You are on page 1of 865

*

S I !

..

ETI
MORAL I

MORALIA
.

*
*
*
*


2010

821.161.1.
84 (2 =)6-4 + 84 (2 =)6-5

ISBN 978-5-91244-026-7

.., 2010
.., , 2010

, 2010.

8
I.

13
.. 30
65
. 82
*

.. - 88
. 99
. 125
176
*

198
.
. 208
. .
221
247
*

, 254
271
284
, , .
, 292
: '310
5

M oralia

323
334
.
346
361
*

376
.
417
.

430
? 453
460
: .
478
*

493
.
519
.
548
. 656
*

The Light o f Life 677

II.
. .
709
719
6

.
727

1. - 741
2.

747
, .
..
70- 757
768


1. .. 795
2. .. 799

1. . .. 812
2. 816
821
II
1. TOTUS TUUS 826
2. 830

1. 836
2.
844
852
857
860

, ,
:
, - .
, , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , .
- .
, -
, - : ,
,
- , -
. ..
:
,
; , ,
;
. ,
, . ,
, , ,
.

, , ,
,
.
. , ,
. ..
.
.
,
.
. .
, 30 2009

1
, .
.. -
., , , <1















1 -
- , , 16-18
2006 .

13

M oralia





























14

, ,
,


























15

M oralia

1942
. :
,
. ,
, .
,
? , ,
? ,
,
, . ( )
; (,
. .) - . , ,
- .
- , ,
,
, , ,
16

(. 13,16-17).
.
.
: ,
. ,
. , , .
:

, ...

:
;
,

!
( )

:

...
( . . )

()
.
:
!
!
( )

( ):
- ,
- !
(, ... )

:
- , ,
, ...
( ...)
17

M oralia

:



. -

:
- ,
.

, , ...

, ,
:
,


-


,

( )


, .
, ,
. -
, , . .
( ). ,
, - ,
, ,
18

. , ,
, , .
, , , 1 -
,
( X IX ) :
.
: , ,
, , .

, ,
. ! -
(, ,
!) , .

.
. - .

. ,

.
. , ,
- -
( ,
, ,
). -

1 . .. ..:
, , , , ,
, , .
, / / ...
. . .: - . ,
2004. . 354.

19

M oralia

- ,
( ).
: (
), ,
( ,
). -
( : ).
- ,
.
, , .
, , , .
( : ,
, - ; .
, ,
-
.)
, .
:
, .

, ,
.
- .
, ,
. ,
.

.
- ,
,
20

( ,
,
-
: ?).
,
,
: . ,
, - ..
:
, , .
, ,
, . . ,
, :
, ! :
, , .

: , ,
, . ,
, ,
? , ?
- . .
- , :
, , ad aeternae gloriae libertatem,
.
( ) -
. .
.. (
)

( -
!
: ,
21

M oralia

: ,
).
,
, , .
,
? , ,
.
, (
), .
, ,
, ,
,
--. ,
, ,
, -
, ,
--. - ,
, .
, , ,
..
, -
.
.
, .
,
- ,
( ) .
, - - -
, . - -.
eksusia
, :
22

( . 1,12).
- . -
- , (
,
, ), .
, .
, , .
, : . :
,
-

. ,
- ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. .
,
. ,

- , . .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
. -
,
.
, ,
23

alia

,
.
,

. ,
, ( )
. - :
... , ,
.

, .: ,
, 1.

,
, .
-
,
.
. , ,
. ,
, ,
: ,
. . , ,
( ,
, , , , -
, , v e lle ,
) .
:
, ...
1 Kein Sonnenstrahlgeht verloren. Worte Albert Schweitzers. Hyperion-Verlag.
S. 87.

24

-, ,
-
( ),
(
). ,
( ,
) ,
- : ,
, ,
... .
, ,
, - ,
, ,
. : , ,
. .
, . -
.
. ,
( ,
): ,
, ,
, .
- ,
.
, ,
, ,

, ,
. ,
.

25

M oralia

(. 26, 6 -1 3 , . 14, 3 -9 , . 7, 3 6 -5 0 , .
12,1-8). -
, ,
.
,
: .
.

!

. ,
, ,
( ), .
!
, , ,
, , - ,
, -
(
). - ,
.
, ,
.
?
?
.
, ,
(
) ,
.
-
. ,

26


( )
. - ,
(
) .

,
, .
, ,
. (
) .
,
.
, ,
, -
. .
, .
,
(), -
. , .
, :
, ,
. . .
?
- :
,
. , , ,
? , - . - .
. : ?
? Really? And now you are
outside, are not you? ,
27

M oralia

. , , -
... , ...
, , ,
...
,
, ,
.

, ,
. , ecu ,
.
.
, .
(),
,
!
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
( ) (
. ),
,
. -
,
.
( ,
; ,

). ,
, , . . 28

. :
.
. ,
.
.
, ,
, .
.
,
,
, - .
. , .
, .
-
, , ? :
?
-
, ,
, , .
,
, .
2006


..
.. - ,
-.
, ,
-
.
, ,
.
.. , , , .

.
,
. -
1991. ,
, , . ,
- ,
, ,
.

, -
.
,
.
.
30

..

-
. , , ,
, .
, , :

1918 1939. .
, .
:
, -

? :
? ,
. ,
.
. .
, .

, 1.
, ,
, ;
, , : ,
.
(,

) -

1 , , .
, ,
, :
- ,
, . -
. ,
... .

31

M oralia

,
. -
. - -
.
(

! , ,
).
.. ..,
, , ,
, -
- .
: !
! , . -
-
. :
,
. -
, ,
( - ?), , - .
.
..
- .
- ,
.
.. , ,
.
-
.

32

..

.
, , ,
( ! ) -
, :
! ! :

. .
, ! -
1 6 -1 7 . :
. , .
: ?
? , ,
.
, .
.
, -
.
, ,
,
. , ,
. :

, , ,
. ,
.
,

.
, - ,
.
, , (
).
33

M oralia

, .
.

. - , ,
,
.
. - ,
. ,
, , .
,
. ,
. :
? , ,
. .
, ,
, , ,
, - . , :
( )
, .
.
,
: , ,
... .
, - -
, .
- - . , -, -
,
. , ,
, .

, .
34

..

- ,
, ?
- , ,
- ?
, . (
)
,
- , ,
. , ,
,
: , ?
- .
,
...
, ?
-
.
.
, , ,
,
, ,
. .
,
. , (
), .
, .
- ,
- . ,
, , - .
:
,
? ,
35

M oralia

? , . ,
,
,
( ),
. , ,
.
, , ,
, .
, . ,
, .
, . ,
, ! ,
.
.. - - 90- -
, :
, . ..,
, : , . ,
.
- .


.
- .
, ,
. .
, ,
, .
, ,
: !
:

, : ! 36

..

, ,
(,
, ),
. -
.
. ,

, .
, ,
. !
.. ?
.. -
- : ,
. :
- ,
- , , .
! ,

? ,
. :
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , ?
? ,
. ,
. ,
, , .
37

M oralia

..
.
, .
..
.
.
, ,
habeas
corpus, ,
, ,
?
, (
?).
. , .
- ,
, - sine qua non .
, ? ,
( , )
.
, : .
. ,
- . ,
, - , , -
, - .

( - -
, - ,
, )
, -
38

..

.
, . ,
,
. , -
( ).

,
.
. -
,
!
. :
, .

, ,
. ! ,
, , , ,
, , .
, , :
:
.
, .
- ,
. , ,
(
) ,
, .
- , ?

. -
,
.
39

M oralia

..
. ,
,
,
.
,
.
..

( ?),
. ( ,
) -
, - ,
. ,
, :
,
. .
:
? (
). : ! -
!
. ?
. ., . .
,
. , X IX
- ,
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
40

..


,
. ,
, ,
. - .
- , :
, -
, , !
,
- . .

- . ,
, , ,
. ,
, , .
,
, , . ,
,
...
- , .
(,
?), , .
- , . ,

, ,
.

, ,
,
, . .
,
, ,
41

M oralia

, -
( ), (
), , , .
,
, . , -
. ? ,
.
.
,
... (
, ) - .
, X X ,
( ),
.
( , )
- ,
(,
),
- .


.
, , ,
,
,
. , , ,

. .
,
.
,
...

42

..

..
.
,
.
,
,
.
.. , : ,
...
: . ,
? -
.
,
. ,
.
,
, .
.
() - ( ,
) . , .
, , .
,
- ( )
, . ,
,
? , ( , ),
, .
? (
) ,
43

M oralia

, ,
...
. : ,
. !
, .

, -
.
: -
,
; , - . ,
- ...
.. ?
, ,
? ,
, ,
,
,
?
.. - !
. ,
. , ,
: .
, , ...
-
.
,
.
, , .
. , ,
44

..

- , ... , ,
. .
.
,
. -
, . ,
, ,
. (
.) .
. , ,
. .
:
, , ... ,
, .
, ?
.

, .
,
. ,
.
,
- , -
. ,
, - . .
- , .
!
:
, - ( , ,
). :
45

M oralia

, !
. ,
. ,
,
, .
- .
- ,
. ,
, .
.
..
- ,
?
?
.. , , ,
.
.
. -
.
. , , ,
... , .
- .
- . .
.
..
, , ,
. , ,
-
. ?
46

..

.. , , ,
. .
. ,
- , .

, ,
, .
, , ,
. -
: , .
,
, ;
.
.
. .
,
.

-,
, .
, , ,
,
. :
, . ,
, ,
.
, . , ,
-
, , , -
, .
,
. : ,
47

M oralia

? , , - !
: - , ,
, ,
- ... ,

, . ,
. :
,
!

,
...
.. ?
.. , ,
, ,
. ,

, .
? ,
. ,
. , ,
. -
, ,
: , ,
. ,
, ,
, , , .
,
,
,

48

..

: , - ,
, , ,
,
, , ,
( , 1914). -
,
: !
, , !
: . .
?
, .
, , , ...
,
,
. - , , ,
. , ,
.
, ,
, -
, , ,
.
( , -)
.
, -.
:
,
:
,
... ,
,
: , ,
... ,
49

M oralia

,
. ,
. (
?) ,
.

, . ,
, ,
, ,
. :
? , , .

.
.
..
!
.. , , .
: ,
, ,
, -. !
, , .
,
, , :
!
, .
..
?
50

..

.. ? ,
, .
,
. . ,
, ?
,
, - ,
. .
: ,
. -
, . ,
- ,
. ? .
..
, , ,
,
. ., -
, , .
, , . - ,

. , ,
.
.. ,
.

( :
- ) -

- -
.
57

M oralia

, ,
. .
-
.
, , , , ,
, -
.
- 4 ,
.
, . ,
.
- ,
. , , ,
. ,
, ,
. .
. ,
:
,
,


, ,
. -
,
,
, -

. a propos

52

..

- -
.
:
. ,
.
:
?
, , , , . ,
, , - ,
, , - ,
, . ,
. . :
,
.
,
( , )
, .

.
( !),
, , - .
, - -
.
- , . .
,
, , :
,
, -
( ).
-
,
, :

S3

M oralia

;
,

!


, .
- , . ,

( ) - .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ...
, , .

: ,
: , .
,
.

, ,

, (
,
). ,
: ,
! :
, , ?
, ,
.
, :
54

..

? ,
? , ,
. (
) . , , .
-
, ,
. ,
: - ,
! . :
,
,

(,
.:
,
, ,

).

..
?
.. , - ,
, ; ,
- . ,
,
. , .
, , .
- ,
55

M oralia


. .
..
, - ?
.. , , ;
.
- .
..

...
.. , . ,

,
,
. ,
.
- , ,
.
, ,
. - ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, ,
, , .
.. .
...
56

..

.. , , .
, .
.. , . ,
, ,
...
.
.. , , ,
.
, . ,
- ,
, - , .
.. ,
...
.. . , ,
. - ,
, , (
) .
- .
.. , ,
, - .
, , -
.
.. , ,
. :
, - .
, ,
.
57

M oralia

.. , ?
..
, . , , .
. :
. ,
, (
). - - .
(, -)
. .
- ,
. , .
.. , ,
- - : , , ...
.. .

, .
- ...
.. : , ,
. ,
- , . ,
- ?
.. . , ,
, ,
, .
.
58

..

: , ,
, ,

, , , .
.. -
, ?
.. ,
: , , ,
. :
. ,
. ,
.
.
..
.
.. , (: )
.
! -
.
.. ,
, ,
. ,
- . ,
...
.. - .
, :
59

M oralia

- . , ,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
.
,
. . ,
,
, ,
.
..
- .

.
,
- .
, .
.. , ,
- , -
,
, ,
. , , ,
.
. :
, !
80- , :
! ?
,

60

..

, ,
. , ,
. - , - . .
, ,
,
: ,
. ?
-
. ?
- .
, ,
, .
.
..
,
. :
, , , ,
... ,
.
.. ,
,
. , ,

, .
,
, , X X
, .

(Ehrfurcht) . -
61

M oralia

? - , ,
,
.
,
- .
- , , .
, -
- :
.
, .
.. -
, .
.
, ,
,
, ...
.
.. ! ,
. , ,
. -
. -
. ,
- .
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.

.
62

..

,
.
.. :
. ,
(
. ). , ,
-
.
.. , : , !
, .
. II ?
-
.

. , ,
, , -
, .
-,
.
,
( ),
.
.
. .
.. ?
.. - .
, ,
63

M oralia

.
.. ,
, ,
. !
: ! ,
?
, .

. .
, :
. , ,
-
. ,
-
. ?
.
, .
,
.
. - , .
2 2 200 6


1
,
...

.
! , !

, , .

,

.

( ,
) -
, . .
, , ;
,
( ), (
), ( )
,

1
, , 16 - 18 2007 .

65

M oralia

(
) .
? ,
,
.
, , ,
( ,
identity, , ,
)
, -
- -
.


.
,
.

,
manmade . ,
(
), ,
:
, man-made human being,
.
.
, - ,
,
. ,
, .
66

,
, ?
,
, , , -

1.
,
.

.

, . .
,
.

1 ,

( , III, 11), ,
. , (
) , ( )
(
, !).
.
. , - ,
: ,
. -
, ,
( ,
, ;
: ). ,
, ( )
, . (
) per onestade ( , ).

, :

67

M oralia

: , , ...
DavidsbiindleroB...

-
( ,
).
! .
, , .


-
. -
-
.

( ,

. :
), ,
, . ,
, ,
, -
(),
, - .
, - .
(,
- dilezione),
, , ,
,
,
, (Dante. Convivio.
Garzanti 1995, p. 188. - ..).

68

.
:
, !
, !
, , !

:
,
, ,
...
.

, ,
, ,
( , -).
.
( ), , .

,
.
,
., ..

. ,
- .
( )
( ,
).

( ,

, ;
, ;

69

M oralia

).

.
, ,
, (
,
, . 1).
, ,
,
.
?
, ?
, , .
. - 1 : / / .
. .:
, 2003. X. ,
, ,
: , ,
. ( ,
, ,
, . .) .
, ,
- ( , ). , ,
,
- , .
. ,
: -
(. 23).
,
- ,
,
, ,
... ... . , , - (. 22-23).

70

(
, )
. ,
. ,
:

, .
( , 1, 28)

, - , ,
.
. .
, , , ,
! . ,
(. ). ,
.
- -
,
, .
- ,
.
. .
. , (
: , , ;
, ).
, . ( )
- . :
. ,
, , 1.
1 -
. - , ,
.

71

M oralia

, .
- ,
( ).

.
.
, ,
: filos
filein 1, ,
amicus amare; friend, Freund (,
free, frei)\
, ...
:
alter ego, ,
, , .
,
.
, :
. .
.

X X ,
, ,
1 Filia .
.. ,
,
.
, ,
. . : agapas ?
. : Filo sc.
, : fileis
( ?) . 21,15-17.

72

: ,
, -
, . .,
- (
, !).
(Paul Veyne)
,

,
,
,
,
.
.
.
.
- -
humanitas (). ,
.
( !1)
.
-
;
, 2. ,
1
, : ,
,
. , ,
/ / Simone Weil. Attente deDieu. Fayard,
1966,p. 198.
2 ,
. ,

73

M oralia

( )
, homo humanus, :
, . -
, . , .

.
:

, . ,
, ,
, , .
.
,
(
, ).
: -
. ,
,
(. 2 ,2 3 ),
.

, , ,
(.
), ,
,
. : ,
, , theion. ,

. .
, ,
, , :
... . .: , 1998.

74

, , - ,
.

, (.
, -
, ) ,
- ,
: ,
,
(
).
, . ?
- , .
,
,
, :
Zum erstaunen bin ich da -

, () (
) .
, , -
.
, 1.
- , .
.
,
,
( ).
,

1 . . . . 35.

75

M oralia

( !), ,
,

, .
, ,
, .
,
, - , -
.
. ,
, filanthropos, homo hum anus - ,
,
: ,
, . - ,
. ,
, ,
- ,
, ,
.

- ,
- ,
,
, , ,
: .
:
,
. ,
. , ,
: ( ,
, )

76

( ,
, , : ).
, -
1,
, ,
2,
. ( )
,
, ,
, ().
, -
- :
, Das Licht der Offentlichkeit verdunkelt
alles ( ).
, :
,
- ;
,
- , -
- , . .
( , , . .),
.

1 move ilsoleValtre
stelle, .
2 7 cuorgentilsono cosa
( - )
, il Saggio. , ,
-Amore, ,
, .

77

M oralia

:
,
, (, , );
,

1 : (,
) (
).
filia, , ,
.
,
, ,
. -
, 1911
:
,
, ,
;
,
( , . - . .)

1
,
, ,
, .
Friedrich . Montaigne. Gallimard, 1968.
(
)
, .
,
, ,
. Weil. Op. cit. P. 207.

78

:
- . ,
theion () ,
,
.
, ...
theion,
theion. -
, .
,
, , ,
theion, , , ,
,
. , .,
: ,
.
.

, 1
,
, , .

.
(
- . 15,1 4 -1 5 :
) .
,
, .
1 . . .
.

79

M oralia

.
: , ,
(
)
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, (.
).
. ,
,
- .
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, - .
,
,

, ,
.
- - ,
,
. ,
, ..
, , ,
, - , ,
. 80


:
... -
.
, , ,
-
(.).
, ,
,
:
, ,
,
, theion.
:
, .
2007

.


... ,
.
.

,
, ,
- , , .
, ,

, ,
, .
:
.
, ,
, ( ,
). -
, ,
, .
- ,
,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
82

,
. - , ,
- -
, , ,
. .
- .
, , ,
- , - ,
. - - ,
, , :
, ,
, , .
, , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
( ), ,
, ; -
, , , .
( )
: .
.
,
-
,

. , ,
, ,
,
, .

83

M oralia

, (
,
,
); ,
,
, ,
( ). :
- .
.
, : ,
, , ,
.

. ,
. ,
.
, .
, , ,
, , ,
, , - ,
.
, -
1. ? ?
? , -
1
. - ,
. .
- ,
., La fete de lapensee. Hommage a Francois Fedier. Lettrage,
Paris 2001.
. , .

84

. , ,
, , ,
... , ,
, , ,
( ),
, ,
- - .
, ,
.
.
. ,

, ,
1.
,
2. ,
, ,
.

: ,
.
( , ,
, , : ,
, - -
- theion , ) ,
, ,
- .
. - ,
3.
1 Simone Weil. Attente de Dieu. Fayard, 1966, p. 202,207.
2 Op. cit. P. 207.
3 . -

85

M oralia

( )
. ,
,
. ,
( )

. ,
, .
,
-
: 1.
.
.
.
,
.
. (
,
) ,
, ,
, : ,
, , ; ,
, , . ,
. -

(
.-.: - ), . .
. -
, .
1 .:
/ / Jacques Derrida. Memoirs o f the Blind. The Self-Portrait and Other
Ruins. The University o f Chicago Press, 1993. P. 65.

86

.
,
,
.
1 -
.
contrecourant. ,
, , -
, ,
.
,
, , ., ,
, .
,
, .
.
200 7

1 , ,
,
, (
), , ,
.
. Heidegger a plusforte raison. Librairie Artheme Fayard 2007,
.

..

.
.. . . X X
. ,
1979 ,
.
, . .

6 0 -7 0 - .
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
70- ,
10- 20-.

: , ,
,
,
, , .

, 6 0 -7 0 -
88

. . -

: -
, . ,
, , (
: )
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, . - ..,

20- (
, -
- ,
, ,

, :
-
)
. ,
! ,
, ,
. :
, ,
.. , ,
-
. ,
.

.
.., .

89

M oralia

. . X X
.
,
. . ,
.
- ,
...
,
., - .
;
, ,
.
1990

..
,
, .
:
, , ,
.
!
.


( ) .
, ,
.
,
, ,
(
) - , .
90

. . -

, ,
, .
,
, , ,
: -
.
.

( ) -
- (
,
).
,
-

- .
, - , ,

.
,
, ,
-
.
, .
- ,
,
, ,
. , , .
, - , ,
-
.
91

M oralia

..
, .
- - . - ,
, .
, , -
.

. , -
, ,
,

, ,
...
, ..
. - ,
.
,
,
, .
, .,
, , ,
..
...,
.
- , ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
- .
. -
92

. . -

.
,
, .
(, , ,
, , )
.
,
, -
,
- .

- - ,
.
, -
, :
( ,
,
,
, , ,
, , -

).

:
-, , ,
, .
?

, ,
. -
93

M oralia

, , , .
.
, ( ) .
: : . :
( ). : .

.
: - : -
.
.
.
. ,
?
,
. (,
, :
.)

:
. ,
- , \
: - ,
- ; ,
: (
- --, ,
1 !
, , : - / /
19 . .. . . 308.

94

. . -

), .
,
, .
, :
, , - , ?
.

, - ;
- ,
.

,
( 50 ).
, , -
: .
, - .
, , .
, , ,
- ,
.../, -
! .
? ,

. (
)
: . ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , , ,
95

M oralia

,
- , (
,

!) -
. .
.
, ,
.
: ( )

.
, ,
. ,
, - ,
, ,
, . ,
- -- , - , .
, , . (
-
).
, :
- ...
, ,
, ,
.
,
:
.
, , 96

. . -

, -
. 0>.
:
( :
,
).
-
,
.
.
,
,
.
.
(
).
:

.
!
- , ,
. - , ,
, , .
.
. ,
, , .
, ,
.

,
. , ,
97

M oralia

, , , ,
-
.
,
,
. (,
!)
- . -,
,
.
.
. ,
:
( ,
, - --). -

.
, , ,
10-
.
1990-1992

-,
,
, -
.
. , ,

( ),

. ,
, , ,
1. ,
1 - ,
, . , ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
( -
- , ,
- - ). ,
,
,
, . :

99

M oralia

, -
. -
,
. ,
,
,
- ,
. ,
, ,
,
, .
-
,
?
-
( . .), ,
,
? ,
,
,
( - ,

, , . .).
, , . ,
-
, , ,
. ,
(
: ,
, - ).
, , . ,
, ...

100

,
, ,
, .
:
.

-
, :
The Courage Be.
, : be
or not to be?, ?
:
,
, ;
, ,
, ,
,
,
(, ).
: , , ,
: , , ,
, ,
- ,
.
, , ,
, -
, , -
. , :

, ,
.
, , , .

101

M oralia

. . ,
.
,
:
,
66 .
, , cow ardice, -
, , courage. ,
, ,

( . ) -
, -.


?.

- ,
, . ( ,
,
,
, )
:
. .
,
, .
( ),
, (,
,
, ).
, ,
; , , -
. ,

- .
.

102

-,
, .
,
- ,
, - .
, -
. .

- -
:
( ). - ,
.
! -
, . . - -
.

.
,
,
, - .
, , .

, ?
, to be,
,
.
.
.
,
, ,
,
103

M oralia

. .
, , ,
, ?
.


, , ,
,
:
, .
,
. ,
virtus (
-)
,
-, Virtus Romana,
dem entia (
).
.
, , - , , .

:
( )
( , , ,
).
,
.
104

,
. -
,
, .

, , ,
, , ;
- .

.
,
?
;
. ,
, ,
, , .
, , -, ,
.

,
,
virtus
: virtus, virtu - , : virtusherbae,
( ). , ,
virtus
, , , ,
1.
.
1 .,
. .
. .

105

M oralia

, , -, ,

: , -,
{courage), {courage),
{coraggio) , , m u t -
H ochm ut. .

: ,
, :
Indi partissi povero vetusto;
se il mondo sapesse c o r chelli ebbe
mendicando sua vita a frusto a frusto
assai lo loda, e piu lo loderebbe.

, ; , , , (, VI, 139-142).
,
, , ,
- ,
, , ,
. , - ,
iustitia ( ,
). ,
. , ,
- , ,
, :
. - ,
,
,
, .
106

, , courage - , - .

,
.
-
, . ,
- -
,
,
.

,
,
,
.
. , ,
,
, -
.
, ,
,
,
.
.
- ,
, - ,
,
.
107

M oralia

,
-
,
.
. , , : ,
, ,
, -
, ,
,
:
( );
( );
(
).
.
,
.

-
? ,
?

. ? -
,
?
... ,

. :

? , ,
,
108

?
, - .
sub specie virtutis,
, , , ,
-
:

. ,

,
, ,
.
, ,

. ,

? ,
.

- , ( ) ,
,
. , ...
,
(
),
-
(
)...

, , ,
, ,
109

M oralia

, ...
, cowardice
?
.

:
-
. .
. . .
. ,
. , ,
?
? ? ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
-
. , ,
.
.
.
, , -
. ?
, , , , , .
- !
. , , ,
, .
! ,

110

, , ,
, ?
. - ,

. ,
- .
!
. , , ,
,
- , ,
,
. :
. ,
- . , .
, , ,
- ,
, , .
, .
? ,
, ,
.
,
: .
,
. , ,
, .
,
: . ,
- .
, . ,
, ...
ill

M oralia

, ,
, , , ,
, .
, , -
, ,
... .
, ( ,

), ,
, ,
- .
,
, , , .
, ,
...

... ,

, ( ,
)
:
- .
.


( ),
( ),
,
. , .
, - -
(
112

, )
.
-
, - ;
, . .
, ,
,
, .
, ,
.
-
, . , ,
, (
),
- ,
, ,
. ...

:
- , , ,
. , ,

: (
,
).

, -
. ,
.
113

M oralia

. , , ,
, ,
, - :
, .
, .
, , : , ,
, ,
- .
,
. , ,
.
.
? - , ,
, , .
? - , ,
, , ,
, .
?
?
(
, , ).
, , - ?
? .
, , (,
, - !) - ,
, trotz,
inspite of, ?

- -
:
114

, ?
,
? ,
? ,
- , - ,
, ?
, .
, . ,
, .
, - , ,
. ,
- -
, ,
. -
: ,
. , ,
? ,
, .
, , , , . ,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
.
,
. , ,
. (
- , )
. - : ,
: , .
115

M oralia

? , , ,

,
,
? , - .

,
,
- , ? ,
,
? ,

, , , ( -, ), ? :
,
? ,
, , .
, :
;
; , ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
.
, -
116

( , , ,
-) - -
.
, , ,
?
? ? -
, , .
,
:
, ,
, -

, , .
,
- ? ,
,
,
: ,
; -
-
, .
.

- -
( , , ,
, , ,
) - ,
? ,
,
, ,
.
117

M oralia

,
- ,
;
.
, , ,
. ,

.
,
, , (
, ).
,
( :
, , , ),
,
. ,
? .
, -

? ,
, , ---,
?
- , 66- ,
, -
: ,
,
-
. ,
, ,
. , ,
- -? , :
?
118

,
,
-
.
,
, -
- :
-. - ,
:
.
,

, ,
cowardice, .
:
, .

,
? , , .
( ,
, - )
,
, .
,
, .
(
)
- : ,
119

M oralia

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , ,

.

-
, ,
?
- -

. ,
, , ,
(, , - Christian Science
-,
;
. .) -

,
, .
? ,
. ,
:

. ,
,
,
,
- .
120

:
.
, ,
( ,
, ),
,

. ,
-
, ,
, , .
, . ?
, ?
,
, ,
. . , , ,

- .

, ,
: , , . ( :
, , , ,
: ,
, , , ,
,
i,
). - ,
121

M oralia

, - ,
,
,
.
,
,
(- ) ? , ?
, :
.

: .
,
,
. - :
, ;
, .

:
. ,
, . , ,

: 1.
1
, - ,
. ,
: L'amor che move il sole e l'altre stelle (,
) - ,
- , : ,
... ,
, : : La gloria di colui che tutto move ( ,
). - ?
.

122

, , ,
, ,
- ,
.
, -
,
:
, - ,
, - - .

, , , ,
. (
) , (
, - )
,
,
, ,
.

- ,
. ,
- , , .
:
...
, ,
, ,
, ,
, -
123

M oralia


. , , - ,
, ,
m agnitude a n im i, ,
. ,
,
,
:
(: ,
).
, - .
, .

1990-1992

.
1
, ...
... . .


,
,
, -.

, , .,
,
2. , ,
,
. ,
:

(. 12)3. , ,
,
.

1
- 80-.
2 Th. Mann. Kultur undPolitik, 1939, S. 297.
3 : T.Mann - K.Kerenyi. Gesprach
inBriefen. Rhein-Verlag. Zurich, 1960.

125

M oralia

:
? (:
, das musterhaft Uberlieferte) -
-
, , , .
- , .
- - ,
, ,
,
(. . )
(. . ) (. 24).
.
. .,
, ,
.
,
- , .

: , .
homo humanus,
,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.
- - ,
: , .

,
, ,

126

( ) -

. , ,
( , ),
- ,
.
. .

.
. ,
,

, ,
1.
1 , :
renovatio studiorum, , ,
, ,
-

.

. , ,
. ,
,
XVIII
XIX .
, ; , -
.
, - ,
. :
.
: , ,
. ,
(, ) ,

127

M oralia

, .
(
, , : -
-). , , ,
, ,
doctor Hermeticus, .

, -, ,
.
0 ,
, (,
, .

- , ,
1).
.

(Beziehung),
:
, ,
, (
. ) - ,
(, , )
,

.

. ,
, ,
.
1 60-
Doctor Hermeticus, -
(. 14).

128

(. 31), ,
,
, .
; ; ,
(Gestalt) ;
; ...
,
: ,
- , ,
,
(philanthropotatos), .

-
,
, ,
(. 92):
. (
,
) -
.
,
. -
,
, ;

- ,
,

- ()
- ().
129

M oralia

?
- - . (
, - , .)
- - ,
,
, (
1, . - 2 3). -
-
, ,
, (
:
, , ,
- .
),

1 . -
(. U.von Wilamowitz - Moellndorf. Der Glaube der Hellenen. 3dln.,
Darmstadt, 1959),
.. , -
.
2 David Herbert Lawrens, ,
.
Glastonbury Romance (1933).
3 L. Klages (1872-1956)
, ,
, ,
, , (., .: L.Klages.
Vorn Wesen des Rhytmus, 1944, Der Geist als Widersacher der Seele, 1954
.) , , ..
(, ) - (, )
, .
,
( - - ,
: )? ,
, (. .).

130

,
, - ,
(von M utterchen
die Frohnatur) - ,
.
. - , .
{des ernsten Spieles)
, vieles: , -
(Kein Lebendiges ist ein Eins, Im m er ists ein Vieles).

, 1 -
2. ,

(,
),

1 , ,
- ,
. , -
, , - , , .,
:
, , ,
, , ,
.
().
- , ,
: : - .
2 . ..:
Das ist das wundersame Spiel der Krafte dass sie so dienend durch die Dinge
gehn: in Wurzeln wachsend, schwindend in die Schafte und in den Wipfeln
wie ein Auferstehen ( , ,
: , ()
).

131

M oralia

. ,
,
.
,
( ),
,
- , ,
: , !
,
...1
, , (
) (
) :

, Fachwissenschaft ()2 -
().
, , ,
: -
, ,
, -
1 . : ,
:
(geshieht). - , techne K.Kerenyi. Umgang m it
Gottlichem, 1961, S. 152.
, , !
2 XIX ,
. ..:

(W.F.Otto. Die Wirklichkeit der Gotter. Von
der Unzerstdrbarkeit der griechischer Weltsicht, 1963, S. 45). XIX

.

132

(.
1).
, ,

(
, , ):
. -
( .)
,
, , .
-
, . .
( -
, ..). , ,
:
, Achtung, , Gehor ( ,
,
2); ,
-
, 3. ,
1 John Couper Powys.
(The Meaning of Culture, 1930)
(The Art
of Happiness, 1935) - -.
2 ,
- .
- (mitschwingen) - (mitergiessen): ,
, , . C.G. Jung, . Kerenyi.
Einfurungin das Wesen der Mythologie. Amsterdam - Leipzig, 1941, S. 12.
. : W enn wir
aufmerksam sind! - ! - K.Kerenyi. W.F.Otto.
Errinerungund Rechenschaji, 1959, S. 152.
3 - ( ); (ibid.).

133

M oralia

, , ,
.

, ,
,
. .
. -
,
, -,
-, - :
- .
-
.. . . ,
D ottore Serafico1,
.

. -
,
:
-.
.
.
,
,
, - , , ,
, , ,

. ,
. ,
(
1 : , .

134

). ,
,
( ,
:
, , . .)
,
,
, , religio.
0 religio, ,
,

. religio -
, , , (H andhaben)
, , .
1: ,
- (achtsam)
: 2.
(, - Feinheit:
. Finesse):
religio, ? (. 191).
, , religio,
,
, , ,
, ,
(. . religio ,
, , ,. .
1 , ,
.
2 Kerenyi. Umgang, S. 5. . . :
- - ,
.

135

M oralia

. eulabeia):
1,
,
, : Deo concedente, ,
. ,
, Deo concedente,

2,
. ,

: - (,
) ,
, ,
3. , ,
. ,
, . ,
, religio,
, .

-
1 . Aidos, - , ,
,
.. (W.F.Otto. Iheophania. Der Geist der Altgnechischen
Religion. Hamburg, 1956).
2 ,
, , ,
, metus (. ) , ,
-
? (. 75). ,
,
, . . :
, . ,
.
3 Jung, Kerenyi, S. 109.
136

, (
,
, :
- , , ,
). , , ,
., , X X ,
,
- , - ,
, ,
(metus,
) , 1 ,
: , -
, ,
.
, , ,
... , : ,

, .
, .
( , ,
, - ;
- 2)
1 , ,
, .
, - ,
(als-ob). , , hos,
. !
, ,
.
2
: , . .

137

M oralia

.
,
. () ()
,
:
( ,
), , , ,
: , ,
. ,
, :
, ,
. ,
; ,
.
!
- , ,
, ,
.

.
- .
: ,
, , ,
.
, ,
; -
, , 1.
1
, ,

138

- , -
- , (
, ,
)
,
, 1

, ,
. ,

2. 0
,
. - , :
,
. ,
,
(Naturfrommigkeit)3. religio
, .
., , , -
;
:

.

!
1 , ,
religio
(. ) , .
2 . :
( ) (frommer),
( - ) (Otto.
Iheophania, S. 10).
3 Kerenyi. Umgang, S. 45.

139

M oralia

, :
...

-
( ).
-
, - ,
1? :
, ex officio, (,
, ),

. ,
, , -
.
, :
. ,


2. , -
1
. ,
- , :
, : .
, ,

: .
.
2 :
; . : ,
! , , . .
,
, .
.
,

140

(, , , ,
vulgus), - 1. ..,
,
,
( ),
:
.
, , ganz
Andere, . :
, , -
2.
-
, (,
).
-
3.
, : , , .
, ,
: ,
, . :
.
, , ,
, , : - ! . ,
.: .
1
(D aich ein Knabe war). - . , .: .
2 . !
,
.
3 ,
(.).

141

M oralia

.

:
, ,
. , 1.
,
, ,
- , Sagen undSingen.

, ,
, .
, ,

, -
(. ,
. - ).
, ,
,
religio .
,

: , ?
, , ,
:
! :
?
: ,
.
.
1 Otto. Theophania, S. 60.

142

,
, ,
? ,

,
,
? , , ,
.

,
:
. ,
,
-. , ,

,
,
1, . ,
, ,
- ,
2.
1 ,
- , .
? :
. ,
. ,
.
2
,
, , .
,
, :
, ,
: . ,

143

M oralia

, . -
, 1.
- , ,
religio
: ,
, ... :
, ?
?
, ,
, ,
religio. ,

,
. ,
- ,
2.
. , , ,
: ...3 , (
):
.
, (,
), , ,
, XIX , .
1 .:
..
/ / . . ().
2 : (Griechentum)
, .
3 .
( from beyond,
, ) -

144

, ,


,
. ,
, .
,
. ,
, .

, . ,
, , ,
.
, , ...
, . ,
-
. ,
, - .
. ,
( ,
!)
- ,
,
.
, ,
1, -
Robert . Shaw. The Muse at Loose Ends. Magazine 177. February 2001, p. 345.
1 :
, , - ,
. K.Kerenyi. Prometheus. Die menschliche Existenz in
griechisherDeutung. Zurich, 1959.

145

M oralia

, ( ).
, ,
,
,
.
, , - , ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , ,
, : ,
- .

1,
- , -
2
1

, . .: .,
.,
. , ,
,
.
2 , . .
..:
, . K.Kerenyi. Vom Wesen desFestes.
Paideuma, 1938. .

., -
,

146

,
.

-: .
..
, , ,
- , ,
,
,
1939 . 1, ,
.
, ,
:

2.
, (
- ) -
.
,
, .
, ,
. -
, , -

, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
- - ,
( . ).
1 T.Mann. Die Kunst des Romans, S. 282.
2 K.Kerenyi. Apollon. Studien iiber antike Religion und Humanitdt. UnsterblichkeitundApollonenreligion. Wien, 1937.

147

alia

. ,

. ,
- ,
: ,
, ,
- ( :
, , Fall nach oben).
,
, , ,
, - .
,
, ,
. - ,
- , ,
.
, , , ,
(, -, )
:
,
-
1. - ,
1 ,
, -
- , (. . ,
) -
(. 31).
( ) , . .
, .
: ,
, (

, ).

148

, ,
1. , ,
,
, , ,
:
.
, ,
.
. .,
,
, . ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
.
,
, .
, ideenhaft:
, , , ,
: - ,
, (. 151). ,

1 , - ,

.
(. ),
,
- . ,
,
,
.

149

M oralia

,
(, ),
, , ,
, , .
( , )
,
1: , ,
(. 33). ,
.
2. ,
, ;
.
:
(
- ,
).
,
.
, .
, .
3.

,
, , -
--, --,
1 () . (Bilder) ,
- (. 9).
2 Kerenyi. Umgang, S. 31-32.
3

- , , ,
, .

ISO

-- . . , ,
:
, - -
]. .
,
,
, (
)
: ,
( ) , ,
() - , .
, :
-, -,
- ,
-
, , .
- (Gestalt, Bild)2.

X X ,

(-)
() - ,
.-,
...
, pensee sauvage,
1 , ,
- :
. , : ,
. , ,
( ).
2 . ( ),

..

151

M oralia

: ,
, ? ,
, -

(, ,

:

). , ,
, , ,
, .
. ,
: 1,
2.
X X (
..3),

,
.

,
.
1 , , , ,
. -
, , Alles.
- :
. ,
, , (Otto.
Theophania, S. 152).
.
2 Die gluckhafte Sphare des Daseins - (Op. cit. S. 61). ,
, ,
.
3 .. . ., 1957.

152

,
.

.
, .
, , (
, ),

,
, - (. , -
)
( -
, , , ).
, - ,
,
, :
- , - ... - ,
( ,
) 1.
,

,
: (,
, -
, .2
). 1 Kerenyi. Umgang, S. 41.
2 - , .
, , , - (Jung,
K.Kerenyi. Einfurung. S. 123).

153

alia

, ,
, ,

, (,
, ) -
,
1.

.
: ,
, -
, -
, - - 2.
- archai - ?
3. , , -.
4. , (
, ,
; , ,

:
, ).
( )
- 1 ,
. , ,
.,
:
.
2 Symbolariuma ..
3 Jung, Kerenyi, op.cit., S. 32.
4 Ibid.

154

,
, ,
.
,
,
(
-

).

,


. , ,

:
-
. , ,
.
(
, ,
),
- , -
,
,
, . ,
-
() ,
,
: .
.

755

M oralia

-
.
:
, ,
- , ,
. - --,
( :


; ;
,
).
: . ,
, ,

, , :
, , ...
.
\
- ( ,
--).
,
. .
- ,
, -
,
:
(fromm), ,
.
156


(,
) - , - ,
,
,
. ,
?
,
,
-,
. ,
, ,
,
(.
,
: ! (. 178).

, .
, , ,
., ,
. 1.
- ,
(
, :

1 . :
, , ,
.
(Kerenyi. JJmgang, S. 36). ,
. (op. cit.,
S. 37). ,
.

157

M oralia

) ,
-
, , -,
- ;
.
: ,
, , (
).
: ,
.
.


( ). ,
, ,

,
1:
,
,
, .
-,

(

1
. . saeculum () , . .
,
- . . Saeculum. Freiburg Munchen, 1951,1952.

158

: - ),
-
. ,
: ,
. ,

.
,
, ,

, 13 ,

, Sprachwerk.
, (
, ,
. .)
.

, ( ,
)
, .
,
.
, , :
,
.
. ,

. ,
, ,
.
1S9

M oralia


, , ,
, .
(Sprachwerk)
- , , .
, ,
, ,
ad hoc: ,
. ,
, .

: , , ,
.
- ,
, ,
. , ,
-
:
.
,
:
,
( - , !,
),
, ,
( .
, Jargon der Eigentlichkeit). ,
,
. :
, .
, ,
.
160

;
.
, , , :
, (Haltung): , ,
,
1.

( ). ,
...
, , 2. , , -
-,
. , ,
.
( , , )
, ,
3.
, ,

, ,
, -
: , ,
. , ., - ,
.

1 Kerenyi. Umgang, S. 48. ,


, , , .
2 Op. cit., S. 50.
3 ( )
, ,
, ..,
, .

161

M oralia

. - Sprachwerk
. ,
,
, ,
, :
, (1896)
(
, ,
, ,
, ). .
-
. ,
,
, , .

:
, -
- , , ,

, .
,
.
. Sprachwerk :
,
(

(. 24)) . , ,
,
, -
: , ,
, ,
, -
162

! ,
,
( ,

, ,
!). ,

, ,

- : , das ernste
Spiel. , ,
.
,
(. ).
. ,

,
-

, .
- , , , ;
: .

:

(
).
, , , ,
. ,
763

M oralia

. , ,
, , (
, ., , ,
)
. ,
(
),
, ,
, esprit. ,
.
, , ,
, ,
( ,
). (.
.),
(
.: ) ,
. ! -
.
( ). ,
,
. - ;
, ,
.
, (,
. . - ). ,
, ,
.
, .
164

, ,
,
, ( )
, ,
.
- - , ,
.
.:
, ,
,
1. (. 75)
, ratio, - -
, .!
- , (, , ,
, , )... , ,
!
- -
, ,
, -,
( !) .

, ,
- ,
(,
,

1 .. . ...
/ / . 29.1993. . 76.

165

M oralia


: , !).
. ,

: , , (
,
). ,
,
.
:
,
, (
-
- ),

. H om o hum anus ,
,
( ,
, ),
,
. ,
:
,
, , .

- . .
,
: .

,
166

- ,
. , , ,
( ;
; ;
). ,
, ,
-

, ,
, .
, , : .
: ,
(

), (. 140).

,
. .
,
(entmenschente M ensch),
,
.
, ,
...
()
(Finesse): ()
. , , 1.
? , ,
, , ,

1 Th. Mann. Kultur undPolitik, S. 295.

167

M oralia

!
, !
, .
-
. ,
? , ,
: ,
, ?
Finesse? - ,
.
, . . ?
.
, , , . , , ,
: .
,
(,
, - (. 30)),
, ,
, - . - -
. ,
:
,
(
- ).
Doctor Hermeticus, , ,
,
,
( ) - ,

168

1: ,
, -
,
, . ,
.,
: ,
(Kultur und Politik).
? , ,
, .
,
. ,
. ,

-
. H om o hum anus -
, -.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
.
.
, , ,
,
, , .
, , ,
: .
1 ,
-
. , ,
.

169

M oralia

-,
.
, :
, .
(Reisehaube - )
.
,
1.


- ,
. :
, .
, .
.

. ,
,
-
.
, , .
,
,
(,
- ;
religio
,
) -
.
1 ... , , . ...

170

, , ,
:
, ,
; ,
,
1.
, ,

,
(
) . ,

,
, ,
, .
,
. , ,
,
(
),
.

. ,
( , ... ),
:
1
- ,
.
, ( ) ,
, ...
,
Deo concedente. , Deo
concedente Jung, Kerenyi. Einjurung, S. 121.

171

M oralia

- .
.
1:
.
, , ,
, .
.

. , ,
: ,
.
( ,
),
2
, . ., ,
, ,
.
- :
, ,
.
, , :
. -, : . ,
1 Andre Glucksmann. L e X I Commandenement. Flammarion, 1991.
2 . 1993 ,
:
, .
, : ,
, . ,
, ,
, : .

172


- .
( ,
, ,
) .
,
,
: ,
, .
?
, ,
, ,
,
.
.


. - -
, ,
, , , ,
(, )
(
).
- - .
, ,


,
. ,
:
. ,
173

M oralia

, .
(.
. 1, . 141).

:
-
, - , -
-
, , !
. ,
... , .
(,
.),
1.

Deo concedente,
,
, ,
.

.
.
-
-
,

1 : ,
, ,
. ?
.

174

, ,
, ,
, .

: - ;
(,
, ,
).
,
- , - 11
- ,
-
,

! .
.
(
: , .).
, .
?
-
- , ,
. - .
1989-2001


-
,
1, -
,
. , (
- )
, , ,
, .
,
,
: ,

.
1 :
, , ;
, . , , ,
. , , ,
, ,
, -
, , .
- - ,
- ,
, ,
- .

176

,
0 , - , ,
.
, :
(, ,
) - , ,

(. I I ) 1. , ,
, , ,
: ...
, , (. 127)2.
( ),
, ,
, : ,
1 : ..
. .: Ad Marginem, 1995.
2 : , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
, - : ,
, .
- ,
, - , .
,
, , -,
: .
, .
, , - ,
.
,
,
, .

, ,
.

177

M oralia

, . ,
- ,
, - , ,
, . ,
.
, - . - .
- ;
,
: , .
( ) ;
.
: ,
(, , ,
; ,
).
: ,
, (. 10).
, , , ,
!
, .
, , , (
, ) , ,
, ,
, - .
. .

, .
, ,
,
,
, , ,
178

,
: .

.
- ,
- . ,
,
.
, ,
, -
-
, .
;
.1. , , ,
,
:
, ; -
,
. ,
.
: , -;
,
...

, . , -
,
. , ,
- .

1 P.Tillich. The Courage Be. . / / .
28.1992.

179

M oralia

: , ,
1.

. : Lasciate ogni
speranza voi chentrate { , ,
- ): , ,

; .
, ! ,
, .
, :
, ,
. (. .
) (
. );

.
?
,
(,
:
, , !) -
? ,
?
, , -

1 ()
..:
;
.

. ( , - ..).

180


- ,
, ,
1.
,
, ,
:
(. 187). ,
,
,
.
. ,

: , vilta (, ).
, . ,
, ? :
. -
il ben delTinteletto ( ).
:
( ,
) - ,
,
, .
, , ,
:
.
. .
- - ,
.
1 . , .: .

181

M oralia

, : ,
.
,
;
. -
, . ,
, ,
. - ,
.
. , ,
,
... ,
, .

,
:
.
( )
, : ,
, .
- , - ,
- , , -
.
,
.
,
. ,
,
, ,
,
; ,
, -
182

, ,
;
.
- , , .
, -
, ,
. , ,
:
, ,
: , .
,
.
,
,
, ,
(
la tendresse, ). ,
-
: , ; ,
( ).
,
? ,
, ( ) , ,
?
, , 33 ,
, .
, ,

,
- .
183

M oralia

. .
?
, .
,
,
. (
)?
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
- -
( ) ? ,
( ,
, ), ,
, ,
( )?
, , -
?
.
,
, - ,
, ,
. - -
,
- , , ;

184

,
. -
. ,
, .

( ,
) - ,
; ,

: - .
:
, ... ,
, ,
,
, , ,

( -, . 55).
- , , -
,

,
. ( - ,
-Ay
, -
; in se?)
, ,
,
,
, ,

. :
185

M oralia

, , ,
,
, ,
?
( ,
), ,
.
, .

, , ,
, .
, , -,
. ( ;
,
;
; ,
- ,
.)
, ,

.
. .
(1854 ) .
, -
:
!
:
, - :
, !

186

, , -.
? ,
: ,
, ,
.
- , , ,
, , ,
( ,
;

). ,
, ,
, .
,
,
- .
, ,
,
(,
, ).

-
, , .
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
, ,
187

M oralia

(
) ; , ;
.
, -
, ... , ,
.
,
.

: ,
. ,
?
-
, -
?
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
(
)
Hubertus Gojowcsyk.
;
,
, - ;
(
, )...
.
188

, , :
,
.
,
; - .
,
,
. .

. .
.
.
- -
.
, ,
, , - , ,
( ,
,
) - , ,
- . :
, ,
, ,
? :
,
,
, ,
?
, (. 522),

?
189

M oralia

- ,
:
, , (. 167).
,
: , -
- .

. -, :
,
;
. -
- , :

,
(. 33). ,
( -
, - ,
(. 121). ,
, :
. - .
,
, :
, (,
. .). ,
.
, ,
,
(

(. 63)). ,
, ,
,
790

, ,
,
, - ,
, .
;
- : ,
,
, , ...
, ,
....
, , ,
, .
,
, . ,
.
, , ,
- .
, , ,
, , ,
, : ,
, , , ,
. :
(.: ,
, . 384) - ?
; ,
...
, .
- ,
, , ,
, ,
,
.
191

M oralia

, ,
, ,
,
, :
,
. 1928
,
,
X X : ,

1. ,
, -
. , ,
: ,
- - .
, ,
.
:
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , , .
, , :
, , .
,
,

1 , ,

: ,
,
, (. 384).

192

,
: ,
; .
( )1

,

, .
,
( ,
: , ,
! ). ,
,
?
, .
, -
(
); ,
, ;

, .
,
. -
(. 23). ,

, ,
, ,
: - ! -
- , , ,
; - (. 19). - 1 - . . . , .: .

193

M oralia

, , , , ,
, ,
-, .
, , ,
.
,
: , .
,
- , , , ,

!
; -
:
!
(. 91).
? , :
,
, .
, ,

. -
: .
, - - ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
- -
, ...
194

, ( ,
, ).


,
-
.
, ,
.

( ),

.
- . .
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
(. 532). ( ,
), , -
- , ,
-
, , ,
.

, ,

.
195

M oralia

: , , :

, ,
. - ,
, ,
, .
(
, ) , :
uacK^penchent, -
.
, ,
-
(. 177). , ,
: ,
.

,
. - :
. ( )
, .
, , , ,
, ,
, , -
.
: ,
,

.
.

.

196

:
, ,
,
. , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
: .

; .
, , ,

:
,
: .
-
: , ,


. ,
:
, , .
, ,
, -
.
1996



.
,

(, 1991).

,

( ., ).
, ,

( ).
, ,
, -
.
(

, -
, )
.
, -
, , ,
, ?
198

.
( :
, ).
,
, ,
,
( ) ,
, .
. :
-
: ,
, ,
. :

:
:
, , .

, :

, (
, )
.
, ,
:
N e creator, creatura mai,
comincio el, figluol, fu sanza amore,
naturale, danimo; e tu 1sai.
Lo naturale e sempre sanza errore;
ma laltro puote errar per malo obietto,
per troppo per poco di vigore
199

M oralia

, , - , - ,
, , :
. :
- ()

(, XVII, 9 1 -9 6 ).
- ,
, !
:
.
-
- , , ,
,
, ,
,
. .
.
. , :
, , ,
.
,
, :
.

,
.
,
- , .
, ,
,
, . ,
200


...

, ,
.

- ...

,
, . ,

,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,

membra disjecta,
, ,
,
- ,
,
,
. .
- : - ,
, , , .
, , .
! ,
, :
201

M oralia

.
, .
, ,
.
;
;
. , (),
( ), (, , ) -
, ,
-
.

(
).
(
)
, - .

, , ,
. ,
.
:
, .
,
,
,
, ,
( ,
, ).
,

202

, , . ,

.
- , . :
,
, ,
:
Kein Lebendiges ist ein Eins,
Immer ists ein Vieles.

( - , - ),
, das ernste Spiel,
- .
, ,
: - ,
- .
(

, ),
.
, -
. ,
, (
-) :
-, -,
- .

(, ,
,
).
, ,
.

203

M oralia


(-, -, - . .)
(
). :
, : ,
, ,
laetitia spiritualis.
- , .
-
. -,
, ,
. ,
: .
- .

.

, ,
- .


; - .
( ) - ,
,
.
( -)
,
( , :

). ,
,
204

( )
,
(
).
, .
, ,
, - ,

,
: ,

.

(
), :
,
.

: ;
; .

: .
, :
,
.
(virtus arete) ,
. -
,
. -
. ,
, ...
205

M oralia

- ,
( :
- ,
).
,
.
:
. , ,
:
. ,
. , ,
, ,
- .
-
-
.
,
.
:
,
? ,
, ,
?
.
,
, .
, . -
, . ,
, . ,
, , ,

206

,
, ,
, - .
-
, ,
( ,
).
:
,
,
,
...

- , , ,
- , , ,
, ,
!

-
.
-
,
:


.
1991

.
.
1

1.

:
.

.
- , , , -
.
: , ,
-
,
( .-

); ,
; ,
. , ,

1
: ? - , 31.12.1994
- , , 1995.

.

208

. .

- -
! -
, , , fin de siecle -

, (
, , ,
:
, ,
: ,
).
; -
.
,
,
- :

.


;
, , , ,
( - ! ,
)
.
, .
,
,
,
: , .
,
209

M oralia

,
, .

, , -
, ;
,
, .
, , :
,
( ).
- ,
.
, ,
. (
) - ,
: ,
, , ,
, . ,
,
. - -
.
, -
,
, -
, ,
,
, -
1. ,

1 . , .: . . : .

210

. .

-
- . (
), . .
: . ,
,
; , , -
.
, , .
,
, , *

-
.
( )

,
(
), , ,
,

, , , - . ,

. , , ,
; ... ,

, .
,
:
, ,
.

211

M oralia

, ,
,
, ,
, , .
.....
. :

:
,
, ,
,
.

,
, ,
:
.
, - ,
-
. ,
, -
,
.
, -
.
. -
, ,
. , ,
Sound Poetry,
. , ,
-, - -, ,
212

. .

, -
. ,
, : -!
. - !
,
.

2.

,
, , ,
:
, ( -
), , , . ,
, - -, . ?
, , ... , .
, -
. , , .
, , ,
. ,
,
.
,
- . ,
, ,
, . ,

, - ,
.
, ,
213

M oralia

.
7. .
,
- , . , ,
, , (,
) ,
:
Zwischen dem Neuen
Zwischen dem Alten...

( - ...). : , ,
, ,
,
( , ! - ,
.:
,
-
...
,
,
, ,
!)

,
( ,
).
(
), ,
,
, ,
. ?
-, ,
274

. .

, :
, . ,
, , .
. , ,
.
,
,
. , ,
, ; -
, , - ,
, , ...
, ,
. .
, ,
,
.
: -
, . -
.

,
-

. , -
(, , ..,

:
215

alia

Time that is intolerant


O f the brave and innocent,
And indifferent in a week
To a beautiful physique,
Worships language and forgives
Everyone by whom it lives... -

,
,
,
...).
, , ;
, ,
...
, .
(
)
, . , ,
?
- ,
,
, 1.
, ,
, - .
-
,
, ,
(,
,
, ),
1 . ..: ...

216

. .

.
,
, .

3.

, -
,
, . - :
;
, - . ,
, ,
( )...
, ,
, : ,
, .
, :
, , ,
-
! -
, ,
. -
( ). ,
:
,
. , , -
. .
, - ,
, -
.
217

M oralia

, , -
- .
, , ,
, ;
, ,
, :
, , .

,
, :
,
, ,

( : ,

, ).
,
, :
,
-

!

, .

: - , .
, ,
.
, , ,
- .
;
218

. .

, - ,

?

.

,
: , .
:
,
, , .
, , -
,
- . :
, , , .
, , :
. : , ,
, - ----;
--- - ---! ,
, , ,
:
, ,
, :
.

,
, ...
!

4.

? , ,
, ?
219

M oralia

,
,
: .

, : .
. ,
. , ?
, . ,
- ,
, - , .

, , ?

: , .
.
1994

. .

.. 1
1.

, :
, , -
...
?
,
,
, , .
,
.
,
,
, :

.
, ,
.

1 , 1990-1991
,
.

221

alia

-,
- , , -
,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
, -
- . ,
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
:
,
, , .
,
, , , -
, , ,
.
. ,
,
- ,
, - - .
,
, , . , ,
:
-
, . , ,
, ?

222

. .

- ,
.
: - .
, ,
- , ,
, - , . .
, , ,
,
, ,


.
,

.
?
?
, ,
?
,
,
,
!

, ,
( ),
- -
. ,
: ,
: - ,

223

alia

, ,
! -
, .

1. , .
:
. , ,
: . , ,
. ,
, :
! ! ,
- , .
: , ?
. ,
. . . , ,
,
. , , ? -
, - . -
:
. , , .
, ?
.
1
(Francis Bebey)
,
: .
:
. , . , -
- , -
, - . ,
.

224

. .

, , ,
, ,
( :
). ,
, ,
( , ),
.
, , ,
.
, :
,
, , , \ ,
, .
,
-
, . , ,
.
? , ,
-, , , ,
.
- ! -

.
. ,
! ,
, , ,
( ,
, !) - .
-
( !)
, ,
: ,
225

alia

- ,
, , . ,
.
, ,
( ,
) - :

, -

, , ,
... , ,
, ,
: , -
,
.
: , ,
, . - . :
.
. (
) . :
, ,
, (,
- -
), .
, .
- ? -
,
. : -
, ,
.
226

. .

( ), -
, ,
, ,
, -, . ,
,
, , - ,
, ,

, , ...

... , ,
. , - ,
- ,
, . ,
, .
? ? :
?
,
,
, ,
(
: : ).
, ,

, :
- , (security),
(comfort). , -
- ,
. :
, ,
. , ,
227

M oralia

, ,
, .
,
: , , ,
. -
,
; - ,
,
, , , . .
: .
, ,
. ,
- , , (,
, ,
) -
.
, ,
, ,
( ). ?
- .

2.

- , ,
. - ?
- ?
, - .
- ,
-
, .
- (
228

. .

, )
,
, ,
, , ,
- ,
1.
.
( )
, ,
, ,

- , .
-
2. :
,
: ,
( !).
, ,
, ,
- .
, , - , , ,

1 :

. ,
. ,
- ..,
.
: .
2 , 1990 , ,
,
. ,
.

229

M oralia

(
). ,
, . ,
,
, .
.
, : , ,
,
,
- (
).
:
, , . - .
,
:
.
,
,
, -
: ,
.
,
( , ,
, ,
: ,
, ). ,
-
,
.
, ..,
. - ! ,
230

. .

, , ,
: , ,
, .
, :
0 .
, ,
: , ,
... .
, ,

( ! ,
, ,
-,
1)
...

,
- .
,
.
, ,
(,
: ,
). :
,
, -
.
, ,
: - . ,
1 : ,
( ),
.

231

M oralia

,
,

.
(,
),
- .
.. , ,
, ,
, , -
. ,
. ,

: - ,
,
. . ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
. . .
. - , - , . ,
, - .
, ,
: .
.

- -
, .
( )
232

. .

-
, ,
, , , .
, ,
.

, , , : ,
, , ...
- , , , , (

: ?) ,
, , ( ,
! . ., . .) -
,
.
, , ( !)
.
, : -
! - ,
... , ...
. -
. ,
:
.
,
,
, .
, -
- .
. :
,
233

M oralia

, ,
- .
, -
- .

? - ? .
( ), (energeia),
, ,
(ergon). :
, ,

.
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
: , ,
. . . -
, , , :
. ,
. ,
.
- , ,
: , ,
,

234

. .

.
, : .
,
, - -
1.

, , .
, . , ,
- , ,
,
. .
- , -
:
-
2. ,
, ,
.
:
, : -
- , principium, .
1 , , .
,
, .
,
, .
.
2 .
(
) ( ,
) .
: ! - ,
.

235

M oralia

(
),
,
: ...
, .
... ,
, , ,
,
, ,
,

,
.
,
. ( )
.
,
, .
, .
, , .

- , , ,
?
,
- - ,
:
.
- ,
. ,
1 . . , 1952. . 39.

236

. .

,
. -
, ,
,
, :
,
,
. , . :
! ..: ,
, , .
- - :
, .. ,
. ,
, -
.
, : ,
. - :
, .
, H om o sapiens sapiens,
: H om o heres, ,
, .
, (
) ,
, ,
.
.
, , ,

,
.
237

M oralia

,
. . ,
, . ,
- , . ,
- .
,
(
: , ,

).
,
.
, (tra-ditio . -, -:
-),
- (
),
. .
,

. ,
,
-, -, ,
. -
. , ,
: , . . -
, .
,
, , ,
. ?
?
238

. .

, - ,
,
- . , ,
, :
,
, ,
...
,
-
,
. , ,
, ,
, .

. .
3.


?
,

.
, , ,
.
:
, .
, ,

! ,
239

M oralia

,
,
.

:
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, - ,
, ,
. ,
-
(
),
. , ,
, ,
- -
, , .
, ,
. ,
( )
,
. :
, !
:
, !


( - :
, ).
240

. .

(
) : ?
: ,
,
. ,
( ,
), . ,
,
, -
.
:
( - ..)

1.
.

.
!
...

- ,
, -
, ,

! (
) ,
, , ,
.
: , ,
1 . . / / . 26.1991. . 222.

241

M oralia

( ,
- ..)
, ,
{.}...1 . , ,
, .
:
Cesare fui son Giustiniano
che, per voler del primo amor chi sento
dentro le leggi trassi il troppo e 1vano2.

H e ,
:
( ). -, !
? , ...

? ,
, . ,

-
- , ,
,
( , ,
, ,
- , !).

, - ,
!
1 . . . 221.
2 , , , ,
, () (, VI,
10- 12).

242

. .

, ,
,
,
.
,
, .
,
, ,
.
, - (
).
, 20- , ,
, .
(
),
- -
, .
, -
, ,
, .

( , ,
). 80-
,
,
, , , :
, .
, ,
.
, :
,
243

M oralia

! . ,
,
: ,
(, -, )
.
, -

,
,
.
- :
, ,
.

- . , ,
( ,
)
- .
.
, : -
, ,
, ,
, .
1
: .
:
, (. 84,11) -
, .
, dikaiosyne (, ), :
.
,
- , ,
, .

244

. .

Gens humana ruit per vetitum nefas, -

nefas,
- ,
( )
.
,
,
- , ,
,
( , -,
).
, fa s nefas, . ,
.
,
,
.
, :
,
.
,
, .
: ,
- ,

:

.

:

:
, .

245

M oralia

.
,
? , , ,
-,
( - )
, ,
( , ).

, , ,
, ,
, , .
? .
1990


( .. 1)
- ,
, ,
:
(. .
, ); (. .
); ;
( , ,
); (
)... ,

,
, , ,
: -
? -
, ? ,
, : -
,
? ,
! :
,
,
1 . XX
: . ., URSS, 2008.

247

M oralia

-
, ,
. ,
.
- , -,
(
).
, ,
( ) ,
()
, .
, ,
, ,
,


,
.

, ,
, ,
XI
, ,
, ,
(
, , ), , .

,
( , , ,
.
248

)
.

. , ,
,
?
, ,
- ?

?
?
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
( ,
,
,
, 1), .
, -

: (, /

(. 8 5 -8 6 ).
,
1 .., . ,
(. 32).
: ,
! ,
,
, ...

249

M oralia

- .

:
,

.

,
: !
,
, .
,
,
: : ,
. ,
, , . ,
, ,

, , .
,
, (
) ,
, , - ,
.
.
, ,

( ),
.
250

.

( -
);
(
- , -
, ,
).
,
(, )
( , ).

?
,
:

- ,
, .
,

, - , ,
. (...)
,
- .
,

,
(. 8 3 -8 4 ). -
- ,
:
,
251

M oralia

, , ,
.
:
, . .
, . (...)
, ,
, ( ). ,
. (
- , ,
, )
dikaioma
, .

. -,
,

, , , .
-, ,
,
, ,
.

, , . ,
, -
.
, ,
.
, , ,
. ,
, , .
2S2

, (
) ,
,
- ,
, , -
, .
,

. - ,

, : :
, , (. 1,12).
eksusia, ,
, -.
, ,
, , : ,
, ,
. , ,
.
,
,
, ,

,
(. 23). (
) - ,
, (
) - : ,
,
.

,

- ....
, , ?
- . : , , ...
( )
- , ?

( , )

1,

: . , - ,
.
: ,
, -
. : , ,

, , ,
(,
) .

1
, 1997 . ,
(Walter Thiimler)
. , ,
.

254

(
-, - ),
,
. , ,
, .
; ,
, ,
. - .
, ,
.
. , , ,
, , . , ,
,
, , -
: , -
.
, ,

, (
;
.) ,
(, !
, , ,
! -

, , , ad majorem D ei
gloriam, ?) - , ,
, . :
, ; , ,
. ,
.
255

M oralia

,
conditio humana1,
, ,
, ,
,
.
- : .

: ;
, ;
(,
, ,
,
, );
, , .
-
- ,


.
,
,
, -
, , ,
.
- 1 (.), ,
.
: ; , , ,
, .

256

( ,
,
,
,
, - ,
, ).
, ,
, , , ,

,
- -
,
.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
; ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , , -
( )
1.
, -
. ,
,
:
1 , -
,
.

257

M oralia

(,
,
).

,
.

(
, , .).
-
:
, :
,
;
, , .
, : ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , .
,
: ,
.
, , ,
,
, , .
, ,
.

258

.
, , 1.

,
, ,
: , ,
,
, , .
,
, ,
.
Time is no healer: the patient is no longer here2 -

... ,
., ,
:
Do not let me hear
O f the wisdom of old men, but rather of their folly,
Their fear of fear and frenzy, their fear of possesion,
O f belonging to another, or to others, or to God3.

, ,
(serenity),
- !
The only wisdom we can hope to acquire
Is the wisdom of humility: humility is endless 4
1 Dylan Thomas. Do not Go Gentle into that Good Night. - . .
2 - : (The Dry Salvages, III).
3 He
, ,
, ,
, , (East Coker, ).
4 , , : ( ).

259

M oralia


:
,
.

, ,
, ( , )
, ,
.

. ,
-
. ,
, ,
, -, ,
, ,
(
) . ,
.

-
. - :
,
. ,
, , ,
- ,
? ,
, ( !)
,
? , ,
, ,
260

.
,
:
, ,

?

,
- : ,
{ );
{ )
.
, , - :
.
:
,
, . ,
, - ,
-
(
) .

,
,
.
,
- . ,

, (
: ,
261

M oralia

,
. .) . , , ,

?
, ,
,
? ,

, ,
,
. -
? -
, , -

,
, .
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
( - .).
.
; ,
, ,
- -
. : ,
. - :
.

262

: , . ,
,
. : :
,
-...

- :
,

, :
, , -

, , ! ,
, , ,
; ,
, - . ,
:
!,
(: ,
!)
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
.
, :
, , ,
, . .! -
.
263

M oralia

,
. ,
, , ,
: .

,
- , -,
,
?
,
:
.
,
?
, (
) .
, ,
:
, ,
.

- ?
, ,
-
, , -
, - ,
,

.

,
264

(
).
, ,
(Geist)
(Leben) ( ,
), ,
.
, -
.
, ( )
,
, ( )
- .
?

(. 2,7)?

( , , ) ,
,
. ,
(.:
...)1

,
, ,
.
!
,
1 , ,
:
,
...

265

alia


: !

, - -
, , , ....
, , -
-
,
,
, , 1.
, ,
(
), .
: ,
.

1 ,

,
,
,
, , , :
,
. :
, / / ..
. ., , 1994. . 256,257.
- , -
: ,
.
, . - ,
. ,
, .
, .
, ( 27 1957
) / / (). . .:
, 1997. . 54.

266

Und solang du das nicht hast


Dieses: Stirb und werde!
Bist du nur ein truber Gast
Auf der dunklen Erde1.

- , Selige Sehnsucht.
, , , . - ,
. (
,
, -
,
-) - .
,
, ,
.
(. ).
,
. . - , -
, ,
,

, virtus arete.
.
- .
,
.
1 .
: !
.
, .

267

M oralia

- ,
(. 10,10).
,


.
,
,
, ,
.



: !
,
- ,
, -
!
, . ,
1. , . ,
, , ,
( ). -
. (, : ) -
...
(
) ;
. ( , ,
, )
1 .: , ,
, ,
, , . .
. 11 . . IV. . 250-251.

268


.
,
,
. ,
.

, , ,

. ,
,

, .
- -,
. -
. -
.
, , ,
1.
( ,
,
),

. ,
, :
Sagt es Niemand, nur den Weisen,
Weil die Menge gleich verhohnet:

1 :
, ,
... . . . 124.

269

M oralia

Das Lebendge will ich preisen,


Das nach Flammentod sich sehnet1

, ,
,
, ?

?
, ,
, ,
. ,
, - ,
. ,
.
, ?
, , -
: - , ,
. - .
,
, , : ,
, , ,

.

1998

1 , , .
, (.).

1

, . : ,
, :
, ,
-

. : -
, .
: .
.
,
, , ,
.
- , , , -
: ,
, . ,
.
,
-
!
, -
-

1 Bregenzer
Festspiele. (), 20 2000 .

271

M oralia

,
:
, ,
,

.
,
,
,

. .
( -
)
. ,
,
- ,
. ,
, :
,
...

happy end: ,
, happy beginning.
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
1. .
1 , , : ,
.
, - ,
, .

272

,
-1.
:
.
, -
.
-
,
2 - , .
( )
. . ,
:
, .
, ,
: -
.
.
- .
- . -
:
. ,
,
. (
- )

1 , ,
.
:
,
a la Russe.
2 , ,
.

273

M oralia

. ,
: ,
,
. ,
: ,
.

, , , .
- ,
, , ; , , - ,
, :
,
.

.
, .
-

: ,
.
-
- ? ,
: .
,
. .
: !
: !
, :
- , - .

274

, -
: - ,
, , ,
. .
.
-
. .
, ...
;
,
, ,
: ,
, - , :
, .

. :

: - - ,
.

, ,

,
.
.
,
.
,
,
: , ...

275

M oralia

, , ,
,
-,
. ,
, ?
- , ,
,
. ,
- :
, , ,
?

,
:
. , ,
, conditio humana:
. ,
,
. ,
,

, , ,
.
.
.
: ,
, - , . (
) -
. .
, .
, .
, , .
276


:
.

.
:
- , ; -
( , )
(
,
); -
,
, .
.
? -

. .
, -
.
- , ,
,
, - .

,
, ,
: ,
? :
, .


277

M oralia

: , ,
, .
- .
, , -
.
, (
) .
.
X X
, ,
:
, ,
.
1921 , , :
, ,
. ,
,
,
:
. ,
, , ,
, . ,
, :
.
. (
- )

.
, .
,
,
278

.
, .
-
- ,
.
- ,
,
!

,
, -
- ,
.


, ( ,
, ,
,
:
,

). , ( ,
) ,
. -
!
(
), ,
, ,

. ,
279

M oralia

, , ,
-
,
.
, ,
. ,

. ?
, ? ,
, :
, ,
,

. ,
.... (.)
,
. . ,
,
.
, safety - ,
,
.
, : , homo
faber. ,
, ,
. ,
- , (
,
).
,
, .
- . ,
280

- .
- , safety ( , , ).
.
?
,
, , safety.

.
: ,
... -
:
, , (
, , - ,
. .), .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. . . ...
. -
. ,
,
, .
- - :
- , -
.
- : , , .
:
281

M oralia

,
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, -, -
- :
, , ,
- . ,
.
-

. , , !

- ,
: , -,
, .
, - ,
,
,
- ( , ;
, ),
, ,
-
, - , (
). :
, , ,
, . -
. :
282

, ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
, , ,
,
,
:

.



, .
, ,
, ,
: .
:
,
- .
: , - ;
. 1.

, homo cantans,
.
2000

1 ... . 1831 / / ... 10 .


.. . 467.

1

, :
, - ; .
2.
, , a propos
(
), .
(: ,
), ( -
, ),
(
, :
, ),
, .
, . ,
,
. -
, :
, , . ,
, ,

1 XX
, M eeting, (), 24
2003 .
2 . . . 283.

284

: , .
, .
,
,
, ,
:
, , , , .
,
,
( - ,
),
,
.
,

.
:

.
.

,
, , .
,
:
, , . ? -
: ! ,
,
: ! ,

285

alia

,
,
.

.

, , ,
( ).
:
? ,
,
.

\ ,
, .
,

.
,
.
, ,
:
(
) , , .
,
: ,
,
: , ,
:
, ( ?
286

? - ),
, , ,
. , .
, .

( ).
, ,
,
- ,
, (
).
- , , -

- ,
.
,
, , ,
- , , -
- . ,
-


, ,
, ,
:
, ,
, .

,
- ,
: ,
287

M oralia

? (. 3 3 ,13)1. ,
, :
.


, , :

.

,
conditio humana,
. (
)
- (
),
- .

. ,
, .

. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
.
- 17- .

1 : ,
?. Meeting,
.

288

.
: ! ,
.
,
, .
,
.


- .
.
,
, . - : ,
70- 80- .
, , , ,

. .

.
,
.

- , ,
. ,
... ... -
:
,
?
?
?

,
289

M oralia

70- , , ,
, ,
. ,

,
( ), ,
, ,

. ,
,
(. .
!).
:
,
- ,
.
, .
,

.
, ,
. :
. .
,
(
, , )
. ,
,
.
- ,
: , , ,
290

.
, ,
, , :

, ,

,
:
- ,
, , ...

, ,
. ,

, ,
- , , , ,
(
,
) - ,
( , ) .

, .

, ,
, . ,
, ,
, ,

.

,
.
2003

, ,
, 1
.

,
- ...
. ..
- .
. ..
*

,
,
.
-
(
).
.
-, , ,
, ...
.
- ; ,

1 ,
(Wiener Vorlesungen zur Literatur, Alte Schmiede).

292

, ,

,
. , ? (.
: ,
). ,
, ?, :
,
? ?
-
. ,
1.
(, ) -
, :

, .

- .
,
:
,
, .

, , - :
,
,
1 :
: ( ); ( );
( ) ( ).
. ,
, ,
, -
, .
.

293

M oralia

:
, schole?
...

, ,
,
. , -
- , ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

- ,

: , . -
, ; , -,
. ,
.
-
,
.
, ;
157 , 75. 106 (
!) - .
, , ,
, curriculum vitae,
,
.

. .
294

, ,

,
?1
. ,
.
, -
.


. versus
, - -,
.
- , !
,
: :
-

.
:
, ,
,
.

:

.


, !
- -

1 - -
: .

295

alia

,
,
, , ; ,
; ...
, ...

, ,
. , ,
, -,
,
, , .

(. :
,
, !)

, , :

,
:
,
, .
,

,
, .
,
- ; :
,
?
? .

296

, ,

: , .
-. ,
;
, ;
,
.
, ,
.
- ,
:
,
...

, 1,
: .
1 ; :
, !
, -
, :
: ,
.
,
, ,
, :
.
()
, :

: , ,
,

!
, ,
. : (
) , , ,
.

297

M oralia

.
1 ,
X X . ,
. :
, , - ,
; ,
, , ?..
-
, ( ) ,
, ,
. (
!),
( ),
, .

, - . -
, , , :
, :
, , .
,
. - ( , ,
) , , :
. ,
- : ,
.
,
,
.
1 .: ... . . -
! :
.

298

, ,

- .
, : ,
, a parte; -
,
.
, , :
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
, -, ,
. , ,
.
,
,
, ,
, .

1.
1 , ,
: , ,
:


, ,
:
.
: .
.
: , -

299

M oralia

- .

.
*


, ,
: ,
... 1828
(, )
. .,
, ,
, ,
, -
, : ,
, , , ,
, - . !
. , !
: , , -
.

. : - ,
: (
, ). -
-
(,
, : , ,
). -
( ,
), ,
, . - ,
, ! -
. , :
, , , ,
, .

300

, .,

: () ,
.
:
,
- ;
:
;
...

.
(
) - .
, -
:
, , ,
:

, :
, :
> ?
, : ;
, !

:
,
, ...


1. , , ,
( )
1 , (:
,
), ,
, ,
, .

301

M oralia

, (
):
, ,
(...)
... ,
? -

:
, , ,
...

, . .
, 1, - ,
, ,
.
,
, .



, , ,
. , , ( !)

, : :
( !) - , ,
,
, (
1 . ,
:
:
. .
.

302

, .,

). - ,
-!
,
! - ,
, -
, -
, , , ,
. , , , ,
, :
. , , - .
, , - ,
,
( ,
- ). ,
, - ,
, - .

. ,
-
, , ,
:

.

, . . . ,
, - , :
, :
, , ,
...

- : . :
, , ,
303

M oralia

, ,
. , ,
, . .
, ,
,
, ,
, , .
:
, ( -
, ). ,
? , ,
, .
, ,
- -
1- ,
,-
. , (
, ? ).
- . ,
, ,
:
, , .
- ,
-, .
,
, . -
1 -, 99 100,
. , 99 - ?
, , ,
,
...

304

, ,

;
.
?- : ,
, -

?

:
, .
, ,
.
. ,

, .
-
, , .
-,
:

,
?

. - :
, .
, , :
,
, .

,
- : , , ,
,

.
305

M oralia

:
:

;
...

,
, :
, ,
; , ,
, .
. ,
, ? , ,
, ? , .
, -
.
. - .
,
.
,
, , - .
.
, , ,
- -.
- .

, -
,
, X X ,

306

, .,

, , ,
. ,
, ,
, . .
. - .
, ( , ),
- . , ,
. - :
, , ,
, -
. ,
:
, , .
, .

,
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
- .
, 1.
1 ,
,
. , .
, ,
(, )
: ,
: , , ...
! .
- , , :

307

M oralia

- , ,
, , ,
- .
: homo.
homo - .
for ever,
, - .
, .
, , ,
.
: ,
: .
, , , -
, :
, , -

: ,
. ;
(
,
, ).
, ,

. ,
, ,
: ?
?
: ,
,
, , :
.

308

, .,

6
...

, ,
: , ,
, .
,
- .
, -
, , , , , : ,

. ?
: , , ,
0 , ?
? -
, , ,
?
, - , ?
(
), ,
. ,

. -
( - )
( - ).
: -
1. , , -
: .
2001-2003
1 . ..: Et bien, quest-ce quune ame? Qa na ni
regard, ni melodie - melodie, peut-etre. (, , ?
, - , ) / / ...
10 . .. . 257.

: 1
Qui se a noi meridiana face
di caritate, e giuso, intra i mortali
se di speranza fontana vivace2.
Par. XXXIII, 10-12

,
. ( .
), , - .
- ( )
;
( , ,
, ,
).
- : , ,
, -
. :
- ,
-
. ,

1 Resurrexit
sicut dicit. , 2008.
2 (.. )
, , ( - . .)

310

, , -
: -
, , . , -
. - ( , ), -
; - .

, ,
. .
, ,
degli altri poeti onore e lume1,

, ,
. ,
.
, -
: , , -
( , , ,
, ).
, ( ,
) .
, , ,
, ,
,
. ,
- - -
,
. ,
, .

, .
1 (Inf. I, 72).

311

M oralia


, , .
,
, ,
(,
25) :
,
:
si che, veduto il ver di questa corte.
la spene, che la giu bene innamora
in te e in altrui di d o conforte
(Par.XXV,44)1

, , ,
, :
Spene, dissio uno attender certo
de la gloria futura...
(Par.XXV,68)2


. .
(
larghezza, ,
generosita , speranza , apertura
). ,
, - ,
, , ,
(
, , Par.X X , 9 4 -9 9 ).
1 , ( ),
, , ,

2 , - , -
.

312

, ,
, .
, ,
.
, . .
, ,
. ( ,
) :
credenza,
sopra la qual si fonda lalta spene
(Par.XXIV, 73-74)'

,
:
la spene che la giu bene innamora
(Par.XXV,44)

, , ,
, - , ,
.
, , , - .
( )

,
- -
,
, ,
, , (,
).
, ,
( ) -
1 , .

313

M oralia

... , -
, .
,
,
, . ? - .
:
! - , (
), , ,
.
, :
, , ( ,
), . ,
, -
, la profonda cosa. ,
.
- . ,
, ,
,
:
. -
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
, :

(
), ,
. ,
, , :
!
314

Lasciate ogni speranza voi chentrate!


(In fill, 9)1

, ,
, ,
, ,
. , , ,
,
,
. :
, ,
. ,
. ,
-
X X -
. ,
,
: !
.
, -
.
:
Nulla speranza li conforta mai
(InfV, 442) ,

, (
-
, , :
che sol per ha la speranza cionca
(Inf.IX, 18)1 , , .
2 .
3 - .

31S

M oralia

,
). , ,
.
,
, .
,
:
( , -
, , ):
eletti di Dio cui soffriri
e giustizia e speranza fa men duri!
(Purg.XIX, 76-77

(
) ,
. , , .
.
,
, ; ,
- - ,
:
tu ferma la spene, dolce figlio!
(Purg.III, 66)2

, !. -
che speranza mi dava e facea lume
(Purg. IV, 30)

( ). , :
1 ,
.
2 , !
3 .

316

qui mattendi, lo spirito lasso


conforta e ciba di speranza buona
chinon ti lascero nel mondo basso -

( : )
,! (Inf. V I I I 1 0 5 - 1 0 8 ) 1.
,
(spogliar la spene)1. , ,
, ; (lo villanello),
,
( la speranza ringavagna ), ,
, -
( ,
,
X X IV
:

!)
:
(viva speranza) - (alta spene).
:
:
chio perdei la speranza delaltezza

(Inf. I, 54j3
( , )
- .
- , ,

1 ,
,
.
2
3 .

317

M oralia

.
, . -
, , .
,
, ,
:
, ,
....
: ,
.
,
,
(Inf. I, 54). ,
, , ,
, :
Quai fossi attraversati quai catene
Trovasti, per che del passare innanzi
Dovessiti cosi spogliar la spene?

,
( )
? (Purg.XXXI, 2 5 -2 7 ).
: ,
; , , .
.
.
.

(Chiesa militante). ,
, ,
:
(anticafiam m a)
. .

318


, , , -
:
donna in cui la mia speranza vige!
(Par.XXXI, 79)1

,
, -
- :
saduna
quantunque in creatura e di bontate
(Par.XXXIII, 2 0 -2 1)2

.
:
, -
( , van a speranza),
, .
, ,
, mente, -
, intelligenza nova,
,
:
intelligenza nova, che lAmore
piangendo mette in lui, pur su lo tira

, , , (
) .
,
.
1 , .
2
, .

319

M oralia

, , , ,
,
,
-
- , ,
, .
(
)
. X X
.
,
... ,
- .
. ,
(
, )
.
, , -
!
, ,
, :
pur che mia coscienza non mi garra,
che a la Fortuna, come vuol, son presto.
N on e nuova a li orecchi miei tal arra:
pero giri Fortuna la sua rota,
come le piace, e 1villan la sua marra

(InfXV, 92-96)
, .,
. :
( ) , , - . ,
,
320

,
. ,
.
-
. - . . , ,
. , , -

.
, ,
- ,
- . (:
, .) , ,
.
. (:
, 1.)
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
- , ,
, , .
1 .
, ,
(
):
- . - .
. ,
. Bernanos. La liberte,pour quoi
faire? Gallimard, 1995, p. 115-116. contre-courant,
.

321

M oralia

?
: ,
. , ,
,
. ,
- - .
,
.
2008

1
, -
-
. , ,
- . :
- .
.
,
- . .
,
. , , ,
(
:
,
...
,
-

?
, -
,
1 -
- - : , , 24 -2 6
2003 .

323

M oralia

, -
. ,
.

. ,
, .
,
.
, ( ,
,
, , , -
), ,
.
- -
, .
, , .
1 ,
, :
,
, -
. -
, .
, ,
,
- .
, .
,
, -

1 W alter Thiimler. Penuels Hiigel. Sentenzen zu Religion, Kunst und Philosophic.


Morus, Berlin. 2004.

324

. - -
, , , -
, () .
,
. ,
- ,
: .
, , , -
- ,
,
.
: - -
, , ,
, ,
...
, , . ,
, (
- ) , , ,
, ,
.
.
,
,
, , .
, . ,
, , ,
, - -
. , , 325

M oralia

, ,
.
,
. -
, ,
, .
, ,
- , , ,
, . !
! - ,
.
- ,
,
. , ,
. , ,
. ,
, .
: ,
, ,
? ,
, -
, ,
? , -
?
- . . ? -,
. ,
, - , , ,
, , ,
. .
:
326

, .
, .
,
, ,
.
,
.
,
, , ,
. , ,
. Animula, blandula, vagula!1 - ,
, . -
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
,
, : ,
, -
, . ,
, ,
.
. ...
, , , .
.
. ,
.
, , , ,

1 , , (.).

327

M oralia

, - ,
, ,
, .
, :
,
...

-
- , ,
.
, :

... -

.
, , ,
, : ,
, ? ,
.
, ,
, ,
, . , ,
, . :
- ...

-, . ,
-
, ?
; ,
- . ,
! .
,
.
328

,
: , ,
, , , -,
. , , .
,
? ,
, , , , . -
, ,
. -
.
- ,
. ,
, .
,
, ,
. , , - , ,
, - ,
, !
? ,
, - ,
, ?
,
. ,
,
,
( , :
, , ? ?
? ?).
, . ,
329

M oralia

- , ,
,
. ,
. ,
, . ,
, - , ,
? - - ,
,
. , , ,
? ,
.
, , - ,
- , ,
:
,

, .
.
, , -
, .
,
- ,
-
, . ,
, ,
, : ,
, -
, , .
, . .

, ,
, ,

330

, -
.
. .
, , ,
. :
, , , .
.

. ,
(, . .) -
,
:
,
. -
. .
:
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
( , ),
.
, -
, - .
(
, ).
, ,
.
- (
- ,

),
331

M oralia

, ,
.
.
, .
, ,
, ,
. .
, , -
, .
- ? ? :
,
- .

- ?
? , ,
, .
, ,
( - :
,
, ) -
.
.
, ,
-
,
, .
-
: .
,
. , ,
? ?
332


, -
, .
,

. , ,
, . - .
.
.
, , , .
,
, .
(, , -
:
) - ,
. ,
: ,
. , ,
:
! , . :
, , ... .
- :
? .
- ? - ,
!
2003-2004



1 II
, 4 1999 ;
: ,
, , (. 1,31).
,
-
- .
, ,
,
( ) . ,
, ,
, ,
. , !

? , -
- , , ,
, , . ,
,
.
-
, ,
1 Giovanni Paolo II. Lettera agli artisti.
- . .

334

,
. ,
,
,
.
- II
. , - ,

, , ,
.

, - .
, ,
: -
,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

- ().
, ,
-
-
II .
, ,
II
, .
335

M oralia

,
,
.
-
( )
,
! , II, : ,
, , ,
, , -
... :
,
- ,
: ,
, -
, . ,
, ,
, II,
.

, ,
-
II.
, - homo faber,
, homo, - homo par
excellence. , ,
.
, II
- , ,
,
-

336

()
: ,
, ,
, ,

,
( ).

(
, - , 1).
, II,
,
, ,
;
:
,
(
: X IX
, , ,
, . ).
II
. , ,
,
1 ,
;
, ,
.
,
II :
, , ,
,
.

337

M oralia

II, ,
1 ( II
,
VI:
,
).

.
,
,
II :
,

(adm iratio). II
:
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,

.
( )
,
;
. II

: ( , Creator Spiritus) 1 VI
, II
Fr. Patrice Mahieu. Laprefazione alia Lettera, p. 6.

338

.
, ,
,
. -
, II,
(
, . .
). II -
,
:
, , ,
, .
(Magnificat, 1930)

, ,
poetes,
-
, .
( ), ,
,
, , .
,
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
.
- , ,
... - -
, , ,
339

M oralia

: -
.
- ,
II, -
.
:
, ,
, , ,
, ; ,
.
()
, , ,
, , ,
.
, II ,

, ,
, .
:
? , ,
: -
-
(
),
, ,
,
(
).
,
, , . .?
340

, , ,
: ,
, .
,
? ,
?
(
,
) - , ,
?
,
:
? - ,
, , , , - ?
,
?

: (
);
; ; ,
;
, 1;
, ,
;
... , ,
1 , ,

. ,
,
;
! ,

.

341

M oralia

.
: .

.
? ,
(
),
-

. ,
,
,
.
II
. ,
,
?
,
,
.
,

, -
, ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
342

.
. ,
- -
, ,
: ,
.
, -
-
.
,
.
- ,
, - .
, -
-, .
.
,
,
,
,
, . ,

- (
, )
.
,
:
, . ,
, ,

, .
343

M oralia

,
,
, . ,
, ,
-
.
,
(
, ),
II ,
, -:
,
. ,
(
),
- , !
,
, ,
. - ,

, admiratio. (
)

. (
) ,
,
- , ,
: , ,
.

,
,
344

. :
, .
,
- ? -

.
, ,

,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
, . II
,
, .
, .
:

!
-
: ,
, , ,
1.
2000

1 . . . 5 . .: . ., 1990. .. . 69.




I I 1.
.. ,
II, , .

II
, ,
.
,
, : II
, , ,
, -
.
?
.. , , ,
:

1 - ,
,
,
.
-: La contemplation, finalite de la beaute. Un entretien avec Olga
Sedakova / / LHomme nouveau 18 juillet 1999. P. 10-11.

346

.
, : ,
. ., ,

.


.
, , ! ,
, ,
: ,
- , ,
, ..
: ,
, : ,
.
. .
, ,
, ,
, , -
, ?
,
- .
,

.

-
, ,
: , ,
, ?
347

M oralia

, ,
: , ...
,
. .
.. , ,
- , , : - ,
, , .
?
.. , ,
.
, , - .
-
- - . -
, .
(, ,
) - - , ,
. ,
. ,
( ,

), ,
, , ,
, .

, ,
-
. , , ,
, .

,
348

, ,
.
..
, , ,
,
, , ?
.. , -
, , - ,
...
- ,
.
.. ,
, ,

.
. , -
, - ?
, ?
..
. , -
, , .
,
.
. , ,
, , , -
- : ,
?

349

M oralia

. , ,
II
, , ,
, .
,
, .
,
, .
.. ,
, ?
.. , , ,
.
, , .
. , , -
:
-
.
.
, ,
(

). : ,
,
- .
, ,
, - . ,
,
.
.. , ,
, ,
3S0

, , ,
,
, ,
:
- - .
? -

, , , ?
, ,
, , : , , ,
?
.. , .
, , .
, :
,
, ,
, .
- .
:
.

, . .
, .. ,
. .
. ,
, - : ,
, , .
.. , -
? -
- ?
351

alia

.. .
. , , . , ,
,
, -
. :
. ,
.
, ,
.
. :
.
.. ,
. ,
, ,
. , , ,

,
.
.. , , ,
,
.
. (
) .
,
, ! ,
.
,
,
.
352

.. ,
II :

, . ,
,
?
,
?
...
.. , ,
, .
. ...

, , .
,
: ? -
( , ,
), . ,
,
( -,
). -
, ,
, , ,
. .
- -
,
-
- N ew Age.
, : ,
- ,
, ?
353

alia

- ,
, -
, ,
, .
-
, , -
?
? ,
,
, ,
-
( )
? , -
, , ,
, :
, ,
.
:
, ,
- ,
homo loquens.
.. ,
,
, ?
,
, , ,
, .
:
, ,
,
? ,
354


?
.. !
,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
( ),
- :
,
. ,
, .,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
, -
. :
.
.. , ,
, ,
, , ,
, , .
:
,
- 355

M oralia

pax, ,
. ,

?
.. ,
.
- . ,
.
:
,
, .
, ,
,
: , .
-:
? , ,
,
.
.
.. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
,
.
,

. :
.
, . ,
356

, ,
. .
- , ,
, ,
:
, .
.. , ,
, ,

. ,
,
, ,
, .

, ,
. , ,
.
-
,
. ,
, :
, ,

.
: ,
.
.
.. , :
,
. ,

357

M oralia

, .
, ,
,
, , .
,
,
? -
,
?
.. ,
!

? ,
, .
, ,
... II
, , ,
, .
, ,
: (
)
.
.. ?
,
:
, - .
, ,
-. ()
,
? , ,
358

, ,
- ...
.. !
.
- ...
,
, :

. ,
. (
,
) ,
. ,
,
, :
, .
:
.
, ,
.
, ? ?
? ? ?
? ? ... ,
-
. ,
, , , - .
.. ,
. , ,
,
?
359

M oralia

.. ,
. - , ,
,
, .
, . , ,
,
-
, ,
.

. ,
. ,
.
.. , , 1,
,
, (
, ) .
. .

1999

1 ,
LAge dHomme (2001).

1
, :
? ,
( , 2)
-, post-al, ,
- ,
?
- - , ,
?
... ...


? : .

- ,
, , ,
. , :
,
, - , .
- ,
1 ,
2001 .
.
2 ,
: , , .

361

M oralia

, . -
. ,

. , , -
, .

: , ,
. .
: ,
.
1999
,
N o Soul Any M o re 1.
( , )
- -
. , ,
, , .
, , ,
,
- . , ? -
.

,
.

1 Limmaginario contemporaneo. Atti Del Convegno letterario internazionale.
Ferrara 21-23 maggio 1999. . : ..
: . .: , 2006. . 375-383.

362

, .
, ,
? - .
.
. , , ,
- . , , , .
,
.
.

,
: , ;
: ? (Par. XXIV,
8 3 -8 5 ). .
, , (
) . ,
,
. ,
, - ,
.
-
, - .
, , ,
,
, , res gesta, , -
:
- - -.
-, ,
,
.
363

M oralia

( ,
, ) -
: .
( )
-
, ,
: W h y the man dies? -
-.
: , .
(

), .

,
. , , :
: .
.
-
.
, .
- , :
-....
,
- , .

- (, ,
:

: , . .). ;
. , .

364

: , -,
.
. , , . ,
, : .
( ,
. ). ,
, .
, ,
: , .
. .
, ,
,
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
- , ,
.
-. -
.
?
,
?

,
. -
, ? ,
, ,
.

.
365

M oralia

,
, - : (

:
)
, ,
1.
:
-
(
);
- , ...
(
.. ..)
-
, ,
-
.
, , ,
,
,
.
- .

- ,

; ; ,
, ,
, , ,

1 , le cru et le
cuit, .-.

366

.
, ,
.
,
, - ,
(
, , ).
-
(
- ,
, ;
: ,
, ,
).
,

- . (
)
, ,
, ( ). .

,
; , ,
, , - .
,
() , .
, ,
.
, ,
367

M oralia


, , ,
: ,
, ,
... ,
,
, : , .
,
; , ,
. -, ,
.
,
,
:

.
(, . .).
-
!
, ,
.
- (
),
:
(, );
,
(,
, ,
: , ,

, -
368

; ,
).
.
,
.
:
? : ,
-
- ,
. .
, (
)
- :
. ,
,
. :
,
, : !

, .
,
0 1,
- ,
1 ,
- , .

/ / . . .: , 1994.
. 200. , ,
- ,
, ,
.

369

M oralia

. -
-
.

- (

? , -,
, ;
,
- ,
, ,
).
( ). ,
,
, , ,
, .
, ;
,
( ,
, ,
. .: , ,
, , ;
,
, ).
,
,
,
, - ,
: -
(.) :
370

, ,
, ,

.

, .
, ,
- .
,, ,
, ... , ,
.
,
, ,
:
, -
, .
,


:
- ,

. - , ,
,

, : ?, :
- -
,
: ,
, , ,
.
371

M oralia


: ,
.
.
- , ,
.
, ,
- , - ,
, - ,
, - , ,
(
, ).
, , ,
,
? , -
...
- ,
- , ,
. ,
- .
, .
, ,
, -
. . .
. . . . -
. , ,
, , , ,
. ,
. ,
, , - ,
.
372

?
? -, ,
?
, (
) - ,
, ,
.
, ,
-, , ... , , , ,
message - .
- , .
, , -
. ,
- (
) . , ,
.
,
? , ,
.
?
,
.
?
, - -.
-
- ?
,
.
373

M oralia

, ,

, - ;
- -
,
, ,
.
, -
, ,
, -,
, - .
, , ,
.
, ,
-, .
, -
,
, , - ,
, . ,
,
, (
) , ,
, ,
-
,
...
, ,
, ,
,
- N ew Age
.
374

,
- - ,
, -
. ,

.
- .
,
,
: .
, ,
. 1922 .
: -
, ? - ,
... , , , , -1. ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
,
-.

. , ,
- - : ,
. .

1 / / ..
. .2. .: . ., 1990. . 194.

1
,
, , , ,
. ,
-
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
- ,
.
- ,
, , ,
- .

: ?

. ,
, .
:
, ?
, ,
1 . ,
28 2005 .

376

, , :
,
, . ,
.

:
.
, ...
...
.
, ;
, -
. , -
, - ,
1.
,
.
-:
,
. , ,
-
, , , ,
. -
.
, -
- ,
.
, ,
.

1 / / .. 11 . .: C a o b o /S I o v o , 2004. . V.
. 32.

377

M oralia

,
. ,
! -
, .
1.
,
, -
, , ,
. , -
:
, .


2. , -
. ,
. .

1 ., ,
, - ,
, -
, , .
:
, (,
) . . -
:
, , , .
, , ,
. , -

., - ,
/ / George Bernanos. L a liberte, pour quoifaire? Gallimard, 1995,
p. 54.
2 . . .

378

1.
: - ,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , : ,
- !
! -
. ( ) -
, ,
, . - -
. ,
,
.
,
,
, , -
.
, , -
,
:
,
, :
.
1 . . , , 1994.

379

M oralia

, ,
. .
,
( ):
, (. . ) - ,
, ,
?
(Purg.X, 124-126)

- , ,

-
:
,
: !
.

,
: .
, .
,
,
.
,
, .
. ,
- ,
: ,
, .
, , ,
(
380

),
,
,
.
, , ,
- ,
, .
,
(
)
.
,
,
.
.
. ,
.
, -

,
, ,
, .
. .
? ? -
.


: , .
.
,
: ,
. - 381

M oralia

:
.
. - , -
, ,
. , , -
, .
-
:
.
. ,
,
- .
,
, .
-, :
-
.
, .

, ,
,
,
. , :
, (. 13:31; .
21:33). ,
.
,
. .
,
. -, ,
- ,
. ,
382

- ,
. . ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
: .
,
.
. -
- ,
- .
.

, -
. ,
,
.
. ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
. , ,
.
, , !
,
.
- , : .
, ,
.
383

M oralia


1.
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
, .?
- ,
, -
. ,
, , ,
,
.

, :
,
,
.

( ,
, ,
,
1 ,
XX , ():
, . - ,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
/ / ().
. .: , 1997. . 54.

384

.)
( , -
,
), ,
. ,
,
,
, ( ) .
-
, , .
- - ,
, , ,
, , .
,

, sub specie aeternitatis,
, .
-
.

.
.

:
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, :
!
385

M oralia

, ,
, :
- .
, , ,
33
- !
,
, -, X X
,
, -
,
.

.
, ? ,
-
, .

1.
1 , 2005 ,
, .
,
, , -
- .
.

, .
- ?
. ,
,

-
, .

386

, , ,
? , , -
, .
, .
. ,
, , -
. ,
. (,
,
?)
- . ,
- ,
, . ,

, :
, , , ,
, (
?, . .). ,
. ,
,
.
. ,
, :
!
!. , -
.
. .
.
, - ,
- ,
387

M oralia

( ,
),

,
. .
,
,
: ,
.
- ( ,
. .), . ,
, , , . ,
.
.
. ,
. ,
,
, :
,
, .
.

. ,
, , , -
, , , ,
- , .
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
388

, ,
, ,
?
, -
. , ,
. ,
.
.
! ,
, ,
.
- , , ,
,
.
, .

( ,
, ) (, ).
( ,
) ,
- . , , ,
?
.
, - ,
?
, , , -
, .
, ,
, - ,
.

389

M oralia

- .
,
. ,
, ,
,
. -
, . ,
, , ,
,
- .

, -
: . :
. .
. -
. ,
.

.
. -
. -
: ,
-,
. . , ,

-

. ,
, . ,
, . -
.
390

, ,
- . , ,
,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
. ( ,
:
- ,
,
: !)
. ,
.
, .
,
(
, , ,
-
) .
,
:
. .
,
, - ,
391

M oralia

,
. . ., . .

? . ,
, . ,
,
: , ,
.
.
, -
, ,
.
.
.
,
! , ,
,
, , .

, ,
, .
- 70 -
, .
.
, ,
: , -
, , .
, ,
, .
,
- ,
. ,
392

.
, , , ,
. . ,
- -
,
, .
.
. - :
?
. ?
? - , -
. ,
, .
... ,
.
? , , .
,
.
,
. , ,
, ... ,
.
. . ,
, , , .
.
? ,
-
!
, , ,
,
393

M oralia

, ,

, . ?
. .
, .
. - , ,

.
.
,
, -
,
?
?
? -
.
,
.
,
- .
,
, ,
. ,
,
. , , :
, ?
- - ,
, ?
, ?
,
, , ,
-
394

, , ,
, - ,
. , ,
: ,
,
.
, ,
,
,
, :
, , , ,
: .
, .
, ,

- .
, , ,
- ,
, - - , -
.
: ! ,
. - . ,

. :
. .
. .
.
. .
, , .
, ,
, ,
395

M oralia

- ,

: .
,
, . .

, ,
, , .
.
: , .
: ,
. ,
, :
.
. -
,
.
, , .
, :
,
: -
, . , , ,
,
. ,
.
. ( , :

- , ,
; ,
...)
396

,
,
, ,
. ,
:
.

. ,
.
,
, .

, ,
, 1,
0 , 2.
, ,
- . ,
-
: !.
. , :
- ! - ,

1 ,
. :
, / / .
. . .: , 1994. . 256-257.
..
2 , (
, ) , ?
., ,

, (Bernanos. Op.
cit.).

397

M oralia

,
:
, !

, :
,
,
- :
.
,
-
. - , ,
. ,
. .
,
, , ,
, .
?
, , ,
,
. ,
.
, .
.
.

, ,
, ,
.
. :
, .
398


: - ,
, ! -

,
- (, ,
:
).
, ,
, ,
:
.
- : ,
.
-

. ? , , ,
:
, ,
, .
, :
, .
, , ,
, .
: ,
? -
: ,
.
( :
, )

.
399

M oralia

, . , ,
.

.
.
, -
(:
);
. sensu stricto,
,
. ,
,
.
?
,
, , ,
.
- - ,
:
, . - ,
. ,

. :
.
. ! ,
,
.
.
: das offene
Geheimnis ( )
-
,
400

, , 1,
,
()2. , ,
.
, , - ,

.
,
- ,
, .
,

.
, .
- , .
,
. -
,
. ,
.
.
,
, .

1 ! - , ,
.
2 .. , 2001 ().
. :
,
, ,
;

(Bernanos. Op. cit., p. 70).

401

M oralia

- .
, , ?
, , , ,
. :
. : ,
. , .
, ,
, ,
.
: be nice!,
, . I help you?,
, - .
: , ,
- , ,
:
,
. -
, , - ,
. , .
, , ,
,
- .
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, - ,
?
. :
, ,
. ... .
402

, :
.

. :
, ,
. , , ,
(
)
( ),
,
,
, , ,
. , , ,
, , ... ,
, ,
- . - ,
,
, .
, . ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
- ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
.
, ,
!
:
. , ,
403

M oralia

. .
,
, . , :
,
,
? ?

. .
.
. ,
, ..,
, : !,
!.
?
,
- , . .
, , :
.
: :
( ),
. . , ,
.
.
,
,
. , ,

, . , ,
- ,
. , ,
,
. , , ,
404

- .
,
,
, .
, -
, , ,
, . -
.
, ,
. ,
, - , ,
.
,
. , -
, , .
. ? ,
,
, , .
, -
. . ,

- .

.
. ,
- , .
, ,
, , .
? , !
, -
,
:

405

M oralia

.
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
-, ,
. ,

, - , ,
- .
-
.

1.
, , :
, ,
.
.
, .
, : ,
?. .
, ,
:
, . . ,
, ? .
,
: ,
, .
, , ,
,
1 Andre Glucksmann. L eX Ie Commandement. Flammarion 1991.

406

, X X :
-
. ,
? ,
, X IX X X
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.
.
. ,
, , ,
, .

.
,

. X X
.
, , :

: , ,
. ,
,
,
. , , .
? , ,
, ,
...
. , ,
. .
407

M oralia

. , ,
, , , -
, ,
.
,
, ,
.

. , , ,
, -
, .

, ,
:
- ,
?
- - . ,
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
', .
, , - ,
. .
.

, ,
, -
.
, ,
,
408

. ,
-
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
. , ,
:
. -
:
;
. .
, .
, ,
,
. , ,
. , ,
, . ,
:
- -
. .
.
, .

.


. : , ,
? ,

: ,
!
409

alia

,
.

.
(
).
, , -
. ,
. ?
? ,
.
: , , -
, , ?
- , ,
, .
- , -
- , .
. ,
, ,
: .
, , ,
,
- :
. ,
. ,
, , ,
.
. ,
, alter ego .
, ,
.
, ,
410

. -
, :
, ,
. (. ).
? ,
,
- ,
, .
, .
,
,
.
, ,
:
. ( ,
),
.
, ,
. .
,
-
,
, . (
, ),
(, -
).
, 1, ,
,
2.
1 . .
, .
2 , , -

411

M oralia

,
.
- .
0 ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, ...
- .
.
- ,
1. ,
.
,
- , ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
, X IX
. .
.
,
, , -
, - Virtus Romana - :
, , (), (

, . . ).
1
: , . ,
( )
.

412

, .
- : ,
,
. ,
, ,
- ,
. . .
, ,
. , , .
.
, ,
, (
:
). ,
, - :
, .
:
. .
. - ,
, .
- .
: ,
,
, , -

.
, , ,
,

(, , ,
, -
). ,
413

M oralia


: ,
, .

, - , ,
: - ,
. ,
- -

,
.
( ) -
,
. ,
( )

.
?
- .
.
- ,
, : , ,
, . -
. , ,
. , , ,
. ! , - . ,
, .
,
- , ,
- , . ,
, ,
414


, ,
. .? ,
?
?
, ,
.
-, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
-,
,
, , ,
, ,
.
-, ,
,
, - ,
- , :
.
II
: , ,
? :
.
. ,
, - ,
,
. .
, ,
, ,

415

M oralia


.
- - .
,
:
? , ,
. ,
-
.
. ,
(
), (
-
) - ,
: , ,
, ,
, , .
2003-2005



1

,
, .

. .
- , ,
, - (
? ?),
,
.
, -
. ,
, ,
. , -, :
.
- , ,
. ,
,
. ,
, :

1 , , 7 2006 .

417

alia

, ,
, ,
, (self-made man)
- .
- - ?
- ,
, , . ,
, - -
.
.
( , )
,
. , , ...
- , -
:
, .
. , ,
.
! :
? ,
?
- :
, (
, , ,
,
, - ,
, ). ,
,
( ?) ,
. ,
,
418


.
.
: . :
, , ,
, , ,
- . ,
, . , ,
, , -
, -
(. ): , ,
,
. ,
- ,
: ,
,
. : -, !
! ,
. ?
, .
,
, -
, :
- , .
,
.
: , . ,
, ,
419

M oralia

, .
. : :
, , .

. ,
, , ,
: ,
, , ,
,

.
.
: -
.
, : ,
, .
!
- .
! , ,
, ,
( , ),
. - .
- , -
. , ,
: , ,
?
?
, .
,
: .
420

, , -
. , ,
: ,
( ).
, , , ,
, ,
- ,
,
.
:
, , ,
.
, , . ,
- - - ,

;
. , , ,
, . ,
, ,
,
X X . ,
, ,
( ,
).
X X ,
. , ,
- , ,
427

M oralia

. , X X I ,
,

- ,
,
, .
, .
- , ,
(
) .
,
, 1946 - 19481:
(
,
!). :
. (
), .
. - ,

. , , -
. ,
.
: , ? ,
, . . , , .
, :
? .
, :
, ,

1 Georges Bernanos. La liberte, pour quoifaire? Gallimard, 1995.

422

, ,
, .
. ,
.
,
,
, .
.

,
. , dupe,
( :
,
...)

, : ,
, . ,
,
:
. . ,
, , ,
, .

: ? .
. :
.
,
lache,
, . - .
, -
423

M oralia

: , .
,
. .
(

) .
- ,
. .
: ,

: ! ! !
, ,
,
safety, security.
, ,

( !).

, ,
.
. ,
(, )
, :

, , , -
.
(comfort)
(security) -
- . ,
, ,
,
424

- .
:
. , , ,
, - .
, -
, 1.
, ,
(, ,
) - -
, , ,
- .
(
, ),
,
. ,
, , .
. .
, ,
.
.
, . -
:
, , .
,
, , ,
,
.
, ,
: ,
1 Bernanos. Op. cit. P. 155.

42S

M oralia

. ,
,
, ,
, .
- ,
- ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
,
. .
, , . ,
?
- , ,
. , ,
.
- ,
.
: , ,
, ,
. - ! -
: ,
. :
,
, .

426

! : -,
, , ...
, , -,
,
, -, , , -
, ?
- ? , , - , ,
, ...
- ,
90-
. ,
. -
, -
, , ( ,
) - ,
, , ( ,
).
: ?
,
.
, ,
.
. , , :

.
. , ,
, : ? ,
? , ,
.
427

M oralia

:
, - ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
- , 1.
, -
, - ,

2 . ,
, ,
- , ,
. :
, ,
: , . ,
,
,
, - , -
3. ,
, .
,
, ,
?
?
. ,
1 Bernanos. Op. cit. P. 213.
2 Ibid.
3 Bernanos. Op. cit. P. 216.

428

, ,
(
) .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
. 1.
,
, - . ?
, - , -
. ,
2. ,
, ,
, .
, .
.
2006

1 Bernanos. Op. cit. P. 230.


2 Ibid.

.

1
, ,
, -
. , ,
- .
, : ,
. , ,
, , :
, , , take it easy!, never m ind!
: - !,
on e can take advantage even o f misfortune! (
,
.)
, , - , ,
. ,
: -

, ,

1 -

. , 28 - 30 2005 .

430

. ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

,
( -)
Less Than O n e , .1
: There is no Evil without a grain
o f Good in it - and presumably vice versa.
, :
- , ,
( . - . .).
, ( )
. ,
:
.
, ,
. -
: M alum nullum est sine aliquo bone
( - ).
:
Every cloud has a silver linen - :
.
,
(and presumably vice versa):
:
.
1 Joseph Brodsky. Less than One. Selected Essays. Penguin Books, 1987, p. 10.

431

M oralia

, ...
- -
,
.
, , , :
(
: !).
( )
.
- !
( ,
) ,
, , , - -
,
. , ,
. ,

( ),

.

,
- , ,
. ,
- ,

:
, . ,
, ,
:
, (neither good nor bad,
432

but arbitrary)1. ,
.

: .
: (
) .
- , - .
, ,
, (),
, , ,
, 2. ,
: , , arbitrary,
, , , .
, .
,
: , ,
. , ,
,
.
,
. .
. .
. (

,
), ,
,
. ,
.
1 Brodsky. Op.cit. P. 10.
2 Ibid.

433

M oralia

,
- (
, , ).
-
. - ,
.
, , ,
. ,
.

, -
. - -
, ,
.
,
, .
, ,
1, ,
- -
- .
-
. ,
,
- ,
. X X ,
,
.

1 (The national belief is) -


- , (Ibid.
- . .).

434


( - ) X X
,
, , -
, ,
,
.
,
. ,

, .
( )
.
- ( ,
),
.
,
- 1. ( ) -
. , ,
, ,

1
. .
,

. : ,
, .
, ,
. - .
( , ) ,
, . , .
... - , ...
, , .
.

435

M oralia

- ,
, .
( )
, .
,
, , .
, ( - )
- .

,
. ,
,

, :
- -
.
, ,
,
?1 ,
. ( ) ,
? ? ?
- ? , ,

. - , - ;
(
,
);
(, -
,
1 . . .: , 1994..261.

436

).
.
, , ,
, ,
(

).

. -

- ,
happy end:
, , ,
, - .
.


,
.
,
, ,

.

,
, - ,
. ,

,
, ,
, -
437

M oralia

, ,
1, - , , ,

. ( ,
- ,
,
X IX ,
; : ,
.)
- - ,
, ,
- ,
, , ,
. -
, , .
( , ) - , .
:
, ;

, ;
;
,
;
,
.

1 :
, , ,
. -
.

438


,
, ( ,
) - ,
.
, ,
: ?
, ,
, , ... ,
, - ,
, - ,
,
: . ,
,
,
1,
, , :
? ,
, - ,
!
, ,
, , (
, ) , 2, .
,
, ,

.

1 (), . . ., 2000. . 121.


2 . . . , ., .
. 439 .

M oralia

,
.
, ,
, - , ,
. , -
,
, ,
- , ,
,
,
.
,
- -
- .
( ,
,
- ), ,
,
nefas, .
- ,
,
,
?
- ?
. , -
, -
1
: , ? - ,
- .

440

, ,
,
. , ,

- .
:
,
-
...

, .
.
, -
, .
, .
-
, .
,
(
? ?).
,
.

- (
; , ?)
. :
,
,
.
,
. () , ()
? , ,
441

M oralia

. ,
, () - :
1.
, ,
:
. -

. -
2. , ,
(:
).
{ - -

, . .,
. .!). ,
, , ,
.
.
, .
- .
, , ,
, ( ).

1 : ,
! ! - -
, - , .
2 , , ,
:
/ (either/or)- (although)... The
Power o f the Elements - Ibid., p. 160. ,
:
, ,
,
(Less than One. - Ibid., p. 31).

442


. , , , , ,
.
, , , ( ,
). ,
, .
,
. ,
- . ,
, (
, ). , ,
:
. ,
, , .
,
: , ...
...
,
- ?
- -
? ,
, -
, , , ,
, , ! (
, , ).
( , ) -
.
,
( !),
, - arbitrary,

443

M oralia

! ,

: , !

,
, , .
.., ,

. , !
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
. :
- .
- , ,
. , ?
! . , .
: . ,
, ... :
- -
. , ,
. ,

.
.
,

444

!
.
, :
. ,
,
. . (
),
,
;
,
- 1.
:
. ,
, ,
, ,
2.

. (
. ,
) -

: ,
, . -
.

, ,
, .
. , ,

1 . . . . 160.
2 .

445

M oralia

, , -
1.
- , ,
?
-
. , ,

1 ( - . .\
-
. -
? , , ,
, (arbitrary)
,
, .
:
, , - ,
, , .
,
,
. ,

. ,
- ( .)
.
,
, - ,
- , -,
, ,

1 . . . 161.
2 . . . 160.

446

,
.
, , ? ,
,
, , ,
outcasts. , ,
, , ,

.
. ,
-
!
:
,
, ?
,
, , , , .
,
- .
, , ,
, , ,
. ,
- , , .
. ,
: , !,
, . ,
, - - ,
, , .
447

M oralia

-,
. , ,
(
),
. , ,
( ) - .

,
,
.
,
, - ,
:
-
(. 17,15).

. , ,
, - -
.
( ,
),
, , ,
, , .
,
( ), -
- (
, ),
. ,
,
, , ,
.
448

,
.
,
( !) - ,
, - ?
, ! ( -
): ,
... , ,
,
. .
,
? , ?
. , , .
, , :
! ,
. :
, , -.
! : \
! ,
. ,
:
, ,
, , .
, , ,
, - .
- ,
.:
,
,
, ,
-,

449

M oralia

.
,
.


,
-
, ,

,
.
, ,
-
.
.

.
, -
, , -
, ,
, .
,

!
.
- .
,
(:
).
! ?
. , - .
, ,
450

( ) : ,
( . - :
: ,
).


: , .
-
, ...
-
.

, , :
, ,
...
, .
(
XVII , X IX ,
), ,
,
. - !
,
.
:
.
: , ,
( !).
,
,
, ,
- , 4S1

M oralia

- :
.
- , ,
. , !
, .
.
: ,
. ,
: ,
.

, ?
,
.

,
,
.

70- ,
, .
. :
.
2005

?1
1.


- .
, .
:
, - .
. , ,
.
, , -
. , , :
- . ,
-
. - . ,
, .
( ,
...) . ,
- -
.

(
) - ,
- :
1 .
. ., 2000.

453

M oralia

, . ,
, , , , -
. ,
,
. , .
-
. :
? - , .

.
, , , ,
( ) .
.
.
, - , ,
- , , ,
. .
,
. ,
: ?
( , ,
?), .
-
, .
( ?)
. : .
: ?
: .
. . ,

.
4S4

,
, ,
, .
: , .

, .
,
... .
.
2.

,
, , raison detre. ..
: ,
. ,
. ,
?

. :
, -

.

. :
,
,
.

.
: ,
( ). ,
455

M oralia

( ,
) .
.
- .
, ,
( : ,
- , - ,
).
: ,
( ) , .
-
: , ,
, , !
: , ,
, ... , ,
!
:

. . ?
? , ,
. .
? -
- ? ? .
,

.
: - , -,
,
. - , ,
. ? - . ,
, - .
456

- , (,
:
, 1, ).
, .
, ,
, - . , .
, :
, . :
.
.
( ,
) - .
, . .
.
: , ,
, .
, , ?
, ,
, .
: ,
, .

.

, , ,
.
- ,
? .
1 Donald N icholl. Triumphs o f the Spirit in Russia. Darton, Longman & Todd,
London, 1997.

457

M oralia

- :
, ( ,
,
;
- ?).
, , . , ,

, ,
. .
:
, , ... -
.
- -
. :
. , :

.
, ,
. ,
. .
.. () : , ? ,
? .
, , .
, ,
.
,
. ,
: ,
.
, (
?), - , , ,
458

( : ?), -
: -
,
.

( ),
. ,
.
, -
- .
2000

1
1
,
. ,
- - ,
.
-
2
3.
, .

,
.
,
- ,
, (, ,
) -
: .

1 - . , 2
2006 .
2
honoris causa (, , 3
2003 ). . , ., Poetica.
3 II. . . .

460

;
. :
.
(
) - -
, ,
. ,
, ,
, :
, ,
!
!
, ,
,
. ,
.

() !
,
. ( )
,
,
.

, , , ...
- , -
.
, ( ) ,
, .
.
461

alia

-
, . ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
,

. ,
-
. ,
, - X X .
- ,
.,
.

? , -
- ?
-
, ,
? ,
-, ! ,
, ,
. :
, ,
, ,
. , ,
( )
- . ,
462

, ,
- ,
- .
.

. , , , ,
.
.
, X X ,
, , .
,
- ,

. , :
Dinge, sag ich, Dinge, Dinge, Dinge!
, , , !

,
, .
,
, (
- , :
: ! -
,
, ) - .

( ,
, ,
,
, - ,
, ?,
, what

463

M oralia

did he try to say?), ,


- ,
, , XIX - X X
. , .
:
. ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
,
.
. . ,
, , ,
, ,
..
, , ,
.

(
. . ; .. ,
, ),
,
. , , ,
,
,
.

. , ,
464

,
,
.
( )
(
) ( ).

, ,
, . ,
? -
,
.
-
, ,
?
- - ,
,
? .
, ,
.
( ,
),
, , ,
,
.
.


, . !
, , -,
465

M oralia


.
.
, , -
.
, , .
( , : ,
, -
, , ;
, , ), ,
, .

. , ,
. ,
-
, , ,

-

, ,
, , - , - ...
: . ? , ,
.

, ,
.
: , .
, .
, , .
- ! - .
- , - . -

466

.
- ... ? , .
.
- , , ,
.
-
- :
, , , ,
. ,
, , -
, , .
-
, . :

,
,
,
.
( )

:
,
. ,
,
: , ,
, - .
,
, ,
: ,
. ,
, ,
. - -
.
467

M oralia

( , ) -
. -
, , (,
), ,
-, ,
,
, . - ,
. ,
...
,
, .
.
, (
).
,
.

2
, ,
. ,
, - 1
navicella del mio ingegno - .
.
, - ..
( ):
. ,
, , -

, . .
468

,
, ...
, (
:
). ,
,
,
, .
. . , ,
(
) ,
, ,
- , . .
,
: . :
? ?
. , ? ,
. ,
.
,
.
?
.
, . - -
. . (
) ,
. ,
. - -
, ( :

469

alia

?).
, .
- ,
- .
-
, -
(

?
? . .).
- ,
. , . .
, , - ?
, , ?
, -
1. , .
,
. ,
. - , :
.
: .
,
, . ,
.
. ,
. , ,
. - ,
, . .
,
1 . . .
, ., .

470

.
: disio, velle,
. ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
, .
.
- .
- , ,
;
, .
, .
,
.
() .
: ,
, - .
, , :
( ,
, -
; :
), ( , -
), (
, , ).
, .

:
.
(
471

M oralia

), .
,
, , .
.
, -
, - (
). , ,
,
- ,
, ,
.
. - - ,
.
, , ,
. -
- ,
.

(
, ,
) - ? ,
, . :
, ,
!
.
, .

- ,
, , , . (
)
.
472

,
, -
.
, ,
, ( ,
). ,
, -
.
. ,

-
: 1.
, , ,
,
, , , ,
,
, , , -
, .
- - .
,
.
, -
, .
. -
, ,

, ,
1 , , ,
.
- ,
. (
) , .

473

M oralia

(
). - ,
.
.
, - ,
(
, ).
?

,
( -
X IX ).
. ,
,
.
(
?).
(
),
. :
, . .?
. !
: , .
,
, .
. .
:

( ,
. 44). - ,
, ,
474

, .

. , ,
: , ,
, ,
, , , , .
,
, ,
,
. ,
- , ,
, ,
. ,
.

,
. . ,
,
, , .


. (
1): ,
,
,
. , ,
, .

( ).
1 . . / / . 26.1991. . 221 -222.

47S

M oralia

(
)
.
,
-
, , .
.
.
, , ,
. , :
:
, , ,
, , ,
... :
, ...

, ?
, - - ,
. .
, , - risplende -
, .
, ,
. ,
-
.
. ,
. ,
, -
.
,
, . ,
476

, ,
. ,
, .
(
) - .

. , ,
.
..,
. ,
,
. -
, . -
X IX (
),
:
...
, , , 1.

!
,
:
-
. 2.
2006
1
,
: :
, , 1996 .
2 .. . 1947. - . .

:
.
1
, , ,
- ,
. .
.
.
- .
- ,
, ,
, , .
, , ,
. ,
,
. ,
, -
.
- , , :
, -
, .
1 - :
. , 29
- 1 2008 .

478

: . . .

, .
: ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
, - .
? - .
... (1908)

, -
X X .
, ,
:
,
..:
.
.
, .

- 50 - .:
,
,

.

..,
, , The
Waste Land (1922) - , ,
- The H ollow M en (19 2 5 ), .
, - ,
- ,
, the waste land.
479

M oralia

.
,
1.

, .
,
, -
. , ,
, , ,
.
( , ,
), (
, ),
( ,

, .: , ),
( :
), ,
, ,
raison detre.
, , , - -
. , ,
,
. ,
:
- , -
, .
, , .

1 . , .: .

480

: ..,

. ,
- , -
, , , ,
. ,
- ,
-
,
conditio humana, . .
. ,
- . ,
, , ,
, .
, - ,
- - .
,
: - ,
, . .,
. , , , -
.
, ,
.
, -
(, , - );
- -
. : ,
, - , .
.
. .
, .
. .
.
481

M oralia

-, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, ; , , ,
.
, 1,
,
..
- ,
, : , ,
. , ,
. -, ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
.
- ..,
, , ,
, ,
,
.

:
.
1 , -, ,

: spleen, Vennui,
-. - (
, !), , ,
.

(. . . .
. , , 2005).

482

: ...

, ;
...
, ,
- , .
- , , :
, , ;
-, -. ,
, , .
, :
.
,

:
,
,
.
,
,

: !
-.
, , , ,
, .
,
, -
-,
.
,
, , .
483

M oralia


. ,
,
,
. ,
?
- -
.
( !),
, .
- , ,
.
, ,
, ( , ) ,
- - . ,
, , ,
, ,
, . - (
!) , ,
. , -
- .
. , .
:
, - ;
, -
. . , ,

. , ,
: ,
, , .

: ..

, :
. . ,
, .
, :
. , , - , :
. ,
. ,
: 1.
, ,
,
, ,
, , -
.
,
-
.

, .
1 (
, ):
- ,
, , : ,
, , ! -
, -
. , , , .
,
,
, .
; ,
, , , ,
.
! !
... .. / / . 29.
1993. . 156.

485

M oralia


-
. ,
, ,
,
.
- - .
: ,
-
. .

,
.
, ,
, - .
.
,
, . .,
, .
,
, . ,
, , . ,
- ?

. ,
, ( ,
),
.
, ,
, .
- , ,
486

: ..,

.
, . .,
, - - .
? ,
, ,
, ,

,
. ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,

. ,

-
. ,
. ,
, , ,
.
,
, .
. - ,

, .
: ,
. , ,
.
( )
, .
487

M oralia

,
(
), . -
- ,
,
, , ,
. , , -
,
. ,
, - ,
, , , . .

. . .
,
. :
. , ,
- . -
:
, -
( .1 3 ,1 2 )1.
? , ,
( , ),

. ,
( ,
).
, ,
,
,
1 ,
, .

: ..,

. ,
.
,
: ,
? ,
: ?
,
.
,
, - .
,
:
-
. ,
.

,
,
, - .
, ,
, ? -
.
,

( ,
) -
(
. .)
,
.
489

M oralia

,
. ,
,
, , .
, -
: ,
, ...
, . ,
, :
, , .
.
.
,
. -
,
, . ,
,
...
, : -
, ,
- - , ,
? , ,
, . ,
, . -
, , :
, . .

, -
, -
.
. , ,
490

: ...

-
, , . .
. , -,

. , , ,
. , .
( ,
, , ,
) ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
. . ,
. :
, , ,
: ( ).
, , .
, , ,
, -
. ? ,
, . , , ,
, , , ,
: .
: - .
,
,
(
). , 491

M oralia

, ,
, , -
.
,
-
,
, . , .
, .
( )
, ,

. , . - , ,
,
. , .
. , ,
. .
: ,
.
. ,
, ,
. -
, - .
- .
.
- ,
. .
2008


1
1
(1906 - 1945) -

X X , ,
, 9 1945 ,
.
,
,
. ;
,
.
4 1906
( ) ,
. ,
.
(
..).
1 , X ,
(, 22 - 27 2008).
, .

493

Moralia

- .
(
), ,
, -

. .

,
.
.
-
- :
, ,
,
?... ,
... ,
,
, , ,
,
(
), . ... ,
,
(, ,
, )? 1.

1 .. . .: , 1994. . 153154.
, , ,
- ,

, ...
..
XX .
.494 .


( )
1.
, ,
, ,
, ,
(,

), ,
,

. (
,
)
-
, , , ( , ,
) -
. ,
, ,
( )
- ,
2. .. (
-
,
,
, :
-
,
1 . . .112.
2 . . . 99.

495

Moralia

- -
,
)
, -
.
, ,
.
(

) , ,
,
,
,
(,
, ,
).
,
,
(
, )1.

.
,

.
,
1 . (
)
,
.

496

,

Deus ex machina. ,
,
, - :
,
- ,

. ,
-

.
N ew Age ,

;
,
,
. , ,

,
, .
. ,

, , ,
1 -
.
(, )
0 , .
1 ..
, ,
,
. . . . 245.

497

Moralia

,
, ,
: 1 .

,
(
),
.
,
, ,
.
,
: ,
,
,
. ,
- , ,
(
) - .

.
:
,
. , ,
, ( , -
, ,
1
,
. -
.

498

, - ,
,
),
, :
, .
,
,
. ,
.
...
. : ,
- ,
! (1. 5,21), :

? , ,
. , ,
, .
, , ,
(
), , , ; -
. ,
.
,
(
)

. ,
,
.
.
- ( )
499

M oralia

,
,
(. . . 43).
, -
.
, -
. ,
- ,
.
, .
, - :
, .
-
, ,
, .
.
.
,
,
23 . , ,
,
(
1936 .),
( , N achfolge,
1934, ,
:
: ).
, ,
(Sanctorum C om m unio
, , )
500

( ,
D as Gebetbuch der Bibel, 1940).
-
.
.
()
: ,
(, ,
), ,

,
, -
. ,
,
, -
,

( ) ?
, ,
, : , ?
.
1933 .,
,
1.
.
, ,

1 : ...
/ / . . . 8.

501

alia

, ,
.
(
)
, , ,
,
,
, . , ,
!1 -
X X . ,
, ,
,
,
? ,
,
, ,
, - , :
,
, .
, ,
- -
, 1934 .
,
.
,
, ( ).
..
1943 .
,
1 : Credere, obbedire, combattere .

502

.
,
,
( ) .
: ,
, , -
1. 0 -
2 - .
,
,
,
1943 , . , , .
- ,
,
,
.

. ( ,
, )

( ,
,

!), : !
,

1 . . . 47.
2 ,
( , ),

-
. . . 33.

503

alia


, ,
. ,
,
, . , .
, , ?,
: :
,
,
,
, ,
, ,
- ? ,
, ,
, , ,
1.
, ,
.
- , , -
,
.

,
- X X ,
. -
- .
1 2008,
1 . . . 47-48.

504

2
, ,
, .
,
- .
(

1) , ,
. ,
- ( , ,
,
, , ).

: -
. (
- ..)
, ...2
,
(
, ) ,
, ,
: ,
,
0 , .
,
, , . ,
1 :
,
.
:
.
2 ... / / . . . . 228.

505

alia


: : ,
... (1 .1 ,1 - 4 ) 1.
(

) .. - ,
:
,
, ,
, ,
,
, - ;
. :
, ,
(. 10,10) ,
. ,
, :
.
. ,
, -: - .
, ,
2.
1 - ,
- ,
( . . . . . 1993) .:
: , , ,
. . . . 166. ,
, XX
; - .

.
2 ..
(, 1989)

506

. ,
, ,
. :
, .
.
,
, (
, - ),
, ,
( , ).
, .

() , ,
, 1943
1. ,
, -
: . . .
. - , , . .
: ,
. , 2.
- ,
( , - )
,
.
-
. .
1 / / . . . . 26.
2 //. . . 268.

507

Moralia

.
. ( )
.
, ( ,
, ). : ,
,
, .
: - , ,
. ,

-
,
?1

, -
, .

. , ,
, ,
,
. ,
-
,

1 ,
, ,
,
, .
, .

508

. X X
: ,
. , ,
- ;
, , , , ,
,
1.
(
) - , ,
:
, ,
, ,
; , ,
(
), ;
, ;
, .

.
( ,
. .): -
, .2 ,
, .
.
, : ,
. , ,
: .

1 ... // . . . 206.
2 //. . . 267.

509

alia

,
-
-
. ,

( , , ,
):
.
. .
- ;
,
: , , ,
,
1.
, (
:
, , - ,
, - ,
).
, .
,

. .
, ,
,
( ,
,
).
- ,
.
1 / / . . . 35.

510

,
, 1,

(. 67, 36) , .

: ,
2.
,
, ,

- , .

: . , ,
,
,
- :
,
. ,
3.
(
1 // . . . 290.
2 , ()
, . ,
, - .
, 5 / / . .
. , 1988. . 595.
3 . (
) 21.11.43:
, , ,
: , , (
), .
. . . . 121.

511

Moralia

) .
,
:
: ; ,
, ,
, (.
45, 4 -5 ). (),
( ,
, . 4, 23) -
. , ,
,
. ,
-
. , ,
, ,
,
... \
.
, - , , , , ,
, , -

. ,
,
.
,
, . :
- ,
, , 2.

1 ... / / . . . 229
2 //. . . 258.

512

- ,
( ,
,filake teskardias) -
: ,
, , . ,

( ;

, )
, ,
.
, .
- , .
,
.
.
, ,
, - ,
,
, 1,
.

,
,
. , , -
,
1 . : ?
! ? - . .
. ,
, . .

513

alia

: ,
...
,
,
. (
)
.
(
),
1918 1939
. ,
,
, .
, II,

( . ),
1,
.
, , ,
( ),

2.
X X . ,
,
, :
,
, . ...
, ,
, ,
1 ?
! / / . . . . 167.
2 ... / / . . . . 228-229.

514


.
, , , :
, ; ,
, ; ,
, . :
: , . ...
, ...1.
,
() ... ,
- , , , .

(
).
- -
: , .
0 2.
- ,

,
, (
, ,
).
,
.
, , , ,
1 , 5 / / . . . . 596-597.
2 ,


, .

515

Moralia

, , - ,
, ,
, , ,
( ,
,
) ,
1.
:
-
. ,
,
- (
).
, ,
, ,
, -
: ,
. ?
, ,
1943 2; 1944: ,
- , , -

1 . , ,
.
, ... / /
. . . 5 . .: . ., 1990. . 3. . 398.
. :
...
- ( ... / /
. . . . 226). : ,
, . , ,
, . ( / / . . . 39).
2 . ( 27.11.43) // . . . 126.

516

1.

2.
, .
(
- ).
.
,
3.

, ., .
.. .
(,
, ),
, .
.
- , -
, ( )
.
( ,
0 ).
,
?
?
, ,
1 . . . 224.
2 - - ,
- .57,12 9,20 .; (45,5)
. ( . . . 199).
3 . . . 289.

517

Moralia

, ?
, : ?
, :
, ,
,
1.
, ? ,
: ,
,
! - , :
. -
- , ,
, .

, X X , -
, ,
( )
.
2008

1 / / . . . 48.

.
1
,
? ,
.
. .

,
, .

, .
. 2
, ,

1 . , , 10
2007 .
, , (
, - , ), . ,
, : -,
, - ,
- , , -, ,
.

.., . ,
: . . . 1973-1983. .,
, 2005 ( - ).
2 , . .
-.

519

Moralia

,
, ^^.

: -
, , ,
( 1927-1928 .).

- -
: ,
( , 1817); coeur est materialiste, mais
raison sy refuse ( 1821 .).
, a parte :
?
-, !1 1 . . : Le coeur a ses raisons
que la raison ne connait pas. ( ,
, .). , .
, , .
.... . , .518. .
, ,
, ,
. .
: (
) :
() - .
, ,
. .
, ,
. . ,
, ,
, ,
. , Book Review
- .
? ,
- . - .
... , , ,

520

. ..

- ,
, , -
! .

: - ,
, - ,
. , , , ;

,
. - , -
. ( )
(
: ,
, ).
, .
, .
. ..., , , - ? ,
... , - .
- . -
, ,
, , ,
, - , , ,
.
, (
, ), - - . -
- -. , .549-550.
- , - ^* ()
: ,
(durch Denken) (.Kein Sonnenstrhalgeht verloren. Worte Albert Schweitzers. Hyperion-Verlag. Frieburg
im Breisgau, S. 59).

521

Moralia


( , , ).
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, :

.

, , , (
)
, , , :
, , .
, .

1- ( : ,
1 , .
:
, , ,
, ,
, .
, , .
, , ,
, ,
, - ,

,
. - .
: ... . .: , 2001. . 26.
, , ?
-. ,
. -
,
.

522

. . .

, , , ,
). -
- ,
.
( ),
- -
, , ,
- .
- ,
- , -
.

; , , .
,
!
. .
. ,
. :
. :
,
: . !
-
,
( ). (), ( ).
, ? ,
, . , ,
! ,
523

alia

, , ,
!
, - ,
-, -
. , ,
-
, .
.
..
: , , ,
, ,
,
*. , -
, ,

,
-
( ).
:
- , - , - :
, - , ,
, . .
, -
, - ,
- , -
. ,

1 ... . .
., - . , 2004. . 286.

524

. . .

( -
!) 1.
. ,
- -
. . , .. -

- .

.
,
, , ,
,
. ( ,
-
, .)
-,
, , ,
:
, , , , . ,
. .
, ,

, .
- - - .
,
,
(, ,
1 .: , ,
, , ,
, , .
,..

525

Moralia

, -
).

, ( , , )
, ,
-,
. , ,

.
:
! !

.
, ,
, .
, .
, , - :
. , , ,
, 1. ,
,
: .
, , ,
-
, .


. , .
1 .: - , .
, , ...
, , - ,.... , . 454.

526

. . .

, , -
, - :
,
, ,
, ,
1.
, ,
.
, . ,

,
:

.
(. )


. , ,
, - - ,
.
: ,

(
, , , ),
1
: , ,
, ,
, - ...
(intelligence) , ,
(Bernanos. L a liberte, pour quoi faire?
P. 223).
. ,
.

527

Moralia

,
.
,
,
, , ,

, - ,
,
.
, -
, ,
, (
: ,
, ) ,
- ,
, , ,
, - 1.
, ,
(. :
, :
, , , ,
. ... ..).
,
, , - ,
- . (
)
,
- ,
( ),
1 . , .: .

528

. . .

,
,
. ,
,
.
, ( ),

. ..:
.

, .
, .

.
- .
,
, , .
,
,
. XVIII ,
X IX -
X X :
.
(
- !):
,
, , .
.
:
.
, ,
529

alia

,
, .
,
-
.
; :
- - -
. .
(
); , , ,
:
.
- .
. , ,
- ,
. .
, ,
, ,
, .
, , , -
, . ,
,
. .
(
)
.
. ,
, ,
:
, ,
, . ., . . , ,
-
530

. .

, ,

-
. .
,
.
- ?
,
- , - ,
...
.
? ,
. - ,
, -
, .
0 , . .
.

, , ,
, -
.
. .
: ...
, ,
, 1.
, - .
, - . ,
1 . - ...
. , , . ,
2004. . 99.

531

Moralia

, ,
-
- ,
.
:
(. 8,2 ) -
:
, , !

-
.
. ,
1964 , 1972
,
.
:
. ,
-
;
. - .
- . ( virtus,
arete) :
,
,

.
,
,
: ,
, !
, , - ,
,
532

. . .

: , .
: .
,
,
. , - -
,
-, -: ,
. , -
. ,
..: ...

...
, ,
. ...
,
,
1.
-
, -
,
.
, ,
(.),
. ,
- ,
,
. :
?
, : .
1 . . . . 413.

533

M oralia

! ,
, - , 1. ,
,
. - :
, , .
,
. -
(. ). -
,

, - ,
,
, (): .
.. -
, ,
(
), (
), , . .
. ,
.
.
, , ordo
scientiae, , -
, , -

1 . .. .. : ...
,
, : ,
,
, , , , ,
. . . 313.

534

. ..

(
D istinguo! !, - ):
(
) ,
,
, .

( ). -

, ordo sapientiae ( ), ,
,
,
,
.
.
-
. -
:
,
. ,
1.

, ( )

; -, ,
. ,
. , :
.
1 . -. . : , 2000.
. 405.

535

Moralia

... ,
,
1. - !
-
, ,
, :
- 2.
!
-
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, , .

, , ,
. . ,
( ),
. - .
. ,
.
,
. . 3.
1 . . . 408.
2 . ... .: ,
2005. . 9.
3 , , -
( ,

536

. ..

.
. . .
,
,
(. 7, 2 2 -3 0 - 8, 1 -8 ) - !

. , ,
, - , .
, , - , - ?
( ),
.
. .

.
, prudentia, ,
, - , ,
,
, , . 1, 4),
. ,
.
(.
): ... , metanoia,
,
. , , , ,
,
( - ,
, - , . ..),
. ... ...
, ,
, ...
, :
, .
, \ ? , . 298 - 299.

537

Moralia

, ( ).
, prudentia - (
, ,

-
).
, prudentia
. -
-
.
.
,
: .
, ,
,
, . ,
.
, :
, ,
Inhalte (, .)
, .
, ,
, , 1.
,

-
, ,
, ,
.
1 .. / / . . .
. 312.

538

. . .

, , ,
, , (
, ), ,
,
(). ,

, , -
- 1.
, , ,
: , ,
, ,
... - ,
: ,
( - ,
).
. (-
-
, ,
- ,
, .)
, ,
- :
, ,
. , ,
.
,
, - ,
(
),
1 . . . 313.

539

Moralia

, ,
.
, . . ,
- -
: (
), ,
,
,
- ,
,
, ,
- . ,
, ,
.

- ,
. , -
, -
:

? , , ,
,
. .
-
: ,
, ,
,
. , , , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
540

. ..

:
.
,
. ,
(, 60-),
, ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
. - . , - ,
, . ,
- .
.
, , ,
: ,

.
, ,
. , - , -
, .

. :
.
. :
.
,
, ? (
, )
, ?
(. )?
, ,

541

Moralia

-
,
, .
- -
, .
, ,
, ,
.
-
-
.
,
(
,
;
, ), :
.
( , ).
,
, -
, , - ,

. (
);
, ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
542

. . .

-
, , . ,
, :
. : ,
? !

. ,

. ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ?
,
- ,
:
.
. :
- , ,


,
- , : , ,
,
.
, ,
: ,
!
543

Moralia

, -
, ,
,
, , ,
,
.
.

.
. ,
-
, ,
.
,
- ,
.
. ,
,
, - .
,
,
, .
. ,
:
- .
-
.
-

,
, ..
544

. . .

. - ,
- . ,
, ,
( ,
, , ,
).
-
, . ,

,
, .
-
, .

: ,
,
, ..

(
,
,
).

.

,
- -
: ,
.
,
,
545

Moralia

- : -
, .

. ,
-

. - .

- .

. (
sophrosyne, ,
prudentia,
),
. , , -
,
.
, () ,
,

- . ,

sophrosyne,
prudentia, , . ,
- .
. -
-
1. ,
1
..: ,
, ,
, . -

546

. ..

ordo sapientiae, ,
, ,
:
,
. ,
; .
paideia, humanitas, ,
, , *.
2007

,
, ,
, .

, , ,
, ,
.
, ( / / .. .
. .: , 2001. . 164).
1 .. / / . . .
. 321.



Denn edlen Seelen vorzufiihlen
Ist wiinschenswertester Beruf.
Vermdchtnis 1

...
,
,
...

.
, ,
,
..2,

1 ( ) -
(.). . .
2 . . 4 1959 .: ,

(. - . .) ,
. (
1959 ! - ..) , ,
/ / .. 11 . .: C a o b o / sIovo , 2005. .. 19541960. .427. (
.) -
, -
- -

548

1,
2.
,
.
,
-
3, 4.
: , .
,
, ,

'

2
3

! ? ,
(X, 115).
.: , ,
Malte Brigge. -
(IV, 686).
-
- . , . 1 . 569, . 2 . 600.

-
.,
: Lazar Fleischman, Hans-Bernard
Harder, Sergej Dorzweiler. Boris Pasternaks ^.
. . I, II. Stanford
Slavic Studies. V o l.ll. Stanford, 1996.
.
, , , :
. . ., , 2006.
- .

, - , ,
., . ,
. . :
(X, 560). ,
- , ,
.

..-.

549

Moralia

.
- , (
) ,
, - ,
, .
- -
,
,
(X, 490).
,
,
1, .
.

, (
) 2. ,
,
3,

1 ,
, ,
, . , ,
, . - .. 31
1959 (X, 512).
2 ,
.!. . 1922. / /
.. . .: , 1989. . 394.
3 - ,
( )
. , , .
, .
,
. ,
. . :

550

.
( ),
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
,
- .
?
?
?
0 , :

,
, . .
()
:
...
,
( - ..)
, (X, 554).
-, - -
,
, ,
(. ,
, , 1).

,
, , ,
. . . / /
. . . 407.
1 , ,
- . (V, 24).

551

alia

.
( ,
, ), ,
,
1.
, , - ,
.
Was ist das Schwerste von allem? Was dir das Leichteste diinket:
Mit den Augen zu sehen, was vor den Augen dir liegt2.

,

, , ,
.
. ,
. , ,
-, .

1 ... : ,
,
, , , . ...

, . .
., , 12-15 1914 (VII, 185).
:
, - . - . : ...
. .: , 1970. . 174. ( .) ,
, , ,
: , .
, .
. ,
: , . ..
. , 1969. . 62. . . . 368.
2 ? , :
, ( ).

552

,
.
, ,
- , .
, ,
1. , , -
, , ,
, -,
2. , ,
: ,
,
3 4.
. ,
.
: 5. ,
, ,
, ,
1 ,
:
, - 1918
, .
: ,
. .
(III, 30). , ,
:
- . (V, 24).
2 . 22 1959 (X, 555).
3 , ,
(wahren) , ,
. . - . : . . 34.
4 - , (..
. ).
5 , ,
/ / . . .:
, 1981. . 422. - .

553

alia

.
1 (.
,
).
- ,
,
(
,
).
,
- - ,
. , ,
,
, Alles Vergangliche
ist nur ein Gleichniss2-

- 1.
. (
, W ahrheit)4 - (
1 , ,
, - , ,
. (
, , . - X, 554-555).
2 . , . .: . .: -
, .
3 . .
, , ,
-
- (X, 513).
4 , , -
(Wahrheitsliebe). . - . . . 414.

554

, ). 1, . :
( , , ,
, ?).
, , ,
- :
,
: , ,
... ,
(, 3),

4 -
, 5.
- , , - , ,
: - -
,
1 Getrost! Das Unvergangliche Es ist das ewige Gesetz, Wonach die Ros und
Lilie bliiht. - (! - ,
).
2 , , , .
.
3 : Ein wechselnd Weben, Ein gliihend Leben, So
schaff ich am sausenden Webstuhl der Zeit Und wirke der Gottheit lebendiges Kleid - , .

. ( ,
, ,
.) (. ).
4 . : ,
, , ( - II, 174).
5 Es soli sich regen, schaffend handeln; Erst sich gestalten, dann verwandeln
(Eins und Alles) - () ,
, , .

555

Moralia

,
, 1. ,
, ,

,
2 -
, ,
3.
, ,
, ,

1 ,
, ,
, ,
: - Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben. ,
, , - , , (
) {Kein Sonnenstrhal geht
verloren. Worte Albert Schweizers. Hyperion-Verlag. Frieburg im Breisgau,
S.87). ,
, ,
, :
,
() - , -

.
2 (III, 186).
3 , ,
, , , . Marcel Proust.
Contre Sainte-Beuve, Gallimard 1954, p. 303.
,
. (
) :
{ . - ..) , .
... 3 1959 (X, 437).

556

- - . ,

, ,
, ,
,
.
.
: - ,

.
.
- ,
- . , - ,
, ,
, , .
.
(IV, 391). . : (
), . ...(
, )
.
- .
.
,
, . ,
,
. 1.
(: , )
, - ,
- , ,
, ,
1 Marcel Proust. Contre Sainte-Beuve, p. 296- 297.

557

Moralia

,
? ,
, ( ,
,
1) ,
2.
.
,
,
: ,
. , ,
(V, 289).
,
X X , ,
, - - zoe
- bios?.

1 , , ,
(IV, 12).
2 .: , (V, 290).
3 . : zoe - ,
, ,
, ,
; bios - , ,
(. ). - .. . . .:
, 2007. . 19-22. - .
(zoe)
(bios). ,
- - ,
, ; , ,
, ( ,
). , .
, ,psykhe () zoe,
psykhe zoe ( , 11.61).
, ,
,

558

--
,
- ,
1.
,
,
, .
, -
, 2 - ,

, .
: unzerstorbar, ,
, : ,
, .
1 - ,
, .
, . .
, , ,
? (
. - IV, 712).
, . ,
, . -
, ,
.
2 .
, ,

-- (
).
, , , :
. , ,
, , ,
, . ., ,
, ,
: .
,
. Zoe zoe, bios.

559

Moralia

, ,
.. - , ,
, zoe psykhe -
, .
- 1
. ,
,
: .
- ,
(
, . ) , 2.
-
:
. ,
(
),
. ,
,
,
, . ,
, -
.
,
, ,
,

1 , -
(. - IV, 521).
.
2 ,
, .
, ... (X, 163).

560

: ,
, , ,
(IV, 69).

(
, das heilige Leben) - ,
, - ,

(IV, 91). - -
, :
, :
\
, , , ,
. ,
,

.
, ,
,
(V, 282).
, ,
, zoe2.

1 - ,
( . - IV, 518).
2 ... ,

(IV, 67). , ,
- -
.
, , ,
, . ! . .

561

Moralia

, ,
, ,
,
, ,
. 1
: .
. ,
(III, 158).


:
, ,
!
,
, .

,
, ?
!
: ()
(, )
?
, , ,
, ,
, (
) .
- . ,
: .

1 (. IV, 540).

562


- , ,
(
- - ;
, ,
,
: ,
- ,
)1.
- , , ( ,
, ).
,
,
(IV, 558).
, -
, , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
, , (.
) , .
:
Zum Erstaunen bin ich da. 1 . : , ;
- (V, 318).
- :
, , , ,
, :
, ,
, .
( - . .),
(IV, 434-435).

563

Moralia

: , ,
- : , .
. ,
1.
2


, , .
.
-
( -
)
2 - , ,
. ,

, ,
, 3...
: - !
, .
, 4... ,

1 . ,
, ... (X, 494).
2
,
(X, 290-291).
3 ... ,
... (V, 612).
4 ,
, . , ,
, : , ,

(. . 412).

564

, ,
, ?
,
, ?*
- ,

. -
, ,
, .

. ,
;

, ,
2. ,
, , . , ,
, . ,
,
, -
1 , ...
, , ,

? (IV, 287). -
, :
, - , ,
. ,
, ,
? (IV, 205).
2 . : ,
.
. - ,
(III, 173). .

565

Moralia

- .

:
- !


:
, , !

,
(
, , )
-. ,
, ,
, . ,
,
(
)
1, .
-
: -
. ,
. ,
,
, ,

1 .., , -, ,
,
, (X, 13).
( ) ,
, , , ,
, ,
.

566

,
, . <...>

(X, 2 9 0 -2 9 1 ).
,
,
, 1. , :
?
, ?
-
,
, ,
2.
.
: ,
, . ,

( ,
, ,
, ,
) -
, ,
. ,
.

1 , ,
, , .
,
: - .
2 ,
(
) !

567

Moralia


,
, . .
,
,
.
:
, ,
,
, ,
, .

-
,
:
. ,
, ,
,
- .

,
,
1 -
1 , - ,
, .

,
(. , .: ).
, ,
( , ,

568

.
: ,
, -, -
-. .

,
. ,
,
,
, : - zoe bios, : ,
, , . .,
, (
, 1).
, zoe- psykhe
( ,
) ( ),

.
: ,
.
? -

.-.
). - . ,
.: . ,
.
1 (.., 1947 )
: , , 1902-1945 .
(IX, 492).
, :
1955 .
, .-.
. (,115).

569

alia

. ,

, ,
.
, ,
. ,
: ,
, .
, , , (IV, 427).

.
, , ,
. , ,
.
(
) . ,
(
, )
, (. ).
,
19 ,
.
!
: 1> ,

1 - , .
. . . 1946 : , ,
, , !
,
(IX, 480). :
, ,

570


:
.
, ? , .

( )
. ,
,
,
, , (
?) - , -
,
.
,
.
. ,
(
, :
, )
. ,
, ( -
).
, - .
, .,

X IX : , ,
,
, :
( ),
, ,
. .., 1954 . (X, 56).

571

alia

, ,
,
-
, 1.
, , ,

. : ,
, (, ,
),
- , -

1 . 22 1959 (X, 523).


,
?
(. X, 379,477,482,485,489,494). ,
, ,
, ,
, , :
., .-., . , .,
, , ., .., .-....
, ,
(X, 509),
,

.
- , , ,
,
. -?
, , ,
. , , ,
,
- ,
, , ,
. .
- , ,
, !
., ,
(X, 470).

572

, .
, ,
, -
1. -
,
,
, .
, ,

- (
,
, , ,
, (X, 80),

X IX . ( ,
, ,


, ,
) ,
,
. ?
, -
.
, , , ,
.

1 X, 490. ,
, ,
- . - .. .
. 1642. / / .
. .: , 2006. . 277-295.

573

Moralia

. ,
, , :
,
- ( , , ),
. -
( ). ,
, , , , .
,
, 1- , .
2. ,
, , 3.
;
( )
:
- . ,
,
. ... ,
,
(IV, 283).
,
1 , , -
( ,
) ,
, forma formans.
2

: ,
, - ... / / .
. . . .:
, 1994. . 227. - .
3 IV, 283. , ,

.

574

, , ,
, - 1,
- .
, ,
, , ,
,
2.
, , , ,
,
,
.
:
, ,
: - .

-
:
,
, ,
, ,
,
3.

(

1 ... :
- - .
, -
, - ,
(. . 127).
2 : ,
, ... (IV, 124).
3 . 17 1959 (X, 463).

575

Moralia

,
).
. ,
, ,
.
1 ...
,

,
(IV, 392). -
( ).
, ,
. 2
, , 3
( , - ,
; : ,
, ),
. ,
(
) .
.
1 ,
: , , ,
, .
2 , .,
,
. , -
,
( , ) ,
.
3 , , , ,
! ,
(IX, 480).

576

,
, , , ,
. ,
. -
, , !

. ,
- ,
. ... ,
, ,
, , ,
...1.
, .
(
)
:
, (
),
. -
:
- , -,
,
, , - , .
, , , .
. 2.

1
, (V, 167-168).
2 .. ..,
, ,
: ,
.
? ,

577

Moralia


, .
... . .
. ... ,

(IV, 6). . .
,
.
,

(III, 226)?
: ,
,
. ,
, . :

.

,
-
, :
. ,

, - ,
,
(
- , -

: . !
. ,
, , ...
... (III, 15-16, 540).

578

1). -
. - (
)
,
, - .
- ,
,

:

2.


,
, , ,
,
, -
(V, 318).
. , ,
, ,
- ,
, .
, .
- .
1 ,
: , , , ,
,
, , (X,
326).
2 .
. (1,215).

579

M oralia


, , -
1,
, .
, ,
() (
).
, .
,
, .
, ,
.

- -
, , -
( , ,
, )
. ,
, - .
, , , ,
:
,
(!) ,
,
.

, ( ,
) , ,

1 ... , ,
(IV, 44).

580

,

, ,
, 1.
,
, , (III, 226),
. ( ,
, ,
, ),

,
.

-
- 2. ,
,

1 .: , ,
(, 4. - II, 94).
2 , , ,
. ,
. . ...
,
, , ,
, , (IV, 13).
,
- , ,
. ,
. ,
, , ! ,
(. ). ,
.
:
(III, 179).

581

Moralia

- (
). .
,
,
,
1,
2, ,
. ,
,
.

. , ,
,
, -
3.

: , , ,
1 ...
, - ,
, . (X, 392).
2 , (.IV, 515).
3
- . ..
(
)
,
... (X, 412, 469).

.
,
, .
! ,
, .

582

.
.

.
, , ,
(:
, ,
,
, -
).
, ,
(. -
: - ,
, ,
(IV, 661) -
:
,
- IV, 94).

(
, ) , ,

. ,
( )
. .
, , ,
-
- :
.
(
583

Moralia

).
1.
,
- ,
( ).
, ,
, , ...

, .
2.
,
:
.
(
),
, .
(
,
,
, )
,
.

1 , , , ,
, :
.
: - -
. .
: . .
. . (IV, 50-51).
2 . : .
/ / .. . . .:
, 2006. . 256-264.

584

- ,
- , ,

- :
,
!,
. .
.
.
, ,
,
. .
, (
) 1.
, ,
, , -
-
(
1 , ,
- -
. .
( )
,
,
,
.
, . , ,
.
, , , ,
,
- - (
). ,
, ,
, -
.

585

alia

, )1.
, .
,
, , ,
. -
: ...,
, ...
, , ,
,
2.
( )
(: ) -
; ,
.

(.,
, ,
).
:

(X, 585).

, ,
,
1 ,
,
(
, ,
,
(IV, 489).
- ( ).
2 III, 216 ( , ).

586

- , .
- -,
. , ,

,
.

,
-,
. ,
( pendant , ),
,
,
, -
1. ,
(
) -
. -
.
: .
.
,
.
. . .
.
: , ,
, , (IV, 694).
1 , ,
. , ,
, ,
! (IV, 276).

587

Moralia


, , , ,
, ,
.
.
- .
-
- , ,
.
,
,
:
,
. .
. -
1. , , , -,
, 2.
, , .
, ,
,
1 ,
(
;
. - ;
- ,
(. . . 178), ,
, , . ,

.
2 . :
... ,
,
(IV, 684-685).

588

, ,
, ,
,
( , . . - V, 96).
, -
, :
. .
- ,
- ,
. . -
, ,
.
. ,
,
,
\

0 , ,
.
. -

, ,
:
, ,
2.

1 (II, 28). . ,
, ( , . 3 . 13).
2 , ,
,
.
? .

589

Moralia


, , ,
. :
-
; , . ,
,
( ! , .
,
, -
, ; .
).
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
().
, ().

6

, , , -
.
,
, .
, - , , -
, .
- ,
. . -
, . ,
! ,
, ,
590

. - .
, , ,
,
(IV, 388).
, ,
( - )
,
, ,
logos alogos1, .

, 2,
: - !
, , -
, , ,
, :
,
,
,

3. ,
1 ( , . )
, .
, , .
,
logos alogos ( ). . . 214.
2 ( - ..) ,
...
. ,
, ...
(IV, 76).
3 IV, 424. .
-. ,
,
-

591

Moralia

,
1. , das
Ewig W eibliche, ,
(zieht uns ), -
.
, ,
.
.
,
.
-
. - -
. - ,
,
. - , zoe, ,
: .
. ,
,
, :
,
, , ,

, ,
2.

. . , .: ,
, : .
1 , , :
,
.
2 - - :
.

592


- ,
( -
). , ,
,
-

- ( ,
) (
). - :
D er G ott und die
Bajadere. ,
.


. ,
( ,
),
, : .
,
, , . . In
deinem Nichts hoff ich das All zu finden -
.
,
, ,
, ,
, .
.
(IV, 194).
, ,
593

Moralia

,
(
) ,
:
. , . , .
: ,
, ,
, , .
.

- ,
() ()
1- -.
,
.
-
,
( ).
,
:
- .
, :
: (IV, 398).
, , -
. -
17- - ,

2.
1 , -

: .
2 ....

594

, !
, ...
,
.

,
,
1.
- - ,
.
(IV, 69)
2.
,
, , :
.

: ,

, ,
:

-! ?
, . ... ,
(IV, 145-146).
1 IV, 146. ,
, , -,
, -,
(IV, 452).
: ,
().
:
( ).
2 - (X, 164).

595

M oralia

,
!

. ,
! . ,
, .
.
,
.

.
, , - -
1. - ,
, , , .
- ,
.
,
. ,
: .
, : ,
, ,
.

, .
, ,
, :
....

,
(IV, 8 8 -8 9 ).
1 , , : Fluch sei
der Hoffnung! Fluch denn Glauben, Und Fluch vor alien der Geduld!.

596

: ?
. - .
,
, -
!
- : ,
, -
: , ,
,
1. .
: : ,
2. -
(
- ..) ().

:
, . ,
( ).
- , -
. , ,
,
, : (:
!)3. -
?

1 . : . . 78.
.. (. ).
, ,
.
2 X, 332.
.
3 . . 105-106.

597

alia

, ,
, ,
.

: ,
1.
,
(Nachgiebegkeit bei
grofier W ille) ,

2, ,
(,

- ,
, ,
3).
, , :
, -
(. :
)4 ,
1 IV, 336. - -: -
, ,
,
... ,
.
- . -
- .
2 (
), ,
. (. . 77).
3 ,
, (X, 163).
4
:

598

, ,
,
(. , ,
, ).
- ,
. -
- ,
, ,
1. ,

. ( 2,
)
. ,
. ,
-
? ,
,
? ,
,
: . ,
.
, ,

. ! -

, (
1 9 5 4 - 1960 ).
1 ..., ,
-. , , ,
. 3 -4 1958 (X, 367).
2 , , -
- , ,
, .

599

Moralia

1.
, ,
.
7

,
: ( . - ..)
...
.

, .
...2.

!
, , ,

, -
- . ,
,
, , ,
,
. ,
(. ).

1 . : / / , 137,2008. . 418-433.
, ,
, ,
,
, (.
),
. , -
- .
2 . 10 1953,
(IX, 739).

600

, ,
- - .
-,
, , 1,
, . :
2. ,
, - ,
-
.
- . ( !)
, ,
3. , ,
, ,
,
, , (
, !)4. ,

1 ... ( , .,
, .. - ..)
, (X, 492).
2
.: XX -
.
, ,
, ...

. - . . 398.
3 ,
, ,
,
, ,
, , ,
(IV, 472).
4 - (
) .
, , , ,

601

Moralia

, ,
. ,
( -
,
- ;
).
, -
,
,
, .
, , ,

,
. ,
( ), : ,
. : ,
, ? ,
, ? - , , - IV,
43 ( ,
. ).

: , ,
( , , ),
.
, .
- ,
, ,
..
:
(. diabolos, ),
. ,
. -
, ,
- .

602

,
,
-,
, 1. ,
, ,
.
:
. -,
( - - , ).

, 2,
,
. ,
, - ( , : ,

). .
, -
:
, ,
: .
:
(III, 187);
...
, .
1 . . 7 1956 (X, 157).
2 ... ,
, ,
, ,
,
. ... - , -
,
(IV, 281).

603

M oralia

, , (X,
379). .
, (.
) - ,
, .
- , , 1
.
, -
.
,
.
,
, ,
,
,
2 (
,
,
). ,
,
- , .

1 . , .: : .
2 . 1917 () - 1958 (.
). : ,
( . - ..),
(VII, 322).
: ...
, , ,

- (X,
349-350).

604

.
,

,
, :
!.
,
,
:
.
.
, ,
.
(. ,
).

, ,
. , ,
:
.
.
:
, ,
.
: sui generis2,
( )

1 . . 182.
2 ,
.
,
, , .... . . 287.

605

alia

1.
:
,
(

) .
, ... ,
, ,

; ...
, 2.
,
, ,
. ,
,
, 3.
, , . , ,

() , ,
, ,
1 , :
, , ,
(. - ..).

, ,
(.
- . ..).
,
,
. , ,
. . . 408-409.
2 . . 75.
3 . (V, 299-300).

606

,
;

1.
.
- ,
. - ,
. - .
- .
.
...
(IV, 80).

2.
,
:
,
,
. ,
, (IV, 344). ,
,
(IV, 405).

1 .-. . 17 1956 (X, 66-167). . .:


. ,
...
, . . . 20 1959
(X, 489).
2 , , ( ,
)
. . , .: . .

607

Moralia

1,
2, 3,
(, ),
4, 5 -
, .
, ,

, ,

, (IV, 405).

: 6.
1 Nichts ist drinnen, nichts ist draussen: Denn was innen, das ist aussen
( Epirrhema). , : ,
, - .
2 - , , :
.- . . . 175.
3 , , .
.
4 Freuet euch des wahren Scheins, Euch des ernsten Spieles: Kein Lebendiges
ist ein Eins, Immer istsein Vieles (Epirrhema ).
, : , .
5 , ,
. , ...
. . . 404. ,
, ,
.
6 . (,
3 1954), ,
! (. X, 50).

. ,

. .

608


.
, ,
, . .,
; ()
,
.
.
. :
(
. .)
(

: , ,
, ). ,
,
. ,

.
, ,
.
, ,
-
,, ,
. ,
,
, ... (IV,
, , ,
. , ,
, , :
, ,
.

609

Moralia

452). ,
, (
)
0 ( ,
1),
,
. , ,
,
, .
,
2.
,
-
. , ,
, , , , !3
1 . :
, , .
. -
(Zeichen) . : .
, , ! .
. 274-275.
, .
, . , .
, (.

).
2 ,
, (IV, 452).
3 , ,
, - ,
.
,
,
, , ,
. , ,
. , -

610


, (
).
, ; .

.
. ,
,
, (, Compassio).
.
-
, 1.
:
- ;

, . .
.
1
.
, .
, - ( ),

- .
, , (
). , (,
, )
Scivias:
- , . ,
, . ,
, . 140 :
, ;
- ( ). . Illuminations ofH ildegard o f Bingen. Text by Hildegard of Bingen with commentary by Natthew
Fox, O.P., Bear & Company, Santa Fe, New Mexico 1985, p.24.

611

Moralia

- ,
1.

,
( ).
, ( N ew
Age) -
, .
, 2.

: ,
3. ,
4
, ,
,
, ,
,
, 5.
1 . ( ) : ,
, ,
.
2 (
.), ,
- .
3 IV, 405. . : ,
, .
. . 100.
4 ( ) . III,
187.
5 . :
- , ,
,
,
, . IV, 283.

612

: , ,
. ,
: ,
(
, ,
, ). -
-
: - ,

(IV, 281). ,
-
( ?
?), ,
,
.
.

, ,
, (X,
482) - , :
, , ,
, , ( .
Ambigua)1. ,
.:
- . , potentia,
: , ,
. , energeia,
2. ,
1 . . 215.
2 . : ,
(III, 179).

613

Moralia

, - .
, ,
.
, ,
(
), - ,
.
,
,
.
: ,
,

. , ,
- - .
,
-
,
,
. -
.
, ,
,
-
,
, , .
-
,
:
.
614

1 ,
- .
(Wirkungen) .
: -
- - - -
- - - (
1821 1822 ):
,
; - , -

1 ,
,

, ,
. - , . - . . . 281. , ,
,
. :
, ,
? ,
,
(, 1916, 1928).
( ),
-,
( ).
.
, , ,
., Expresse
- X. . 405,
407. , ,
, (
).
,
( , .
. . 731-743.
, ,
, :
).

615

Moralia

,
.
,
, .

.
.
1
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
. ;
,
2.
, (Zahm e X enien,
9):
Wer Wissenschaft und Kunst besitzt,
Hat auch Religion;
Wer jene beide nicht besitzt,
Der habe Religion -

, .
, ,
,
, ,
(
). - ! -
(Natur)
1 , ,
.
2 . : . . 192-193.

616

(G eist)1. ,
, .
(, , )
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
()
,

,
.
- , ,
,
, .
,

, -, 2.

1 : Natur
und Geist - so spricht man nicht zu Christen. Deshalb verbrennt man Atheisten, Weil solche Reden hochst gefahrlich sind. () -
. - ,
. -
(..).
2 -
, -
.
.

617

Moralia

-
, .
. ,
, (Nichtchrist)1, ,
Deus ex machina, - .
:
. ,
. ,
. ,

( 3, 13): ,
, ,

.
,

. (
: )
, :
? ,
, , ,
.
. , -
: ...
2.
,
:

1 Widerchrist ( ) Unchrist (
). - . . . 35.
2 . . 639.

618

.
!

,

.



,
,
,
,

( )
,
:
- -
, . .
. . ,
, - , .
: , .
-
- (
):
,
, ,
.

1 -
!
\ , , , -
(V, 52).

619

Moralia

, ,
0
, -
, ( ) (IV, 146).
, -
,
, ,
( , . ..)
1.
-
, , ,
.
: .
, , .
?
, . ,
? - -
2.
. : .
. , ,
;
3.

1 (IV, 557).

: - ,
- (IV, 67).
2 . :
/ .
3
- , . Bin
die Verschwendung, bin die Poesie. Bin der Poet der sich vollendet Wenn er
sein eigenst Gut verschwendet. : , .

620

, ,
,
( ) . , ,
, (
). ,
, ,
, ! ,
,
. ,
1,
:
,
.

,
, -
, , :
.
2.

, , .
- ! : - , , , ,
.
1 . : ,
. ,
,
. ,
. , , , ,
.
2 III, 186. , ,
: , .

621

Moralia

8
, , ,
(
, -
- , ,
), ,

. -
. (, ,


)
, ,
,

. (),
( )
.
, , ,
. .,
,
:

,
,
,
, , . . 1.
-
, ,

1 . . 358-359.

622

( . ).
, , (
?). : -
, , , ; , ,
, (
,
, , ;
). , !
. ,
,
: ,
. , 1 -
.
Die unbegreiflich hohen Werke
Sind herrlich wie am ersten Tag2.

, ( ).

, , ,
,
?
, , herrlich
, ?

, 3.
1 ( )
: , . :
, , ,
- . . 100.
2 , ;
, .
3 . .. 28 1917 (VIII, 315).
- .

623

Moralia

, , 1. ,
,
. ,
- .
, .
, ,
, (
).
:
, ,
,
: ... -
-
,
, ,
, 2.
, ,
, , ,
, , .
- -
. ,
. ,

1 . .. (
) , , ,
. ,
- . -
, ,
(sefer tehillim). - ... :
- / /
. ... , , 2003.
. 133.
2 . (X, 523-524).

624

- .
. - .
,
, .

,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
M u t. ,
, -
(
, 1,
, 2),
( )
, (
),
, , 3,

1 ( !)

(, , ).
.
2 . ,
. .., 1956
(X, 183). - ,
, .
, ,
, , .
(X, 321).
3 . . .. quinta essentia (V, 521).

625

Moralia

(. - ).

1, .


,
, . ( )
, ,
, ,

,
,
,
.


. ,
- ,
,
- , !
, -
, .
, , ,
- ,
,

1
.:
, . ,
,
.

626

. , :
. - -
, . : (, - ..)
,
.
(Grundsatz) \
, ; ,
. (
)
: . -
. - ,
( , . .).
.
: - 2.
,
, - , Macht,
Kraft, , . , ,
, - ,
. , - ,
, . : -
, .
(
)3. ?
, ,
, , ,
: (Wirkungen) -
,
, , (
1 . . 274.
2 . . 188.
3 . . 310. ,
, .

627

Moralia

)1. , ,
:
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
(IV, 13) ,
.
,
,
(, ,
).
.
, . ,
, , .
, ,
, : ,
,
,
... - (III, 186).
?.

,
2.
, ,
(Macht)
(Tatigkeiten3). ,
1 . . 310.
2 : .
, 1787. . . . 158-161.
3 ... , - . ,

628

- . ,
,
, , - ,
, , ,
.
,
, (
,
, ),
, .
,
,
,
, :
.
- ,
1.
, Grundsatz,
,
: ,
.
,
. . . 159.
1 , - ,
. (
) ,
....
. . . 140.
,
: -
.
,
- . () ,
( .). . . 190.

629

Moralia

: ,
, ,
. ,
.
, (
, ), ,

1, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
, . , ,
- ,
, .
, - ,
. ,
, , ,
, - , .
: - , ,
, .
-
. , (IV,
69). ,
,
, ,
, :
,
, , .
1 . . 140.

630

- 1.
: ,
,
:
. , , ,
. ,
, (IV, 69).
Ich habe nie iiber das Denken gedacht,

,
.
. ,
, .
, : ,
2. ,
,
:
. , ,
,
, ,
, .
3. ,
! , ,
: ,
,
, ,
- -
, ,
1 . . 143.
2 ( : ) in herbis et lapidibus. -
. . 157.
3 .-. 19 1958 (X, 375).

631

M oralia

, ,
( ).
,
,

. , : ,
, ,
, ( , ,
1;
,
, , 2),
, .
,
.
, , (
), ...
. . (
), (:
).
, . ,
( ) -
, . ,
1 , ,
. - . . . . 174.
2 (..
, , ,
, )
, ,
- . , ,
- ... ,
. ...
, ,
, ( , . .) - . . 320.

632

.
,
, , (,
): ,
- , -
, - (IV, 124).
,
. ,
( - , , ),
:
.
, .
( - , ist gewachsen)
, 2. ,
- :
, , ,
(III, 178).
-, -
, , , ,
:
, -

.
? .
,
- ,
,
, , , ,
1 III, 206. -: ,
, - (Wahrheitsliebe). - . . . 414.
2 . - . . . 415-416.

633

Moralia

, . , .
, Lust zu fabulieren (
) .
,
, ,
. ,
. -
,
(V, 2 6 -2 7 ). ,
, , , , -
,
:
Freuet euch des wahren Scheins,
Euch des ernsten Spieles.

-
:
,
,
,
.
,
,

.

- ,
. .
,
. !
, - ,
634

, .
( )
, .
: , ,

(X, 505). , , ,
-
.
!
Unmoglich scheint immer die Rose,
Unbegreiflich die Nachtigall1.

, ,
, , .
( ,
, - ),
, , :
- ,
, Stirb undwerde: 2. Selige Sehnsucht,
, 3.
:

.

, 4.
1 , (-
).
2 . .. 186.
3 . , .: ,
.
4 ,
. -

635

Moralia

- - ,
,
: .
: .
? , :
. ,
( , ),
,

. , ,
(III, 187). ,
-
-
. ,
, .
, ,
. -
: ,
. -
-
,
(. ).


, symbolon (sym-bolon),
. ,
--, ,

: ,
,
. (
).

636

,
, ,
(, , )
.
,
. ,
( - ),
1
. ,
(
)
.
U nd das Cesetz nur kann uns Freiheit geben -

.
:
2.
! ,
.
, ,
(
,
, ),
,
1 (IV, 194).
2 :
, , , ,
. : .
,
, . Das Sein ist ewig: denn Gesetze
Bewahren die lebendgen Schatze, Aus welchen sich das All geschmiickt : ,
().

637

Moralia

,

, .
, ,
.
:
- ,
1.

, , -
. (
), , .
:
, ,
. , ,
, ? ,
. -
,
: .
:
,
,
2.
1 . . . 196.
2 , , ....
, ,
, .
. (). . .: .
, 2000. . 161.

638


-
: , , ?
, .
,
:
, ,
. :
... ( ) ,
: ! :
!
(
...). -
, , ,
, 1.
, .

, :
...
, .
,
2.
.

.
: , ? .
, ? .

1 . . 308.
2 IV, 181. :
, .
. . 422.

639

Moralia

, ( , -
) ,
1. - (
) ,
- (
,
). -
(: , ):
,
2.
.
,
.
, 3.

(Beziige) .
( ),
,
(
?), ,
, . ,
, ,
, ,
- ,
1 ,
. ,
, , .
2 . . 234.
3
. ... :
. :
?

640

( , ..., ,
). ( )
1,
, - .
,
, .
-
,
(
), - -
. :
,
(III, 192).
( -
, , ,
, , ),
..!

,
? ,
?
(
,
1 . : , ,
:
( , ..);
, ;
, ,
; ;
. ... .
- ,
. . 20 1959 (X, 490).

641

Moralia

X IX ). , 1 .
( )

,
X X . ,
(
, ,
- ,
).

- ,
. -
(.
:
,
,
) (IV, 452).

.
, , (
. - ..) , ,

. ,
,
,
, (IV, 2 5 0 -2 5 1 ).
, ,
:
,

1 , :
.

642


. , ,
.

, , :
. - :
-
1.
, , ,
, , .

9
.
,
,
.
: , ,
, . ,
, -
. , ,
. ,
, , ( ,
-
).
,
.

. , ,
1 , .... . . . 337.
, ,
.

643

Moralia

. , ,
.
,
.
.
,
. , ,
, ;
.
? , ,
, . , ,
( ):
, ,
-
,
. -
- ,
,
.
- (
,
, , 1), -

1 . -
- (
- , - ,
(X, 379);
1958-1959 ), ,
, (X,
477) . . ,
, -
( ).

644

, 1, ,
, .

-
.

( ,
) - .
( -, -
), ,
-
. -
,
. , , -
. .
, -
, ,
,
(. ).
:
,
, ,
2.
,
, ,
(X, 494). -
1 , ,
,
, , (III, 207).
2 . . 178.

645

Moralia

, Symbolariuma,
, .
, ,
.
, -,
(X, 494). ,
, ,
- ,
.
,
. ,
(IV, 558).
, ,
: ()
.
. , , -
,
( (
. - ..) (III, 187)
( , ,
... ) ( ,
627).


- ,
-
.

1 -
. . . 219.

646

, ,
. , ,
.
,
, .
... ;
, .

,
(. . , 2 )1. ,
: ,
, ,
?

: ,
, , -

. ,
, :
( )
, .
( , )2.
, ,
, , .. :
-
-
!

1 . . 217.
2 . . 219.

647

Moralia

!
...
, .

,
:
,
,
, - , -
.
- ,
, - 1.
, ,
() ,
- , ,
, ... (
. A m bigua)2.
, 3.

,
,
,
.
.

0 ( -

1 . ,
: . Aleksander Schmeman. Una nozionefuorviante del simbolo / / LEucaristia.
Sacramento del Regno. Ed. Quiqajon. 2005, p. 44.
2 . . 225.
3 . . 217.

648

) - ,
: ,
,
(X, 477).
, ( ..)
, ,
.

: , , 1.
, ,
(ibid.).
, (sym-bolon) ,
, ,
,
, ,
(dia-bolos).
, -
, ; ,
, -

, , .
,
- ,
,
:
,
- .

1 . Schmeman. Op. cit.,


p. 49.

649

Moralia

.
- , ,
- ,
, .

( ,
, )1,
, , ,
(
, . 45,25),
:
, .


.
,
, - , ,
. .

, ,
,

(IV, 67), ?

, ,

1 : ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
, ( , ..) IV, 176-177.

650

(.

, quinta essentia ,
)-
. (.
1
,
, 2).
, ,
, . .
( , ,
, ,
- .
17-
1903-, 1803- 3!),
, ,
- -
: ,


... - ,
(X, 412).
, , ,
(: , ).
1 , ,
, ,
(III, 207).
2
. (X, 397).
3 ( - ..)
, ,
, , , 1903-,
1803- (III, 302).

651

Moralia

,

,
, ,
.
-
. ,
, :
, - , - , ,
, -
...
,
- , , ,
, .
-
-
, ,
...
? ,
,
, , .
.
,


, ,

(III, 179),
2. ,
1 . . 639-640.
2 - , -
(X, 566-567).

652

, ,
. :
,
, - ,
, 1, : ,
(. , ).
, , : ,
,
2.
, , -
, 3, -
,
.
:
,
, , ,
:
(IV, 13). ,
, ,

, , ,
1
,
(X, 472).
2 IV, 645 ( .. ..).
3 -
(IV, 645).
. - , ? . - , - ,
. - , - . - ,
. - ? - , , , ,
...- ... - . - , (
: ).- ? - .
?

653

M oralia

... ,
,
.
, , , .
* *


. -
. , ,
, 70-, .
.

, ( :
). - ,
.
, :
. ...


(, ,
),
:
, ,

, ,
, ,
.
,
, , -
654

, ,
.
... , ,
, (X, 336).
,
: .
,
, , : ,
, ,
- -
: ...
...
2005-2008

.

1
- -

. ,
,
,
,
. ,
, -
.
: ,
( )
, ,
( )

,
.
1
( ).
, , 2001.
2
, , ,
, ;
.

656

: , (
-, . . politeia),
,
,
. ,
.

,
. - , - ! - ,


, ,
,
. :
, .

, ,
, ,
, -
, , -
.
, ,
,

,
. ,

, ,
,
, (.
,
, ,
657

Moralia

)
1. ( ),
2, ,
, .
,
; ,
,
.
, .
,
: - ,
,
: , -
,

.
, ,
, (.
). ,

1 ,
, , ,

, ,
. .: .
2 ,
, , , ,

( ,
): . ..
//: . .: , 1983.
. 119-139.

658

- , :
, :
, :
, ... ( - ,
: ,
( ) :
)1. (,
- - ,
) . ,
,
, , : .
( ) . ,
,
, ,
- , ,
( - ,
, , ,
)
.
,

,
. , ,
,
2 (

1 , 3.
: - . ., ..
2
, ..:
And I who am here dissembled
Proffer my deeds to oblivion...

659

Moralia

, ) ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, , , ,
. , -
(T el, quen Lui-meme enfin leternitele
change).
,
, ( ).
- ,
- 1.

,
.. ,

.
, ,
, , ... ,

As I am forgotten
And would be forgotten, so I would forget... , ,
...
, ,
, ...
(Ash Wednesday, II)
1 ,
. .
: , ,
, ( ) , ,
(), ( . . .. ., 1992. .1. .21).

660

, -
.
- ,
, .
, -
:
,
-
.
()
(

,
)1.
,
, -
.
. ,
, : ecu,
, .
, ,
, - ,
. , -
, .

1 :
,
. ,
,
( )
.

661

Moralia

1. ,

, ,
.

(. ).

: ( .
,
)
. ,
,
,
,
, . .
, . ,
, - ,
,
,

- .
.
, ( , )
,
-
(. .).
1
(
) justification:
, , ,
, - , , . dikaioma.

662

. ,

.
,
( ) ,
, ,
, - ,
, ,
.
, ,

, :
.
, ,
.
, .
(
: , :
) ,
.
- (
:
), ,
, ,
,
.
- ;
, , ,
, ;
, , ,

663

Moralia


, .
, ;
, , .
, ,
.
, , -
, , ,
- :
; , , ,
, ,
1.
,
, (
, :
) ,
, , . ,
, - -
,
, , , sacramentum: .
, , ,
, : - ,
,
.

( ,
1 , ,
.
-
. , , - , ,
.

664

, ) - ,

,
.
.
, (
,
, ., .
.).

,
, , (.
..,

); ,
,
, ,

.

,
,
,
, . , , ,
,
.
, , ,
,
.
- ..,
.., .., .., .,
665

Moralia

..1. , ,
...
,
(. ..
: , !)
,
.
. -
,
.
, , ,
2. -

. .,
, - .
, - ,
(,
,
1, . . ,
4,
1 :


.
2 ,
: ,
- .
3 . - () - ,
().
4 .
- , .

666

) - .
: , , , 1.
, ,
: ,
- ,
2. ,
, .
,
,
:
, ,
, .
3.
, ,
, , :
, !4.
, ,
-
, :
-
,
: ,
...5.
1 / / .. 11 . . IV. . 6.
,
, . -
, .
2 .
3 . . . 91.
4 . . . 496.
5 . . . 514.

667

Moralia

,
, ,
, .

,
, ,
, {teste
D a vid cum Sybylla ), ,
( cum vixjustus sit securus ),

- ,
, :
. .
- ,
.
,
: conditio humana.
- ,
, :
, ,
. , ,
ecu , , -
-, () (
) , .
, , ,
, (, 7). , ,
, , -
: ! ?
? ? -
! ?
668

? ? (,
8). , ?

, ,
( ,
,
, , , , ,
, ,
, , , , 8J.
,
1.
,
, ,
-
.
,
, , ,
- -
,
: ,
, - .

, , ,

1 ,
, :
, ,
, , -
,
, , ( , 8).

669

Moralia

( , ,
, 2;
, , , 1
4), , (
, ecu
, , ,
- ,
,
, ,
, , ).
, ,
(
). , ,
-
, ,
.
,
: , , ,
- ,
, ,
(, . 6). , , ,
, .
, (
,
, :
:
, , . (): ,
, , :
, ,
S) -
: .
670

.
, , , .
,
(
) - , ,
:
. ,
, ,
.
.
, - :
.

: , ecu,
ecu
, (!), , ,
-
: , ,
, ,
,
. (!), ,

(, 6). , ,
, !1 1 , ,
- ,
:
Recordare, Jesu pie,
Quod sum causa tuae viae,

671

Moralia


:
. - ,
: ,
...
, -
, - ...
, (
, 4).
, ,
, , , ,
,
,
,
, - , Ne me perdas ilia die.
Querens me sedisti lassus,
Redimisti crucem passus:
Tantus labor non sit cassus , , - (
), . , ,
, :
.
,
( -
- ), ,
,
:
- ,
.

( ) , . ,

: ,
. .

672

, , ( 8).
,
, , ,
: ,
-
, ,
.

(.
: !
1).
,
, ,
,
,

,
. , ,
,
.
, , : ,
, ,
( ,
, : ,
, , -
! - :
, , , ,
?).
1 . . . . 482

673

Moralia

. -
( ecu ,
:
- , ,
:
,
, 12) (

...). ,
, ( ,
, - , , , , . 4; :
- , :
, , 5) - , ,
, .
:

,
, .
, ( ,
, ),
, .
: ecu , :
ecu ,
,
, ecu , ecu
: ecu ,
:
,
; , ,
674

, , ,
: , , , ,
, :
!
: , .
, , ,
: (
, , . .
) - ,
, :
, } - () ,
, ? (. 6,6); ,
- ,
(. 1 17,17);
, 7! (. 118,185);
(
(. 150,6), . ., . .
,
,
- , ,
, : ,
, , , .
, ,
, , :
,
: ,
, ( 1).

1 -

675

Moralia


, ,
,
-.
-,
.
, .

, .

2001

: , , , , - ,
, , ,
, (,
1, 2).
- :
, - ,
, (
).

The Light o f Life


Some Remarks On the Russian Orthodox Perception1
I. RELIGION AS PERCEPTION

1. W h a t does a Saint see?


Some years ago I happened to be at the service in a distant vil
lage church. It was the day o f commemoration o f A ll the
Saints W ho Shone Forth in the Russian Land, as our offi
cial Church calendar calls the second Sunday after the Pente
cost. At the end o f the service, as the rule prescribes, the priest
said his homily. The priest was in his sixties and looked rather
tired and not too healthy (later I was told that he came to Tula
region from Chernobyl). H e said: A s a rule, people adore a
Saint only after his or her death. Yes, when they are dead and
glorified, we love them so much: they are our Saints! W e are
proud to be their compatriots, to be born in the same land, or
city, or village. W e even expect them to protect us much warm
er and with better care than they do the others, because we are
their neighbors and almost their relatives. But in their lifetime
1 : - Religion als Wahrnehnung. Konzepte
und Praxis in unterschiedlichen Kulturen und Kirchen. Hg. Engelbert Gross.
LIT Verlag, Berlin. 2006. S. 137-165. ,
,
.
, , .
:
.

677

Moralia

Saints, normally, are not held in respect, they do not enjoy


either support or sympathy on behalf o f their neighbors. Just
the opposite: people are disposed to scorn and laugh at such
persons. People, as a rule, find them miserable and foolish, and
the mode o f their life - absurd: its unheard of, nobody behaves
like that! But the chief thing in all o f this is that everybody is
sure that a Saint (their future Saint) looks at everything in a
wrong, fantastic, stupid way. In peoples mind, a living Saint
cant appreciate the real state o f things in our w orld which
they pretend to know perfectly; he (or she) proves to be less ex
perienced, than a child. And his (or her) fatal blindness is sad,
ridiculous and irritating.
But, my dear friends! - the priest went on, and his tone
suddenly changed and now it was almost triumphant, - there
are just Saints who see everything in the right, realistic and
practical way. They, and nobody else, do see our world as it is.
And what do they see? They see our Earth - and all our world flying towards the Lord. Flying, like a bird, staring at one point,
her wings outstretched like that (he tried to mimic the flight) to the dear final M eeting.
H e pronounced these words, as every good Russian priest
generally does, in an absolutely undemanding and simple tone,
without any emphasis or agitation, speaking first to himself and
then to the others. Rather a personal confession, than preach
ing. It was evident, nevertheless, how happy he was to have
made such a confession - or to have made such a discovery (the
thought could be entirely new for himself) - in our presence.
I never met before this image o f the world on the wing in the
writings o f the Russian Orthodox teachers (T he Fathers, as
they are usually called). But it had, so to say, an undoubtedly
traditional taste.

678

The Light o f Life

2. Saint, not a hero


I would like to take this episode as an epigraph for my further
attempt to discuss the way o f perception, which the Russian
Orthodox tradition forms (or aims to form) in a person. The
collision o f a Saint and his neighbours (or, to put it in other
words, the crucial conflict between two types o f faith: the
childish faith o f the com m on people, a Christian flock,
looking for protection and guidance - and the grow n-up
daring faith o f th e servant o f G od , whose only wish is to
please his Lord) has nothing specially Orthodox in it. W e may
remember well the same basic conflict in the dramatic struc
ture o f The Murder in the Cathedral by T.S.Eliot. never
theless there is quite a significant distinction which we can feel
very easily. W hat tragically singles out the central character in
the Eliots play, what differs him from the others and provokes
their hostility is his decision to take a great risk, to act at the
price o f his life: since for the others, for the poor flock the
first and perhaps the only value is to survive in any conditions.
But the priest from the Tula region whom I cited above, con
trasted a Saint with us , the others very differently: in his
collation he did not speak o f the promptness to act, not even o f
the readiness to sacrifice, but first and foremost o f the different
way o f seeing the world. For him that was the main thing. And
that - I dare say - is the main thing for the Russian Orthodox
tradition as a whole.
It is this specific way o f seeing the world around that finally
distinguishes a saint. And any deed or action o f his (no matter
how strange or heroic they may seem to th e others) are just
as natural an outcome - right, practical and realistic - o f his
perception as any norm al action o f any other human being.
The most beloved Russian saints are not heroic, they would al
679

Moralia

ways have this unmistakably human, mild and truthful quality


about them which the popular taste recognizes at once.
On the whole one could try and define the main task which
the Orthodoxy suggests for the believer as his or her Christian
duty as the acquiring o f the clean heart (which one is preparing
for the habitation o f the H oly Spirit, since H e will never com
municate with anything dirty). But it would be a great mistake
to see this practice as a system o f some psychological training
for its own sake. The clean heart gives us the only chance o f ful
filling Gods will: because one needs to recognize this will before
trying to follow it. And there is a great risk o f taking ones own
fantasy or wish for the Gods command. The Orthodox tradi
tion studies the varieties o f self-deceptions, blind spots and il
lusions in the human heart (all the realm o f lukavstvo, the
slyness: the customary name for the Satan is in Slavonic Lukavyj, the Sly) with exceptional care. Thus, the fulfillment o f
Gods first will - to love H im and to love each other - becomes
possible only on the last step o f the spiritual ascent, when a
human being gets free from all the inner self-deceptions, fanta
sies and blindnesses.
The principle thing, which differs the Orthodox ascetic
school from various systems o f elaborating the human psychics
is its presumption, that no one could correct ones mind and
sensibility - or even recognize ones sins and illusions by ones
own power. The light which helps us to see our darkness is
given by the H oly Spirit. All the process o f purification is seen
as the cooperation (Greek synergia) o f the human will and the
work o f the H oly Spirit.
3. To purify the heart
The great spiritual Orthodox school o f trezvenije (sobriety), o f acquiring the spirit o f peace tends, in fact, to work
680

The Light o f Life

with the instrument o f perception in a human being, to re


store that right, realistic sight which was darkened by Adams
Fall - or to transfigure1 the natural faculties o f a person. W ith
the words o f Simeon the N ew Theologian, W ith the help o f
the Spirit, who makes everything new, let him (a human being)
attain new eyes and new ears and look not in the ordinary hu
man manner, as the sensual one looks at the sensual things: but
he, who grew more than a human being, let him look at the
sensual things as the immaterial on e.
This system o f vnim anije sebe, listening to yourself,
learning yourself or um noje delanije, inner contempla
tive activity, was elaborated by the hermits and monks, but it
was proposed as the best way o f salvation to every member o f
the Church, including lay people: the Orthodox tradition did
not care to create any special type o f religious practice for those
who live in the world. As the old proverb says, for a monk an
angel is a model, for a lay person - a m onk. The numerous
practical guides to such everyday purification used to be the
most favorite reading o f the believers. And there should be
nothing strange if in this central point - as in many others the Russian Christian tradition coincides with the Greek one
(and with some other East Christian traditions). The ascetic,
contemplative and - in a sense - aristocratic bias o f the Rus
sian Christianity was learned from the Byzantine teachers.
One could describe the general principle o f this inner work
as the permanent critics o f ones perception; a constant effort

1 Among the great feasts of the Russian Orthodox Calendar the central place
belongs to the feast of Transfiguration: the commemoration of the moment
when Christ transfigured on the mount o f Tabor, i.e. when He reveals His
glory to the pupils. The light o f glory, the light of Tabor was laid in the basis
and practice o f the teaching o f contemplation by the Orthodox hesyhasts
(those who keep silence).

681

alia

to change aspectus, to use the words o f L. W itgenstein. The


principal difference from W itgenstein (as well as from all the
European post-Kantian critics o f the human perception) how
ever, lies in the fact, that it is not the reason and its presump
tions and intuitions which one needs to observe and purify.
It is ones existential (or rather ontological) state. The critical
point o f this change is called here m etanoia in Greek (lit
erally; change o f mind), repentance or conversion; in Russian
it is um ilenije, a great revealing shock o f tenderness; or
sokrushenije serdtsa - breaking o f heart. It is the col
lapse o f some inner walls which help the individual remain in
an isolated position and which d efen d him from the look
o f Truth. N ow , when his inner space is open (his heart is bro
ken), when he is disarmed and knows himself absolutely help
less (in the spiritual poverty) and has nothing to do but
hope and pray for help, he can start acquiring the right per
ception. For a norm al adult person it seems to be a seer ca
tastrophe, nearly the death o f everything which is his ow n
in him, the death o f his Self. - But it is the same helplessness
and absolute confidence in something Other which constitutes
a happy state o f an infant. In the course o f a long process o f
purification (which we cant analyze here in details) he/she
must not lose this feeling o f being open and helpless. This state
is in fact what one calls an uninterrupted silent (wordless)
prayer, or hearts prayer. One needs first to place his
intellect into his heart, that is the first rule o f this prayer. It
means to stop all reasoning - for it keeps one out o f touch
with the centre o f ones own existence - and to start compre
hend everything from the point o f the heart.
The heart means here the very center o f the human
person, it is not only emotional, but cognitive and physic at
once, and it is not placed in the anatomical heart; it must be
682

The Light o f Life

felt in the middle spot under the chest and above the belly.
H ea rt (serdze) in Russian is o f the same root as the
words m id d le, and co re (seredina, serdzevina).
It is the paradoxical center, center o f personality which is, at
the same time, its border, and the broken one. In its heart (or
even in the heart o f heart, as the Orthodox mystics say)
the human being comes to its limit and to its being-w ith
or being-betw een, i.e. to its participation in The Other.
Thus, heart must not be seen as the center within some closed
psychic structure - but, on the contrary, as the central point
o f disclosing o f such a structure and its meeting with the rev
elation o f The Other.
The progress into the depth o f heart consists in destroying
the obstacles which block the open meeting with Divine Be
ing and His world and isolate a person in his self, for the law
o f sin which works in the soul, could be realized as the long
ing for the self-centered and hermetically isolated m y own
w orld. Being internal the heart is an inter-mediate between
Divine Being and us, and not that place where an individual
eg o feels blocked away and saved from the world. The
eg o tries to withdraw into its well-protected centre
from the border, where it could meet the other, as if from the
death-line. But heart is the centre where that border is laid open,
where the other is met.
Among the main obstacles on the path o f purification we
can call here hubris and s e lf preservation, the egotistic work o f
imagination and abstract rational thought instead o f immedi
ate contemplation. At the end o f this long path one is expected
to acquire the integrity o f self-giving ( that means, divine) crea
ture, the simplicity o f the child and the direct hearts vision o f
the uncreated Light, which is Life itself. In Him was life; and
the life was the light o f m en (John, 1,4).

683

Moralia

4. see the light


In the concrete implications o f this general premise we must
be ready to meet lots o f varieties. W hat each tradition o f Or
thodoxy actually means by p ure, healthy, right sen
sibility, can diverge quite largely, although incorporating the
common source, realizing the same set o f patterns - just like
the different styles o f icon painting do.
As an attentive observer o f the different schools o f iconpainting would remark the most striking point o f divergence
between them is a great difference in the general representa
tion o f light and its work in the visible world. Say, the sharp,
coming from the outside light o f Feofan the Greek, and a mild,
radiating, inward light o f Andrej Rublev. The perception o f
light (the visible light, which in its turn is perceived as an image
or a symbol o f the invisible one) and its representation are in
no way a question o f the painters technique: it is the implicit,
practical theology o f an icon1. W ith all the difference it is the
light that lies at the core o f the norm ative Orthodox ex
perience. As it is described in the numerous guides to prayer
the very sense and the last meaning, which a human being can
hope to attain (or, rather, to be awarded with), is nothing but
light, the light without images, th e light not flickering, apart
from any darkening, th e light not created, th e light in
accessible, as the liturgical hymnography speaks o f it. W e can
add also, that lig h t is the traditional technical term for the
background in the icon painting. All the figures are represented
and contemplated against this background, th e incorrupt
ible light, ox. glory.

1 The different comprehension o f light in the Byzantine and Old Russian icons
is thoroughly described in the penetrating studies of Olga Popova, the brilliant
contemporary historian of the icon painting.

684

The Light o f Life

5. W ho sees the light?


As the Orthodox ascetics teaches, every human being is intend
ed to be able to see this mysterious, having no beginning
(i.e. non-created) light even in this, fallen world, even in
his (or her) mortal body. This true light, the light o f Christ,
lights up and illuminates every human being who is coming
into the w orld, as the liturgical prayer says.
Thus the first illumination is supposed to be our physical
birth itself, our passing to the existence from the non-existence,
from nothingness. In the very spirit o f this traditional view Bo
ris Pasternak in his novel says, that we already have resurrected
once: in the moment, when we were born. As some Orthodox
theologians put it, the image o f God in the human being is its
simple existence, its being not nothing (thus, nobody can lose
this image while he remains alive; what he can easily lose, is his
likeness to God).
The second birth, the Baptism, communicates a new
force to participate in the Divine Light: another term for the
Sacrament being Illum ination. Thus, every person (and every
Christian in a special way) is supposed to be provided with all
the necessary equipment for seeing things in their right (that
means: eschatological) way: in their light or glory. Neverthe
less, the way to this first vision (the vision o f a human being
as it was intended and created by God) lies through a hard and
dramatic process o f the cardinal purification o f senses,
which we tried to sketch above. L ets purify our senses to see
the inaccessible light o f Resurrection, as the ancient Easter
hymn says.
6. Icons
But we would be mistaken if we were to think that this light is
the sole thing the elevated person will be seeing from now on.
685

alia

Seeing this light is a rare moment which arrives at the deepest


core o f prayer.
It is worth noting that the highest moments o f ones spiritual
experience are understood very differently in the Western and
the Eastern Christian traditions. The former speaks o f ekstasis,
the leaving o f oneself, the latter - o f coming back to oneself, if
descending into ones heart. After that a human comes back to
the world. But his perception o f the sensual things can be called
changed. And the very character o f this perception makes it
clear whether the light which was seen was godly, true - or false,
demonic. If a person after such an experience sees the world
around as something so much more beautiful than he/she has
ever seen, than the person was taken to the right place. If the on
ly feeling he or she has is a disgust - that he or she was tempted.
W e have started our discussion o f the Orthodox perception
with icons. And the angle we chose is not arbitrary: the icon
in the Orthodox tradition is suggested to be the best mirror
o f the righ t, p ure perception o f reality. The contempla
tion o f icons, or rather communication with them, frequently
repeated, was always recommended as the best way o f forming
the soul. The great authority o f 19-th century St. Theophan the
Recluse answers to the parents, who asked him, how to edu
cate a child in the true Christian spirit: Let a baby since its
first days see the holy images around it: the soul, even invol
untary and without reasoning, will reproduce the beauty, i.e.
integrity and inner balance, o f the images. Significantly, the
great Church feast, which is called The Triumph o f Ortho
doxy, is dedicated to the victory over the iconoclasts (which
took place in Bysantium in 842) and the restoring o f adora
tion o f icons, which was interrupted for more than 100 years.
As the most respected historian o f icon painting L. Uspensky
remarks, the Church sees in icon not one o f the aspects o f the
686

The Light o f Life

Orthodox doctrine, but the representation o f the Orthodoxy


as such. This statement needs to be unwind, but we cant now
dwell on this theological position. W hat is important for our
discussion, is the implications o f this priority o f icon in the
Russian Orthodox mentality. Icon is the sample o f the pure
perception. And we must underline a very interesting aspect
o f this perception (clean heart1, in the traditional terms): it is
definitely quite close to the great artists vision o f reality - and
it is even closer to the perception o f a child, o f an infant.
7. Beauty
First, because it is the perception o f some magnificent aston
ishing beauty: the beauty, which ravishes a human soul. As the
old chronicles report, it was just beauty - the solemn beauty
o f the Byzantine worship - that turned out to be the last argu
ment for the Knight Vladimirs choice o f faith: A nd we
could not recognize whether we were on earth or in heaven,
as Vladimirs ambassadors, back in Kiev, described their im
pressions o f the liturgy in Constantinoples Cathedral. Thus,
for the Ancient Rus, beauty proved to become the main tes
timony to the real presence o f God in the world, or, rather, a
sort o f His epiphany. Nearly ten centuries later, the brilliant
Russian theologian fr. Pavel Florensky will adduce the same ar
gument where beauty again will be proposed as the last ground
for faith: A s far as we can see this incredibly beautiful lightblue colour (Florensky minds the color o f the cloak o f the cen
tral figure on the The M ost H oly Trinity icon by Andrej
Rubliov), God surely exists2 .
1 The verse: Create in me a clean heart, God, and renew a right spirit within
me (Ps. 51, 10) is, perhaps, the most frequent quotation from the Old
Testament in the Orthodox prayers and hymns.
2 And it could be added: And He surely exists as the Trinity. We know the

687

Moralia

This unique feature o f the Russian Orthodox tradition, its


deep devotion to beauty, th e beautys sacred thing, as Alex
ander Pushkin put it, remains constant in the course o f all its
history. Thus, in the liturgical hymns the Salvation o f the hu
man kind is described as the restoring o f the first (or ancient)
beauty, Adams beauty: and You (Christ) elevated me, who
slipped into the sin, back to the ancient beauty. N ow and
then hymnography praises Christs beauty. W here did Your
beauty go away, you, the most beautiful among the sons o f
man? , asks the liturgical hymn o f the Good Friday; and again:
Jesus, more beautiful than the Paradise! - while every
body knows, that not a word o f the Christs beauty is said in
the N ew Testament, which does not portray H im or anybody
else1. The famous Dostojevskys maxim (to be exact, his heros
fact, that in the times o f anti-trinitarian heresy on Rus an archbishop went out
to the agitated people with the Rubliovs image and showed it to the crowd as
the last prove of the dogmatic truth - and everybody get silent: against such an
argument, a pure Presence, nothing could be said.
1 But we must remark: one could hardly find praises to the Virgins beauty in the
Orthodox prayers and hymns! Her constant characteristics here are chastity
and mercy (the motherly compassion and intercession) and never beauty, at
least in the form, which is so familiar in the Latin hymns ( Pulcherrima Rosa
and others). It seems amazing in connection with all that was said above about
the Beauty-centered Orthodox world. But in fact, it is not strange at all. The
Orthodox taste would surely find it too daring and not chaste, to speak o f Her
beauty. Beauty o f the Virgin belongs to God alone. Nevertheless, what is never
said in the words, is directly demonstrated in the form of icons. The numerous
images o f the Mother of God (in the Orthodox calendar there are 260
miracle-working images o f Hers, which have their special feast) represent the
amazing type of beauty, clean-cut and tender, attentive and estranged, warm
and reserved, solemn and modest, movingly close to those who looked at it and absolutely distant at once. The habitual (since Longinus) juxtaposition
o f Beautiful and Sublime does not work here. This type o f beauty, which
radiates silence and some chaste consoling power, is not to give to a person
an esthetical or erotic pleasure. It is too present to let anybody to feast his eyes
upon. It makes him change.

688

The Light o f Life

saying): Beauty shall save the world (the words, which the
Pope John Paul II reminded many times in his encyclicals and
homilies) reflects the thousand years o f the Russian spiritual
experience. W e could collate this Orthodox enthusiasm for
Beauty with the ardent ravish from Justice (or Rightness) o f
God, as it is expressed in the King Davids Psalms.
8. Beauty: Power
One could ask, why the Russian Christian psyche favored so
strikingly Beauty in the classic triad (Truth, Good and Beau
ty) ? W e can but presume, that Beauty is perceived here as the
less violent among the three. It would be really strange to
revolt against the power o f Beauty - just like to revolt against
the power o f Happiness. Its is the soft power: it does not com
mand, it endows. A human heart meets Beauty (like Happi
ness) as the fulfillment o f its own wish and the meeting has a
taste o f Platos anamnesis.
Then, Beauty - normally in a more obvious way than Good
or Truth - is comprehended by the whole person, both by
his/her corporeal ( th e simple five o f our senses, as a prayer
calls it) and the mental parts. Even when it is the immaterial,
spiritual Beauty, the sense o f ones immediate looking at it
(now, looking with the immaterial eyes ofheart) somehow
remains. As long as we keep in mind the theological premise
which insists on the salvation o f th e entire human being
(and You saved everything in me, in a human being, as an
ancient prayer says) we can better appreciate the particular Or
thodox love for the h olistic affect o f Beauty.
9. Think or see?
T o continue our comparison o f the pure perception, as it
is intended in the Orthodox tradition, with an artists and an
689

Moralia

infants view, we can remark the next, and no less important


point o f resemblance. This type o f mentality definitely prefers
image to concept as the most (if not the only) proper form o f
representing the perceived meaning. All the vital truths are
supposed here to be represented in images.
This preference seems to be quite natural in the system o f
Orthodox perception. One cant contemplate a concept, one
cant communicate with a concept nor have a personal contact
with it, as one usually does with the open, dynamic and inex
haustible presence o f an image. W e have to keep in mind that
contem plation in Russian means not thin king, but
seeing with greatest attention and being plunged into
what one sees. And every real, vitally important meaning in this system - is supposed to be contemplated and commu
nicated with. One needs to let them speak from the first per
son , so to say. Any notion estranged from the concrete expe
rience, which has a form o f dialogue, any objectified
knowledge has no real worth here1. W e speak about things
which are to be contemplated, and not to be thought o f , as
Simeon the N ew Theologian says in full accordance with the
first lines o f the First Epistle o f John (whom the Orthodox
tradition calls John the Theologian): w hich we have seen
with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have
handled, o f the W ord o f life (...we declare unto you ). To
think o f something here does not mean to have a real contact
with it. One can think whatever he likes - but one cant con
template whatever he likes: first he needs a thing to contem
plate. H e needs something present.

1 This fundamental principle of the Orthodox gnosiology is thoroughly


studied in the works o f the contemporary Greek Orthodox theologian and
philosopher Christos Yannaras.

690

The Light o f Life

10. Image/symbol
Contrary to what one could expect, image is preferred not only
to concept - but to symbol as well (we mean here symbols o f al
legorical character). One has but to recall the strict prohibition
(made by the Sixth Ecumenical Council in Trull) to depict
real persons and real events in a symbolic form e.g. to represent
Christ as a Lamb or Apostles as Sheep (just as we see it on the
early mosaics in Rome and Ravenna), or represent H im as The
Good Shepherd or the Warrior (as was customary in the Palaeochristian art). All the visible things had to be represented in
their real visible form, in their images. Symbols had to be used
with great care, and merely in connection with the invisible
reality (which, in fact, was not recommended to be depicted
at all, to follow the precept o f the Old Testament). All this is
for one simple reason that the visual symbols must be read
(that is, one sees a lamb and deciphers Christ), and this intel
lectual activity destroys in the observer his immediate, face-toface contact with the image. The symbolic visual language bars
the fundamental message o f the icon - the Incarnation o f God
and the new task o f the human being: to become god (as St.
Gregory the Great formulated it: H um an being is a creature,
but it has a command to become god ).
W ith it all symbols and allegories were absolutely welcomed in
the Church poetry: they found their place in the sophisticated
composition o f liturgical hymns and prayers with its tech
nique o f ploke (Greek, th e weaving words). W hat is vital
is that they must not be represented in the visual form! Thus,
in the A kathistos the Mother o f God is called th e fertile
m ount (the symbol taken from the Psalms), but nobody is
recommended to depict this symbol instead o f Her image. The
691

M oralia

invasion o f the symbolic or emblematic figures into the late


Russian icons (approximately since the end o f 17th century)
can be regarded as but one o f the symptoms o f the general de
cay o f the icon painting. The chief function o f the holy image
was forgotten.
11. W h a t creates an image?
Presence ofthe A bsent
Surely, symbolism participates in the visual language o f the
icon: there are, e.g. symbolic colors o f clothes, which help to
recognize the represented person, there are symbolic gestures,
which help to recognize the meaning o f the represented scene
and so on. But nevertheless, the principal device o f transform
ing the physical reality into the reality o f the holy image, is not
the symbol. W e may look for such an instrument rather in the
realm o f space-time-light structure o f the icon. W e can but an
nounce this theme now - unfortunately, we cant dwell on it.
Another clue may be seen in the character o f the image itself.
Paradoxically, the icon which is visible gives us an impression o f
looking at the invisible. H ow is it possible? W e can suggest that
it is because the images depicted on it are themselves plunged
into the contemplation o f the invisible. They are shown in a
state o f prayer. Through contemplating them we follow the
contemplation which is in them, while they contemplate
something that can not be seen on the icon. It is a depiction
o f a prayer that gives birth to a prayer. It is not a picture. It is a
m irror.1

1 This image o f a mirror reminds us of a great system if Celestial Hierarchys


by Dionysius Areopagitus where the mirrors o f immaterial powers pass the
Divine Light that becomes each time weaker up to a point where it can be
perceived by the human eye.

692

The Light o f Life

W hat they see is not something what one usually thinks a


saint sees in an ecstatic vision ( n o figures, no scenes).
It is just the presence o f Divine Light. The iconic image is in
fact a depiction o f that unseen light, the light which can never
be portrayed. As L. Uspenskys deep insight shows: the pre
decessor o f the iconic image is not a pagan cult image of, say,
Egyptian kind. Those sublime but realistic images are o f a dif
ferent source: they arise out o f the very same prohibition o f
representation o f God that drew the images out o f the Hebrew
tradition. Iconic images seems to say: only now representation
is possible, because o f Christs incarnation. So what we see is
the representation o f the unrepresentable, the apophatic de
piction o f that which can not be depicted otherwise.
Those who think o f apophatic approach as something purely
negative are very far from the Orthodox idea o f it. Apophatic
intention is not only to negate all positive humanly perceived
qualities attributed to the Divine reality but to indirectly lead
a human to the direct contact with it. This contact can be even
stronger than in the case o f cataphatic method o f definition.
As a great representative o f the school St. Gregory Palamas says
the main word in apophatics is not no but as i f - which may be
the best way to describe what an image is.
Orthodoxy in its insisting on the representation o f the vi
sual reality in the form o f images1has realized its fundamental
1 In the non-formal hierarchy of images the visual, plastic images are definitely
preferred. The verbal images follow them (thus, a psalm can be called a verbal
icon : As on the icon David depicted a song) - and amazingly little is said
about the musical images! In the Orthodox hymnography, prayers, popular
sayings of the saints we could hardly find anything that would remind us the
(platonic) ideas about Musica Mundi. All the musical references seem to be
limited to the choirs o f Angels, the choirs of the Saints and the sweet tunes
which are heard in the fragrant Paradise. It is really strange, while one keeps
in mind the highly elaborated system of the Ancient Russian liturgical music,

693

Moralia

nature: the Church confirmed itself as the religion o f the in


carnated God, The God who became a visible human flesh and
who laid his message (kerygma) open to the world.

12. Theological silence


As one o f the consequences o f the doctrinally founded pref
erence o f image to concept and o f contemplative experience to
speculative thought, the theology in colors (as somebody
called the icon painting), and not the theology in form o f sys
tematic treatises or Sum m as contains nearly everything
that the centuries o f Russian Orthodox culture produced.
This theological silence, almost a total lack o f the discur
sive texts in the Russian Christian thought is but too wellknown, and this fact differs Rus significantly from her spiri
tual M oth er - Byzantine with its great corps o f refined and
sophisticated theoretical texts.
This silence was broken only in the 20-th century, when
th e new religious Russian thought appears. The precursors
o f these, for the most part lay, thinkers were the Slavophil
o f the 19th century. Thus the Russian Orthodox tradition
found its first discursive language in the works o f the Russian
Europeans, well educated aristocrats, influenced by the Ger
man philosophy and charmed by their recently appreciated na
tive culture.

with its sound symbolism and the strict rules of using this or that glas (a sort of
tonality) or popevka (a short motive, a group of two-four tones) in connection
with the liturgical time and other conditions (e.g. a deacon can use this or that
popevka, a preast - this or that, and so on). The parts o f the musical speech
resemble a sort of sound hieroglyphs, and the whole composition - a mosaics
made o f this meaningful particles. With all this, we dont know any significant
attempt to describe the sacred music in the theological perspective.

694

The Light o f Life

II. SOME PROBLEMS

Up till now we were discussing the traditional Russian Ortho


dox outlook as if it were the self-evident and homogeneous re
ality. But it is not. In fact, there are many diverse and sometimes
hostile attitudes inside the Russian spiritual tradition, and each
o f them pretends to be the true O rthodox. W e can recall if
only two monk characters in The Brothers Karamazov by
Dostoevsky, who must be well known to the European reader:
the mild, human and open-minded Elder Zosima - and the
gloomy visionary Ferapont, a typical fundam entalist in to
days terms (not to say about the other religious types in Dostojevsky, especially as outside Dostojevsky, e.g. in the works by
Nicolaj Leskov, who was much more experienced in the every
day life o f the Russian clergy, or in Leo Tolstoj, who with all his
anticlerical attitude had a remarkable intuition o f the Ortho
dox treasury). But we must stop here. Are they both, Zosima
and Ferapont representative o f the Orthodoxy? They surely
are, if we are speaking about the empiric reality o f the Ortho
dox society in its history. D o they have the same perception o f
the world? I am afraid, they have the opposite ones.
Feraponts type o f perception is highly symbolic. H e sees but
signs and cryptograms. All the natural world is for him but a
great and rather chaotic collection o f the casual secret ciphers
which he pretends to interpret unmistakably, for they are abso
lutely clear for the spiritual person inspired from above.
The sensual reality o f things has no autonomic value for him,
everything natural is but a sign o f something supernatural.
The mysterious (and for the most part threatening) signs flash
out in the deep darkness o f the earthly reality. Thus, the last
prove o f ones holiness must be the incorruptibility o f his re
mains. W hen after the Zosimas death his remains started cor
695

alia

rupting, Ferapont triumphed: he was always sure, that Zosima


was a great sinner (people know he enjoyed jam), and now any
one can make sure o f it!
The perception o f Zosim as type is radically differ
ent. All the world, the world o f God is for him an unbroken
miracle, full o f meaning, which overcomes any interpretation,
that we could propose, but this immense meaning can be eas
ily grasped without reasoning by th e broken heart with its
last tenderness, um ilenije . In place o f the Feraponts
scorn o f whatever is material Zosima, as we can see, experi
ences strong empathy for everything alive, the impulse to bless
all the creatures and to admire th e holy earth: Zosima ad
vises his pupil Aliosha to kiss the earth - just as one kisses the
icon. Zosima is not interested in reading signs and looking
for meanings; he knows something else. H e knows the end
less independence o f every meaning from our suggestions. The
apophatic attitude is always present in his judgments. For him,
th e other world does not need to appear in this on e in
form o f some extraordinary sign or figure. H e feels, that this
world is alive just because it is penetrated with the divine en
ergy o f compassion and pity. One hundred years later Boris
Pasternak expressed a similar position in connection with the
general idea o f meaning: Everything is symbolic ju s t as it is
significant.
This attitude dramatically changes the very notions o f h o
ly and sin fu l, clean and d irty which are so impor
tant for Ferapont. Sin should not be viewed as some transgres
sion o f Gods will, but it is the reason o f such transgression and
the result o f it: sin is a state o f separation from the Divine Be
ing. So that the heaviest sin is understood as a lack o f faith in
the mercy o f God, that has power to overcome whatever sin
there may be.
696

The Light o f Life

In the light o f all that has been said in the first part o f the pres
ent essay our reader may conclude, that it is definitely Zosima
who represents the norm ative Orthodox attitude. W ithout
doubt, such was Dostoevskys design: to portray Zosima as the
type o f the real Orthodox Saint. But there were and there are
many supporters o f th e genuine Orthodoxy in Russia who
will contest both Dostojevsky and the author o f the present
essay. They will find this religious type too sentimental and too
human to be authentic Orthodox ( th e rosy Christianity, as
Konstantin Leontjev sarcastically calls this attitude).
The Orthodox people o f such kind like to stress the tradi
tional, canonic character o f their attitude. They are enthu
siasts o f the austere Byzantine typ e, which they praise for its
counter-humanistic and counter-modernist zeal. They suggest,
the Western post-Enlightment culture has lost any sensibility
to Evil, which is the fundamental characteristics o f the state o f
things in our fallen world and the integral part o f the human
being and o f all human relations and institutes. Thus, the mancentered culture o f the secular humanism is necessarily ungodly,
it is the culture o f the human hybris. Its only aim is to please a hu
man being, to indulge its spoiled nature - and in this way to pre
pare for it, and for all the Universe, the last catastrophe. They in
their turn are extremely sensitive to Evil (sometimes one could
think, that what they describe as the earthly world is situated
a little bit lower, in Hell). They preach that a man is not to be
pleased, he needs to be corrected; he must not be left at his own
free will, he needs to be guided by some spiritual instance, which
can provide him with the sou ls security. The chief virtues
for them are humility, obedience, patience and fear o f God.
And we cant say that these virtues are not Orthodox! They
surely are, and Zosima would never agree with the secular hu
697

Moralia

manists in their optimistic confidence, that a human being is


good by nature. H e knows but too well the work o f Evil, the
law o f sin in the human heart. H e knows the disastrous pow
er o f pride and self-will - and the beauty o f humility and obe
dience. But all that is because he also believes that once these
qualities are acquired a human being becomes free and happy
and radiates freedom around. And it can see the beauty o f the
world which after its purification resembles a garden made
fruitful not a room made empty. H e knows this mysterious ca
pacity to change which is planted into the human heart, just as
a gardener knows the capacity o f the seed to grow. His peaceful
and all-forgiving attitude is not idyllic or sentimental. Neither
it is a spiritually comfortable position. This peace is the fruit o f
the endless hard fighting with the O ld A dam in his heart.
As a great Russian Saint o f the 20-th century Silouan o f Athon
said: T o pray for the others is to shed your blood.
The position o f the Ferapont type o f Orthodoxy has
nothing wrong with it. Its values are canonic, its notions are
traditional. The only difference is that everything happens here
as if the light went out. The light o f hope and trust in the hu
man being and in the mercy o f God. Nevertheless one cant de
ny that this deep misanthropy accompanies as a dark shadow
the Russian Orthodox tradition through centuries.
Zosima and Ferapont, Ivan the Terrible (ou r hope, the
true Orthodox Tzar , as the old folk songs address him) and
charismatic St. Serafim o f Sarov (the spiritual brother o f St.
Francis o f Assisi)... They all and many others do represent some
o f the characteristic forms o f the Russian Orthodox mentality.
D o we need to discuss also the so-called popular faith, the
indiscernible mixture o f pagan and Christian beliefs.
As far as I know, nobody till now tried to observe all the va
rieties o f the Russian Orthodox mentality, to draw a map o f
698

The Light o f Life

them and to analyze the picture. W ho could undertake such an


attempt? It could become a theme for some sociological or eth
nological study o f religion, but such fields o f knowledge do not
yet exist in Russia. W hich is a pity, for now we have an actual
need in the studies o f such sort.
Nowadays the problem o f the Russian Orthodox identity
turned out to be urgent. After the decades o f the official C om
munist ruthless struggle against the religious prejudices the
most part o f our population, the overwhelming majority o f
it, proved to be absolutely ignorant in the questions o f faith.
After the abolition o f the official ideology millions o f people
are returning to the Church - often than not, they enter
the Church for the first time in their life and try to learn the
native tradition, the faith o f their fathers (in fact, the faith
o f their grandfathers or even great-grandfathers: for the fathers
and, rather often, grandfathers o f our contemporaries pro
fessed the scientific military atheism o f the official ideol
ogy). They try to learn the Orthodox tradition as one learns a
foreign language, in the impersonal didactic form; in fact, what
they try to learn is the long list o f instructions and prescrip
tions: in these cases one needs to say this or that... in this case
one is kneeling... Some o f these instructions are correct, some
are fantastic, as the one I cited above, but the point is, that no
body ever learns the traditional perception o f the world in this
way. The natural handing over o f the tradition was roughly in
terrupted. The situation we have now is unprecedented in the
history o f the Russian Christianity, which seventeen years ago
celebrated its Thousand years Anniversary. It looks almost like
the second Baptism o f Russia.
Still this is not a time for complaint or indignation with all
these phenomena. As any stage o f development o f something
alive the Orthodox tradition has its inherent possibilities that
699

Moralia

have never been called to the surface in the course o f its history.
W e see a coming new challenge which has to be responded
to. A challenge to make explicit something that has been but
semi-consciously handed over from person to person through
centuries. W e see a great task in elaborating the language o f ex
plication o f the Orthodox tradition, the language which at the
same time doesnt taste wrong. It would be a great pity to
loose in darkness this hidden treasure o f Orthodoxy but the
equal danger lies in trying to make it transparent by using the
borrowed models and patterns developed in the spirit o f other
traditions (e.g. through using scholastic methods which are
so fundamental to Catholicism or distributing it within the
ready-made set o f philosophical categories). The third danger
would be to describe the Orthodox tradition in the polemic
perspective, i.e. to contrast it to the w rong Western posi
tions which in these descriptions acquire the vulgar, grotesque
features. N obody o f the Orthodox apologist seems to have es
caped this danger.
As far as we know the first attempt o f systematical survey
o f Orthodox W eltanschauung was undertaken in the superb
handbook East Christian Spirituality written by fr. Thom
as Spidlik. It is characteristic that this attempt comes from the
outside o f the Orthodox tradition. Originally this book was
written in Italian and then it was translated into a number o f
languages including Russian. This work is based on the writ
ings o f the Orthodox spiritual authors, since the early Byzan
tine times up to the new Russian religious thinkers (Vladimir
Solovjov, Florensky, Bulgakov, Berdyajev and others). This
book is very helpful to anybody who wants to find more about
Orthodoxy. The only problem with it is, that in full accordance
with the prominent Western tradition, it is based on thoughts
and sayings o f the saints and fathers o f Church as they can
700

The Light o f Life

be found in various texts attributed to them. But in the Or


thodoxy itself these texts do not necessarily have the norma
tive status; they often can be classified as the op inions or
personal suggestions o f this or that Father and dont hold
universally true for the Church, no matter how great the saint
may be.
Lets take the attitude to virginity and marriage. In the com
pilation o f fr. Thomas we can see that the former is undoubt
edly higher than the latter. But this is in no way an official opin
ion o f the Church. To find it one must look at the Orthodox
Sacrament o f wedding. Everybody who was ever present at the
Orthodox W edding would agree that the magnificent com po
sition o f the biblical quotations o f the service and the general
character o f the ritual (the very name o f Sacrament, venchanije,
literally: coron ation 1 speaks for itself) are no less trium
phant, than the Easter service. Thus one can appreciate how
greatly the Church differs in the value it gives to marriage, as
it is expressed in the sacrament, from the opinions o f the re
spected religious authors (who are for the most part monks
and naturally prefer chastity to the family life). The attitudes
common to the whole Church (sobornyj, conciliar) are repre
sented primarily in the liturgical reality.
Summarizing our fragmented attempts to describe the Or
thodox perception we can say that in its essence it must be the
perception shaped by Eucharist as the icon o f the Kingdom o f
God, by icon as the part o f liturgical reality and by the u n in
terrupted prayer which purifies the heart. To put it in other
words, it is shaped by the real presence o f the future plenitude,
o f the endless L ife o f Resurrecteion, which can open itself even
1 There are different interpretations of the crowns of the bride and bridegroom
in this sacrament: are they a sign of their Kings and Queens dignity - or the
crowns o f martyrs? Or both?

701

Moralia

in this world, before our mortal eyes (Eucharist, icon) - and by


the path to it (prayer).
III. AFTER ALL: TH E TASTE

Now , rereading everything, that we wrote above we cant help


asking ourselves: does it all answer the question o f the Russian
Orthodox perception? W e did not even try to describe the
concrete traditional perceptions o f this or that phenomena.
W hat we were talking about seems to be rather a sort o f the
practical Orthodox anthropology or hagiology (in this case
it means almost the same, for the human being, whom the
Church addresses to, is H om o Christi). W e know but too well,
that the real earthly Church does not consist o f the Saints,
nor even o f the repentant sinners (as one o f the Fathers defined
the Church). N ot to say o f those who live outside the Church
but are definitely influenced by the Orthodox tradition even
in case when their personal position is agnostic or atheist. The
great Russian secular culture o f the 18th - 20th centuries was in
its great part created by such people. W hat one can easily rec
ognize e.g. in the writings by A nton Chekhov (the convinced
agnostics), is the stamp o f Orthodox sensibility, which is strong
and difficult to catch at the same time.
Should we speak about Orthodox perception in the strict
sense o f the term here? O f course, not. The term which we
could try and suggest here, which seems to be rather adequate
because it covers both the everyday reality o f the common peo
ple as well as the complex reality o f the secular culture and art,
that elusive something which makes us recognize at on ce, is
the term taste. T aste does not demand faith, or we can
say it is unconscious o f the faith and its insights that build its
foundation. It does not quite know where it takes its I like
I dislike from. But its likes and dislikes, those b lin d
702

The Light o f Life

forms o f perception, are formed by the very same hidden light


that comes in the open which we talked about.
Frankly speaking, it is much easier to describe the Russian
Orthodox taste in the apothatic manner. W hat does it dis
like?
It cant accept anything exuberant - it calls it pretentious;
active - it calls it fussy; rhetoric - it calls it bombast; rational it calls it small-minded; openly didactic - it calls it pain in the
neck; intellectual - it calls it over-brainy ; sentimental - it
calls it fa lse ; too specific - it calls it showing off; too clear it calls it stup id ... W e could go on like that for a long time.
It may seem the total sum o f such dislikes makes a portrait o f a
typical and quite unimaginative simpleton. True. But may also
find that the exquisite poetics o f Pushkin, the ever fresh poetics
o f Tolstoy and the delicate poetics o f Chekhov fully respond
to the same negative norms. W e can recognize in them the
dim and modified traces o f the ascetic virtues o f measure, h u
m ility, sobriety.
It is much more difficult to catch and formulate the likes o f
this taste. T o give an idea o f it, I would cite here the stanza o f
Ivan Bunins poem, which, in my opinion, comes close to one
o f the dearest thing in the Russian art: um ilenie, the shock o f
tenderness.
The poem is addressed to a girl who died young and long ago;
the hero loved her: now he comes to visit her grave. Thus the
poem deals with death and life, absence and memory. W e are
ready for an elegy. Lets see.
The first stanza describes the old distant cemetery with its
weeping birches: n o t the graves, not the bones, but the king
dom o f joyful reveries. Then the culmination
The summer wind is swinging
The leaves of the long branches
703

Moralia

And I know what reaches me:


The light of your smile.
Not a gravestone, not a cross I see, as I saw once
The dress of a boarding schoolgirl
And the shining eyes.

In our translation weve lost some important details: the


Russian verb, which we have to translate as reaches has
also the meaning flies and one usually uses it to express the
perceiving o f a distant and a weak sound. So, in the image o f
this smile we comprehend the impressions o f flight, light and
o f something sonoric at once: a hint o f visitation. The smile is
not there, it seems to remain in its distance; it is but its light
that comes. And perhaps, even not the light as such, it may be
just the whiteness o f the birches. The image is mingled with
the landscape: the landscape is filled with the image. But what
we immediately feel (as the hero does) is that death does not
matter. W hat the stanza delivers to us is a sudden experience o f
simple immortality (or resurrection) o f what was lost: nothing
is lost, nothing can be lost. Those who were together remain
together. The shock o f tenderness reveals this truth or this re
ality. If Dylan Thomas says in a prophetic tone: A nd death
shall have no dom inion than these stanzas say D eath has no
dom inion: time present. Or, to say it with Boris Pasternak,
immortality is but a little bit strengthened name for life.
W hat Bunins stanzas describe is not a mystic apparition o f the
dead girl, it is the apparition o f the suddenly transfigured U ni
verse: the world in its glory.
Thats Bunins artistic trade-mark to make us see (and in
his prose pieces even more, than in poems) that life, even in
its most revolting forms, never looses its luminous nature. But
this is not exclusively Bunins taste. It is that intuition, which
704

The Light o f Life

distinguishes the Russian artist o f the O rthodox taste up


till Andrej Tarkovsky. Everything alive partakes o f the light;
just because it is alive; because th e life was the light o f m en
and man is a testimony to it. In its best artistic expressions this
light o f life resembles the light o f smile, as we saw it in Ivan
Bunins poem. The same quality o f light we can recognize in
the icons painted by Andrej Rublev: the light o f smile. Love
which is caught not as some strong affect, but as a strange im
mortal tenderness.
July - August 2005
Azarovka

II.

.
.
1
. ,
,
, ,
,
. ,
-
.
- ,
-
. ,
,
-
:
, . ,
- ,
, (
, ) -
, , . ,

1 ,
50- Russia Cristiana. (),
21-23 2007 .

709

Moralia

, - -
.
( ,
)
;
:
, ,
. , , -
, - ,
()
,
.


(), -

, ,
,
,
, .
- -

. , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , - .
, , .
,
, ,
:
710



.
()

, ,
1.
.
,
.
, ,

.
:
.
. ,
: ,

, . . ,
, .
-
-

( , ,
, ,
2,
70-):
1
-: / / . .
. .: . , 2000. . 263273.
2 . . . ., , 1999. . 132.

711

Moralia

. .
.
,
,
, - ,
, .
,
, ,

1 (
, ).
! - ,
, (
), . ,
.
, ,
- .
(
). .
, , , ,
, ,
, .

2. .. ,

1 Donald Nicholl. The Triumphs o f the Spirit in Russia. Darton, Longman &
Todd, London 1997.
2 ,
. ,
,

712

, ,
1,
.. ,
: ! - :
... ...,
, , ,
:
.
,
. (
) : ,
, , ,
, , , - , , homo sapiens
sapiens, homo humanus.
,
.

,
, , ,
, ,
, ! XIX .
, . ,
: . .
, : ,
. -
. ... - , :
(, , ) ( ).
,
, .
: ,
, ... ,
, .
1 ... . .: , 1996. . 15.

713

Moralia

, . ,
.
( ),
( ,

).

,
,
. -
,
,
, .
,
, .
, , 30-
, 70-, .
, .
..,
, ,
,
(
,
, ).
- ! ,
.
, ,
, , ,
. , .
, -
,
714

, ...

- .
,
, 90- , ,
.
, , .
80- (
)
- , .
, , :
.
, .
,
,
,
, ,
, , - ,
?
:

( 70-
..). ,

, , .
, -
.., - ,
. .
,
, ,
715

M oralia

. ,
.
. .
,
.
- ,
. :
, , , .
- .
- .
, , ,
.

, .
-
, .
, - , ,
, , .
, , , ,
... ! ,
. ... , .
, ,
.
, -
, .
, - , - - .
:
. .
? .
, ,
: , , ...

716

: , ,
- ,
(
).
.

, -
, :
. ,
, .
,
,
- ,
. ,
, , .
. , ,
.
. , , ,
, . -.
, , ,
. ,
, .
- , ,
: , , .

, - . .
.
,
,
: .
, ...
717

M oralia

.
.
.
- ,
. .
-
, , :
,
. . .
. - ,

, - . ,
, ,
, .
2006-2009


, . ,
. , ,
.
,
.
, ? , , .
, , ,
!
- , -
.
.
.
, ,
,
: .
.
, , . .
,
: , ,
. - . ,
, .
, . .
- :
.

719

M oralia

.
.
. . .
,
, ! !
, .
,
.
. : ,
.
. - .
, : , , , -
! ,
- , - : 5 !
, .
, .
, ,

.
,
,

...


. .
, , :
. .
... , .
: :
? : , , ? - ,
! ,
, : ,

720

? ?
.
.
,
- ,
.
- , : ,
, .
,
: ? !:
!
, !
, , .
- ,
.
,
(, ,
).
: ,
- ?

.
.
, ,
. .
. - :
,
, , . - ,
.
, : . .
. , ! - .
, :
721

M oralia

- ,
.
,
(
: !), ,
.
- , , -
- , ,
. ,
: .
.
: ?
, .
, , . ,
-,
.
- , ? , ? , ,
, .. (-
). ,
- :
, - ,
,
. ,
. , , ,
, . .
, , , ,
, , ,
:
,
.
722

! ! ,

.
, ,
. - .
, ,

. ,
,
. -
.
,

, : -

. -
,
- ,
. .
. ,
, , ,
- ,

. , ,
, ,
,
,
. :
723

alia

, .
:
, . , ,
, ?
. .
, : .
(:
), ,
, -
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
. .. , : ,
, ( , , )
. -
, , .

- ! ,
, .
, . - , ,
. , ,
... . ,
.
, ,
: ,
, ,
.
, .
724

,
- , ?
.
,
. ,
1969 . -
, ,
.
. , , ,
: . -
.
.
,
- ,
- : ...
:

, , ,
.
:
. :
, -
. ,
, : !
,
- .
. ,
, : ,
, .
, ,
,
725

M oralia

.
, ,
- ,
, .
(
!)
-
.
...
,
,
: -
. , ,
-
, . ,
. ,
. :
.
( )
- ,
, , ,
,
: - ,
? , , , - ,
?
- : , ,
, . ,
, -

. , ,
, .
2004


1

;
,
... .
. .. .

LAmore gentil sono una cosa2.


. V ita N u o v a

,
, .
, - -
:
. ,
1 (1937 - 1982) - , ,
. 70- ,
, , .
.

.
1970 , . -
, , , -
. .. .
.. , ,
.
.
2 - (.).

727

alia

, - !
, ,
.
, ,
: - , ,
, -
. ,
, -

; , . ,
-,
.
- ...,
. ,
, ,
- ,
, .
, .
,
.

. , -
, ,
, .
, ? -
,
? , ,
, ,
, .
,
? ,
, ,
728

, ,
, ? .
, - , - .
.
(, ,
)
:
- , .
: -! , .
, ,
! - .
, - ,
. - , -
, ! -
. ?
- - ( )
! , , ,
- -
. , , . -,
. , , .
, . , , , ,
.
-.
, ,

- .
.
.
:
- ( , , ,
- ). ,
729

alia

. , ,
,
.
. ,
,
.
- ,
,
. ,
.
. ,
, ,
, ,
( ). ,
,
, , ,
. , - , .
, ,
,
, -
, -
.
, - ,
.
- , , ,
. ,
, - .
.
-
, ... ,
.
730

- - -
- , ,
, , , . :
, ? ...

- , , , ,
, ,
: .
: - :
- .
,
, -

,
- .
, ,
. , ,
, .
, , - . ,
:
, ,
, - ,
,
. ,
, . ,
,
, ,
, - , . , ,
, .
, ,
731

M oralia


, .
.
,
. .
, - . -

,
. ,
, , , .

, ,
. ,
,
,
. .

, , :
, , ,
, -... .
. , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
-, , .
.
: ,
-
? ,
, ,

732

, -
, ,
,
, - ,
?
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
. , , , ,
,
.
,
, :
. ,
. ,

: , , .
, ,
, , , ...
, , .
,
, .
,
: .

-
, ,
.
,
, ; -
- ,
733

M oralia

; ,
- -
. , ,
,- , -
...
,
, ,
DavidsbuncTa. ,
.
, .
: ,
, , !
, , ,
, . - , ! . ,
, -
: - ; - .
, ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
.
- ,
...
,
,
. -
,
. , , ,
- . , -
734

, - (,
;
- ) , ?
, , !
: , ,
.
? ,
- ,
. , ,
Ars poetica : ,
, , .
? -, ,
- ,

. , ,
.
,
, , , -
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
. - .


.
,
. ,
. 7.30
735

M oralia

. ?
. -
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
, , ,
. (
. - , .)
, -
, ,
,
- . -
, ,
.
, , ,
? - , , , , , , :

.

, ,
,

736

: ,
-
, ,
.
-
. , ,
,
. .
-
, , .
,
,
. , ,
, : -,
, : !...
, .
- ,
,
, , . .
:
, ,
.
. -
, .
,
.
. ,
, .
,
. -
. ,
,
737

M oralia

, , ,
. ,
.
,
( , )
, ,
- , , ,
. , - ,
, ,
- .
, ,
, .
,
. , (, :
)
... . ,
,
-
- ...
: .
, , .
, (
) , , ,
. , , - ...
,
. ,
,
, ,
738

. , ,
,
, ,
: ,
.
,
: , ,
. , , -
, .
, , , .
, - ,
. ,
. ? .
, ,
-
. -
, , ,
. -,
.
,
.
, , ?

.
, .
,
,
, .
, , , -
. - , , ,
739

M oralia

,
.
? .
. , ,
, ,
- . .
, , :
, dans la nature des choses.
, (
): La morale est dans la nature des choses. H o
, , , -
. . ,
, -
:
, ,
. ,
, . - ,
,
, .
,
, , .
, - , ,
; .
, - . -
. , .
4 1982 - 30 1989


1. -
- ... - .
-

-
(
) 1 ,
. ,

-
.
,
,
, , , . .
,
: ,
, .
- ,
(,
, ,
, - , ,
, ,
1 1995 .

741

M oralia

, , ). -
-
-, - ,
, , , - .
?
, , ,
.
.
? ,
- ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
, , ,
, .
! ,
,
: ,
- , ,
.
,
,
.

(, ,
) .
?
, ,
, ?
742

, , . ,
,
: -
, - , ... , , , ,
, - ,

, , ,
.
,
.


, ,
, .
,
- , :

.
: , ,

. ,
, : ,
? (,
,
, ?)
-
: ,
,
, , ,
,
, -
743

Moralia

-
. ?
. , ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
. - , .
,
. , -
, ( ),
... ,
- -
-
?
, , ,
:
, -. ,
, :
,
.


: , , - , ,
. , . , .
. , ,

, .
, - ,

744

. ,
.
-
, . ,
, , - ,
,
,
. ,

.
.
:
, conditio humana, ,
(

), , , ,
.
( , )
- .
- -
,
? ,
, ,
, -
, , ,
,
: 1.
1
.
(. 2010, ..)

745

Moralia

, ,
.
- , ,
, ,

,
.
- ,
, ,
, .
, -
, .

. , ,
,
- , ,
, , -. ,
, ,
( ),
,
.
1995

746

2.

, ,
.
: , ,
- ...
, ,
, :
- ,
,
, (
)
. ,
, ,
- . ,
,
,
.
, . ,
, : ,
- -
, .
, ,
, - (, 61 ).
, , ,
( , ,
, )
;
:
747

alia

- -
, .
,
. - ,
-
,
, ,
-
.
- : ,
, .
:
, ?
, ( : ,
,

, ,
),
( , ,
.), ,
: ,

. ,
, ,
-
- ,
, - :
.
,

748

. :
, ,
, ,
,
, , -
,
, .

(
), ,
, , -,
,
,
.
. Fas
nefas - ,
,
, .
- , -
, , , ,
: ,
,
.
,
- mots,
-
, ,
,
.
749

Moralia

- , ,
, 4 3 . ,
;
, -,
. -
:
- (,
, . .,
, ).
(, ,
- )
;
, ( ,
! . ,
, ,
. ,
...).
, ( , !.. ,
, - , ...
,
, -
...). : ,
,
;

.
(
-

750

, , , :
).
:

, (
) .
,
- -
: ! ,
! . .
,

: ,
...
, ,
... ...

, , ,
:
,
- ,
,
, (
- , , 206d).
: , ,

.
, -
.
.
( -
751

Moralia

, - ),

,
(, 175d). ,
(,
).
,
,
:
, , . ,
:
, ,
, .

( ?),

.
,
.
- -
(
).
,
,
: ,
(, 176 ). ,
:
, , :
,
, (223);
, ,
(223).
752

,

.
,
: .
- .

;
- ,
, -
.

, ,
, , -
- .
, :
: ;
; .
,
, (
-
).
,
: , ,
, .
,
. -
,
, ,
,

753

Moralia

. :
, :
:
, , ,
, , - ...
- ? ,
, ,
. - .
, .
- .
- , , - , - ,
! !..
-
!.. (, ,
- ,
- !) -

, , 1.
, :
,
: , , ,
, , . , ,

.

1 ;
, , ,
, -
. ,

.

754

, ,
, (, 204).
,
, -
. ,
- , ,
- .
,
, . .

,
: ,

, . ,
?
? ,
, ? , ,
, ,
, ,
,
, :
, , ...
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
( , , ,
, , ,
- 755

Moralia

) :
- , .
, ,

.

( ,
,
;
,
!)
. ,
, ,
: ,
.
(
)
,
, .
1998

, ...


70-
1


.
,
, , (
) - , ,
,
, - .
,
:
, -
, .
, ,
-
. , ,
, , ,

. ,
.
,
.

757

Moralia

, ...

,
.
, ,
,
- ,

, : .
- , -
:
,
,
. ,
,
, .
:
.

, ,
, ...
, , ,
,
- : - ,
, ,
, .

. ,

. ,
: .
,
...

758


, . ,

, .
, .

.
,
autorite morale.
. ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
, - .

2
,
.
. ,
, : -
, !
,
, : , ,
? , .
, ,
: ,
. . .
, , , 759

Moralia


.
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
- ,
?
, -
.
, , :
? , (, :
,
) , , ,
,
,
.
,
( )
.
- ,
,
.
-, , ,

, , ,
. :

, ,
.
760


;
,
.
,
, , ,
-, .
:
;
.
! - ,
,
.
: .
, . -
...
, ,
, ,
. , ,
- ,
.
:
. 70- . ,
-, .
.

, , , , . , . ,
,
.
, , ,
, ,
761

Moralia

,
, .
- ;
.
- , ,
, - , ,
, , . ,
, , ( ,
?- )
.
,
.
- .

:
,
, ,
: , ,
.
: ,
,
.
,
.

: .
,
. ,
: , ,
,
. ;

762

. :
.
.
,
,
-

- .
( ,
). . ,
, ,
.
?
, , .
,
,
, :
.
, ,
,
()
, .
,
.
-
.
, :
,
.
, . ,
763

Moralia


-, - ( ), , ,
, .

: ()
, ,
,
. ,

. ,

/. ,
,
, , ,
- ,
.
? ,
! - ,
- ,
tertium, non datur. ,

, .
,

, :
- .
, , - ,
,
,
- -
764

.
,
-
- , .
.
,

. - ,
-
:
,
, -
, .
,
, ,
,
,
. -
, : , .
,
, - . ,

.
, , ,
, ,
- :
-
, , , -
, :
.
,
,
765

Moralia

- ,
.
,
, .
,
, , , - ,
.
- ,
,
- .
,
.
- , , ,
,
( ), ,
.
, .
, - ,
,
.
,
,
, ,
,
.

, , ;
, ,
.
-
766

, , ,
... ,
, ,
, ,
: renovatio studiorum.
,
, - ,
, .
1993


1
, ,


.
. .. .

,
- ,
. ,
,
,
,
( , ,
; -
2).
; ;
, ,
.

, . :
1 .. . .: , 1996.
: .
2 , , ,
, , .

768


- .


, , -
,
.
:

.
,

,
:
. ,
, , :
, , ,
, - !
,
, : , ,
, , (),
:
,
, -
, ,
.
,
, , ,
,
(. ,
).
, .
, ,
769

Moralia

.
, . -
,
,
. ,
, - ,
,
, .
(
, . .), .
(, ,
):
, , , -
, 1.
,
,
.
, .
- ,
1 :
Riguarda bene omai si com io vado
per questo loco al vero che disiri,
si che poi sappi sol tener lo guado.
(Par.II, 124-126)
( , ,
, ).
( - ), . :
-
.

, -
, :
. .:
, 1996.

770

. ,
,
,
,
,
: ,
. ( ,
,

);
- , ,
,
... 1 -
, -
.
,
,
-

,
. ,
, .
1
: ,
(
, ,
), ,
, ,
. , ,
, . :

, -
, , ,
- .

771

Moralia


( , ,

)
.
,
, ,
, .
,
, -

. ,
,
. :
,
. ,
,
(, ,
,
,
, ..).
, ,
,


. , ,

, ,

(
( ) ,

772

,
,
- ...
, (. 67).

.
. - - : ,
,
, , .
,
,
1,
, - .
, -
.
, ,
...
,

.
,

.
, ,
. (
,
), ,
, .
(. 15) -
1 .
, .

773

Moralia

, ,
, ,
,
,
- -
?
,
? ,
. , ,
,
, , ,
1,

,-
, ,
2 .
- ,
(, ,
).
.. ,
.
,
- .

1 , ,
,
- ... , ,
...
2 , - ,
, - ,
, ,
.
. ,
(. . 29).

774

,

.
( ;
,

), ,
, -, .
,
, .
:
( ,
) ,
. .
:
, (.
);
1.
, , , -
1 , ,
, .

.
, , ,
: ,
.
,
.
, , ,
, (. 14), .
?
(.
)

775

Moralia

, ( ,
), .

(Ripeness is alt).

: - ,
.
, , :
- , ,
...
, , , ,
(. 13). ,
, ,
- . ,
, , , ?
,
. , -
.
,
- ,
, (
) ,
, .
, :
, , ,
; ,
:
Immer wieder von uns aufgerissen
Ist der Gott die Stelle welche heilt (Die Sonette an Orpheus, Zweiter Teil, XVI).
, (: ) , .

, .

776

, 1.
- . - - , (, , )
.
,
,
,
. (
)
.
, , ,
2, , ,
. ,
, , -
.
( ,
), .
,
,
,
,
,
1 ,
, , :
(.).
,
,
, ,
.
2 , -
, .
..
,
.

777

Moralia

..
. , ,
,
-
- -
, . , ,
,
,
... ,

: , , , .
,
.
,
. , ,
, . . .
, - ,
, , . ;
, , , !
. -
- ,
. , , ,
. -
, ,
. , ,
-, ,
, ,
, .

778

,
...
- 1. , ,
.
, , .
,
, ,
.
(), (
),
(),
( ). - ,
,
,
, ,

, ,
...
, , ,
...
,
- ,
...
( , ,
) -
!
, ( ,
, ,
1 / / .. . .: C a o b o /S I ovo , 2000.

779

Moralia


):

. (
,
, - :
?)1
- ,
, ,
. ,
, :
. , :
, ,
- , , - ,
,
. -
, , . ( )
, , ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
,
, ,
, , . , ,
1 .., ,
,
: .
.

780

;
,

, , ;
,
. - ,
( .)

, ,

. ,

: , homo sapiens sapiens, homo loquens,
homo humanus ,
, !
,
:
1. - ,
:
( -
? ),
-.
,
, , , -
, , , :
, . ,

1 , la verita che tanto ci sublima (Par. XXII, 42) - ,


.

781

alia

- :
, ;
, , .
(. 54).
,
,
( ): , ,
1.

, , ,

,
( , )
2.
.
,
( : !),
1 , ,
, :
, - -
. , ,
, ,
, ...
(.
..)
.
2 ,
,
, - ?
,
,
.
,
.

782

- -
-
, - .
-
, ,
- .
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
:
( , ,
),
.
- ,
, , ,
. , ,
. ,



- ,

( , ,
) - ,
, ,
, .
:
1

.
(.)

783

Moralia


.
(, ) - ;
, ( ) -
, .
- ,
, :
, ,
. ,
, ; ( - ,
) - ,

. ,
,
: . , , ,
, .
, - :
, , ,
- ,
, .
- , .
, ,
,
, ,
, .
, - - ,
, .

: -

(
784

,
: ,
. .).
!
, ,
, ,
,
; -
, (, ,
) -
, .
. ,
. Sophrosyne,
,
. , , -
,
,
1. , 1 ,
,
, .
, ,
,
. ,


,
, .
,
,
. ,
.
. , - - , -

785

Moralia

(,
1)
-
-
: , .



. , (
: . , ...),
, .
,
,
:
.
:
, ,
. -
, , , ,
- .
, ,
,
.
.
,
, - ...
1
/ /
. .: , 1996.
. 319-329. ,
.. ,
. ,
... ,
. , . .: ,
, ... (
).

786

. , ,
- ; -
,
,
,,,
:
,
.


, ! ,
!
- ,
, .
.
, , ,
:
, ,
- ,
1,
:
,
, ...2

1 , ; , ; :
(, 1,7;22; 15,7). , ,
, , .
2 , :
:
...
, ,
, , .

787

alia


- -
,
- , ,
.


(
, ) (,
. 10).
,
, ,
,
. -
- , , . -

, .
0 ,
- ,
:
, ,
.


( ).
- .
, 2.
1 , , ,
,
.
2 -
(, . 273).

788

,
- ,
.

-
.
- : ,
, .
, , . ,
, -
, , Holzwege -
.

,
, - ,
.
,
, - .
, , ,
. (. )
- ,
. ,

- . ,
, ,
,
(
).

. ,
789

Moralia

- ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
, - ,
, pensee sauvage.
, ,
, ,
(
, 1).
,
, .
, ,
,
( ,
),
: .
.
, , ,
, ;
0 ,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
-

1
/ / . . 220-229.

790

. ,

,
; ,
,
, .
, , ,
(

- )1. (

,
)
, :
, .
- . , ,
, (
... ,
) .

, , , - -
. , ,
, ,
, -

1 - , ;
[] , - .
. / / 4- . ., 1983. . IV. . 664.
, .., . euplastos,
,
- .

791

Moralia

: , -
, , ,
... . .
,
,
, ,
, -
.

, ,
, - .
,
. - ,
?
.
.
( , . .),
.
, , ,

:
. , , -
- :
, -


,
, ,
...
-
792

. - ,
,

, .
,
-

( ),
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
-
.
,
( ) ():
,
,
- .
.
,
, ,
:
. . .
, ? ,
, : ,
, . ,
793

Moralia

, : ,
, ,
. -
( :
,
, , .3,18)
.
, ,
( ,
),
, -, - .

:
.
1997

1.

,
. -
: , ,
.
,
.
.

- , - ,
. ,
.
, ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
, (
) - ? ,
: , :
,
.

795

Moralia

.
. ,
, . ,
- ,
. ! , ,
.
, ,
, : ,
, , ,
, .
: !
! - , ,
,

(, ,
, ). ,
, ,
( ..:
) -
. , :
, - ,
. -
.
- (
I )
. ,
, , (
, -
), (,
, )
( , , -

796

. .

, ). ,
,
: , ,
- , .

. , , . ,

,
- -, -, -,
-...
, - .
, , ,
hypermachos strategos,
- - ,
: !
. ,
, , ,
, ,

( ?),
,
- ,
-

(. 56 57 .;
,
, ).
, , (

), ,
,
.
797

alia

, .
- , ,
,
:
, ,
.
- ,
, .
.
, ,
,
,
, -
. , ,
, ,
, , X IX -X X ,

, :
.
,
:
-, , ,
, (
).
- , , ,
, -
,
II.
. -
-
.

798

..

.
, , ,
, .

- , ,

. . , ,
,
. N
: .
, .
- -
: N! , . ...
, ? : ?
,
: , ,
. ,
: .
2004

2.
,

,
.
..


: ,

, ,
799

Moralia


.
(
!) , , - (
!). ,
,
; .
0 ,
, 1.
, ,
. ,
(,
) . , ,
. ,
,
- , ,
.
-
. - ,
- ,
, ,
.
,
, -
, ,

1 , ,
, ,
: , ,
,
(!)... ,
25 2004.

800

..

. -
, (
,
, ).
, , -
, ,
, , (
70- ,
,
, -

: , !).
(, ),
, .
, , ,
, -

,
, .
,
, ,
-
. , -
, - -
: , ,
- . ,
,
:

-
.
801

Moralia

,

, , .

! , :
, ;
, .
, -

.
: ,
, ,
. :
. :
- .
-
,
,
.
(,
, ), , ,
( ),

, ,
.
- 60-, - 70- - 80- .

( : ? ?
? ? ,
, ?)
-
, .
802

..


:
,
,
1937 ,
1. -
.
, .

(, ,
, , - ), ,
, (
, 5
),
(... -
. . , , 2000. . 418).
, : ,
-,
;
.
: ,
.
!
,
:
.
,
, ,
: .
-
1 - / / Corriere della sera, 24 -02-2004.

803

Moralia

- .
(,
, ),
, ,
.
, , , -
, , -
-
.
- . ,
,
, ..
, 60-,
, ,
: , ,
, .
: ,
,
. , ,
(
, X X - , , ...
!). , ,
.
: ,
- ,
, ,
. ,
, :
!
, ,
, ,
.
804

..

( ,
, ,
), ,
, .
, , ,
.
.
( - )
( ,
, ).
:
!,
. .
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, -,
X X .
: ,
, - , ,
, .
,
.
.
,
,
. ,
, -
.
805

Moralia

.
,
: ,
, ,
,
, .

, ,
,
.
,
,
. ,

, . , ,
, .
.
- , ,
(, , -
, ,
) - ,
: ,
(
).
,
. ,
- ,
,
- ,
,
: ,
, - ,
806

..


( , ).
, -

-
.

.:
. ,
,
-, , .

.
, .
,
, ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.
, .
(
, , )
.
. ,
.
,
- , ,
,
, - . ,
, ,
807

Moralia

1, , ,
,
. (
)
, ,
, .

.
, , ,
.
,
- ,
,
:
, ,
, .,
, ,
( -
,
1 . ,
,
, , ,
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
, :
,
. ,
,
, .

808

..

2002 ). , ,
. ,
.
.
,
(
)
.
, , (
) ,

:
,
; ,
, - ,
...
, (
, ),
, , .
,
.
, :
, , ,
,
:
. - .
,
- ,


, . :
.
809

Moralia

.

. ,
:
,
,
, ,
- .
, ,
-
, ,
, ,
.

-
! , ,
.
,
. , ,
, ...

, ,
, .
- ,

, .
:
, -
.
-
- ,
,
810

..

. , ,
, ,
1.
,
, .
(
),
,
.
-
, -
. , ,
. , ,
. .
, ? -
, -
. . ? :
.
2004

1 . , .: .

1.



,
,
.

...

,
, , .

. : !
?
, -.
: ?
-
, .
,
( , ,

) - ,
, ,
, , .
- , .

812

..

:
, , ,

. , ,
, :
- , -
, -
: ,
? ,
-
, ,
,
.
,
: , ! ,
, ,
,
. ,
.
.
: ?
, :
, ,
. ,
, .
.
.
. .
. 80-

813

Moralia

: , , , ,
.
. .
, .
,
... .
: ,
.
: , ,
, , ,
, .
.
,
1989 , ,
. .
;
, .
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
, ()

.
,
,
. ,
,
814

..

, , , .
,
.
(
) - , ,
: ,
. ,
.
. ,
, , .
- , .
, ,
: -;
-; -.
, ,
, , .
,
, , ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , .
, :
, , , - .
, ,
,
. . . .
, .
. . - ,
.

815

Moralia

(
),
: !
2004

2. 1

, ...
, : .
. :
. .
, . .
, :
...


, ,
, ,
( : - , ),
-
, .
.
, - ...
( , ,
-, : .. -
: Omnia praeclara ).
, -

1 . ,
2 2008 .

816

..

. ! ,
, -,
,
. () -
.
-
. - .
,
...
- -
. , .
. ..
( ) .
.
: ,
, sine qua non.
: , ,
. .
( ,
automathos .).
, ,
(elusive). , ,
,
, : , !
. ,
( )
- ,
( , ..,
).
..
. - (revolution),
.
817

Moralia

- ,
. , ,
().
- : .
- ... (
, )
,
.
: ,
.
, ,
. .
, - (
), - . ,
, ,
, :
!. , -
: , , .

. - ,
.. Dasein
.
(
,
, ) -
.. .
( ,
!) , ..
. .
, , .
818

..

, ,
, . ,
... - .
.. . -
. -
, , . - ,
. -
. . , , .
, , , -
..,
, .
, (
): ,
,
X X . ..
, schole,
, amechania.
, , .
,
. ,
, .
2008

P O ST SC R IPTU M .


- - .
all ihr treuen
Freundliche Gotter!
Dafi ihr wiifitet,
Wie euch meine Seele geliebt!

819

Moralia

,
!
,
!

,
. ,
,
, . ,
. ,
.

..
.
. ,
, , ,
, :

- . :
. , , , ( ).
. - :
, , (
, m i-r- jni-l- ), -
( - ) -
- . - ,
(.
): , ?
- , , ,
: .
, .
, 2009


70- ..
-, , -,
( ,
) ,
, ,
,
.
( , ) . ,
:
. , . , ,
.
, ,
. -
-. ,
- ,
- .
. ,
. -
,
.
-!

- .
821

Moralia

.
. .

. :
, ,
, .
.
, , ,
. ,
, .

. ,
- , . . - ,
.
-
, , -
.
, , -

. ,
,
:
.
,
,
. ,
( )
,
.
-
- . , ,
- - ,
822

( 5-7 )
: ,
! - :
1958 ( - 1978
). ! ,
. , .
.
, .
- -
.


. , ,
, ,
.


,
: ,
, ,
, , , .
: . ,
, , -
, , -, ,
, ,
. -
, ,
. .
,
, - ,
.
:
823

Moralia

, - ?
, - . - .
, , - , -
.
, - , -
.
,
? - ,

, , ,
- ,
?
. .
? , ,

.
.
. .

, - ,
.
:
, ,
, .
?
- ,
:
. ,
! - .
?
. , ,
! :
824

, ,
,
,
. ,
-
, -
.
. ,
, , ,
, .
( ) .
.
2005


II

1.

TOTUS T U U S1

I I
,
II ( 1978 ),
: ! . , .
( ,
),
.
: ,
,
, ,
. , , ,
,
-
, (
- ,
).
, , ,
. -
.
1 , II.

826

II

, . ,
-
. :
,
,

. , :
, ,
.
(
1).
,
, -
,
.
,
( ), -
. - (
) ,

- , ,
.
0 (
,
, )
. ,
,
, , , .
1 , , ,
,
.
, .

827

Moralia

, . ,
, II
. ,
! , . .
. -
- , .
II ,
, .
, ,
.
. ,
,
: .
, , .
,
, ,
.
,
.

,
.
- , ,
! -
.
.
,
, ( ., .
, . , .).
,
(
828

II

- Orientale
Lum en, ,

).
.
, ,
, :
.
,
,
. ,
.
, .
, II
, .
,
-
,
( ..)
. .
, - .
-
. 1999 , .
, (

- :

). ,
, ,
. -
.
. ,
829

Moralia

, ,
.
, ,
, .
II , ,
,
.
. ! .
, ,

, ,
.
! -
. ,

: , ,
- , :
.
!

3 2005

2.


, ,
- . II
- ,
.
.

II.

.
830

II

, :
! ?
, : ?
: ! ; ,
. : (. 21,17).

, ;
, ,
.
, ( -
:
, ), :
. -
.
.
. !
, ?
,
. II
( ,
, ) .
,
- -
.
- -
, , ,
.
.
( , 1995-
1998-) : .
831

Moralia

(
,
, , ) -
.

. -
? ,
, .

. ...
,
, ?
II
.
, - ,

,
. ,
,

, , , ,
, . .
, ,
, ,
,
. !
! -
I I , , , ,

. II ,
- .
832

II



. ( ,
, ,
) , (
, , ,
,
. .) - .
, -
. , -
, .
II - . ,
,
,
.

? , ,
, -
.
, - ,
, , ,
, - :
(
, ,
): ,
.
II, ,

. ,
,
833

Moralia

(, ).
, ,
, -
.
, ,
, ,
.
II
.
.
:
, ,
, .


- .
,
II 2000 .
, ? -
, . ,
? , -
, ?
,
, conditio humana?
, , ? , , -
.
,
( , ,
) 834

II

- , .

.
. ,
II
, - ,
, , ,
,
, (
, ).
, , ,
- .
- .
- , ,
: !
: ! -
,
.
4 2005



1.

- , 1989 - ,

,
(
) - :
, .
.
:
( , The
Russian Church). .
. :
, , .
- , , ;
,
. .
- , -
.
, , ,
,
. :
,
-

836

. ,
, ,
, ;
, : ,
.
- .
( ,
, : ;
, ), , ,

. ,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
, . .
.
, security, .
- ,

-
.
-
-
, .
,
-
837

Moralia

, .
, , , -
, -
.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
: .
.

-
, X IX .

, .
. ,
- ,
. , .
?
- ,
, -
,
. .

, .
, , ,
, ... ?
,
, ,
. .
838

, 1. ,
, , . .,
: ,
,
,
. X IX

: , ,
,
0 . X X
.
, , ,
,
. -
,
, ,
.
- , .
,
,
, .
.


:
, ,
. , .
,
- natura

1 . , .: ., ,
, , :
.

839

Moralia

virtuosa - 1. -
?
, -
(
).
. - - ,
. , ,
.
:
, , .
- -
.
, ? (
).
, , . ,
? ,
,
, .
, .

, , , ,
, ,
. : ,
! -
,
. , , .

() -
1 Emanuele revi. Musica distante. Meditazioni sulle virtu. Mondadori, 1997.
840

( ),
.
?
: , , ( ?
: -
), , ? ?
, ?
?
,
, ,
, -
.
:
, , -
. , ...
?...

. ,
? , , , ,
,
( ).
, :
. .
,
, ? ,
( ) - (
):
, .
- - ,
,
841

alia

. ,
, -
. .
(
,
),
.
, -
?
, ,
, ,
( ).
- , -
:
: ,
, .
, ,
,
19: .

.
, .
, .
- , -? -
! - ?
- , ...
- , ,
.
: ,
,
, .
842

, , ,
?
, ,
?
? ,
,
: , ,
, .
, ,
. : ,

^ , ,
- . ., ,
.
, - , ,
- , .
, .
- !
. , , ,
, .
, . ,
, .
1998

843

Moralia
2.

:
.
1
,
, -

, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
! ,
, , - ,

.
70-,
- :
! ,
: ...
. ! .
- -
, :
, ,
, - , ,
, ,

1 . . ... .: , 2002.

844

. ,
. ,

: ! ,
,
,
- ,

.
, . -
, , -
- 1970 :
(
.. 1968 . ),
, ..
, ... ,

. :
!. ,
, , , , .
, 70-
,
,
,

, , .
,
. ,
,
845

Moralia

, .
,

(
, ,
,
: ,
, ).
.
.
, ,

,

1957 .,
, ,
:

, .

, ,
. ,
.
.
- : (,
, , )
, , ,

, .

. ,
846

, ,

.
- , -
1989 ,
. , .
- , , ...
, - .
, ,
!
- -
- ?
- , - , -
.
, -
-
, ,
: , ,
.
- .
, .
.
- : ,
, ,
. ,

- ,
, : ,
\ , , - ? ,
, , - ,
.
847

Moralia

, , ,
, , ,
, ,
.

, -
. , , (
,
: ,
,
) ,
: ,
. (
) ,
, - ,
(. 957). : ,
, , ,
, ,
-,
(. 356). : ,
, (. 368).
,
, - ,
, ,
: , , ,
- ,
.
, (. 4:35), ,
, ,
-
. (. 370).
848


-
, : ? ,
: ,
-
. , , ,
,
: -
,
,
.
- - ,
, ,

,
, :
,
, . ,
, ,
, - , ,
, - ,
, , , ,
, , :
(. 379).
, ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,

Moralia

, - ,
,
, -
.

(. 10), , ,
: ,
, .

, :
,
.
:
, ,
: .
? , (
- eksusia - , )
, . -
,
.


1971 (. 4 1 7 -4 4 6 ). , , ,
,
,
(, , ,
- - )
:
, !
850

, .
(. 421). -
,
, - ,
:
, ,
, ,

(.424). -
, ,
- ,
vita activa vita contemplativa!
, , .
2002

1
, .
, -
. ,
. : -
- , -
. :
,
.
, ,
,
( , ).
: , .
, ,
, - .
- - -
, :
... : ... ,
: ,
.
:
? ,
1 .

852

, , ,
( , ),
( ,
)
.
, , ,

, , ,
, ,
1.
. ,
.
,
. , .

(, . .). ,

? ( !)
,

, (
) -
? :
, , -
, ,

? , , ,
, , ,
,
1 : , .
, , , ,
, , .

853

Moralia

. ,
,
( , )
.

, :
,

,
- :
, ,
. :
,


,
,
: -
. - , - ...
,
?
,
, .
?
, ,
, ( ,
1) . -,
,
. .
1 , ,
, .

854


( )
,
. ,
,
. -
, - :
, ,
, !
. -
, , , ,
. .
. ,
. ,
, - : ,
.
, ,
, ,
, -
,
, .
, ,
-
- ,
. ,
, , , ,
, -
, ,
. -
- , .
,

855

Moralia

,
,
.
:
, ,
, .
- -
. .
, , , -, -
,
. ,
,
- ,
:
, .
2008


1
, .
..

,
.
, , ,
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
.
( , , )
. -
. -
, :

,
.

,
. , - , ,
:
1 , . (, 2008 ).

857

Moralia

,
...

- ,
- ,
...

, ,
. , . ,
. - ,
- .
,
, ,
, .
. (
, ;
, ,
), ,
. , ,
-
-
.
, ,
, .
. -
, . , -
. . ,
,
-

:

858


, !
, , !

.
, !
2008

. 519
334
( II - 2) 830
. 656
, . ..
70- 757
. 346
271

( - 2) 816
. 125
176
. 82
II 826
493
65
323
284
.. - 88
. ..
( - 1) 812
821
, 254
- ( - 1) 741
: 3 1 0
. 99
? 453
. .
709
.
430
, , . , . 292
. . 221
. 417
247

860


8
857
..
( - 1) 795

( - 2) 747
198
361
719
376

( - 1) 836
: . 478
.. 30
768
13

( - 2) 844
. 548
..
( - 2) 799
852
. . 208
. 727
460
The Light o f Life 677
Totus Tuus ( II - 1) 826

821.161.1.
84 (2 =)6-4 + 84 (2 =)6-5


. IV. Moralia
.: , 2010.
864 .
ISBN 978-5-91244-026-7

, .
,
, , ,
, -
( ,
, ).

, ,
, . ,
, - , - ,
- .
, , ,
- -
(conditio humana),
; , , ,
.
- .
, ,
, .

II, , ..,
.., . , .., , ,
.

ISBN 978-5-91244-026-7



IV. Moralia
-

.
.
.





119435, , . , . 13, . 1,
: 7 (495) 708-34-90,7 (499) 766-46-19
www.s-and-e.ru
2 2010 .
. 3000 .
115x175
Bookwell
www.bookwell.fi
ISBN 978-5-91244-026-7
ISBN 978-5-91244-026-7