, , , -,
, , , , , ..
20

-, ,
(>himb ( ).
,
,
, , ,
, . >
,
,
, .

: 6
, : , ,
, ,
on ,
,
; ,
( , , ,
. ,
,
, ?
, , , . ,
, ( ). , ,
, , ,
, , -
, ,
, , , ,
, .
, : , , . ,
, 21

. , 1
,
, , ? , ,
?

? ?
? ?
,
, ,
, , ,
.
,
,

. ,
,

,
, ,
,

,
.
, ,
,
*
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
.
- , '
- ( ).
, , <
.
, (, ) ,
(

, 1.
, -i
). , ,
.
: ?
, ,
: . -i
, -iiii
. , ,
-
,
. ,

. , ,
-,

, ,
, in
. , , ,
, , xoi
,
,
, ,
, .

,
. ,
, ,
, , , :
?
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
- 2
2

. , <hew come we keep making the same mistakes?', in Psychotherapy in


,
Amlmlia, 6(1): 16-22.
,
, ,
The quote by Murray Kempton appears in R. Baker, (1999) 'Decline and
. , i
lull' New York Review of Books, XLVI (3) 4-6.

Tlw School of Psychotherapy and Counselling at Regent's College has re> riiily begun to offer intensive programmes focusing on mediation and alterna
1
dispute resolution for lawyers and family mediators. Uniquely, the courses
"
Her approach that relies upon existential psychotherapy. A summary of its

i 'piitach was prepared fur the British Parliament's Hansard Society and was co ,
iihorcd by Coleman, ., Coleman, S., Spinelli, E. and Strasser, F. (2000)
.nif.ht in the middle: training MP's in dispute resolution', in Power, G. (ed.)
|
uh-r Pressure: Are we Getting the Most from our MPs?. London: Hansard
,
t'lety Publications, pp. 37-44.
.
Sartre, J.-P. (1943) Being and Nothingness, trans. H. Barnes. New York:
.
Philosophical Library (1956).
4
.
i
Coue, E. (1922) Self-MasteKy Through Auto Suggestion. New York: h
, , eiiNlngcr (1997). The original 'self-mastery' mantra is, of course, 'Every day, in
vvni way, I get better and better'.
Muhrer, A. (1998) 'Embarrassing problems for the field of psychotherapy',
,
HI'S
Psychotherapy Section Newsletter, 23: 3-25.
, ^
* Nietzsche, F. (1961) Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trans, by R. J. Hollingdale.
, )] Hnimoiidsworth: Penguin (1969).
] Spinelli, E. (1994) Demystifying Therapy. London: Constable. Ibid. The
^ reference section of the text contains numerous sources dealing with
, psychotherapy research.
excellent sources for further study of this point are: Rom, A. and Fonagy,
, ,
V
(1996)
What Works For Whom: A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Re-u - ,
nn-h. New York: Guilford; Miller, S. (20O0) 'The myth of the magic pill', Psy-.
, , bnthcrapy in Australia, 6(3): 36-42; Pilgrim, D. (2000) 'More questions than
, . i were', The Psychologist, 13(6): 302-5.
!
lor good summary discussions of these views readers should turn to the
^ relevant chapters in Woolfe, R. and Dryden' W. (eds) (1996) Handbook of
, ('tmnselling Psychology. London: Sage.
The term 'existence tension' was coined by Bill Wahl (1999) (personal
, - ,
communication to author) who also kindly provided me with 'a preliminary list
.
; ul those tensions which are intrinsic to human consciousness and existence'.
. - ,
Spinelli, E. (1996) 'Existential-phenomenology for the consumer age: the
, .
piomise and failure of est', Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 7(1):
,' 25.

1
Celebrating mediocrity: what has happened to psycho
therapy?

Some of the material covered in this chapter was first presented


various talks that I gave throughout 1999 and 2000. Some sections wen
previously published under the title 'If there are so many psychotherapiei
24

25

2.
, .
,
,
.

? , , ,
,
, , ,
, , ? , ,
,
, ?
, ,
, , -*
, ,
? , (
) ,
?

, ,
?
, ,
-
, , ?
, - - , , , -
, ,
,
?
,
, - -
, , , ,
, ,


, ,

?
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, :
, . , .
, ; ,
,
.
, . ,
, , ,

.
, ,
, ,
, .
, , -, ,
,
, , , .
,
,
.
, -
. ,
, , , 27

, , , . , ,

, 2. ,
,

,
, , ,
3.
,
, , ,

- , . , , - (
) .
,

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. ,

, , ,
.


, , , . , , .
28

,
( -) , 1974
. , - , . , , i
, -i

, ,
, , , -
,
. , , ,
, ,
, . , , , ,
- , ->,
, , Htmi.iituHCb
. , !
( )
,
,
. , ,
,

. ,
, : !
? , ,
: ,
, , ?
, w ,
29

, . , , ,
.
, , , , I
. , , ,
, , ]
!
. , ,
,
, ,
, . ,

,

,
, -|
.
, ,
-, . -, ,

. , ,
, ,
, ,
, . , ,
,
- ,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
:
- -
,

? -, ,
, , , -, , , , v
, .
, ,
? , ,
, -
-,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. , , ,
, -
, , ,
, ,
.
,
, yi
,
,
. , ,
, ,
i
, , ,
, ,
- -
, . ,
, , - , , -
,
,
,
.
,
31
30

, !
, , , ,
, . 3TOMJ
.
, , <
,
, , !
, . <
, !
*
, ,
, !
?
, ,
, . , , , ,

, .
.
- , ,
^
- , .
, !
, , , *
, , , ,
, .
,
. , ,
,
.
, , .
, . ,
, -

, ,
, , -,
. , ,
,
. ,
, in
, ,
,

, , , .

,
, - |
. ,
.
|
'
. , ,
-1.
- ,
,
, , , . ,
, , .
,
. , ,
, )
, -
.
, ,
,,.,- . , , . , , - , ,
, .
.
,
, , - , - , ,
,
, , , ,

3
2

,
.

.
, . -
, ,
, ,
, - .
)

, -i"iii.iio
, ( -iii.no
),
. -Miio
, , ,
, dpnioM

Don't Look Now(He ) 5.
-"
,
<11, .
, , ,
,
, . (, , ), , -i i
, , , ( i
)
,
, -

.

,
,
.
, , -. ,
,
. , ?


. , , ,
-



,

, ,
, . |
. , , &

. >
, , , oi
. .
<
, {
,
,
.
(, ),
,
, -
,
, . , ,

, ,
, .
,
,

, <
,
3
.
4

.
: -, - w
-6. ,
,
. -,
,
:

13. -
,
.
, - , ?
14. -
,
. BOC-J
, - , |
?
1
15. -
,
. 1
?
I
'
, , -^

. ,
, - , )
,
, . , , ,
, ,
, , 8
,
.
, ,
, , , !
, , ,
, .
, , , )
, , , ,
, - , <

,
. , , , ,
, , , , ! .
, -, ,
, ----- ,
.
( ,
-
, ,
. , ,
'1 .
11
', , -
, IPIH.HOM .
, ,
1, , in
- -. t
-
, , , ,
( ,
),
piim, ,
.
11 , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
3

,
, , , , . ,
, , , ,
.
,
, , (-
), ,
. ,
, 8.
,
, , , , ,
. , -
, .
,
,
,
,
, ,
. , -
- ( ) , - ,
, , , - ,
.

V , -
,
, , i
m'toM ,
-
, -
, HIM,
, -'.
. -
, - -
(
) .
HI. , i
, I

. , -i'i.io
, . |ip,
,
(
). .... ,
; , ,
, - -ti
.
, , , >
pi
, , ,
( , -
- I
. , ,
, 11.1
, , -

,
,
, , " ">.
, ,
. ,
3

,
( ), ,
, .

,
, !
, ,
(
!)
, , ,
,

.
I
,
, .
,
,



. , , ,
,
,
,

,
,
.
,
!
,

.
I

? , . I
2

disclose or to not disclose - that is the question I


My 1994 Chair's Address to the Society for Existential Analysii forms
an earlier version of this chapter. The talk was published under thJ

lillc 'On disclosure', Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis,


6(1): .',-19.
For examples of Freud's fairly regular and consistent stretching and breaking of various fundamental 'rules' of psychoanalysis, see: Roazen, P. (1974)
Freud and His Followers. Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian. (1976); Gay, P.
(I ''88) Freud: a Life for our Time. London: J. M. Dent & Sons; Webster, R.
(IW5) Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis. London:
I liuperColIins.
For discussions on disclosure by psychoanalytic 'insiders' see: Fenichel, O.
(6) The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. London: Routledge & Kegan
'mil (1982); Fine, R. (1979) A History of Psychoanalysis. Guildford, Surrey: 1
(tlumbia University Press.
For a sound discussion of Robert Langs' derivative theory of communicaHvc psychoanalysis, see Smith, D. L. (1991) Hidden Conversations: An Introduction to Communicative Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge.
* Shaffer, J. B. P. (1978) Humanistic Psychology. London: Prentice-Hall. 6
Roeg, N. (director) (1973) Don't Look Now. London: British Lion Films.
Cf. Spinelli, Demystifying Therapy. 1
Ibid. " Ibid.

r
%

3. - :
?
,
, .
,
,
.
, , , ,
, . ( , ) :

16. - , , .
17. - , . - j
( ).

18. .
(-) .

19. , , .
. , , ;
.
20. , , . , -'
- .
21. ,
, , , .
;
,
. , , ,
, - (

).
I
22. , , |
.
.
,
, - -

, .

. , ,
-' ,
- - ,
- , . , -
- , , -
, , ,
,
, ,
,
in
, - . -1.
, , in-HI,
, , -,
, ,
:
.
) , -,
|
.
, , ,
, , ,
, . , i , i
, , ,
, -
11, , ( , )
. , , -|
, .
, , , , , ,
. , , . , , 43

,

.


.

-,
.
,
,
, ,
- -
,
, 1.
, <
, , ;

2. ]
, ,
( ) ,
, ,
() , ;
. , ,
, ,
, . , ,
X , , X,
X ,
.
,
, ,
-
X - X. , ,
, IQ,
]
3.

,

{ - ,

44

, , , .
lo, , , . 1
, , , , , i |
1 <
. ,
', , , .
, , !
>< , ,
, , 4.
, , ,
,
' , ,
.
. , , , .
,
,
, , .
, . , , ,
, ( , /ipyi
, ) ,
- . , ,
,
, , ,
, . V i
,
- . , 45

, -, ,
,
- ()
5.
,
, , , , ,
, .
, ,
.
, "
. ,
,
- 6.
,
, . :
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
,

.
(
,

) ,
. ,
(
) , ,
. , ,
~
,
, ,
46

7. ,
1.1 , ,
, ->
'I , , , , , , ,
. : . ,
.
,
) i . , ,
i- , , . -(
i ifjn.no ,
, -
, ,
( ),
.
' ) ,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,

, ,
1'11 , , - 1 I.
1><. , (, , , ), ,
, , , ..
, -i
in, , .
,
, ,
,
, , 47

>7

. ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
? ,
( ) ,
,
,
( ), . , , ,
, ,
; , , ,
<
, , ]
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
,
-
. , ,
, <

.
-,
. ]
, '
, ;
,
(
). :
> ,
, .
:
, , .
,
.
, ] .
, : ,

, , , .
,
,
, -
,
. , i
, , , |
,
iiLinie. , , .
IUIM?

, , , ,
, ,

. 4
(

, ), , , ,
, .
, .
() , (, , , ).
, ,
, , ,
, , i
-. ,
', - - -, , , .
, --
- ,
, , , -|||
, Dasein9. , 4
8

, ,
, ,
, . ,
, - , ,

, !
, . ,
.
||
, , -'
, ,
-.
,
, ,
, ,

. , ^
-,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
. , ,
10. ,
, ,
,
-. ,
-
.
1
-,
, , ,
, ,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
,
. ,
, , ,

( -).
,
, 11
> - , , ( - )
. -i i
,
? -, , , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, . Bolt
,
-/,
(. -. .-,
,
, : ,

, 1
, .
- ,
,
, , -ivjii.no : . , ()
, ,
,
, ,

- . ,
,
,
, ,
, . ,
.
- -
, , , ,
- .
- ,
51

,
, .
] -
() .
,
, ,
, :
,
,
,
, ,
-. , ,
,
.
<

: -
- -
( - - -
) -
, ;
, .
, , .
:
<
-.
, :
,
,
. !
, ()
-,
-,
,
. , , ,
, ,
: ]
, < .
, ,
, ,
52

, , >
- -
. , ,
( , ,
). % ,
11,
, . 1 ,
,
2, -
-,
, ,
..
,
-.
-*
(-),
,
,
-11 .
, IV ic
-i
.
- ,
:
, -
. , , . ,
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.

53

,
,

. ,
,
. ,
.
13.

, ,
,
-. ,
,
,
,
- , ,

, .

-. , ,
, !
,
, !
- , ;
.
, , ]
, , -
)
, ,
- .


-. , ,
. :
, , :
, -,
.
, ;
14. , ]

, t i
-.
-, , . , , ,

- , ,

, ,
,

. , -

i ) -
, , ,
,
( ). , 11 ,
. ,
- .
, , I tn ,
,
, .
11 , , ,
in , (DID)
(MPD), , 1 (, ,
). , -
, 1111, .
i . ,
, i . ,
in -,
.
1' , 5


,
-.
, ,
, - -
,
, .
,
- -
,
, -,
.
I
, , , - |
, ,
-
. -
, !
,
- .
I
, , !
5. 1 -,

.
, (.. !
,
,
.

(.. ). !
,
. !
, !
, , !
. - !
, !
. , !
. "
" 1886. <
, "" .
, .
56

, , , ,
,

, .
,
,
-, - .
- , , ( ). , , ?
,
- , -
. 1 , - ,
. , -,
, . ,
-, ,
, , -i *
- .
, ,
-, ,

^, 2.
,
. ,
,
-
, ,
i

-i

, , , ,
, ,
.
(,
)
57


, ,
,
.
-
4. , i
, ,
,
-: ,
. , , ,
!

Laing, R. D. (1959) The Divided Self An Existential Study in Sanity and


hi.i,Iness. Harmondsworth: Penguin(1973).

'

lam not a noun: the vagaries of the self

Deurzen, E. van (1996) 'The survival of the self, Journal of the Society for
kustential Analysis, 7(1): 56-66.
I leidegger, M. (1962) Being And Time, trans, by J. Macquarrie and E. Robliwon. London: Harper & Row.
For those readers who do wish to examine and keep up with these debates,
llfiwever, I can recommend no better source than the Journal of Consciousness
Studies. For details and membership information contact the Journal at Imprint
Ar.ulcmic, PO Box 1, Thorverton, EX5 5YX UK. " Cf. Deurzen, "The survival of
the self 11 Ibid., p. 63
" Ibid., p. 65
14

Cooper, M. (1996) 'Modes of existence: towards a phenomenological


pol-|)|*ychism', Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 7(2): 50-6.
* Vonnegut, K. (1968) Mother Night. London: Panther Books (1973). The
uplete and actual quote is as follows: This is the only story of mine whose
1
See e.g. a fascinating discussion on Japanese views of the self in: Kondo, .... - I know. I don't think it's-a marvellous moral; I simply happen to know
D. K. (1990) Crafting Selves; Power, Gender, and Discourses of Identity in a. ii.il it is: We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we |
Japanese Workplace. London: University of Chicago Press. I also strongly rec-j H*lend to be. (p. vii).
ommend two brilliant books that touch on similar challenges to our notions ofl
the self: Guidano, V. F. (1991) The Self In Process: Toward a Post-rationalistl
Cognitive Therapy. London: The Guilford Press; Harm, R. (1998) The Singularl
Self. An Introduction to the Psychology ofPersonhood. London: Sage.
j
2
Interesting versions of this argument can be found in: Gergen, K. J. (1991)
The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. New York:
Basic Books; Taylor, (1989) Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modernl
Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Yardley, K. and Honess, T.
(eds) (1987) Self and Identity: Psychosocial Perspectives. London: Wiley. The
topic is also discussed regularly in the interdisciplinary Journal of Conscious
ness Studies.
3
For a detailed critique of these reductionist stances see Valle, R. S. and
King, M. (1978) Existential-Phenomenological Alternatives for Psychology.
New York: Oxford University Press.
4
A sound overview of narrative theory and psychotherapy appears in Freedman, J. and Combs, G. (1996) Narrative Therapy: The Social Construction of
Preferred Realities. London: W. W. Norton.
5
See Ihde, D. (1986) Experimental Phenomenology: An Introduction. Al
bany: State University of New York Press; Spinelli, E. (1989) The Interpreted
World: An Introduction to Phenomenological Psychology. London: Sage.
6
Cf. Ihde, Experimental Phenomenology
7
Ibid
Same sections of this chapter appeared in a paper entitled The vagaries of
the self, Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 7(2): 57-68.

:|i

t
5
8

I
4. ?

: , ?,

,
1. ,


- -
(
) ,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
.

3.
,
, -
.
,
(, ,
, , ,
,

,
.
;
:
, .
, ,
,
, ,
. ,

.
, ,

:
.
, ,
" , , -ii.no
,
,
, , ! , . , i ii
,
, , ,
. in
,
I
> ,.
II
1
! - ,
I" . :

, ,
. , ,
; - ,
i
, , fagon de
parler1,
, , 2.

, -
, , ,
? '
, ? 1 i'
?
? -
1.1' .
11 ,
, .

- .
61

,
, - ,
3.
, .
, , ,
. , ,
: . , . , ,
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
( )
,
, , , .
, , , . ,

, ; , 1 ;
...
.
, ,
. ,

(
) - ,
. ,
, , . , , , .
, ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
...

, ...
, . , . , - - -
, , . - - - ,
, , , .
, . , 4.
, ,
(, , ) ,
, . ,
, . ,
,

5. , , , - ,
, ,
.

, ,
, , : ... , , , ,
, .
, , , , (, , ),
-
, , ,
.
,

, , ,

, , , , ,
, . -
- .
, , , ,
,
.
, . , .
,
, ,
, . , .
,

- , , ,
, .
, ur-tale1 , ,
,
.
,
,
- .
, 13 ( 22 ,
). ,
, .
, ,
(, , , , ),
, . , ,
, , -
, ,
. , , .
, , ,
, , ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
. . ,
,
,
, 1

, , -
- .

. , ;
, .
, . ,
. ,
, , ,
. , ,
, .
, , - , ,
. , ; , , , ,
, , , - ,
.


, -
, . , , , , . , , .
,
?
.
-, 1. , , 1

, -, - (.1300 - 1349), : ( ).
,
. ,
:

. , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,

7. ,
, .
, , ,
,
?
, ,
, ,
, , ,
-
. , -
,
,
, , ?
-, , ,
. ,
,
8. ,
,
. ,
, .
L.L.White, , ,
1700, 1800
1900 . -
? ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
,
(, ) , , , . , ,
, 6

, ,
,
1 .
,

. , ,
, ,
- -
11.
-, ,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
, ( -
) - . ,
.
, , ,
,
, , ,
, , ?

; .
-,
- , , , 13.

(, ,
) ,
, , ,
. , ,
, (.. ), - ,
, . , , , , -


, ,
, ( ) , ,
(-) . , (.. ), , , - ( ) , , . , , ,
, .
, ,
,
- ,
, . ,
, ?
? ,
,
. , -
,
, , , .
,
;
, . , ,
,
? ,
,
,
?
, , -v

?
-, , , ,
? ,
,
6

, ,
, ,
, 15,
1, , "
16. ,
, ,
17.
, ?
... , , ,
.
,
? ,
, , , ,
(), , ,
( ). ,
, , , -
, , ,
, , , , . ,
, , , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
Norman Dixon - , ,
,

Split-brain - - . commissura - .
tome - ,

, ,
,
, . , ,
, , ,
,
,
,
,
( ), , - - .
,
, .
, , t
,
. ,
, ,
,
, .
, , , , (,
), , ,
. , ,
( , )
1 , ,
-t
, , , ,
.
-,
? , ,
,
.
7
0

,
.
,
, 19,
.
,
,
20. ,

(
)
. , , ,
, ,

, ,
, 21.
, , ,
, s ,
*
.
, ,
ur-story1.
3 -
.

,
.
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

. , 1,
, , , , 22.
,
,
, : , ,
( ), ( ) , (
) - ,
, ,
-.
, ,
, ,
, ( )"
( ).

, : , .. -,
,

-
.
-, - .
,
,
.
,
, , ,
;
,

,
,

II

73

, , , ,
, , .


, , , .
, , , ,
, , , -.
, , ,
. , ,

, , , ,

, , ,
, , ,

-
.
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
-.
(-) , . -,
. , , , , ,
( , , .., , , ) , , , , ..
, ,
74

, , ,
,
.

,

? , , , ,
,
, , .
, ,
,
- . ,

.
, , , , ,
, , (.. , ,
), ,
,
23.
, , ,
,
, ,
,

. ,
, ,
-
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
( - ) .
75

, , ( ,
24) ,

. 1,
,
,
, ,

25. , ,
,
, ,
()
.
11
,
. 26 27
111
, (
)
, -
. , ,
, : ,

. ,
,

( . proprius - ) - ,
, ; ,

1959 - - - ,
, ,

- - -

76

, ,
, , , , ,
, , , .

, . -,
, ( ) ,
, , ,
,
.
, ,

( , - ) / -, .
:
:
29 ,
.
3 , , , ,
,
.

, . ,
,

.
-,
,
-,
,
. -, ,

-,
77

,
, ,
. -,

, - . -, -
,
, -
.
,
, , ; ,
, ,
; , ;
;
, , ; ,
.

, ,
.
,

.

4.

Do we really need the unconscious?

Spinelli, E. (1993) The unconscious: an idea whose time has gone?', Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 4: 19-47; reprinted in Cohn, H. W.
and Du Plock, S. (eds) (1995) Existential Challenges to Psychotherapeutic Theory and Practice, London: Existential Analysis Press, pp. 217-47.

Freud, S. (1916-17) 'Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis', in Standard


Edition, vols 15 and 16, p. 278.
3
Erdelyi, M. H. (1985) Psychoanalysis: Freud's Cognitive Psychology. New
York: W. H. Freeman, p. 61.
4
Smith, D. L. (1994) "Riding shotgun for Freud: a reply to Ernesto Spinelli',
Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 5: 145-6.
5
Freud, F. (1925) "The resistances to psychoanalysis', in Standard Edition,
Vol. 19, p. 31.
6
Gay, P. (1988) Freud: A Life for our Time. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. p.
128.
7
There exist so many excellent published views and debates on the question
of consciousness that it is difficult to single out even a small number of texts. I
suggest that interested readers pursue these debates as they appear in the pages
of the Journal for Consciousness Studies (see 3.9 above for further details).
Cf. Erdelyi, Psychoanalysis.
9
Whyte, L. L. (1978) The Unconscious Before Freud. London: Julian
Friedmann, p. 63.
10
Ibid., p. 21.
11
Cf. Erdelyi, Psychoanalysis'
12
Cf. Sartre, Being and Nothingness
Cannon, B. (1991) Sartre & Psychoanalysis: An Existentialist Challenge
to Clinical Metatheory. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
1
What is probably the most sustained critique of Sartre's argument appears
in Gardner, S. (1993) Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
' Dixon, N. F. (1981) Preconscious Processing. New York: Wiley.
16
Sperry, R. W. (1970) 'Perception in the absence of neocortical commisures', in Perception and Disorders (Res. Pub . ARNMD, Vol. 48). New York:
The Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases.
17
See e.g. Edelman, G. (1992) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of
the Mind. Harmondsworth: Penguin (1994).
1
For discussions of this cf. Valle and King, Existential-Phenomenological
Alternatives for Psychology; Spinelli, The Interpreted World.
19
Wittgenstein, L. (1982) 'Conversations on Freud: excerpt from 1932-3 lectures', in Wollheim, R. and Hopkins, J. (eds) Philosophical Essays on Freud.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cf. Erdelyi, Psychoanalysis.
21
Ibid. See also Webster, Why Freud Was Wrong.
22
Grotstein, J. S. (1992) 'Reflections on a century of Freud: some paths not
chosen', British Journal of Psychotherapy, 9(2): 181-7.
23
Treisman, A. M. (1969) 'Strategies and models for selective attention',
Psychological Review, 76: 282-99.
Cf. Dixon, Preconscious Processing. ' Cf. Erdelyi,
Psychoanalysis. 26 Miller,J. (1978) The Body In
Question. London: Cape.
7

27
Sacks. . (1985) The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat. London:
Duckworth.

5.

28

Braude, S. E. (1991) First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the


Philosophy of Mind. London: Routledge.
Hacking, I. (1995) Rewriting the Soul: Multiple Personality and the Sciences of Memory. Chichester, NJ: Princeton University Press.

-
,
, , .
, , , , ,
, (
), ,
, -
- , .
11 , ,
: (
/ ) ? ?
? ? , -
? -
,
? ,
,
, ( )
?
imp, - (, -it
) ? ||
) ? , ,
, ? , 41
, (ipvi
, ....< ? , , ,
, ( '), , , , ( )
7 , ,
80

, ( ), , ,


.
, , ,
.
,
.
,

, (
).
,
,
.

, ,
, , ,
,
,
. , -
, , ,

, .
.
. , oi
1800 .
1, 11 11
1.
, ,
- .. sex
Sex appeal - Sexy -
82


, ^
:
. ,
,
;
. 11

,
,
.

, (
, )
2.

, exposes1,
,
: , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
() ? ,
- -
( ) , ,
, , , ; ,
,
. , .
, , , , ,
, , ,
? , .-, ,
83

,
3.
, , 1 , .
,
, ,
, ,
" .


: ( ,
)
,
4.
,
. ,
, , , - ,
, ,
, .
, : ,
-
.
, .

-
. ,
, ,
,
.
, , 1, I

Wet -


(1840-1902),

IV
84 (1862-1939)
II

,
5. , , , , ,
- ,
. ,
, ,
. ,

,

, ,
.
1
. ,
-
( , ),
-
.
-, , ( , )
, ,
, . , ,

, par excellence11, , , , 1

(1859-1939),
, - .
85

, ,
, ,
,
. -, ,
,
,
,

, , , ,
. , ,
, .
:

, .

, .
-, , ,
, ,

, ,
, .
,
. ,

, . ,
II,

-
.
, ,


, ,

, , 86

.
, . ,
, .
, , , ,
.
, ,
- 6.
I) , , - , , - . , , .
-- ()
7. ,
. , .
- ,
, ,
. , :

,
...
. ,
( ) ( ) (,
, , ), (, ) 8.

) 1- . -.
..... ,
, .
-
,
< . 87

, ,
.
-
. , -
.
, ,
,
, -
, .


,
, ,
-

,
. ,
, ,
, , , -~*
, ,
- ,
, .
, ,
. ,

. , ,
<
, )
( ), , ,

,
,

- , , - ,
.
,
( 88

) ,
.
:
, ,

. , ,
.
,

- - , ,
. , ,
... ,
, , ,
,
9.
,
, , , .
. , , ,

. , , , , .
i
, ,
. ,
< )
. 11
-,

89

,
.
,

. ,

, -

. ,
,

, -
,
,
,
, (
). ,
:
,
.
-, ,
,
,


,
. , , ,
-, :
'?
.)
, ,
,
,
. ,
, -

- . ,
, , - I
.
I

90

,
. , ,,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , , !,
, , -
.
, , ,
.
,
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
- , , , -
.
1'
The Crying Game1, , -( ,
, , ,
- ,
.
,
.
,
() -i
i , ,
- .
1 , , ,

. I
:
91

, .
, ,
-, ,
, . ,

-
, ,

11.
, , ,
,
, . ,
,
,
, ,

. ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , , ,
,
(). ,

.
,
, , , ,
. ,
- , ,
.
, ,
-.
, ,
92
,
,
, .

, -

, , - , .
,
,
- , . -, , , .
, , ,
: ,
, , ,
, , 12, ,
"
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , ,
/, , /
(
, ,
IU4HO
in , ,
, , ,
, - , ,
.. ,
, , , , , , , , .
, hi.i 1. - 13 14,
93

Xq28 -15. ,
^ , .
,
,

. , ,
,
,

, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
/ . ,
,
,
, ,

.
,
. ,
, ,
,
-
, ,
, .
? , , 94
, .
1915 16
,
,
, , 1.
, : ?

? ,

, ,
. - :
-

?,
- , , , : , ?.
.

, ,
, ->
. ,
: .
:
, , . ;
18.
, , , , ,
<> . , ,

,
. i
: .
,
. , ,
, , .
,
, 19 20
, - i
. i
, ()
.
, >> 1> .
, ,
,|, . 95

, , 3
4, , - , , --, , , .
, , , (,
, ) ( )
,
.
, , , ,
- , ,

.

.
, , ,
, ,
- . ,
, 1, "
,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
:
?
, , ,
. ,
, . ,

96

, -
, - ,

. ,

, .
... -
,
, .
,
,
, ,
, ,
. - , ,
,
, , ,
. - ,
. - ,
, .
, -
, ,
, , , , , , , ,
.
,
, -
(), , \
, ,
- , ,
( - -)
-. '
1 ->
t- . i HI Li
i , ,
97


.
; , , -
, , ?
1 ,

-: : , ,
, 2 .
, , .
, ( ), .

,
,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
-, ,
, -
, . . i\
, .

, <
.

, , -'
, ? . :
?
( ) ? ,
(
, ),
, , . , ,
- ,
,
() ,
. ,

-, , ,
,
-// 22. , ,
, ,
, , , ,
-
, , -kiu-
.
, i >
, --
-
MIX , , ,
, . ,

-' -, ,
-' .
- : 1 23.

"
1

Kenneth Plummer - . 1946, , <


- , Sexualities,

Reconfiguring human sexuality


My 1996 Chair's Address to the Society for Existential Analysis
i itts an earlier version of this chapter. The talk was published under the
ulle \Some hurried notes expressing outline ideas that someone might
99

Lk

someday utilise as signposts towards a sketch of an existentialphenomenological theory of human sexuality', Journal of the Society for
Existential Analysis, 8(1): 2-2. A revised version of this talk was also
published under the title 'Human sexuality: an existential-phenomenological
inquiry', Counselling Psychology Review, 7(4): 170-8.
1
Heath, S. (1982) The Sexual Fix. London: Macmillan Foucault, M. (1979) A
History of Sexuality Vol 1: An Introduction. London. Allen Lane; (1985) A History
of Sexuality Vol 2: The Use of Pleasure. New York: Random House; (1986) A
History of Sexuality Vol 3: The Care of the Self. New York: Random House.
3
Cf. Heath, The Sexual Fix, p. 21 Dr Laws Milton's account and treatment for
spermatorrhoea can be found in his 1887 pamphlet published under the title (but not
under
5 the counter) The Pathology and Treatment of spermatorrhoea.
Sulloway, F. J. (1979) Freud: Biologist of the Mind. London: Andre
Deutsch
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) Phenomenology of Perception, trans. Colin
Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Kovacs, G. (1993) 'The personalistic understanding of the body and sexuality in
Merleau-Ponty', in Hoeller, K. (ed.) Merleau-Ponty
& Psychology. Atlantic
9
Highlands,
NJ:W.Humanities
Press, p.
210. 8/,
p. 211
Conn,
H.
(1997)
Existential
Thought
and
Therapeutic
Practice.
Lon
10
don: Sage.
Jordan, N. (director) (1992) The Crying Game. Film released
by Palace
Pictures.
11
12 Mahoney, E. R. (1983) Human Sexuality. London: McGraw-Hill.
Freud,
E. (ed.) (1961) Letters of Sigmund Freud 1873-1939. London:
Hogarth
Press.
Dorner,
G. (1976) Hormones and Brain Differentiation. Amsterdam: lil sevier.
14
Le
Vay,
S.
(1996) Queer Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
15
Hamer, D. (1994) The Science of Desire: The Search for the Gay Gen,and1the
Biology
of Behavior.
Simon
& of
Schuster.
Freud,
S. (1956)
'Three New
essaysYork:
on the
theory
sexuality, in Standard Hdi tion.
Vol. 7.
"ibid., p. 134 Cf. Foucault, A History of Sexuality Vol 1: An Introduction,
p. 43.
Kinsey, A. C, Pomeroy, W. B. and Martin, . . (1948) Sexual Behavi
in the Human Male. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.
20
21 Vidal, G. (1965) The City & The Pillar. London: John Lenmann Ltd
Plummer,
K. (1981) The Making of the Modern Homosexual. London
Hutchinson
& Co.
22
Cf. Spinelli, Demystifying Therapy.
Cf. Sartre, Being and Nothingness.
19

100

6. :
, , , ,

. ,
, , , ,
,

. , ,
,
, ,

- , , ,
". , ,
-, ,
, ,

- ,
, , -i
, , , .

, ,
,
-.
-"
, ,
, ,
, ,
. - ,
, , ,
, < ,
, - 1.
i (
-,
, -|*
( - >.(*,
-

, ( ) ), , ,
, , , , , ,
2. ,

, ( )
- |
, , , - |
, 3.
, ,
,
, - I
. ?
, ,
, -
, , , -
,
,
. ,

,

.
,
, .
.
, ,
,
, ,
.

, .
- .
, <>
|
4.

102

, , ,
- ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, , , -
, . ' >
,
( ) ,
,
. - , , , . ,

, , , , -
, - ,
, 5.

1 -1'.
,
,
, -,
, "'
, *' i,
, -.
-
( , )
-,
,
, , ,
I (ICXOM.

>
. , -'"11 , , -11.1.

- XVI ., .
103

. ,
, oi
, ,
, , ,

.
, -,
, -j ,
,
, , ,
( , )
, .
,
,
, , ,
,
, ,

. ,
,
,
, , -
, .
,
,
, ,
.

, - , ,
, - -

- , , .
,
, ,
, i
- , 104

. . ,
, ,

. , , , .
, ,
, , . 1
, , .
( ,
) ,
, ,
6.

.
, , . ,
,
, .
, , , , ,
,
. -i ,
, -i
, in
.
- MIX
,
. ,
, 4>
, -


105

. , ,
7.
-'' ,
, ,
,
. , ,

, -. ,

, ,
, , ,
, - ,
,

8.
,

.
5, ,

, , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
-
.
, , <
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
\ ,
<>fi,
.

............
, ,
.
106

?
?
,
, : ,
,
,
. , , , , - ,
,
.
, , ,
,
,
.
,
-. ,
.
, , .
( , ,
1,
. -, -
-t
? ,
, - ,
?
,
, , -| >
. -,
, ,
> , , I ' ICIIO , - - -1.
, , ' , MI.OHOB, , . ty . "- ,

I Love Lucy, 1951-



107

, !
,
, *
, )
, , ,
, ,
?

, ,
:
.
, ,
( ),
,
,
,
, () () -J ,
, . 1
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
<
,
, .

, , >
, \ ( )
, ,
( ) ,
.
,

,
, .\
'
,
, ,
108

, ,
,
. , , ,
,

, ,
- , , ,
,
, - , .
? ,
,
, ,
. , ,

, ,
-
. , ,
,
,
-,
(, ,
, )
,

(),
, ,
.
, , ,
,
( , )
, - ,
,
. -

,
,
, , ,
, Moiyr
,
109

,
- ,
.
, , , ,
,
, ,
. , ,
,
,
( , ), , , . , , ? ? . ,
, .

,
,
. , , ,

, :,
, , , , - , . ,
,
,
,
,
,
, , , ' ,
.
, >

,

, , i
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
.
.
- , , . ,
. -
, , -,
, . , , , , , , |||
11
. , ,
, , ,
,
- ,
-"" ,
-"-. , ,
, , . ,
< i , , ,
, . ,
', , ( ) ,
, -I
1 , .'?

*> , , '11.1. , ,
-11.1110 ,
,
HIM , , 111

!
. , - , .
I
, !

.
, ,
, - )
!
. , !
Playstation2, ,
, - , -
, .
, , , .
,
,
. >
, , , , >

.
, , "
, i
,
, , i
, ! i
.
, , in >
, , i
* "
, <><
. *
.
, . >>
, *".
-.

|..i.
, < <

, , m
112


, ?
ipe , - ,
?

, ,
,
. -i
,
,
, , ,
, , |
> , , ,
, , ?
, , fin
- , , > -
, < i
?

, -<
, - -| -'
-|'
. , , -i i
, ,
,
, ,
, -1,

|1 I ?

-, :
MI , ,
< , -
in- . , -
1 ,

113

, ,
,
. ,
, ,
( ,
, ) ,
,

.

, , , ,

,
?

Conflicting desires: childhood and sexuality


1

Cf. Sulloway, Freud: Biologist of the Mind.


Ibid
3
Masson, J. M. (1984) Freud: The Assault on Truth. London: Faber and Faber.
4
Readers interested in the issues dealing with the history of the concept oi
childhood might refer to die following texts: Lascariges, C. and Hinitz, B. I
(2000) History of Early Childhood Education. New York: Fairer Press; Musscn
P. H., Conger, J. J. and Kagan, J. (1969) Child Development and Personalis
New York: Harper & Row (later editions of this text unfortunately do not tre.ii
historical material quite so extensively as the first three editions).
5
Mussen, P. H., Conger, J. J., Kagan, J. and Huston, A. C. (1984) Child /.).velopment and Personality, 6th edn. London: Harper & Row.
Cf. Freud, Standard Edition, Vol. 7.
7
Klein, M. (1975) The Psycho-Analysis of Children. New York: Delta.
8
Jung, G. (1975) Critique of Psychoanalysis, trans. R. F. Hull. Prim
ton, NJ: Bollinger Series/Princeton University Press.
9
I am certain that, some years back, a book criticizing the impact of faslm.n
consciousness on children was published. I have tried to find a reference in iln
book, but so far have failed miserably. I am not even clear as to whether ii >
thor would agree with the views I am putting forward. However, if the mi "
source for the text finds its way to me, I will ensure that it is included in .n>
later edition of this book that might be published.
2

114

7.
,
. , 1, ,
, , .
,
< . , , , tii . ,
, - -
. , inpi.ic , .
,
- , , liiinoi , , ,
.
, ,
-.fiHi.iM -|
|., ,
' | . , ,
, , , -,
< .
, .

'. ,
||. ( )

1 - .
, , , -'
, , -
* , ; i
. , -
,
, -
.., .

,
, , ^
, . ,:
,
. , ,
,

,
, .
, .
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
, : , - ?
, ,
. , ,
- . . , 11.1
, .
, , >
, , ..
, "
, " ,
, , i
1. , <
, , \
, , ,
. , - , - , >
,
, <,-
, 2.
. 1969 . . .
( ), , 1 '
, , i<>
1

Speed-freak - , "->

116

, , ,
.
- - , , ,
,
, .
, - ,
,
HI .
, , shoot
up'. , ,
HIM, - ,
- , ,
11.

- , , ,
( 1 ,
<'\. ,
( ),

. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
" > ,
| , ,
in .

, -, . , ,
MI , MOI . , '. ,
? , ,
,
. , , ,
MIO.

-
117

,
, - , , -1
, , 1. , I
, , , - I
. . , , 1
, ,
, I
.
, , , I
- , , , , , , - t

, ,
, - ,
- ,
,
. , .
.
, , >
, ,
, , -
, , , '
<*.
, 3. ,
. , -,
, ,
, ,
,
- . , , .
?
I
,
,
, ,
,
. ",
, . "
, , , ( >
-,
,
, , -
, , , ,
, , - uia.
, 4?
, ,
, , -
, .
, - - , ,
, - ,
, ?
**
< .

, , , , > 11
>|| : ,
< i - (,
. >
. -..
, < i , * i
. , , ; ,
, . ,
III. ?
,
. ..............
( 1) , , , ,
HI . , -
.
I
. 1929, , , '
iM"iii'iyioT , , , .

----------II

118

I
II

1^

. , -1
- - .
,
, , ,
, , 1
. ,
,
5. ,
. ,
, ( ,
),
. , , >
\
\
!!

, MJ
6. >
,
, >
, , *
, - > i
,
\ i
.


. - -.
1 ( , m.......
, ), > >
, , t
7 "
, - >
(< <
). .
. , '
, / , , >
120

, , . ,
,
, -
i , .
, , I , IX , - 1 8. < ' , ,
IHO ,
1 - ,
1'. >
. ,
>
|(>:

-1 ;
"-pi
; . , -
; ; 1
( (Thanatos drive); ,
. ,
, '
,
1 < 9.

I '
,
- ,
. > ,
- ,
.
, > *. .

> I i ? ,
, ,
i ,
iy ,
-* ,
- . ?
-


121

1 : ,
?10 .

, ,
( ,
) - . 11 , ,
, 11.
111 ,
,
, (
), ,

12. , ,
,
,
, ,
13. , ,
, -
,
. ,
,

.
, *

,
, HI
. ,
, :

11
,

1


122

, , ,
- ,
, . , -i
>( ,
, , , , i
, ?
, 1
11 ( )111 :
-
... .
, ? ,
; , . , , ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, :
, 14 (
- . ).

, , , ~
imtiv ,
. ivpiiMc ,
, , -'
, , ,
,
, 15. , I in
, iMnr
, .
(
"
1,1
- child-killer yAiilliUi
123

,
, ,
, . -|
, . : ?,
- 1 .
, , : ?
, :
16.
, ,
, ,
, :
?
, . ,
.
, - , ,
. ,
. ?, - . <>
,
. , - CK;I
. , 11.
. :
. , -
- . , - oi
, - ?
! -
, , - , <
. , ><
, 6OJH
, i. >
, ,
.
, , \ i >

, , . ,
;
, .
() - .
.
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
, : ; ,
,- 17.
, , , ,
. , - . ?
- . , ,
, .
, .
; , ,
, 1. , .
. . .
.
in ,
. , , .
- ,
. - ,
. , iio
- , in
, - .
. pi , ,
i . ..... ? tumde, - - i . ,
,
, 1919-1987.
< "
?"

' ,

- '

,
, - 1. ,
, - .

? ?, ,
?,
? ,
-
, , , , ,
? , ,
? .
, , MI
. ,
?

,
, - , M.I
, <>1
18.
, , ,

,
. I < ,
m
, >
, >
. , <|............

, ,

, < < "
">
< .
.
, ooi . u,t,
. ! >
1

1999 . 12 >
,

>
^^

, :
, , . , ,
/ , *
- , ,
,
I i , .
, : , , ,
, ?
, , ,
, , i , , ^
, !'1.1 , - i ?
) , .
, i , , ;
, , -.
aleiheid.
'-
''. ,
M i ii 11 , i >' 19.
I ' , -,
;
MI *< ii.li -||.|
: , -1
, . ,
-'
?
, , , ! - - -

-| - , -

, . , <1 I , , , I
, -j , , 21.
, , , , -J I
I

.
, -I
, I
1
I
,
, . -I
,
ui , f
. , , ,
, ->,
,
-
,
, -
, -
.
,
1
, , ,
, ,
,
,
20.
? , -)
,
,

, - ,
, ,
.
, . -
,
- < ,
, ( ) -1.111.1
, , ..
? ^ , ,
. , >
, '"" , ,
,
HINK , ,
.
-j itti . ,
,
, I - ,
, , , , i
,
,
, - ,
-
,
. , <
, -\ i \
. ,
, ..............
\.>
. , .
.
?
, - l
, it
,
. ,
128

' .
, , , , , ,
, -

- .
or , , , -
I
,

i .

Psychotherapy and the challenge of evil

* I his chapter is based upon the talk entitled 'Everything Is Broken'


bit I gnvc as my Inaugural Professorial Lecture in June, 1999. The
talk

129

was published in The Psychotherapy Review, 2(3). In addition, summary


paper entitled 'A personal view: therapy and the challenge evil' appears
in British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 28(4): 561-1
1

Arendt, H. (1973) Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace.


The quote by Hannah Arendt appears in Ignatieff, M. (1999) 'Human righl
and the midlife crisis', New York Review of Books, 20 May, p. 59.
3
Steiner, G. (1983) The Portage to San Cristobal ofA.H. New York: Was
ington Square Books.
4
Lang, B. (1996) Heidegger's Silence. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
5
The epistolary debate between Carl Rogers and Rollo May appears in Kirschenbaurn, H. and Henderson, V. L. (eds) (1990) Carl Rogers Dialogues. Lon
don: Constable.
6
Ibid.
7
Ellenberger, H. F. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious: The Hist on
and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books
9
Ibid.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998) Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins o] /;/|
Evil. London: Macmillan. 9h
2

10

'Ibid.,p. 86.
Milgram, S. (1974) Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. N
-York: Harper & Row.
12
Zimbardo, P. G., Ebbesen, E. B. and Maslach, (1977) Influencing
tudes and Changing Behavior (2nd edn). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
13
Goldhagen, D. (1996) Hitler's Willing Executioners. New York: Pantheon
14
Mantel, H. (1999) 'Killer children', New York Review of Books, 20 May i
6.
Arendt, H. (1994) Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banalil)
Evil (revised edn). New York: Penguin, USA.
1
The quote by Primo Levi, taken from his book Survival in Auschwitz i
pears in Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler, p. 275.
17
Peckinpah, S. (director) (1969) The Wild Bunch. Film released by Wan
Brothers - Seven Arts.
18

Cf. Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler.


Cooper, D. E. (1996) Thinkers of Our Time - Heidegger. London: Cl.u !.! |
Press.
20
Brooks, M. (1998) 'Quantum karma', The Guardian Online Section
Junej p. 13.
2
Nietzsche, F. (1879) Human, All Too Human, trans. R. J. Hollii; i
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1994).
19

8. :

? , ? , , - , , ? , , -1
? ,
,
, ,
?

. , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
. ,
-iiiii,
.
,
.
, ',
, , , ( " \.
),
, ( -1.
, ),
- .
, -i
n.iy,
.
, -|
, ,
( ), -I"
-,
, , . 130

, , .
, ,
(
, ,
).

,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
,
,
, , ,
);
. ,
-
, ii
,
, (
) ei <>
-
.
, ,
,
, .
,
:
,
,
, - Biiyi
(.. ) ( >
) - \
1.

artist , . > .
< ">
, ..

, , ,
, .

, , , , . , , ,
;
,
,
, . , .
-
, ,
fii.i . ,
,
, (1 , , .
I ,
> . , ........ix , ii, . , , 'i.ciBax - , ,
,
,

. , i ( , ' ) , .

) ( 1 )
. ' ,
1

,
-, , ( )
- . , ,
: ?
, . ,
, ,
,
2. , ,
,
,
3.

, ,
, ,
!
,
.
,
, - - ,
. , \

1
>
.
, ,

, > \
.
,
,
., ,

. ,
.

134

, , ,
-
, -,
-
, 4. ,
,
, , iOM 5.
, ,
. -, ,
(, , )
, . -,
,

, ,
( 6.
II .
, -'<

-"11. -,
|| -
- , , - : ,
, : , ,
,
. -i
, . >
7.
t , -| , -
, |
. , --
- i VI',
1
. , -II

, jtii'iiio
%
135

. :
.

,
1.
1
: , , ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
9.
,
, "
.
, ,
, HI*
/
,
, , 10.
- ,
,
,
, ,
. .
-, ,
, , ,
, , *
. ,
- - , , .
.
, , !.
*
11, > >
12. ,

, , , , , : 13. ,
,
,
, ,
, , (.. ), ( ).
,
...
. ,

iv,
.
- .

-I

,
-14.
,

, *9, .
I
tuiK -
inn .
! ,
i W < .
' , , -.
-
,
.

13

-
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
() . , , , ,!
- -
, , , , ,
( ) .
- , ,

,
.
, -
( ,
,
,
,

,
)
. , - ,
,


,
, .

, ,
, ,
,
,

.
, , -
,
,

, , ,
,
,
, -ii.i
, . ,
, ,
,

, , , , ,
,
, , ,
. , ,
- ,
,
, ,

.
,
,

,

-.
, , ,
,
,

139

138

^
, , ,
.
,
, ,

,

. ,
,
, ,
, .
, ,

. ,

. , "

;* , ,
, * -
, -$ 1, , 11,
& 1,
, - , . ,
- -
, , ..
^ ,
, ,
1

. . (1932-1963), ) . ,
, , (1945-1987),
, 1973.
1994). , , , , , (1942. , , , ,
, , (1922-1969)

. , , 30
, , , - ,

1
. 1937
, , , ,
140 .

,
, , ?
,
,
, ,
,

-
: I . ,
, , , ,
!. , , [1 1 ,
,


.
, , ,
-/ , ( , ,
) '.

? (dead-end) ,
? -
?
: < >>
,

. ,
,
,
; , ,
, , .
16.

. , , , 1919-1983
141

, , - .
, 7, ,
: aletheu i
, . lie ,
,
, ,
. , H;I , ,
///
, ,
.
,
, ;:
- ,
-
,
.
,

17.
,
, .
,
, ,

, 1*.
,
,
.
- - , , , - , ,
, .
, , - :
,
, , 19.

,
.
,

i
,
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
,
,
,
, , , ,
,
?
,

,
, ,
.
- ,
, , ,
, , .
, , - ,

. , , ,
, ,
, (
), ,

, .
, , ,
,
-,
20 .

- ,
, . ,
,
,
(
143

142

1
-),
,

, - ,
21.

:

; ;
; . ,
22.
, ,

, -
,
. , , ,

, ,
, , ,
, 23. ,
,
, .
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
,
24.
, ,
-
( )
, ,
. (
,
,
144

). 1
2 11
, , , ,
... ...
, ,
, 26. ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
( ) .
,
:
, , ,
, , ,
.
, . , " ,
I)

. ,
1
, 2 .
- :

,
|
,
, .
... ,
, ,
|
...
I
, ,
1
, , , . I
, |
, - - , I
, , I
, , , i
.
, I
II

-,
, (1914-2004)
145

|;

, , , 30.
-, ,
. ,
,

. ,
,
.
, , , ,
,
.
,
. , ,
, ,

, ?
, , , ,
,
.

, , , .
,
. :
, ?,
, , ,
, 31.


, , I
. ,
,
,
, , -
, .
, .
, , ,
, -
. .
, ' ,
, ,
, . , , ,

.
, .
,
, ,
, .
8
Creation and being: a challenge to psychoanalytic
theories of artistic creativity
My 1999 Chair's Address to the Society for Existential Analysis forms
an earlier version of this chapter. The talk was published in 2000 under
the title 'Creation and Being: existential-phenomenological challenges to
psycho-analytic theories of artistic creativity', Journal of the Society for
Existential Analysis, 11(1), pp. 2-20.
1

Winner, E. (1982) Invented Worlds: The Psychology of the Arts. London:


Harvard University Press.
1

1
Araheim, R. (1972) Toward a Psychology of Art. Berkeley, CA: University
of California Press.
Cf. Winner, Invented Worlds.
Row.Freud, S. (1958) On Creativity and the Unconscious. New York: Harper &
Fuller, P. (1990) Art and Psychoanalysis. London: Artists and Readers. Cf.
Freud, On Creativity and the Unconscious.
Grunbaum, A. (1984) The Foundations of Psychoanalysis: A Philosophical
Critique. London: University of California Press.
Storr, A. (1972) The Dynamics of Creation. London: Seeker & Warburg. 9
Ibid.
Cf. Freud, On Creativity and the Unconscious, pp. 44-54. Kris, E. (1952)
Psychoanalytic Explorations in Art. New York: International Universities
Press. 15
Delbanco, A. (1999) "The decline and fall of literature', The New
Ibid York Re
view16 of Books, 56(17): 32-8.
.
Ibid Goguen, J. A. (2000) 'What is art?', Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7(89): 7-15.
*
17
Heidegger, M. (1960) Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. A. Hofstadeter.
London:
Harper & Row (1975).
8
Thompson, M. G. (1997) ' Logos, poetry and Heidegger's conception of|
creativity', Psychotherapy in Australia, 3(4): 60-5.
12
19
Cf. Goguen, 'What is art?', p. 10
Cf. Storr, The Dynamics of Creation.
2
"
Cf.
Fuller, Art and Psychoanalysis.
21
Kockelmans, J. (1985) Heidegger on Art and Art Work. Dordrecht:
0
Martinus Nijhoff.
24 May, R. (1975) The Courage To Create. New York: W. W. Norton. Ibid.
Scarry, E. (1999) On Beauty and Being Just. Princeton, NJ: Princeton j
University Press.
IU1J
_,___ . wmuiv UWU1V appears Hampsn
The quote by Elaine
Scarry appears in
the beholder', New York Review of Boob, 56(18): 42
Hampshire, S.
(1999) 'The eye ofl
holder'. New York
Review r,fni~ */\. >-.
\
27 'Ibid.
Steiner, G. (1989) Real Presences. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago]
Press.
28
The quote by George Steiner appears in Fuller, P. (1990) Images of God.
London:
Writers and Readers, p. 23.
29
Cf. Hampshire, "The eye of the beholder', p. 44. Allen, W. (director) (1979)
Manhattan. Film released by United Artists.
30
Cf. Hampshire, 'The eye of the beholder', p. 44.
31
148
Allen, W. (director) (1979) Manhattan. Film released by United
Artists.
24

9.

, , , - ,
. , . , , .
, ,
( , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,

, ,
. , - ,
, , , ,
, ,
.
, ,
- .
,
, -
.
, , , ,
. , , ?
, ,
, , , -,

- - .
, ,
. ( ?),
, , , , ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, . , ,
. ,
.
,
, ,
- ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .
, , ,
,
, , . ,
,
, , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
.

, ; , , . , ? ? . , , , , .
,

. 1, , , , ,
, , , ,
,
.
, ,
, 1 ,
( ,
). ,
, <>
,
2.
, ,
1999
, . , , ,

3.
1973 1982 ,
.
3 12 ,

1

Synchronicity

, , , ,

.
, ,
, , ,

, , ,

, , - .
, ,
,

, , .
,
, . , ,
,
. ,

4. ,

,

,

,
-

.
, ,
,
, (
) ,
:
I. ,
,
152

-,
- , , ,
.
23. ,

- .
24. -
, , .
25. , ,
, , - .
26. ,
,
.
27. , ,
,
.
28. 5.
, , , ,
, ,
. : ?
, , , -, ,
, .
1,
,
,
/, / , /, / .
, , 153

, , ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
,
, , ,
, , ,
,
.
,
, . ,
, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
/,

.
.
, ,
,
,
.
, ,
7, ,

.
3, -, , , . , , ,
, 154

i . ,
, . , ,

, ,
-> .
, ,
,

,
. , /, /
, , ,
.
,
, ,
,
, ,

3- 9. ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, , 10. ,
, -

,
. , ,
, ,
-,
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
, , ,
155

, , , - (.. ) 11.
, ,
, ,
1, , - , , ,
,


12. , , ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
,
, , , . , , . , , ,
13. , , , , ,
,
, , ,
.


, , .
, , ,
1

Whatly Carrington , , 20
156

,
.
, ,
,

, .

, ,

. ,

,
, ,

. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , .

, , .
,
, ,
, - . ,

, ,
.

, , , ,
, ,
. .
-

, , ,

, . ,

, ,
(, ,
!), .
,
157

j* :!
,
. , ,
? ,
- - , ,

,
- ?
,
?
?
'
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, , (
),
,
,
, , , ,
, .
*'
, , ,
,
m
. ,
,

?
-
- , ,
, , "
, w
, -
! >
-
-
>1 .
, -
, , ,
( , ), >
158

,
, ,
.
,
;
. ,
, ,
,
,
, ,
.
.
,
- -
, ,
, , -
, , , ,
. ,
,
.
,
, )
,
-| 14.
, , ,
, ,
- .
, , -,
, ,
-, -
, (
!)
,
, .
, , ,
, .
, , 1. ,

15. -

, *
1 ,
,
,
,
,
,
. (
)
, ,

.
*
, , , , ,
,
.
,
, ;
.
, ,
, , ,
. ? , ,
,
... . ,
, . i

- ,
.
,
,
.

, ,
, :
, , ... , .

, 16.
- ( ),
. , , . ,
,
,
, . - , ,
, ,
17. , , .
,
, ,
, -
, , , ,
.
, , , , , ,
, ,
, .
, 1 , ? :
. . ... .
,
,

,
160

161

Beyond the great beyond

My 1998 Chair's Address to the Society for Existential Analysis


forms an earlier version of this chapter. The talk was published in 1998
under the title 'Existential encounters with the paranormal and the uncanny', Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 9(2): 2-17.
1

Freud, S. (1963) Studies in Parapsychology. New York: Collier.


Jung, C. G. (1973) Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle.
Princeton, NJ: Bollinger Series/Princeton University Press.
3
Whitehouse, T. (1999) 'Therapists' views of transpersonal communication
within psychotherapy', British Psychological Society Abstracts of the BPS
Transpersonal Psychology Section 1999 Annual Conference, p. 12.
4
Spinelli, E. (1978) Human Development and Paranormal Cognition, un
published Ph.D. Thesis, University of Surrey, UK
s
Ibid.
6
Cf. Ihde, Experimental Phenomenology; Spinelli, The Interpreted World.
7
Strawson, G. (1997) 'The self, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4(5/ 6):
405-28.
8
Spinelli, E. (1997) Tales of Un-knowing: Therapeutic Encounters from an
Existential Perspective. London: Duckworth.
9
Stern, D. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psy
choanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York: Basic Books.
10
Kegan, R. (1982) The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human De
velopment. London: Harvard University Press.
" Ehrenwald, J. (1971) 'Mother-child symbiosis: the cradle of ESP',
Psychoanalytic Review, 58: 455-66.
Carington, W. (1949) Matter, Mind and Meaning. London: Methuen.
13
Cf. Spinelli, The Interpreted World.
14
Wolman, B. J. (ed.) (1977) Handbook of Parapsychology. London: Van
Nostrand Reinhold.
15
May, R. (1969) Love and Will. New York: Delta.
16
Koestler, A. (1982) 'Suicide note'. Copies of this document were included
in a memorial pamphlet made available to those who attended a meeting to hon
our the memory of Arthur Koestler and Cynthia Koestler, held at The Royal
Academy of Arts, London, UK on Thursday, 7 April 1983.
17
Cf. Sartre, Being and Nothingness.
2

10. :

,
. , , , - .
, , , , , . , , , , , , . ,
,
, , , ,
.
, , ,
,
, , ,

,
, .
, , ,
,
, -i
. , - ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, i
to - .

162

, ,
,
, ,
. ,
, , , , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
, ,
, . ,

, ,
, 1.


,
.
: ( >
.

, , \\
,

, ,
, , , , <>
, -,
. ,
, , , .
,


, 2.
, ,
, , <
, , ,
164

. , ,
: , -
.
- ,

.
,
, , , , ,
, , , , . , ,
- , ,
.
, (

), .
, , , , ,
, .
, , , , ,
,
, . ,

, , -
( ,
),
.
, ,
, -i
: 3.
, , ,
-
, :
, *,
( ). 165

, 4. , ,
, ,
, , , ,
, , (, ), :
, - .
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
- .

, . ,
, , , , , ,
, .
,
- .

,
, ,

, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
,
,
, \\.\
. ,
,

. ,
,
5.

:
,
, . , , ... , , , ... 6.


.
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
, :
? ... ... . ... ... ... ...
7.

,
. -
. ,
, (, , ),
. ,
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
-
; , 1


. ^
, , ^
-|
, .
:

, ,
: ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
,
.
, - -
, ...
1960-, ,

8.
,

, , , , , i
, , ,
. ,
. ,
- >
, *.
,

. ,
oi
, , ! ><
, , IK
.
, <>
, ... ,
... />

, ^ .
, ( ) , :
?
,
, , ... ... . ...
: .
, ,
- , .
, ... ,
... ,
".
,
,

, ,
.
;
.
12,
,
, .
, , .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.
, ... ... ,
, ,
169

168

,
. , , ;
, , , , 13.
, ,
? ?.
,

. , ,
, .

.
,
, ...
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
,
,
, [
] , : ,
14.
g
,
, - , , 15.
,
, . , ,
? ,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
, , >

- ( ,
) ,
, ,
,
16.
,
, ,
,
(, , ,
),
,
().
,
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
, , , ,
. , . , , , ,
, 17.
,
, . , -
, , ,
, , ,
,
,

. , ,
, ,

.
1

, ,
, ,
( ), ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
. , ,
, : ,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
. ,

,

. , ( ) ,
, , -
,
().
,
,
. , , 18.
.
- . .
, .
, , , . , , , , ,
19.

,
. , ,
,
, ^ .
,
, ,
, ,
.

; , , ,
.
, ,
, , .
. -
, , ,
,
.
:
,
;
,
.
...
21.
, . ,

, , (
, , ),
(
, ,
).
,
, -


care-full -

173
1/-*

- .

,
,
. , , , , -
. , , , , ,
.
,
, , .
,
, , , , , ( )
? ,
?
, . , ,

, ,
? , , , ,
, , ,
22. , , , , , , ,
, , .
- ,
- , .
?

,
, ,
. , , :
, , - () , - , ,
, , , ... . , , ,
- . ... , , ,
... , .
... ,
, 23
, , , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
. (
) ,
.

.
(
),
. , 1

, ,
, , , - , , ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, , (
(, , ). -, -' 24).
: 1
, ,
, , ,
-i ,
?

,
- , ,
,
, , , , -
, ,
, , I
, ,
, . 1

, , -1
.
- I

, , I
, ,
, I

. ... , - , - I
.
, - i
. ,
? , - 1 - ,
, ,
. , * ,
-
,
.
f
- ,
,
. ,
.


. |
;
,
, .
, ,
,
-

, . . ,

,
.

, ,
,
,

. , -
,

, ,
, , -

.
-
,
, ,
,
,
,
.
|
. , '
,
177
176

: ?, - ,
-
- . , , ,
, , -

.
,
, ,
,

, , ,
, - , ,
, ,
.

,

,
. , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, . . . , .
, . , . .
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
- - . 178

,
. , , , , -
, , .
\

10
The mirror and the hammer: some hesitant steps towards a more
humane psychotherapy
See e.g. Masson, J. (1989) Against Therapy. London: Collins; Russell J
(1993) Out o/Bounds. London: Sage; Smail, D. (1996) How To Survive Without
Psychotherapy. London: Constable; Lomas, P. (1999) Doing Good? Psychotherapy out of its Depth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sands, A. (2000) Falling for Therapy: Psychotherapy From a Client's Point
of View. London: Macmillan.
Gordon, E. F. (2000) Mockingbird Years: A Life In and Out of Therapy
New York: Basic Books.
.
4
Spinelli, E. (1995) 'Afterword', in Alexander, R. Folie a Deux: An Experience
of One-to-one Therapy. London: Free Association Books. Cf. Gordon,
Mockingbird Years, p. 16.
6
Ibid. p. 16.
7

8
9

Ibid. p. 119.

Ibid. p. 125.

Ibid. p. 126
Ibid. p. 218.
11
Ibid. p. 221.
10

12

Farber, L. H. (1967) 'Martin Buber and psychotherapy', in Schilpp P A


and Friedman, M. (eds) The Philosophy of Martin Buber. The Library of Living
Philosophers, vol. XII. La Salle, IL: Open Court. (A collection of Leslie Farber's
most important papers under the title The Ways of Will was published in December 2000 by New York: Basic Books.)
13
Ibid., p. 578.
14
/., p. 590.
15
Ibid., p. 594.
16
Ibid., p. 596.
17
Ibid., p. 596.
Various references to Martin Buber's Between Man and Man and / and Thou
appear throughout Farber's paper (ibid). Cf. Gordon, Mockingbird Years,
p. 224.
20
Ibid., p. 225.
21
Ibid., p. 126.
v, M Kierkegaard, S. (1960) The Diary ofSoren Kierkegaard, ed. Peter Rohde.
New York: Philosophical Library.(1990).
Cf. Gordon, Mockingbird Years, p. 228-9.
179