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Alcatel-Lucent 7302

INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER

Alcatel-Lucent 7330

INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER FIBER TO THE NODE

Alcatel-Lucent 7360

INTELLIGENT SERVICES ACCESS MANAGER FX


SYSTEM DESCRIPTION FOR FD 100/320GBPS NT AND FX NT
RELEASE 4.6.02

3H H - 11651- BAAA- T QZZA Edition 03 Released

Alcatel-Lucent Proprietary
This document contains proprietary information of Alcatel-Lucent and is not to be disclosed
or used except in accordance with applicable agreements.
Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.

Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented, which is
subject to change without notice.
Alcatel, Lucent and the Alcatel-Lucent logo are registered trademarks of Alcatel-Lucent. All other
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Copyright 2013 Alcatel-Lucent.
All rights reserved.
Disclaimers

Alcatel-Lucent products are intended for commercial uses. Without the appropriate network design
engineering, they must not be sold, licensed or otherwise distributed for use in any hazardous
environments requiring fail-safe performance, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft
navigation or communication systems, air traffic control, direct life-support machines, or weapons
systems, in which the failure of products could lead directly to death, personal injury, or severe physical
or environmental damage. The customer hereby agrees that the use, sale, license or other distribution
of the products for any such application without the prior written consent of Alcatel-Lucent, shall be at
the customer's sole risk. The customer hereby agrees to defend and hold Alcatel-Lucent harmless from
any claims for loss, cost, damage, expense or liability that may arise out of or in connection with the
use, sale, license or other distribution of the products in such applications.
This document may contain information regarding the use and installation of non-Alcatel-Lucent
products. Please note that this information is provided as a courtesy to assist you. While Alcatel-Lucent
tries to ensure that this information accurately reflects information provided by the supplier, please refer
to the materials provided with any non-Alcatel-Lucent product and contact the supplier for
confirmation. Alcatel-Lucent assumes no responsibility or liability for incorrect or incomplete
information provided about non-Alcatel-Lucent products.
However, this does not constitute a representation or warranty. The warranties provided for
Alcatel-Lucent products, if any, are set forth in contractual documentation entered into by
Alcatel-Lucent and its customers.
This document was originally written in English. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the
English version and any other version of a document, the English version shall prevail.

When printed by Alcatel-Lucent, this document is printed on recycled paper.

Preface

This preface provides general information about the documentation set for the
7302 Intelligent Services Access Manager (7302 ISAM), the 7330 Intelligent
Services Access Manager Fiber to the Node (7330 ISAM FTTN) and the 7360 ISAM
FX.

Scope
This documentation set provides information about safety, features and
functionality, ordering, hardware installation and maintenance, CLI and TL1
commands, and software upgrade and migration procedures.

Audience
This documentation set is intended for planners, administrators, operators, and
maintenance personnel involved in installing, upgrading, or maintaining the
7302 ISAM, the 7330 ISAM FTTN or the 7360 ISAM FX.

Required knowledge
The reader must be familiar with general telecommunications principles.

Acronyms and initialisms


The expansions and optional descriptions of most acronyms and initialisms appear
in the glossary, which is included in the System Description document.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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November 2013

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Preface

Assistance and ordering phone numbers


Alcatel-Lucent provides global technical support through regional call centers.
Phone numbers for the regional call centers are available at the following URL:
http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/myaccess.
For ordering information, contact your Alcatel-Lucent sales representative.

Safety information
For safety information, see the Safety Manual for your product.

Documents
Refer to the Product Information document for your product to see a list of all the
relevant customer documents and their part numbers for the current release.
Customer documentation is available for download from the Alcatel-Lucent Support
Service website at http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/myaccess.

Product Naming
When the term ISAM is used alone, both the 7302 ISAM, the 7330 ISAM FTTN
and the 7360 ISAM FX are meant. If a feature is valid for only one of the products,
the applicability will be explicitly stated.

Special information
The following are examples of how special information is presented in this
document.
Danger Danger indicates that the described activity or situation

may result in serious personal injury or death; for example, high


voltage or electric shock hazards.
Warning Warning indicates that the described activity or situation

may, or will, cause equipment damage or serious performance


problems.
Caution Caution indicates that the described activity or situation
may, or will, cause service interruption.

Note A note provides information that is, or may be, of special

interest.

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

Preface

Procedures with options or substeps


When there are options in a procedure, they are identified by letters. When there are
required substeps in a procedure, they are identified by roman numerals.

Procedure 1 Example of options in a procedure


At step 1, you can choose option a or b. At step 2, you must do what the step indicates.
1

This step offers two options. You must choose one of the following:
a

This is one option.

This is another option.

You must perform this step.

Procedure 2 Example of required substeps in a procedure


At step 1, you must perform a series of substeps within a step. At step 2, you must do
what the step indicates.
1

This step has a series of substeps that you must perform to complete the step. You
must perform the following substeps:
i

This is the first substep.

ii

This is the second substep.

iii

This is the third substep.

You must perform this step.

Release notes
Be sure to refer to the release notes (such as the Customer Release Notes or
Emergency Fix Release Note) issued for software loads of your product before you
install or use the product. The release notes provide important information about the
software load.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

Preface

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November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

Contents

Preface

iii

Scope
................................................................................................................... iii
Audience ................................................................................................................... iii
Required knowledge..................................................................................................... iii
Acronyms and initialisms............................................................................................... iii
Assistance and ordering phone numbers ........................................................................ iv
Safety information........................................................................................................ iv
Documents .................................................................................................................. iv
Product Naming ........................................................................................................... iv
Special information....................................................................................................... iv
Release notes ............................................................................................................... v

Introduction
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

1-1

General...................................................................................................... 1-2
Supported User Interfaces........................................................................... 1-2
Integrated DSL, Voice, Point-to-point Ethernet, GPON, EPON, 10G EPON
and DPoE system ............................................................................... 1-4
Document Structure.................................................................................... 1-4

System interface overview


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9

2-1

General...................................................................................................... 2-3
Overview ................................................................................................... 2-3
Multi-ADSL ................................................................................................. 2-5
VDSL ......................................................................................................... 2-9
SHDSL ..................................................................................................... 2-11
Ethernet................................................................................................... 2-13
GPON ...................................................................................................... 2-15
EPON....................................................................................................... 2-16
10G EPON ................................................................................................ 2-19

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

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Contents

2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16

Failure protection and redundancy provisions in


ISAM
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Overview ................................................................................................... 4-2


Management interfaces ............................................................................... 4-3
Management interfaces security................................................................. 4-13
Management access models ...................................................................... 4-15
Counters and statistics .............................................................................. 4-18
Alarm management .................................................................................. 4-19
Software and database management ......................................................... 4-26
Equipment monitoring............................................................................... 4-30
Access node control protocol ..................................................................... 4-31

5-1

Overview ................................................................................................... 5-2


Metallic test access ..................................................................................... 5-4
Single-Ended Line Testing ........................................................................... 5-7
Dual-ended line testing ............................................................................... 5-8
Metallic-Ended Line Testing ......................................................................... 5-9
ATM F5 .................................................................................................... 5-11
Link Related Ethernet OAM........................................................................ 5-12
Narrowband Line Testing .......................................................................... 5-14
SFP diagnostics ........................................................................................ 5-17
Embedded OTDR ...................................................................................... 5-18

Network timing reference support in ISAM


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4

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4-1

Line testing features


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10

3-1

Overview ................................................................................................... 3-2


ISAM single shelf configurations .................................................................. 3-5
ISAM subtending system protection ........................................................... 3-11
Failure protection at layer 3....................................................................... 3-13
Subscriber interface redundancy ................................................................ 3-14

Management
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

DPoE ....................................................................................................... 2-23


Inverse multiplexing for ATM ..................................................................... 2-24
ATM/PTM bonding .................................................................................... 2-24
Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces ............................................................. 2-25
E1 TDM Interface ..................................................................................... 2-26
Overview of ONU Based UNI and Service Interfaces .................................... 2-26
Overview of ISAM support for remote management of third-party
equipment. ...................................................................................... 2-28

6-1

Introduction ............................................................................................... 6-2


ISAM clock system and NTR extraction......................................................... 6-6
Downstream NTR clock distribution............................................................ 6-16
Applicable standards ................................................................................. 6-17

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

Contents

xDSL features
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14

Overview ................................................................................................... 7-2


Configurable impulse noise protection .......................................................... 7-3
RFI Notching .............................................................................................. 7-4
Low-power modes ...................................................................................... 7-4
Seamless rate adaptation ............................................................................ 7-6
Upstream power back-off ............................................................................ 7-7
Downstream power back-off........................................................................ 7-9
Impulse noise monitor .............................................................................. 7-10
Virtual noise ............................................................................................. 7-10
Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX) .......................................................... 7-12
Per-line configuration overrule ................................................................... 7-13
Configurable US/ DS memory split ............................................................. 7-14
Vectoring ................................................................................................. 7-14
Fall-back configuration for vectoring .......................................................... 7-17

GPON Network Architecture


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

7-1

8-1

Introduction: GPON Network ....................................................................... 8-2


Alcatel-Lucent GPON Network Architecture ................................................... 8-2
GPON Implementation of ISAM .................................................................... 8-3
V-OLT GPON Functions ............................................................................. 8-12
Protection ................................................................................................ 8-12
ONU Functions ......................................................................................... 8-12

ISAM Support for the GPON ONU


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10

9-1

Introduction ............................................................................................... 9-2


ONU Product Identification .......................................................................... 9-5
Ethernet features........................................................................................ 9-7
xDSL features............................................................................................. 9-7
Wi-Fi.......................................................................................................... 9-7
DS1/E1 Features......................................................................................... 9-7
Video Overlay........................................................................................... 9-10
Home Phoneline Network (HPNA) .............................................................. 9-11
Power over Ethernet ................................................................................. 9-12
Ethernet loopback detection ...................................................................... 9-12

10 EPON Network Architecture


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

10-1

Overview ................................................................................................. 10-2


EPON network .......................................................................................... 10-2
EPON implementation of ISAM................................................................... 10-9
EPON system capacity............................................................................. 10-29

11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4

11-1

Overview ................................................................................................. 11-2


EPON ONU ............................................................................................... 11-2
Supported features and services ................................................................ 11-5
Security ................................................................................................... 11-8

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

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Contents

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
12.15
12.16
12.17
12.18
12.19
12.20

Introduction ............................................................................................. 12-3


Overall network topology .......................................................................... 12-3
Access network L2/L3 topologies ............................................................... 12-8
Product Definition and Dimensioning ........................................................ 12-13
Traffic types and forwarding.................................................................... 12-14
Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies ...................................................... 12-44
Protocol stacks ....................................................................................... 12-75
Voice service and MPLS Pseudo-wire ........................................................ 12-84
Management interface ............................................................................ 12-84
Permanent data storage .......................................................................... 12-87
Management model ................................................................................ 12-88
Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload Protection ........................ 12-96
Quality of Service ..................................................................................12-110
DNS interworking ..................................................................................12-110
BITS Support.........................................................................................12-112
Narrowband Line Testing .......................................................................12-112
Termination local loop unbundling ..........................................................12-112
Alarm Treatment ...................................................................................12-113
Lawful Intercept ....................................................................................12-115
ISAM Voice migration.............................................................................12-120

13 DPoE Network Architecture


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4

14-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 14-2


Coverage ................................................................................................. 14-2
MEGACO Feature Portfolio ......................................................................... 14-3
SIP Feature Portfolio ................................................................................. 14-9
Validating Origin of SIP request ............................................................... 14-28
Voice Service related defined alarms ........................................................ 14-29
Compliancy to standards ......................................................................... 14-31

15 Layer 2 forwarding
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.10

13-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 13-2


Overview ................................................................................................. 13-2
Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network architecture................................................... 13-3
DPoE implementation of ISAM ................................................................... 13-6

14 Integrated Narrowband Support


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7

12-1

15-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 15-2


The concept of Virtual LAN (VLAN)............................................................. 15-2
The ISAM is an Access Device.................................................................... 15-4
ISAM Internal Architecture ...................................................................... 15-17
Subscriber interface stack on the LT board ............................................... 15-26
iBridges ................................................................................................. 15-29
VLAN cross-connect mode ....................................................................... 15-49
Protocol-aware cross-connect mode ......................................................... 15-56
IPoA cross-connect mode ........................................................................ 15-61
Secure forwarding in iBridge and VLAN cross-connect ............................... 15-63

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

Contents

15.11
15.12

Virtual MAC ............................................................................................ 15-67


PPP cross-connect mode ......................................................................... 15-74

16 Protocol handling in a Layer 2 forwarding model


16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
16.13

Introduction ............................................................................................. 16-2


Link aggregation....................................................................................... 16-3
RSTP and MSTP........................................................................................ 16-8
Connectivity Fault Management ............................................................... 16-13
802.1x support ....................................................................................... 16-17
BCMP..................................................................................................... 16-18
ARP ....................................................................................................... 16-19
DHCP..................................................................................................... 16-20
IGMP ..................................................................................................... 16-26
PPPoE.................................................................................................... 16-26
DHCPv6 ................................................................................................. 16-31
ICMPv6 .................................................................................................. 16-33
LLDP...................................................................................................... 16-33

17 IP routing
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4

17-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 17-2


IP routing features.................................................................................... 17-2
IP routing model....................................................................................... 17-6
Routing in case of subtended ISAMs ........................................................ 17-10

18 Protocol handling in a Layer 3 forwarding model


18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8
18.9
18.10

19-1

Overview ................................................................................................. 19-2


Advanced capabilities................................................................................ 19-5
System decomposition ............................................................................ 19-15
Multicast and forwarding models.............................................................. 19-19

20 Quality of Service
20.1
20.2
20.3

18-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 18-2


IPv4 Routing Protocols .............................................................................. 18-2
ARP ......................................................................................................... 18-2
DHCP relay agent ..................................................................................... 18-3
DHCP snooping ........................................................................................ 18-5
IPv6 routing protocols............................................................................... 18-6
Neighbour Discovery (ICMPv6) .................................................................. 18-7
DHCPv6 Relay Agent................................................................................. 18-7
DHCPv6 Snooping..................................................................................... 18-8
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection ............................................................. 18-9

19 Multicast and IGMP


19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4

16-1

20-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 20-2


Upstream QoS handling ............................................................................ 20-2
Downstream QoS.................................................................................... 20-13

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

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Contents

20.4
20.5

Hardware mapping of QoS functions ........................................................ 20-15


Configuration of QoS............................................................................... 20-31

21 Resource management and authentication


21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6

Introduction ............................................................................................. 21-2


RADIUS features....................................................................................... 21-2
802.1x authentication via RADIUS.............................................................. 21-2
Operator authentication via RADIUS........................................................... 21-3
Encryption of authentication data............................................................... 21-3
Lawful Interception................................................................................... 21-3

22 MPLS
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9
22.10
22.11

22-1
Introduction ............................................................................................. 22-2
Label Switched Path.................................................................................. 22-2
Label Distribution Protocol......................................................................... 22-3
Resource Reservation Protocol................................................................... 22-5
Pseudo-wires and T-LDP ........................................................................... 22-6
L2 VPN services ........................................................................................ 22-7
QoS ......................................................................................................... 22-9
Redundancy and resilience ........................................................................ 22-9
Support for MPLS rings ........................................................................... 22-10
Support for MPLS flow label..................................................................... 22-11
Supporting integrated voice services over MPLS ........................................ 22-12

23 ATM Pseudowire emulation


23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6

A.

xii

24-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 24-2


Solution description .................................................................................. 24-2
Benefits ................................................................................................... 24-4
Support in ISAM ....................................................................................... 24-4

Cross-domain solutions
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8

23-1

Introduction ............................................................................................. 23-2


Solution description .................................................................................. 23-2
Cell concatenation .................................................................................... 23-3
QoS ......................................................................................................... 23-4
Known restrictions .................................................................................... 23-4
Support on the ISAM ................................................................................ 23-4

24 Application Intelligence Platform


24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4

21-1

A-1

Overview ...................................................................................................A-2
Mobile backhaul..........................................................................................A-3
E1/T1 Leased Line Replacement (SHDSL/PON) ........................................... A-11
E1/PRA Interfaces on ISAM ....................................................................... A-15
Ethernet Business Access over ISAM .......................................................... A-21
ISAM Backhaul (Rural DSL, Ultra-high Broadband) ...................................... A-27
Hospitality solution ................................................................................... A-33
Open Community Broadband for Smart Communities .................................. A-39
November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

Contents

B.

RADIUS Attributes
B.1
B.2

B-1

RADIUS Attributes ......................................................................................B-2


Vendor specific RADIUS attributes ...............................................................B-2

Glossary

Index

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

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Contents

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November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

1 Introduction

1.1 General

1-2

1.2 Supported User Interfaces

1-2

1.3 Integrated DSL, Voice, Point-to-point Ethernet, GPON, EPON,


10G EPON and DPoE system
1-4
1.4 Document Structure

1-4

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

1-1

1 Introduction

1.1

General
This document provides the system description for the following products:

7302 Intelligent Services Access Manager (ISAM) equipped with an FD 100 or


320Gbps NT

7330 ISAM Fiber To The Node (FTTN) equipped with an FD 100 or 320Gbps NT
7360 Intelligent Services Access Manager (ISAM) FX
For specific product details on each of these systems, see the:

7302 ISAM Product Information


7330 ISAM FTTN Product Information
7360 ISAM FX Product Information
The ISAM is a frame-based Multi Service Access Platform, offering high-density
copper and fibre connections for multimedia, high-speed internet access, voice and
business services.
The position of the ISAM in the network is visualized in Figure 1-1, showing on the
left side the different types of user interfaces that terminate on the Line Termination
(LT) boards in the system.
The ISAM can be deployed with numerous interfaces and in different network
environments.
Note The ISAM OLT (EPON) described is qualified for MII
market only.

1.2

Supported User Interfaces


Depending on the system and the Network Termination (NT) used in that system, the
list of supported user interfaces will be different.
The ISAM network architecture is shown in Figure 1-1.

1-2

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

1 Introduction
Figure 1-1 ISAM Network Architecture
IP Edge Router
/ BRAS
Ethernet
Switch

NSP IP backbone

ISAM
xDSL
FE/GE

Ethernet

EMAN

Voice

NSP IP backbone

FE/GE

DS1/E1
Video
Wi-Fi

NSP IP backbone

ISAM
ISAM shelf
xDSL
LT

xDSL

FE/GE/10GE

Eth
LT

DS1/E1
Ethernet

Voice
LT

Voice

NT

FE/GE/10GE

Video

ONT/ OMCI
ONU GPON

Wi-Fi

ONT/
ONU

OAM
(10G) EPON

GPON
LT

(10G) EPON
LT
ISAM OLT

Depending on the type of LT boards plugged into the system, three types of user
interfaces are available:

a number of different DSL interfaces (depending on the related DSL line board
family),
Ethernet interfaces
voice interfaces
In case a GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) LT LT is used, depending on the
type of ONU connected, the same 3 types of user interfaces are available. In addition,
also RF video overlay, Wi-Fi, and DS1/E1 interfaces can be available via the Optical
Network Units (ONU).
In case an EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network)), or a 10G EPON (10Gigabit
Ethernet Passive Optical Network) LT is used, depending on the type of ONU
connected, the xDSL interface, Ethernet and Voice interface can be available via the
Optical Network Units (ONU).
DOCSIS Provisioning of EPON (DPoE) implements the DOCSIS operations,
administration, maintenance, and provisioning functionality on existing EPON
equipment to allow for existing DOCSIS Operations Support System Infrastructure
(OSSI).

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

1-3

1 Introduction

Every type of ONU has a number of user interfaces of a certain type, so they have to
be chosen in function of the required interfaces and functionality.
Although it is clear that the ONUs are physical boxes outside the ISAM shelves,
often located at customer premises, they belong to the ISAM system architecture and
are also managed from the ISAM.
It is worthwhile to emphasize the physical and conceptual place of the GPON,
EPON, and 10G EPON functionality in the ISAM because it extends the system
boundaries up to 128 (ONUs) over a fiber plant that can reach tens of kilometers from
the GPON, and 10G EPON LTs and up to 64 (ONUs) over a fiber plant that reach
tens of kilometers from the EPON LTs.
More details on every of these interfaces are available in chapter System interface
overview.

1.3

Integrated DSL, Voice, Point-to-point Ethernet, GPON,


EPON, 10G EPON and DPoE system
A combination of all of above mentioned user interfaces and functionality can be
supported simultaneously in one single ISAM system, as shown in Figure 1-1. By
deploying xDSL, Voice, point-to-point Ethernet, GPON, EPON, 10G EPON and
DPoE LTs together in a single shelf, a single system can support all these types of
interfaces. Therefore we can talk about an 'integrated system'.
The management models for DPoE and traditional EPON are very different however
they share the same EPON LT card using the following management modes:

EPON: default mode, managed using traditional 1G EPON model


DPoE: managed using traditional 1G EPON model compliant with DPoE
specified OAM
DOCSIS: managed using DOCSIS model
The ISAM system can on the other hand also be used as a DSL-only, Voice-only,
point-to-point Ethernet-only, GPON-only, EPON-only, or 10G EPON-only system
in function of the available network strategy decided on by the operator.
Even though the ISAM LTs and ONUs may have similar interface types (Ethernet,
xDSL and voice) they are treated separately and in a number of cases managed
through different commands and procedures.
However, for any higher layer functionality, such as Layer2 and Layer3 forwarding
protocols, ISAM provides a common management model and common
implementation

1.4

Document Structure
Following a general chapter about the system interfaces in the next chapter, this
document is organized in a number of functional areas providing an end-to-end view
of the various ISAM feature domains.

1-4

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All chapters related to the higher layers in this document cover the ISAM as an
integrated system (see chapter System interface overview) because of the common
management model and implementation between xDSL, Voice, point-to-point
Ethernet, GPON, EPON, 10G EPON and DPoE architecture.
The GPON, EPON, 10G EPON and DPoE architecture is covered in a dedicated
chapter followed by a chapter that provides an overview of all ONU types and their
respective physical user interfaces.

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1 Introduction

1-6

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2.1 General

2-3

2.2 Overview

2-3

2.3 Multi-ADSL
2.4 VDSL

2-5

2-9

2.5 SHDSL

2-11

2.6 Ethernet

2-13

2.7 GPON

2-15

2.8 EPON

2-16

2.9 10G EPON


2.10 DPoE

2-19

2-23

2.11 Inverse multiplexing for ATM


2.12 ATM/PTM bonding

2-24

2-24

2.13 Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces


2.14 E1 TDM Interface

2-25

2-26

2.15 Overview of ONU Based UNI and Service Interfaces

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2.16 Overview of ISAM support for remote management of


third-party equipment.
2-28

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2.1

General
This chapter provides a general description of the system interfaces.
The ISAM can be deployed with numerous interfaces and in different network
environments. In a basic deployment, the ISAM is used to provide High-Speed
Internet (HSI), Video, and Voice over IP (VoIP) services to subscribers.
A specific use of the ISAM is to provide classic telephony services to subscribers
being connected with classic Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) or Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN) lines, and to convert within the ISAM the
corresponding signals to VoIP signaling and data packets. This specific use of the
ISAM is known as ISAM Voice.
In case a Passive Optical Network (PON) is used as physical access technology, the
GPON LT, EPON LT or 10G EPON LT connects via fiber interfaces to the PON and
physically terminate into the Optical Network Units (ONUs) that provide the user
interfaces for all services.
ONUs are access devices that are located at the user/customer premises. Several
types of ONU exist, more details are described in a dedicated section further in this
document
It should be clear that, due to the positioning of the ONU, this device provides the
actual user interfaces and is, together with the GPON LT, fully ISAM-internal. In the
case of EPON, and 10G EPON, the EPON interface cannot be considered as fully
ISAM-internal because of the white-box management model designed for better
compatibility with other vendors.
Note Throughout this document, the terminology as defined in
Rec. ITU-T G.984.1 (03/2008) will be adopted for EPON, 10G EPON
and GPON. The Optical Network Unit (ONU) is the generic term
denoting a device that terminates any one of the distributed (leaf)
endpoints of an Optical Distribution Network, implements a PON
protocol, and adapts PON PDUs to subscriber service interfaces. In
some contexts, an ONU implies a multiple-subscriber device. The
Optical Network Termination (ONT) is a single subscriber device and
is a special case of an ONU.

2.2

Overview
The following section provides an overview of the different relevant aspects for
subscriber links.
Note 1 For ease of understanding, the ISAM Voice links are

described separately, see section Overview of ISAM Voice


interfaces.
Note 2 For a clear delineation, Optical Network Unit (ONU)-based

user-facing interfaces (UNIs) are also discussed separately, see


section Overview of ONU Based UNI and Service Interfaces.

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Link transmission technology


In general, the subscriber links are terminated on the Line Termination (LT) boards.
The ISAM supports LT boards with various transmission types:

ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+, and READSL2 (ITU-T G.992)


VDSL2 (ITU-T G.993)
SHDSL (ITU-T 991.2, YD/T1185-2002), IEEE 802.3
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
10G EPON (IEEE 802.3av)

The Ethernet subscriber links can also be terminated on the Network Termination
(NT) boards or the NT I/O boards.
In addition, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (GPON) and Ethernet Passive
Optical Network (EPON) line boards provide ISAM OLT interfaces to ONU to
deliver high quality voice, video, and data services to both single-family,
multi-dwelling residential and business subscribers. The ISAM OLT implementation
is based on ITU-T and IEEE specifications, see sections GPON and EPON.
The network links (ISAM uplinks), subtending links (to the subtended ISAM) or
inter-shelf links (ISAM downlinks from the host shelf to remote shelves, Remote
Expansion Modules (7356 ISAM FTTB REMs) or Sealed Expansion Modules (7357
ISAM FTTB SEMs)) are terminated by the Network Termination (NT) boards, by
the NT I/O boards, or by an Ethernet LT board operating in
Network-to-Network-Interfacing modus.
Figure 2-1 shows a diagram of approximate achievable downstream bit rates for the
preceding DSL transmission types as a function of the line length for a 0.4 mm
diameter (26 AWG) twisted pair.
Figure 2-1 DSL types: downstream bit rate as a function of line length
100
90
80

VDSL2

Do wn s tre a m b it ra te (Mb /s)

70
60
50

VDSL

40
30

ADSL2+

20

ADSL2
10

ADSL
0
0

Lin e le n g th (km)

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Transfer modes
The ISAM supports the following transfer modes for the preceding transmission
types:

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is supported for all ADSL types and
SHDSL.

Packet Transfer Mode (PTM) with 64/65 octet encapsulation/Ethernet in the First
Mile (EFM) is supported for SHDSL, VDSL2, and some ADSL2/2+ LT boards.
This transfer mode uses 64/65 byte block coding of variable size frames or frame
fragments at the transmission convergence sublayer in the modem.
For PTM over ADSL2/2+, preemption is supported in the upstream direction and
enabled by default (not configurable).
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet frame transfer
Time Division Multiplex Mode (TDM) is supported for 10G EPON
Wavelength Division Multiplex Mode (WDM) is supported for 10G EPON

Bonding
A number of methods exist to combine multiple physical links that apply the
preceding transmission types and transfer modes to a single logical subscriber
interface. This allows increasing either:

the available service bandwidth for a subscriber


the distance across which a standard service bandwidth package can be offered,
in case of transmission types for which the achievable link bandwidth depends
strongly on the length of the local loop
a combination of the preceding two methods.
Bonding of multiple links is possible at different levels in the ISAM, where the traffic
of DSL links is aggregated. The broader the scope of the bonding capability, the
more flexibility an operator has to configure bonding groups.
The following bonding methods are defined within the standards:

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA): ATM Forum Specification


af-phy-0086.001
ATM Bonding: ITU-T G.998.1
PTM Bonding: ITU-T G.998.2
M-pair operation for SHDSL: ITU-T G.991.2

2.3

Multi-ADSL
The ISAM supports multi-ADSL subscriber lines. This section describes the
different supported ADSL types.

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ADSL1
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is used on existing metallic twisted
pairs (one per subscriber) between the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) and a
Central Office (CO) exchange.
A Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) technique allows the simultaneous use
of high-speed data services and the existing Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) or
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).
Other advantages of ADSL are:

The existing network is used by the network operator (reducing costs).


The existing telephone service, including equipment, is retained by the customer.
Asymmetric nature of ADSL

The digital transmission capacity of the ADSL system is asymmetric in that the
downstream and upstream bit rates are different:

The downstream bit rate can range from 32 kb/s up to 8 Mb/s (or 15 Mb/s with
the optional S=0.5). The bit rate granularity is 32 kb/s.
The upstream bit rate can range from 32 kb/s to 1.5 Mb/s. The bit rate granularity
is 32 kb/s.
Note In practice, the maximum achievable upstream bit rate is
typically below 1.5 Mb/s. For example, the maximum achievable
upstream bit rate for Annex A is 1.2 Mb/s.
The chosen rate depends on the bidirectional services to be supported and the loop
characteristics.
This transmission type allows high-bandwidth services, for example, digital audio
and video (multimedia), Ethernet interconnection to the customer, and so on.
Bidirectional transport

With ADSL, the transport system provides bidirectional asymmetric communication


over a single twisted pair without repeaters.
ADSL services

The multi-ADSL mode and maximum physical bit rate is automatically determined
during initialization of the modem, based on line conditions and the line
configuration. Modem initialization is done using a predefined noise margin and
within the constraints of the transmit power spectral density. This allows various
levels of service, for example, offering the highest bit rates at a premium or ensuring
a guaranteed bit rate.
Operational modes

Table 2-1 lists the supported ADSL1 operational modes.

2-6

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Table 2-1 ADSL operational modes
Operation Mode

Description

T1.413 Issue 2

ANSI standard; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum

DTS/TM-06006

ETSI standard; operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.1 Annex A

Also known as G.dmt; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.1 Annex B

Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.2 Annex A

Also known as G.lite; operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum.


This standard is a medium bandwidth version of ADSL that allows Internet
access at up to 1.5 Mb/s downstream and up to 512 kb/s upstream.

ADSL2
The ADSL2 family of ADSL standards adds features and functionality that boost the
performance, improve interoperability, and support new applications, services, and
deployment scenarios.
ADSL2 includes the following:

Better rate and reach:

Improved modulation efficiency, improved initialization state machine, enhanced


signal processing algorithms, reduced framing overhead, and framing extension
allowing higher coding gain.
Loop diagnostics:
Real-time performance-monitoring capabilities provide information regarding
line quality and noise conditions at both ends of the line (see chapter Line testing
features, section Single-Ended Line Testing). In addition, ADSL2 provides
Carrier Loop diagnostics based on Dual-Ended Line Testing (DELT) (see
chapter Line testing features, section Dual-ended line testing).
Packet-based services:
ADSL2 amendment 1 brings native transport of packets such as Ethernet
Impulse Noise Protection (INP):
See chapter xDSL features, section Configurable impulse noise protection.
Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX):
See chapter xDSL features, section Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX).
Bonding:
ADSL2 also specifies IMA. However, this has been replaced by bonding support
as per G.998.1; see section ATM/PTM bonding.
Low-power modes (L2/L3):
See chapter xDSL features, section Low-power modes.
Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA):
See chapter xDSL features, section Seamless rate adaptation.
Carrier masking:
The carrier mask allows the suppression of each individual carrier in the upstream
and downstream direction.

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Mandatory receiver support of bit swapping:


Bit swapping reallocates data and power (that is, margin) among the allocated
subcarriers without modification of the higher layer features of the physical layer.
After a bit swapping reconfiguration, the total data rate is unchanged and the data
rate on each latency path is unchanged.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) egress control and means for RFI ingress
control:
To minimize the impact of radio frequency interference from and with AM radio
and radio amateurs, multi-ADSL provides RFI egress control and means for RFI
ingress control.
Operational modes

Table 2-2 lists the supported ADSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-2 ADSL2 operational modes
Operation Mode

Description

G.992.3 Annex A

Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.3 Annex B

Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.3 Annex M

Extended upstream operation (up to 3 Mb/s) over POTS non-overlapped


spectrum

G.992.3 Annex J

All Digital Mode operation with non-overlapped spectrum and extended


upstream band (spectrally compatible with ADSLx over ISDN)

A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5
Annex M is enabled.
A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5
Annex J is enabled.

ADSL2+
A number of applications, such as some video streams or combinations of video and
data streams, can benefit from higher downstream rates than are currently possible
with ADSL2. By doubling the ADSL frequency range up to 2.2 MHz, downstream
bit rates of up to about 25 Mb/s can be provided.
Operational modes

Table 2-3 lists the supported ADSL2+ operational modes.


Table 2-3 ADSL2+ operational modes
Operation Mode

Description

G.992.5 Annex A

Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum

(1 of 2)

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Operation Mode

Description

G.992.5 Annex B

Operation over ISDN non-overlapped spectrum

G.992.5 Annex M

Extended upstream operation (up to 3 Mb/s) over POTS non-overlapped


spectrum

G.992.5 Annex J

All Digital Mode operation with non-overlapped spectrum and extended


upstream band (spectrally compatible with ADSLx over ISDN)

(2 of 2)

A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5
Annex M is enabled.
A license counter keeps track of all the installed lines on which G.992.3 or G.992.5
Annex J is enabled.

Reach Extended ADSL2


Reach Extended ADSL2 (READSL2) is specified by ADSL2 Annex L, proposing
new Power Spectral Density (PSD) masks that can result in a significant increase in
ADSL reach.
Operational modes

Table 2-4 lists the READSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-4 READSL2 operational modes

2.4

Operation Mode

Description

G.992.3 Annex L (WIDE)

Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum, Range-Extended Mode


1

G.992.3 Annex L
(NARROW)

Operation over POTS non-overlapped spectrum, Range-Extended Mode


2

VDSL
Very high bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) allows very high speed data
transmission on a metallic twisted pair between the operator network and the
customer premises. This service is provisioned by using the existing unshielded
copper twisted pairs, without requiring repeaters. By using a Frequency Division
Multiplexing (FDM) technique, the existing POTS or ISDN services can still be
provided on the same wires. VDSL transceivers use Frequency Division Duplexing
(FDD) to separate upstream and downstream transmission.

VDSL1
VDSL1 mode is not supported.

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VDSL2
The VDSL2 standard (G.993.2) is an enhancement to VDSL1. VDSL2 specifies
Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation and is reusing concepts of G.993.1
(VDSL1) and G.992.3 (ADSL2) recommendations, using also the G.994.1
handshake procedure.
VDSL2 features

The main features of VDSL2 are:

VDSL2 offers Packet Transport Mode (PTM) with 64/65B encapsulation:


The definition of profiles supports a wide range of deployment scenarios:
deployment from the exchange (Fiber To The Exchange (FTTEx))
deployment from the cabinet (Fiber To The Cabinet (FTTCab))
deployment from the building (Fiber To the Building (FTTB))
VDSL2 supports higher bit rates than VDSL1; up to 100 Mb/ symmetrical.
The attainable maximum data rate depends on the VDSL2 profile used. Support
of 100 Mb/s requires the 30 MHz profile. Other profiles are better suited for
operation on longer loops, but with reduced maximum bit rate.
VDSL2 offers improved performance over VDSL1:

addition of Trellis coding


increased maximum allowable transmit power
VDSL2 features provide better support for triple play over VDSL
improved Impulse Noise Protection (INP)
physical layer retransmission (RTX)
virtual noise (optional)
VDSL2 has some ADSL2-like features:
similar: loop diagnostics
improved: PSD shaping
improved management with regard to VDSL1
VDSL2 Operational Modes

Table 2-5 lists the supported VDSL2 operational modes.


Table 2-5 VDSL2 operational modes

2-10

Operation Mode

Description

G.993.2 profile 8A

VDSL2 profile 8A

G.993.2 profile 8B

VDSL2 profile 8B

G.993.2 profile 8C

VDSL2 profile 8C

G.993.2 profile 8D

VDSL2 profile 8D

G.993.2 profile 12A

VDSL2 profile 12A

G.993.2 profile 12B

VDSL2 profile 12B

G.993.2 profile 17A

VDSL2 profile 17A

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VDSL2 profile parameter overview

VDSL2 profiles mainly define variants with different bandwidths and transmit
powers. Table 2-6 provides a VDSL2 profile parameter overview.
Table 2-6 VDSL2 profile parameter overview
VDSL2 profile
Parameter

8A

8B

8C

8D

12A

12B

17A

Max. aggregate DS transmit power (dBm)

17.5

20.5

11.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

Max. aggregate US transmit power (dBm)

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

US0 support(2)

Annex A
(998)

DS upper frequency (MHz)

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

17.664

US upper frequency (MHz)

5.2

5.2

5.2

5.2

12

12

12

Annex B
(997)

DS upper frequency (MHz)

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

N/A

US upper frequency (MHz)

8.83

8.83

5.1

8.83

12

12

N/A

Annex B
(997E)

DS upper frequency (MHz)

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

7.05

14

US upper frequency (MHz)

8.832

8.832

5.1

8.832

12

12

17.664

Annex B
(998E)

DS upper frequency (MHz)

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

17.664

US upper frequency (MHz)

5.2

5.2

5.2

5.2

12

12

14

Annex B
(998ADE)

DS upper frequency (MHz)

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

8.5

17.664

US upper frequency (MHz)

5.2

5.2

5.2

5.2

12

12

12

Notes
(1)
US=upstream; DS=downstream
(2)
M=Mandatory; O=Optional; N=Not supported

2.5

SHDSL
The Symmetric High-speed Digital Subscriber Line (SHDSL) technology is a
physical layer standard based on the ITU-T Recommendation G.991.2 (G.shdsl). The
recommendation describes a versatile transmission method for data transport in the
telecommunication access networks. SHDSL supports ATM, PTM and EFM
transport.
SHDSL transceivers are designed primarily for duplex operation over mixed gauges
of two-wire twisted metallic pairs. Four-wire and M-pair operations can be used for
extended reach or bit rate. M-pair operation is supported for up to four pairs.
The use of signal regenerators for both the two-wire and multi-wire operations is
optional.

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Multiple SHDSL circuits may be combined to support higher bandwidth using


Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) interface or the payload can be shared by
multiple circuits (using the M-pair mode). IMA and M-pair do not work
simultaneously over the same port or circuit. Generally, an SHDSL LT in the system
can support ATM or IMA, or ITU-T G.991.2 PTM or IEEE 802.3ah EFM on a
per-port basis.
SHDSL transceivers are capable of supporting selected symmetric user data rates
ranging from 192 kb/s to 2312 kb/s, and optional up to 5696 kb/s, using Trellis Coded
Pulse Amplitude Modulation (TCPAM) line code. For spectral compatibility with
legacy services (including ADSLx), reach limitations can be imposed (typically by
the national regulator) in function of the SHDSL bit rate.
SHDSL transceivers support Cross-Talk Cancellation (CTC).
SHDSL transceivers do not support the use of analogue splitting technology for
coexistence with either POTS or ISDN.

Regional settings
Table 2-7 lists the supported regional settings.
Table 2-7 SHDSL regional settings
Standards

Description

G.991.2 Annex A/F

Standards applicable for North America (region 1) (ANSI)

G.991.2 Annex B/G

Standards applicable for Europe (region 2) (ETSI)

Payload rates
The following payload rates are supported:

192 to 2304 kb/s in 64 kb/s steps for Annex A/B


192 to 5696 kb/s in 64 kb/s steps for Annex F/G

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2.6

Ethernet
The ISAM supports the following Ethernet interfaces:

Fast Ethernet (FE): supported on NT boards, NT I/O boards, and LT boards.


Gigabit Ethernet (GE): supported on NT boards, NT I/O boards, and LT boards.
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GE): supported on NT boards, NT I/O boards and LT
boards.
Note 1 The 7330 ISAM FTTN supports additional optical uplinks

through the expander unit, as well as optical expansion links


(downlinks).
Note 2 For Ethernet features supported by the Ethernet Line

Termination (LT) board, refer to the Unit Data Sheet (UDS) of the
relevant board.
Ethernet offers the following advantages:

high network reliability


general availability of management and troubleshooting tools
scalable to fit future needs
low cost both in purchase and support
easy migration from Ethernet or FE to GE
flexible network design

Half and full duplex mode


Ethernet can operate in two modes:

Half duplex: In half duplex mode, a station can only send or receive at one time.
Full duplex: In full duplex mode, send and receive channels are separated on the
link so that a station can send and receive simultaneously.
The ISAM NTs supports both modes and can adapt to either mode by way of
auto-negotiation or manual configuration.
The ISAM Ethernet LTs only support the full duplex mode.

Hardware Auto-negotiation
Hardware auto-negotiation provides the capability for a device at one end of the link
segment to advertise its abilities to the device at the other end (its link partner), to
detect information defining the abilities of the link partner, and to determine if the
two devices are compatible. Auto-negotiation provides hands-free configuration of
the two attached devices.

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Using auto-negotiation, the ISAM can determine the operational mode (full or half
duplex) and the speed (only for electrical interfaces) to be applied to the link.
Note 1 It is also possible to manually configure the transmission

mode and speed on the link.


Note 2 Auto-negotiation is supported for both optical and electrical

GE.
Auto-negotiation is supported as follows in ISAM:
For ISAM NTs: full support
For Ethernet LT:

NELT-A: Not supported


NELT-B:
Optical GE: Supported in advertising mode only, i.e. the interface will

communicate its settings (default or fixed by the operator) to the peer but will not
change them as a result of the negotiation, i.e. it is up to the peer to line up its
configuration to the advertised settings.
Electrical GE: the interface will automatically advertise support for 1000 and 100
Mb/s speeds and will adapt its speed in function of the peer capabilities. Other
parameters are only advertised and not negotiated.

Fiber speed auto-sensing


Dual speed optical SFPs support both 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s modes of operations.
When using dual speed SFPs, it is sometimes operationally easier to leave the ISAM
automatically select the link speed in function of the CPE capabilities.
Though speed selection by means of auto-negotiation is standardized for electrical
interfaces, it is not the case for optical interfaces. In order to overcome this situation,
the ISAM supports a proprietary extension allowing the operator to enable the
so-called fiber speed auto-sensing. Once enabled, the ISAM will automatically
detect the operating speed of the CPE and adapts its own line rate.
Note 1 Whenever supported by the CPE (only standardized for

Gigabit Ethernet optical lines), the fiber speed auto-sensing process


will use auto-negotiation, allowing for faster convergence (1 Gb/s line
only).
Note 2 When 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s rates are both supported by the

ISAM and the CPE, the highest available rate (that is, 1 Gb/s) is
always selected.
See the ISAM Product Information manual for supported dual speed optical SFP
modules per board type.

Software Auto-negotiation
Software auto-negotiation institutes a propriety protocol to negotiate a higher
communication bandwidth between two capable boards (NT board on one side and
LT board on the other side). These two boards do not necessarily have to reside in
the same shelf.

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The operator can configure the highest possible bandwidth between two capable
boards via the regular management channels. The software auto-negotiation protocol
will, based on the configured values, bring the bandwidth between two capable
boards to the configured maximum speed.
In case of 7356/7357 ISAM REM/SEM equipment, auto-negotiation will check the
end-to-end configuration based on a capability matrix of 1Gb/s / 2.5Gb/s
components (for example, SFP+/XFP capabilities, NTIO, controller board), and
configure a 2.5Gb/s link speed end-to-end if all the components support 2.5Gb/s.

2.7

GPON
The GPON interface is an optical interface that provides the ability to transport data
between the Optical Line Termination (OLT) and the Optical Network Units
(ONUs). Each GPON interface is shared by up to 128 ONUs. Some ONUs are used
to connect individual residential or business subscribers: the Single Family Unit
(SFU); others connect more residential or business subscribers: the Multi-Dwelling
Unit (MDU) and Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU).
The GPON interfaces must be considered as internal (user) interfaces while the
ONU/ONT service interfaces are the actual (external) user interfaces in this specific
case.
GPON interfaces can also be configured as subtending interfaces, similar to
subtending interfaces as offered on NT and NT I/O ports. See L2 Forwarding section
for additional details
All the ISAM implementations of ONU and OLT are based on the following GPON
ITU-T standards:

G.984.1 (GPON Service requirements)


G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer)
G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer) amendment 1
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer)
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer) amendments 1 and 2
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI)
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI) amendments 1 and 2

Encapsulation
Data sent over the GPON interface is encapsulated in the GEM header, where GEM
stands for GPON Encapsulation Method. The GEM header includes a GEM port
ID which uniquely identifies a traffic flow or group of traffic flows for a specific
UNI. GEM port IDs are not exposed to the operator, but are assigned, for example,
when a VLAN port is created on a UNI. In the ONU, a GEM port ID is associated
with a specific traffic queue towards the PON. Thus the GEM port can be
conceptualized as identifying a specific traffic class within a UNI.

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Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment


In GPON, upstream traffic from all of the ONUs on a PON is managed by the OLT
using DBA (Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment). A number of traffic containers or
T-CONTs are defined, each with individual upstream bandwidth attributes. Each
T-CONT is associated with a specific ONU and aggregates the traffic for one or more
GEM ports on that ONU. ONUs cannot transmit upstream data for a T-CONT
without permission from the OLT. The OLT issues a grant to the ONU to give it
permission to transmit data for a specific T-CONT. This way the OLT can control
the upstream transmission for all T-CONTs and ensure that all BW requirements are
honored.

Delay tolerance
For the upstream GPON transmission, the ISAM system provides a configurable
Delay Tolerance parameter to realize optimal latency and delay variation
characteristics on the GPON link.

Forward Error Correction


Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used by the GPON transport layer, which
involves transmitting the data in an encoded format. The encoding introduces
redundancy, which allows the decoder to detect and correct transmission errors.
For further details, see chapter GPON Network Architecture.

OMCI
ONT Management and Control Interface (OMCI) is the ITU-T G984.4 based open
interface definition that provides the management model for provisioning and
surveillance related functions between OLT and ONU.

2.8

EPON
The EPON interface is an optical interface that provides the ability to transport data
between the Optical Line Termination (OLT) and the Optical Network Unit (ONUs).
Each EPON interface is shared by up to 64 ONUs. Some ONUs are used to connect
individual residential or business subscribers - the Single Family Unit (SFU) or
Single Business Unit (SBU). Other ONTs connect multiple residential or business
subscribers - the Multi-Dwelling Unit (MDU) and Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU).
As already stated in section General, both the EPON interfaces and the ONU
service interface are the actual (external) user interface.
All ISAM implementations of ONU and EPON OLT are based on the following
EPON standards:

IEEE 802.3ah-2004 (Amendment: Media access control parameters, physical


layers and management parameters for subscriber access networks)

IEEE 802.3-2005 (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access
method and physical layer specifications)
China Telecom EPON Specification V2.1/V3.0

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ITU-T G.652 (Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber and cable)


CCSA EPON regulation amendment for PX20+ sublayer requirement
YD/T 1475-2006 The access technical requirements-EPON
Downstream Traffic Transmission
In the downstream direction, Ethernet packets transmitted by the OLT pass through
a 1N passive splitter or cascade of splitters and reach each ONU. The value of N is
typically between 4 and 64 (limited by the available optical power budget). This
behavior is similar to a shared-medium network. Because Ethernet is broadcasting
by nature, in the downstream direction (from network to user) it fits perfectly with
the EPON architecture. Packets are broadcast by the OLT and are selectively
extracted by their destination ONU; see Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2 EPON Downstream Transmission

Upstream Traffic Transmission


In the upstream direction (from users to network), due to the directional properties
of a passive optical combiner, data packets from any ONU will reach only the OLT,
and not other ONUs. In this sense, in the upstream direction, the behavior of a PON
is similar to that of a point-to-point architecture. However, unlike a true
point-to-point network, all ONUs belong to a single collision domain: data packets
from different ONUs transmitted simultaneously still may collide. Therefore, in the
upstream direction, EPON needs to employ some arbitration mechanism to avoid
data collisions and fairly share the channel capacity among ONUs.

Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment


In EPON, the upstream traffic from all the ONUs on a PON is managed by the OLT
using Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA). The upstream traffic is allocated per
Logical Link IDentifier (LLID) by the OLT. Each LLID aggregates the traffic for
one or more service interfaces on that ONU. ONUs cannot transmit upstream data
without permission from the OLT.

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The bandwidth assignment mechanism relies on grant and request messages, or


GATE and REPORT, in IEEE 802.3ah terminology. Both GATE and REPORT
messages are MAC control frames, which are identified by a predefined type value
of 88-08.

A GATE message is sent from the OLT to an individual ONU and is used to
assign a transmission timeslot to this ONU. A timeslot is identified by a pair of
values {startTime, length}.
A REPORT message is a feedback mechanism used by an ONU to convey its
local conditions (such as buffer occupancy) to the OLT to help the OLT make
intelligent allocation decisions.
As specified in China Telecom EPON Specification V2.1/V3.0, the number of
Queue Set and the threshold of each Queue can be configured by the OLT.
The LLID is one of the key points in EPON technology, it derives from preserving
the existing Ethernet MAC operation defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard, the Logical
Topology Emulation (LTE) function should reside below the MAC sublayer.
Operation of this function relies on the tagging of Ethernet frames with tags unique
for each ONU. These tags are called LLIDs and are placed in the preamble at the
beginning of each frame; see Figure 2-3. To guarantee uniqueness of the LLIDs, each
ONU is assigned one or more tags by the OLT during the initial registration
(auto-discovery) phase.
Figure 2-3 Frame Preamble Format in EPON

Forward Error Correction


Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used by the EPON MAC layer, which involves
transmitting the data in an encoded format. The encoding introduces redundancy,
which allows the decoder to detect and correct transmission errors.
For further details, see chapter EPON Network Architecture.

Churning Encryption
The churning encryption is to improve the security of the downstream data because
the downstream traffic can easily be intercepted by malicious users.
The triple churning can be enabled/disabled per LLID on ISAM, and each LLID has
the unique churning key, which is generated by the request of the OLT.
In the downstream direction, the EPON OLT supports the triple churning function as
defined by China Telecom EPON Specification V2.1.
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OAM
Operation, Administration and Management (OAM) is specified in the IEEE
802.3-2005 which provides network operators the ability to monitor the health of the
network and quickly determine the location of failing links or fault conditions. This
OAM described in this IEEE 802.3-2005 focuses on the data link layer.
Several extended OAMs have been implemented on ISAM to improve the
management capability of the whole EPON network, especially EPON ONU (for
example, configuration management, fault management, performance management,
security management and so on).

2.9

10G EPON
The 10G EPON interface is an optical interface that provides the ability to transport
data between the Optical Line Termination (OLT) and the Optical Network Unit
(ONUs).
Each 10G EPON interface is shared by up to 128 ONUs. Some ONUs are used to
connect individual residential or business subscribers - the Single Family Unit (SFU)
or Single Business Unit (SBU). Other ONTs connect multiple residential or business
subscribers - the Multi-Dwelling Unit (MDU) and Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU).
As already stated in section General, both the 10G EPON interfaces and the ONU
service interface are the actual (external) user interface.
All ISAM implementations of ONU and 10G EPON OLT are based on the following
EPON standards:

IEEE 802.3ah-2004 (Amendment: Media access control parameters, physical


layers and management parameters for subscriber access networks)

IEEE 802.3-2005 (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access

method and physical layer specifications)


IEEE 802.3av-2009 (Co-existence and simultaneous operation of 1 Gbs and 10
Gbs and physical layer specifications
IEEE 802.3av-2009 (PMD, RS, PCS, PMA, and MPCP Sub-Layer Requirements
China Telecom EPON Specification V2.1
ITU-T G.652 and G.657 (Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber and cable)
CCSA EPON regulation amendment for PX20+, PR20, PRX20, PR30, and
PRX30 sublayer requirement
YD/T 1475-2006 The access technical requirements-EPON

The 10G EPON system is a single-fiber two-way system that supports two
co-existing configurations:

symmetric operation with line rates of 10 Gb/s upstream and downstream


support for TDMA and WDM with line rates of 1/1, 10/1, and 10/10 Gb/s
upstream/downstream coexistence

asymmetric operation with line rates of 1 Gb/s upstream, and 10 Gb/s


downstream

support for TDMA and WDM with line rates of 1/1 and 10/1 Gb/s
upstream/downstream coexistence

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Downstream Traffic Transmission


In the downstream direction, 10G EPON supports the coexistence of both 10 Gb/s
and 1Gb/s signals in a WDM manner. Ethernet packets transmitted by the OLT pass
through a 1N passive splitter or cascade of splitters and reach each ONU. The value
of N is typically between 4 and 64 (limited by the available optical power budget).
This behavior is similar to a shared-medium network. Because Ethernet is
broadcasting by nature, in the downstream direction (from network to user) it fits
perfectly with the 10G EPON architecture. Packets are broadcast by the OLT in
continuous mode and are selectively extracted by their destination ONU; see
Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4 10G EPON Downstream Transmission
Downstream
10 Gb/s, 1577 nm
1 Gb/s, 1490 nm

10G-10G
ONU

RF Video, 1555 nm
10G-1G
ONU

OLT
Upstream
1 Gb/s, 1310nm

1 Gb/s, 1310nm

10 Gb/s, 1270nm

1G-1G
ONU

Upstream Traffic Transmission


In the upstream direction, 10G EPON system supports the coexistence of both 10
Gb/s and 1 Gb/s signals in a TDMA manner (from users to network), due to the
directional properties of a passive optical combiner, data packets from any ONU will
reach only the OLT, and not other ONUs. In this sense, in the upstream direction, the
behavior of a PON is similar to that of a point-to-point architecture. However, unlike
a true point-to-point network, all ONUs belong to a single collision domain: data
packets from different ONUs transmitted simultaneously still may collide.
Therefore, in the upstream direction, 10G EPON needs to employ some arbitration
mechanism to avoid data collisions and fairly share the channel capacity among
ONUs. Multiple ONUs will take turns transmitting upstream in burst mode. See
Figure 2-4

Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment


In 10G EPON, the upstream traffic from all the ONUs on a PON is managed by the
OLT using Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA). The upstream traffic is allocated
per Logical Link IDentifier (LLID) by the OLT. Each LLID aggregates the traffic for
one or more service interfaces on that ONU. ONUs cannot transmit upstream data
without permission from the OLT.

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The bandwidth assignment mechanism relies on grant and request messages, or


GATE and REPORT, in IEEE 802.3ah terminology. Both GATE and REPORT
messages are MAC control frames, which are identified by a predefined type value
of 88-08.

A GATE message is sent from the OLT to an individual ONU and is used to
assign a transmission timeslot to this ONU. A timeslot is identified by a pair of
values {startTime, length}.
A REPORT message is a feedback mechanism used by an ONU to convey its
local conditions (such as buffer occupancy) to the OLT to help the OLT make
intelligent allocation decisions.
As specified in China Telecom EPON Specification V2.1/V3.0, the number of
Queue Set and the threshold of each Queue can be configured by the OLT.
The LLID is one of the key points in 10G EPON technology, it derives from
preserving the existing Ethernet MAC operation defined in the IEEE 802.3 standard,
the Logical Topology Emulation (LTE) function should reside below the MAC
sublayer. Operation of this function relies on the tagging of Ethernet frames with tags
unique for each ONU. These tags are called LLIDs and are placed in the preamble at
the beginning of each frame. To guarantee uniqueness of the LLIDs, each ONU is
assigned one or more tags by the OLT during the initial registration (auto-discovery)
phase.

Forward Error Correction


Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used by the EPON MAC layer, which involves
transmitting the data in an encoded format. The encoding introduces redundancy,
which allows the decoder to detect and correct transmission errors.
In the 10G EPON system, the FEC is configurable and can be enabled forcibly for
both the upstream and downstream direction of 10/10 Gb/s data rate per PON, and
downstream of 1/10 Gb/s data rate per PON. The FEC is configurable for both the
upstream and downstream direction of 1/1 Gb/s data rate per PON, and upstream of
1/10 Gb/s data rate per PON.
For further details, see chapter EPON Network Architecture.

Churning Encryption
The churning encryption is to improve the security of the downstream data because
the downstream traffic can easily be intercepted by malicious users.
The triple churning can be enabled/disabled per LLID on ISAM, and each LLID has
the unique churning key, which is generated by the request of the OLT as defined by
CCSA for 10G EPON.

OAM
Operation, Administration and Management (OAM) is specified in the IEEE
802.3-2005 which provides network operators the ability to monitor the health of the
network and quickly determine the location of failing links or fault conditions. This
OAM described in this IEEE 802.3-2005 focuses on the data link layer.

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Several extended OAMs have been implemented on ISAM to improve the


management capability of the whole 10G EPON network, especially EPON ONU
(for example, configuration management, fault management, performance
management, security management and so on).

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2.10

DPoE
DOCSIS provisioning of EPON is a set of Cable Television Laboratory
specifications that implement the DOCSIS service layer interface on existing
Ethernet PON (EPON or 10G EPON) Media Access Control (MAC) and Physical
layer (PHY) standards accessed using a management interface.
DOCSIS operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning functionality is
implemented on existing EPON equipment to re-use existing DOCSIS Operations
Support System Infrastructure (OSSI) causing the EPON OLT to act like a DOCSIS
Cable Modem Termination Systems (CMTS) platform.
The DPoE system supports the same IP (HSD) service capabilities as a CMTS, and
also Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) services for the delivery of Ethernet services.
Note Currently, only symmetric 1G EPON is supported.

The Alcatel-Lucent DPoE implementation of ISAM is based on the following


standards:

Cablelabs DPoE 1.0 specifications


Architecture specification: DPoE-SP-ARCH v1.0-101-110225
OAM Extensions specification: DPoE-SP-OAM v1.0-105-130328
Physical Layer specification: DPoE-SP-PHY v1.0-103-130328
Security and Certificate specification: DPoE-SP-SEC v1.0-103-130328
IP Network Element requirements: DPoE-SP-IPNE v1.0-105-130328
MAC and Upper Layer Protocols requirements: DPoE-SP-MULPI
v1.0-105-130328

Metro Ethernet Forum specification: DPoE-SP-MEF v1.0-103-120830


Operations and Support System Interface specification: DPoE-SP-OSSI
v1.0-104-130328

Data-Over-Cable Service Interface 3.0 specifications


MAC and Upper Layer Protocols Interface specification: CM-SP-MULPI v3.0-I
17-111117

Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks: CM-SP-L2VPN-109-100611


Operations Support System Interface specification: CM-SP-OSSI v3.0-120-121113
Cablelabs DHCP Options registry: CL-SP-CANN-DHCP-Reg-109-120809
IEEE 803.ah-2004 (Amendment: Media access control parameters, physical
layers and management parameters for subscriber access networks)
IEEE 802.3-2005 (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access
method and physical layer specifications)
IEEE 802.1ad-2005 standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Virtual
Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges, May 2006

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2.11

Inverse multiplexing for ATM


Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is specified by ATM Forum Specification
af-phy-0086.001.
IMA allows an ATM cell stream to be transported on a number of lower-rate physical
links. This is done by grouping these physical links into a single logical transport
channel. The bandwidth of this logical channel is approximately equal to the sum of
the transmission rates of the individual links in the IMA group.
Figure 2-5 IMA
IMA Group

IMA Group
PHY

Physical link #0

PHY

Physical link #1
PHY

PHY

Single ATM Cell stream


from ATM layer

Original ATM Cell


stream to ATM layer
Physical link #2
PHY

PHY

IMA Virtual Link

IMA requires that all bonded links operate at the same nominal rate. The original
cells are not modified, and control (ICP) cells are inserted for OAM communication
between the two ends.

In the Tx direction, the ATM cells are distributed across the links in a round robin
sequence.

In the Rx direction, the ATM cells are recombined into a single ATM stream.
The IMA type of bonding is supported on SHDSL LT boards.

2.12

ATM/PTM bonding

ATM bonding
ATM bonding is specified by ITU-T G.998.1.
ATM bonding is applied to combine ATM-based transmission links with limited or
reach-dependent bandwidth, which do not exhibit an identical transmission speed,
specifically all types of ADSL. This technique does add sequence information to
ATM cells, and thus allows resequencing, that is, delay variation due to speed
variation across multiple physical links in one bonding group. Up to 2 transmission
links can be combined in one bonding group with ADSL ATM bonding.

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PTM bonding
PTM bonding is specified by ITU-T G.998.2.
PTM bonding applies to DSL links with or without identical transmission speed,
because PTM implies the use of variable size PDUs, which make the use of IMA
techniques impossible. PTM bonding is applied to combine EFM-based transmission
links with limited or reach- dependent bandwidth, specifically VDSL2, SHDSL, and
ADSL2(+). This technique adds sequence information to transmitted frames or
frame fragments, and thus allows resequencing, that is, delay variation due to speed
variations or to PDU size variations, or both, across multiple physical links in one
bonding group. Up to 8 transmission links can be combined in one bonding group
with VDSL2 or ADSL2(+) PTM bonding.

2.13

Overview of ISAM Voice interfaces


This section provides an overview of the different links of the ISAM Voice.
ISAM Voice supports LT boards with various types of Narrow Band (NB) subscriber
links:

Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) link


Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Basic Access (BA) link
ISAM Voice is connected to the network through Ethernet links as documented for
the ISAM. See section Ethernet.

POTS
The POTS interface is the Z interface, that is, an analog subscriber line for
connecting, for example, a POTS line. However, also other equipment such as faxes
can be connected. The principles of this interface are as standardized in ITU-T Q.551
and Q.552.
The Z interface carries signals such as speech, voice band analog data,
multi-frequency push button signals, and so on. In addition, the Z interface must
provide for DC feeding of the subscriber set and ordinary functions such as DC
signaling, ringing, metering, and so on, where appropriate.
The characteristics of this interface are as standardized in ITU-T Q.551 and Q.552.
It is recognized that the characteristics of analog interfaces vary considerably from
country to country and therefore the characteristics other than those defined in
Recommendations Q.551 and Q.552 are not subject to ITU-T Recommendations.
Within the ISAM, these are typically handled with the concept of a CDE profile.

ISDN BA
The ISDN BA interface corresponds to the U reference point of the Digital
Transmission System.
The interface provides full-duplex and bit-independent transmission via two wires at
a net bit rate of 144 kb/s. The net bit rate of 144 kb/s offers 1 D-channel of 16 kb/s
and 2 B-channels of 64 kb/s.

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The ISDN BA layer 1 specification is given in ITU-T I.430. Both 2B1Q and 4B3T
encoding are applied through the use of different HW variants.
The D-channel signaling procedures are defined in the Q.920 and Q.930-Series, for
the basis particularly in Q.921 and Q.931.

2.14

E1 TDM Interface
The ISAM supports E1 interfaces by means of a dedicated E1 TDM pseudo-wire
SFP. The E1-TDM SFP can be inserted in a standard GE SFP cage of the ISAM's
NT, NT I/O or LT board. Per need basis any Gigabit Ethernet SFP port can be
converted into a TDM port and back. See the Product Information document for your
system for supported SFP modules per board type.
By performing Circuit Emulation Services (CES) encapsulating, the E1 TDM traffic
is transported in Ethernet Layer2 packets across the ISAM and Ethernet based
network. Allowing interoperability with other CES interworking devices the
E1-TDM SFP is using the Metro Ethernet Forum standard (MEF-8) payload format
and pseudo-wire (PW) technology.
The E1-TDM SFP is a dual-channel SFP allowing terminating up to two E1 TDM
lines, with a data-rate of 2,048 Mbps per E1. The CES interworking function of the
E1-TDM SFP initiates and terminates a dedicated pseudo-wire per E1 tributary.
The E1-TDM SFP supports structure agnostic E1 operation modes only. The
line-interface supports framed-E1 for Loss Of Framing detection and CRC-4 checks.
DS0 grooming or fractional E1 is not supported.
Different line impedances (75, 120) are software selectable. The receiver
sensitivity can be configured depending on the required distances (Long Haul, Short
Haul). The interface type is RJ45.
Using Synchronous Ethernet between the host board and the SFP, a high accurate
clocking reference is provided to meet the wander requirements for TDM traffic.

2.15

Overview of ONU Based UNI and Service Interfaces


The Alcatel-Lucent ONU products are access devices that use GPON technology to
extend a fiber optic cable from a GPON LT in the ISAM to a subscriber residence or
business location. There is a variety of ONU applications including single-family
residences, multi-dwelling residences such as an apartment building, and small
office home office applications.
Next to a GPON uplink towards the GPON LTs, the Alcatel-Lucent ONU products
can provide the following end-user interfaces:

Ethernet UNIs (IEEE 802.3)


xDSL UNIs (ITU-T G.993.2 VDSL2)
DS1/E1 UNIs (Structured and Unstructured) in CES encapsulation with MEF-8
compliant packetization format
Voice interworking function from analog POTS lines to the VoIP/Ethernet layer
(SIP)
RF Video for Overlay Service
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Ethernet UNIs
The Ethernet interfaces on the ONUs support the following primary features:

IEEE 802.3 Physical Layer


IEEE 802.1Q, 802.1x port-based authentication, and 802.1p (QoS classification
per Ethernet port support)
Layer 3 DSCP to 802.1p mapping to allow L3 Class of Service (CoS) over the
Layer 2 network
Full or half duplex operations
Auto-negotiation or manual setting of speed and operation mode

VDSL UNIs
The VDSL service is provided using unshielded copper twisted pairs and without
requiring repeaters. By using a Frequency Division Multiplexing technique, the
existing POTS or BR ISDN services can still be provided on the same wires. VDSL
transceivers use Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) to separate upstream and
downstream transmission.
Additional details are provided in chapter xDSL features.

DS1/E1 UNIs in CES Encapsulation


TDM traffic based on structured and unstructured DS1 / E1 interfaces of ONUs are
transported using Circuit Emulation Services (CES) encapsulation in Ethernet
layer-2 over the GPON using the Metro Ethernet Forum standard MEF-8 payload
structure and pseudo-wire (PW) technology, primarily for Business Services.
Additional details are provided in chapter ISAM Support for the GPON ONU.

POTS UNIs in VoIP


The ONUs support the voice interworking function from the analog POTS lines to
the VoIP/Ethernet using SIP.
SIP implementation is based on RFC 3261 which contains the primary methods or
signaling messages. Additional RFCs are defined that expand on this base to provide
more complete functionality so that a complete set of call features that phone users
are accustomed to can be supported.
The connection model uses SDP in conformance with RFC 2327. The media stream
or bearer channel is based on its own protocol, RTP, which is defined in RFC3550
and RFC 3551.
Additional details are provided in chapter ISAM Support for the GPON ONU.

RF Video
The ONU provides RF video service through the video overlay function. The
function operates downstream in the 1550 nm optical band. Signals sent over the
overlay network are presented to the subscriber as RF signals from a video F-type
connector in the ONU.

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This service is an alternative to IGMP-based in-band video provided over HSI


services supported on Ethernet and VDSL2 UNIs.
Additional details are provided in chapter ISAM Support for the GPON ONU.

2.16

Overview of ISAM support for remote management of


third-party equipment.

Purpose
ISAM supports dedicated interfaces for the remote management of co-located
third-party equipment through Ethernet connections.
Examples are power supplies, timing supplies, Automatic Distribution Frames,
environment monitoring and conditioning equipment.

Assumptions made on third-party equipment management


traffic
The following assumptions are made about the third-party equipment management
traffic:

The equipment uses an Ethernet interface with untagged frames for remote
management.
The third-party equipment can be identified in the network through either:

a pre-configured IP address, for which a destination MAC address can be retrieved


through use of the ARP protocol.

a public MAC address.


The third-party equipment traffic is conveyed in a dedicated VLAN. This VLAN
is configurable by the operator
The communication protocol used for remote managing of the third-party
equipment allows detection of communication corruption or disruption.

Stand-alone ISAM with NT functions

Physical interface

In this case, the third-party equipment can be connected to a free Ethernet port of the
NT function. This port has to be configured as a direct user port. The different
ISAM NT board types either:

provide a combo electrical 100/1000 Base-T and optical 1 GE interface as direct


user port
support the use of electrical 100/1000 Base-T SFPs in external port SFP cages.

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Third-party management traffic handling and security

The applied NT port has to be configured for:

VLAN-port tagging, with a dedicated third-party equipment management VLAN


value
VLAN cross-connect.

Remote LT equipment without NT functions


In the case of ISAM REM and SEM equipment, the third-party equipment can be
connected to:

any REM/SEM equipment by means of a DSL modem with 10/100Base-T


subscriber port connected to one of the REM/SEM ports. VLAN
tagging/stripping and destination MAC address filtering are configured on the
bridge port associated to the REM/SEM DSL line used for this purpose.
FD-REM equipment by means of a 10/100Base-T electrical interface, provided
on the REM control board NRCD-x.
In this configuration, the average traffic load must not exceed 50 kb/s, or 50
packets/s.
With the introduction of the NRCD-C control board, the allowed average traffic
load is increased to 10Mbps of mixed size packets.

Third-party management traffic handling and security


The FD-REM external equipment management port has to be configured for
VLAN-port tagging, with a dedicated third-party equipment management VLAN
value.
VLAN cross-connect behavior is default and not configurable on this port.
For enhanced security in remote cabinets, it is possible to restrict allowed destination
MAC addresses in upstream Ethernet traffic on this port to a white-list of 20 MAC
address ranges. Each entry of this list consists of:

an Original manufacturer Unique Identifier (OUI) value, covering the three Most
Significant Bytes (MSB) of the public MAC address
a start value and an end value of a single consecutive range of MAC addresses for
the above OUI, covering at maximum the full three Least Significant Bytes (LSB)
of the public MAC address.
The ISAM itself does not support detection of malfunctions on the FD-REM external
equipment management port, and will not generate alarms related to usage of this
port

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provisions in ISAM

3.1 Overview

3-2

3.2 ISAM single shelf configurations

3-5

3.3 ISAM subtending system protection


3.4 Failure protection at layer 3

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3.5 Subscriber interface redundancy

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3.1

Overview
When you provide protection for system functions and subsystems by use of
redundancy, you improve the reliability of those parts of the ISAM, and hence the
availability of the whole ISAM.

Redundancy aspects
Redundancy has different aspects, and each aspect has its advantages and
disadvantages which must be taken into account. The following aspects are
described:

Relation between essential and redundant resources


Operational mode of the additional redundant resources
The scope of the protection - the impact of a failure
The average duration of an outage - time to repair
The number of simultaneous failures that have to be coped with

Relation between essential and redundant resources

Bilateral:
One redundant resource can back up only a single dedicated essential resource
(notation 1:1 or 1+1).
The advantage is that the redundant resource can be fully preconfigured, and that
protection normally takes a minimal time. Also, the configuration data (static, or
dynamic, or both) necessary for the redundant resource can be kept on the redundant
resource itself.
The disadvantage is that each essential resource has to be duplicated, which adds to
the cost, the space requirements, and the power consumption.
Dynamic:
A redundant resource can replace any one resource out of a group of identical
essential resources (notation N:1 or N+1, or N:M or N+M in general).
Because each essential resource does not have to be duplicated, one or a few
additional resources can protect a much larger group of identical essential resources.
The disadvantage is that this scheme only is applicable when multiple identical
essential resources are present in the ISAM. In many cases, the redundant resource
cannot be fully preconfigured. The redundant resource can only be configured after
the failing resource has been identified, which means the time for protection has to
be increased by the configuration time. Also, an up-to-date copy of the static and/or
dynamic configuration data for the multiple essential resources has to be kept in a
location which is not affected by failure of the related resource. This requires either
additional storage on the redundant resource, or a more complex data storage
mechanism across all the protected resources.
Operational mode of the additional redundant resources

Standby:
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One or more redundant resources are kept inactive or on standby while one or more
essential resources perform all the required processing (notation 1:1, N:1,N:M in
general).
The advantages are that the ISAM architecture is relatively simple, and the
configuration and initialization of the redundant resource(s) starts from a
well-known state at the time of activation of the redundant resource(s) in case of a
protection switchover. The standby state can apply on the data path, the control path
and/or the management path (see Redundancy provision for more information and
practical examples).
The disadvantages are that the redundant resource does not contribute to the
operation (performance) of the ISAM for 99.9% or more of the time, while requiring
an additional, up to 100% investment in cost, space and power consumption. Also,
in many cases the redundant resource cannot be monitored or tested for 100% of the
functions that it has to perform, so a certain risk of dormant faults exists.
Active and load sharing:
All resources (reflected in the data path, control path and/or management path) are
active or operational, normally in a load-sharing mode, but the number of resources
in the ISAM exceeds the minimum needed to perform all the necessary processing
by one, or more (notation 1+1, N+1, or N+M in general). Some resources can be
implemented in load-sharing mode, while others are implemented in active/standby
mode (see Redundancy provision for more information and practical examples).
If one or more of the active resources fail, the remaining resources take over the
whole processing load. Also, all the resources can be monitored in operational
conditions, and dormant faults cannot occur.
The advantage of this type of redundancy is that the ISAM performance increases
while no faults occur, by virtue of the more-than-necessary active resources.
The disadvantages are that the ISAM usually becomes more complex. A dispatching
or processing load distribution function is necessary, which must be fair (that is, the
load must be shared evenly over all the resources) and must be able to recognize
resource failures in time and to respond to them. Also, this function must not
constitute a (significant) single-point-of-failure in itself.
The scope of the protection - the impact of a failure

Usually, it is not economical to protect functions or sub-systems that affect only a


limited number of subscribers, interfaces or a limited amount of traffic. An often
applied principle is that central or aggregation resources (that is, resources whose
availability determines the availability of the whole ISAM) are protected, while
tributary resources are not protected. However, it depends on the specifics of each
individual case whether this principle is economically viable, in either direction.

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The average duration of an outage - time to repair

Redundancy of a resource nearly always should be optional. In many cases the need
for providing redundancy or not for a given resource is determined by the average
time to repair. A resource in a system may be reliable enough (that is, its Mean time
Between Failure (MTBF) is low enough) to operate in a non-protected way. For
example, in an attended CO environment, where a spare parts stock and skilled staff
are available and where short detection and intervention times can be guaranteed.
However, the same resource may require redundancy when deployed in an
unattended outdoor cabinet, in order to meet the same availability as in the CO.
The number of simultaneous failures that have to be coped with

Individual Replaceable Items (RI) in modern, carrier-grade telecommunication


equipment are already highly reliable, and provide an intrinsic availability of 99.99%
or even 99.999%, within the boundaries of the specified environmental operating
conditions. In order to achieve the generally required 99.9999% availability, coping
with a single resource failure (that is, providing at most one redundant resource) is
sufficient in all circumstances. The probability of dual simultaneous failures,
affecting the same type of resource, is low enough, and does not have to be taken into
account for protection.

Redundancy provision
The ISAM basically provides redundancy as an option for essential central or
aggregation functions and resources. These include:

External link protection for:


network links
links with sub-tended ISAMs
Equipment protection for the ISAM:
Data path: the Ethernet switch fabric
Control path: the Network Termination (NT) board processor
Management path: the NT board processor
The ISAM does not protect all the central functions or resources by default. Essential
functions and resources reside on the NT board, which can be made redundant. In
practice, a number of different configurations with single, redundant NT and single
NT IO board are possible, each supporting a different amount or type of protection.
An ISAM can be configured in loadsharing mode by means of an optional second FD
100/320GbpsNT board or FX NT board. In this case the faceplate ports on both NT
boards can be configured to carry traffic (that is, active-active data plane). The NTIO
boards that are currently available will switch traffic to and from a single NT board
(that is, the active NT board) only. Because of this, loadsharing over the ports
connected to the NTIO board is not possible. Also, since the currently available LSM
boards are only capable of sending/receiving traffic to/from a single NT board (that
is, the active NT board) no loadsharing is possible between the NT board and the
LSMs. This means that all traffic to/from the LSMs will pass through the active
NT board.

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The control plane is managed on the active NT board but the control plane is fully
synchronized between the two NT boards. The control plane is fully synchronized
for a selected number of protocols:

L1: port state configuration synchronization and port state changes are forwarded
and handled by the active control plane

L2: MAC learning, LACP and IGMP snooping


L3:
Base Router, only static configuration: static routes, IP interfaces and ARP
some other protocols: QoS, ACLs and security, that is, filters.
For a number of protocols such as SyncE and a number of Layer3 protocols (OSPF,
ISIS, RIP, BGP, L3 DHCP Relay Agent) no hitless control plane switchover is
supported. After switchover these protocols will be established from scratch as if on
a simplex system. Also, MPLS, as an exception, is only supported in a simplex
configuration and not in a duplex configuration.
After switchover, the data plane and the control plane (for the supported protocols)
are immediately recovered. The management plane recovery is artificially delayed
and is restored at the moment the new active NT board is fully initialized.

3.2

ISAM single shelf configurations

Single NT
When using a single NT board in the ISAM shelf, only redundancy for external
(network or subtending) links is available, and hence only external link protection is
possible. None of the central functions and resources are duplicated, except for the
external Ethernet interfaces on the faceplate of the NT board itself. The actual
number of these interfaces may vary with the NT type, but equals at least two. This
implies that one or more external network or subtending links can be configured to
protect other network or subtending links on the same NT board.
It must be clear that this link-only protection model does not protect equipment. If
the NT board fails, connectivity on all the links will be lost. The supported
mechanisms are described below.
External link protection: active/standby NT links

External NT links of the ISAM can be configured in active/standby mode on the


single NT board of the ISAM. In case an active NT link fails, all traffic will be
switched to the designated standby NT link as shown in Figure 3-1.

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Figure 3-1 Link protection with active/standby external NT link
LT1

NT
Active
PHY
P

Standby

PHY

LTn

Link failure on the active NT link is detected by either:

detection of Loss of Signal on the NT link


the (Rapid) Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or Multiple Instances Spanning Tree
Protocol (MSTP). Normally, xSTP will allow only one network link to be active,
while all other network links will be forced to standby, in order to avoid loops in
the Ethernet network.
External link protection: Link aggregation

A set of N (1 N 8) physical NT interfaces can be configured in load-sharing mode


(link aggregation) as shown in Figure 3-2. Apart from increasing the capacity of the
resulting ISAM single network interface, this configuration also provides link
protection.
Figure 3-2 Link protection with load-sharing external NT links
LT1

NT
P

PHY

PHY

LTn

If an external link for a single NT with multiple external links in a load-sharing group
is lost, the traffic is redistributed across the remaining links of the load-sharing
group, by means of the link failure detection capability of the Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP).

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Single NT, with NTIO


When extending the preceding configuration with an additional NTIO board in the
ISAM shelf, only the number of external Ethernet interfaces is increased by the
number available on the NTIO board faceplate. This number may vary with the
NTIO board type.
Still none of the central functions and resources are duplicated beyond what is
available on the NT + NTIO board itself. Again, one or more external network or
subtending links can be configured to protect others on the same NT board, by either
(R)STP, MSTP or by LACP.
Figure 3-3 Link protection with load-sharing external NT links
LT1

NT
PHY
P

PHY

NTIO
PHY
PHY
LTn

PHY
PHY
PHY
PHY

Dual NT (loadsharing), no NTIO


The FD 100/320Gbps NT/ FX NT system supports loadsharing of the data and
control layer. The dataplane is physically loadshared (only on the network side,
though, loadsharing towards the LTs is not yet supported) and the control plane is
fully synchronized between the two NT boards. This means that the external links on
the faceplate of both NT boards can be used to connect to the network and that every
one of these links is active at the same time.
The FD 100/320Gbps NT/ FX NT system supports an active/standby NT equipment
protection at the same time (that is, only one of the two NT boards can be active at a
time). After switchover, the control plane on the new active NT board will get full
control over the synchronized control plane. The dataplane via the faceplate ports is
possibly impacted by the reset of the previous active NT board. An LAG over the
faceplate ports of the two NT boards is a good protection in this case. NT switchover
is not revertive after the repair of a failed NT board. The following protection
capabilities exist:
NT equipment protection with distributed external links

Figure 3-4 illustrates the usual configuration with a redundant NT pair, supporting a
loadshared external link configuration. The active external links are connected to the
active NT board and the standby NT board.

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The operator can:

configure a number of external link groups on the NT board (active and/or


standby)
designate any external link of the NT board to be a member of one of the groups
configure a threshold for the minimum number of operational external links in
each group.
Figure 3-4 NT equipment protection with distributed external links
LT1

NT
PHY
P

Active

PHY

LTn
LT1

NT
PHY
P

Active

PHY

LTn

NT protection, that is, switchover of control and management traffic from the active
NT board to the standby NT board, and a related status change for both NT boards,
is only triggered by the failure or removal of the NT board itself, detected by means
of a dedicated protection interface between both NT boards.
This means that a failure of the active NT board or the standby NT board will have
an impact on the data traffic over the external links that can be active on both NT
boards (this can be protected by configuration of a LAG protection group over the
faceplate ports of the two NT boards, though, see NT equipment protection with
distributed external links), but also that a failure of the external faceplate links will
have no influence on the switchover between the active NT board and the standby
NT board.
NT equipment protection with distributed external links (load
aggregation)

Figure 3-5 shows a configuration with multiple external links that are grouped in a
load aggregation group over the two NT boards.
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Figure 3-5 NT equipment protection with distributed external links (load
aggregation)
LT1

NT
P

PHY

PHY

LTn
LT1

NT
P

PHY

PHY

LTn

NT protection, that is, switchover of control and management traffic from the active
NT board to the standby NT board, and a related status change for both NT boards,
is only triggered by the failure or removal of the NT board itself, detected by means
of a dedicated protection interface between both NT boards.
This means that a failure of the active NT board or the standby NT board will have
an impact on the data traffic over the external links that can be active on both NT
boards (protected by the LAG), but also that a failure of the external faceplate links
will have no influence on the switchover between the active NT board and the
standby NT board.

Dual NT, with NTIO


Figure 3-6 shows a redundant NT pair configuration with NTIO board. The NTIO
board enables independent external link protection and NT board equipment
protection, for external links connected to the NTIO board. The NTIO board replaces
the passive optical splitter(s) with an active board. The NTIO board eliminates the
optical power budget reduction caused by the use of an optical splitter, and enables
independent external link protection and NT board equipment protection, for
electrical external links, if connected to the NTIO board.
The external links on the NTIO board can be configured in active/standby mode, or
in load aggregation group mode, as already discussed above.

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There is also no different behavior for the FD 100/320Gbps NT board / FX NT board


system (see NT equipment protection with distributed external links) since the
external links via the NTIO board are shared over the active NT board and the
standby NT board and only the active NT board will be able to use these links. This
means that FD 100/320Gbps NT system uplinks and FX NT system uplinks are only
data-path loadshared for the faceplate ports. The uplinks connected to the current
NTIOs are not loadshared, but physically flipped (SAS controlled) towards the active
NT.
In a redundant NT pair configuration with NTIO board, the external links on the
faceplate of each NT board, and the external links on the face plate of the common
NTIO board in practice cannot be combined as such in a same group, for example for
constructing a bigger load aggregation group.
The reason is that in case of NT board switchover, the external links of the NTIO
board will be reconnected automatically to the new active NT board, while the same
is not possible for external links plugged directly to the NT board faceplate. It is
possible to combine both types of external links in a same load aggregation group
when an optical splitter is used for connecting the external links to the NT board
faceplate(s), as discussed for previous configurations.
It should be noted that the NTIO board is not duplicated, and, therefore, not
protected. However, the probability of an NTIO failure that affects all of its external
interfaces is low, so in case of a failure, outage for all of its external links will be
limited to the actual duration of the board replacement.
Figure 3-6 Independent load sharing external link and NT protection with NT
LT1

NT
PHY
P

PHY
NTIO
PHY

Active

PHY

LTn
LT1

PHY

PHY

NT

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

LTn

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LT Loadsharing
In a redundant NT configuration, the backplane links from the LT to the two NTs are
able to loadshare the upstream and downstream traffic.
In downstream the load sharing NTs should be capable of splitting the traffic across
the backplane links towards the LT and in upstream direction the loadsharing LT
should be capable of distributing the traffic towards the NT, thus doubling the
backplane capacity.

3.3

ISAM subtending system protection


You can cascade multiple single-shelf ISAM systems using standard Ethernet
subtending links. ISAM shelves can be connected together to provide a consolidated
interface to the network.
In principle, all of the above protection techniques and configurations can be applied,
for either network type links and subtending type links, or both. This depends on the
required link capacity for each type, and on the interface capacity of the applied NT
and NTIO board types. (R)STP, MSTP and LACP are supported on ISAM external
interfaces for subtending.
The following topologies show some examples for cascading of ISAM equipment
with protection:

star topology; see Figure 3-7


daisy-chain topology; see Figure 3-8
ring topology: daisy chain with the last node connected to the first; see Figure 3-9.
Up to three levels of cascading can be supported by the ISAM. It depends on the
operator network requirements what the actual appropriate number can be in
practice.
The last ISAM in the cascaded system can be any DSLAM, such as:

a 7302 ISAM
a 7300 ASAM with a FENT or GENT
a 7325 Remote Unit
a 7330 ISAM FTTN
a 7360 ISAM FX

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Figure 3-7 Example of an ISAM subtending star topology
P

NT

PHY
PHY

Subtending
links

LAG

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

Network
links

PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

LAG

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

Subtending
links

PHY
PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY

Figure 3-8 Example of an ISAM subtending daisy chain topology


P

NT

PHY
PHY

Subtending
links active

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

LAG

PHY
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

NT

LAG

NTIO

PHY
PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

NT

PHY

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY
PHY

NTIO

NT

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY
PHY

NT

Network
links
PHY
PHY

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

LAG

PHY
PHY
PHY

3-12

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM


Figure 3-9 Example of an ISAM subtending ring topology
NT

PHY
PHY

Subtending
links active

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY
PHY

NT

NT

PHY
PHY

NT

NTIO

NTIO

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY

NT

PHY

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY

PHY

Network
links

PHY
PHY

NT

PHY
PHY

NTIO
PHY
PHY

NT

PHY

N
PHY
PHY
T

PHY
PHY
PHY

3.4

Failure protection at layer 3


When the ISAM is configured as a router in an layer 3 network, then connectivity
protection can be achieved by enabling one or more of the following layer 3 features:

Routing protocols: RIP, OSPF


ECMP (supported on static routes and OSPF routes)
An example is given below whereby the ISAM is used as a router in a layer 3 network
and connected to more than one edge router on different subnets and physical ports.
Layer 3 packets will be routed over the best route selected by OSPF.
Figure 3-10 Example of layer3-based protection
LT 1

NT
P

Subnet 1

PHY

Edge router 1

PHY

Edge router 2
Subnet 2

L3 switching and
OSPF enabled

LT n

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

3.5

Subscriber interface redundancy


The ISAM provides subscriber interface redundancy for important subscriber
interface which can be:

lines that are connected with business users or small access Nodes (PON/LAN
ONU/ONT)

lines that representing high-capacity access points (Point to point fiber,


GPON/EPON)

PON Link Protection


Note The PON Link Protection feature is only supported on the
7360 ISAM FX (with FANT-F) in this release.

Large bundles of feeders in a cable or duct increase the risk of intolerable repair times
in case of a breach or an accident.
The increasing number of split ratios and deployment of business critical services
highlight the importance of implementing PON protection schemes.
ITU-T specification G984.1 describes multiple PON protection schemes. ISAM
GPON line cards implement Type-B PON protections defined in this standard which
addresses route diversity to the first splitter in a 1:1 arrangement.
The PON links of the ISAM can be configured in protection pairs on the PON boards
across the shelf. In case an active PON link fails, all traffic is switched to the
associated protection without service loss; see Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11 Type-B PON Link Protection
ONU #1
PON LT

N:2 optical splitter


OLT
PON
LT (1)
PON
LT (0)

ONU #N
PON LT

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From the topology point of view, the Type-B PON protection arrangement can be
achieved by connecting two fibers from the ISAM PON interfaces to the a first level
N:2 optical splitter. Link failure on the active link is detected by either:

detection of Loss of Signal on the PON link


loss of frame
Excessive errors on the active PON-using a settable threshold crossing limit on
the errors.
In the current ISAM implementation, only inter-card protection among the cards of
the same type is supported (that is, PON links belonging to the same board can not
be paired into protection groups).
In addition the current implementation does not provide coverage for IPv6/DHCPv6,
802.1x/RADIUS, and CFM/OAM or network-side router (Layer-3) functions.
Before configuring two PONs in a protection pair on NGLT-C/FGLT-A, please
make sure the number of downstream queues per UNI/ONT is configured with the
same value on the two PONs (see also section Downstream QoS).
The Type-B protection feature is not supported with NANT-D or NANT-E.
A license counter keeps track of the number of configured Protection Groups.

Ethernet link protection


Ethernet interfaces hosted by the Ethernet LT can be used to connect critical
resources like business users, mobile base station, or subtended DSLAMs where link
protection is often required.
The redundancy options offered by NELT-B are as follows:

LAG:
Up to eight links can be grouped into a LAG, provided the following conditions
are fulfilled:

they share the same interface type (UNI, HC-UNI or NNI)


they share the same fixed line rate (FE, GE)
all the links members of the LAG are hosted by the same LT (intra-card LAG) and
they all belong to either the port range 118 or the port range 1936

Dynamic (with LACP) and static (without LACP) LAG variants can be
configured. Load sharing is based on MAC and/or IP addresses (configuration
options).

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3 Failure protection and redundancy provisions in ISAM

RSTP/MSTP:
Any link (including a logical link corresponding to a LAG) can be associated with
an xSTP instance provided they share the same interface type (NNI) and are
located onto the same LT board (intra-card xSTP). The following additional
constraints apply:

xSTP is only supported with the iBridge model (not with VLAN cross-connect)
xSTP on the Ethernet LT assumes the LT interface to be root bridge and must be
configured accordingly by the operator.

NT and LT xSTP instances are split, that is the NT links and the LT links are not
part of the same protection domain. A link event failure at the LT side is not
signaled by the NT towards the network and inversely meaning that cross-LT or
cross-ISAM link protection schemes are not supported
Table 3-1 Overview of link protection options in function of the NELT-B interface
type

3-16

Supported link protection option

LAG

xSTP

UNI

Hi-Cap UNI

NNI

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4 Management

4.1 Overview

4-2

4.2 Management interfaces

4-3

4.3 Management interfaces security


4.4 Management access models
4.5 Counters and statistics
4.6 Alarm management

4-13

4-15

4-18

4-19

4.7 Software and database management


4.8 Equipment monitoring

4-26

4-30

4.9 Access node control protocol

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4 Management

4.1

Overview
This chapter describes various management related topics of the ISAM. Table 4-1
below lists the information available in this chapter.
Table 4-1 Contents
Contents

Section

Management interfaces

4.2

Management interfaces security

4.3

Management access models

4.4

Counters and statistics

4.5

Alarm management

4.6

Software and database management

4.7

Equipment monitoring

4.8

Access node control protocol

4.9

The Alcatel-Lucent-recommended management architecture is shown in Figure 4-1.


Figure 4-1 ISAM management
OSS

SOAP XML

TL1
GW

5529
SDC

5530
NA

TL1
xFTP

5529
IDM

5529
OAD

5529
APC
PBMT

5520 AMS
xFTP
SNMP

SNMP

Remote
CT

SOAP XML

TL1
xFTP

CLI

xFTP

TL1
CLI

CLI SNMP
TL1 xFTP
Local
CT

TL1
CLI

ISAM

Alcatel-Lucent has an extensive management suite of products available (5520,


5529, 5530 range of Alcatel-Lucent products) to allow an efficient management of
an ISAM network. Southbound, towards the ISAM, it takes care of all ISAM
specifics and related protocols, while northbound it provides standard SOAP/XML
interfaces for an easy and smooth integration with any other OSS applications,
shielding from the DSLAM complexity.
Of course a direct interaction with the ISAM itself, using CLI or TL1, remains
possible, either directly connected to the ISAM or using a remote Craft terminal.
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4.2

Management interfaces
The ISAM supports the following management interfaces:

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


Command Line Interface (CLI)
Transaction Language 1 (TL1)
File Transfer Protocols: TFTP, SFTP, and FTP
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
Secure Shell (SSH)
System logging (Syslog)
Debug port for troubleshooting

These management interfaces are all supported inband. This means that the
management interface is supported on top of an Ethernet / IP stack for which the
Ethernet links are the Ethernet network links as mentioned in chapter System
interface overview. If one such network link or uplink is dedicated only for
management traffic, outband management can be realized as well.
Only the CLI and TL1 management interfaces can also be realized with a dedicated
RS232 interface.
Note When a firewall is in place between the network
management stations and the ISAM network, it is required that the
following UDP ports are opened on the firewall (for troubleshooting
and migration reasons):

UDP port 23 as destination port


UDP ports 928 939 (928 and 939 included) as source and
destination ports
Not opening these ports on the firewall may lead to a reduced or failed
troubleshooting access, or a failure to perform an ISAM migration, or
both.
Figure 4-2 Secure and insecure management interfaces

Individual security control per management channel

CLI

RS232
serial interface

CLI Agent

File transfer

TL1

SNMP

TL1 Agent

SNMP SNMP
v1/v2
v3

Client

Server

TFTP

Client

Server

SFTP

Client
FTP

SNMP
Telnet
server

SSH
server

23

22

TCP

Telnet
server
1023

161/162
13001
69

1022

TCP

Secure
Insecure

SSH
server

UDP

UDP

Secure
Insecure

UDP

Secure
Insecure

Insecure

115

20

TCP

Secure
Insecure

Insecure

Mutually exclusive

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4 Management

SNMP
The Simple Network Manager Protocol (SNMP) is used by network management
applications like the 5520 AMS, the 5529 Statistics and Data Collector, or the 5530
Network Analyser to manage the ISAM.
Three versions of SNMP exist:

SNMP version 1 (SNMPv1) uses a community string (that is, a plain-text


password in the SNMP messages) to verify if a request may be executed or not.
This is very insecure.
SNMP version2 (SNMPv2) has the same syntax and security level as SNMPv1,
but has more commands, more error codes, different trap, and improved response
SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) provides authentication, privacy and administration
for safe configuration and control operation. SNMPv3 also offers
transaction-by-transaction security configuration settings.
Note SNMPv3 is supported by default. but also SNMPv2 and
SNMPv1 messages can be processed.

SNMPv3

The security mechanisms defined in SNMPv3 protect against threats such as


masquerade, modification of information, message stream modification, and
disclosure.
The SNMPv3 security mechanisms provide:

data origin authentication


data integrity checks
timeliness indicator
encryption

SNMPv3 allows for three different security levels in that messages between agent
and manager can be:

unauthenticated and unencrypted


authenticated but unencrypted
both authenticated and encrypted
Two security-related capabilities are defined in SNMPv3:
1

User-based Security Model (USM):


The USM provides authentication and privacy (encryption) functions and
operates at the message level. In addition, the USM includes a key management
capability that provides for key localization and key updates. The USM is used
to authenticate entities, and provides encryption services to secure
communication between agents and managers. Each agent keeps track of the
authorized user access via an internal table of user/secrets/access entries. Both
authentication and encryption utilize symmetric keys, which can be generated

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4 Management

from a password. Localization of the authentication, and encryption of keys by


hashing the generated key with the ID of each agent entity is strongly
recommended.
2

View-based Access Control Model (VACM):


The VACM verifies whether a given user is allowed to access a particular MIB
object and perform particular functions (MIB views: read, write or notify
access). The VACM makes an access control decision on the basis of:

the principal asking for access


the security model and security level used for communicating the request
the context to which access is requested
the type of access requested (read, write, notify)
the actual object to which access is requested.

TL1
The ISAM supports Transaction Language 1 (TL1) as management interface. This
cross-vendor, cross-technology man-machine language is supported over UDP,
telnet and SSH.
Please check the following documents for the full list and details of all the supported
TL1 commands and events in the ISAM:

Operations and Maintenance Using TL1 for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT


TL1 Commands and Messages Guide for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT
In total, maximum ten TL1 parallel sessions are supported. The following
restrictions and conditions apply depending on the type of session:

two sessions are reserved for CRAFT/Serial access


up to five parallel TL1 sessions over Telnet (TCP) can be used
up to five parallel TL1 sessions over SSH (TCP) can be used
a maximum of six UDP session are supported.

In total, a maximum of ten TL1 parallel sessions are supported. When using TL1
scripts, it is recommended to strictly limit the number of active, parallel TL1 scripts
to two. Anyway the TL1 response should be awaited before launching a new TL1
command to the ISAM.
An alarm is raised whenever a TL1 user logs in (successful or not), indicating the IP
address, account name and timestamp of the login trial. Severity, reporting and so on
of this alarm can be configured as with any other alarm. If the login was not
successful, the corresponding alarm needs to be cleared manually by the operator.
To avoid an overflow of failed login alarms (for example, due to a malicious user),
a new failed login alarm will only be generated either when 3 minutes have passed
since the last failed login alarm or when 90 failed logins occurred, whichever comes
first.

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4 Management

The TL1 login banner is configurable.


Note The ISAM will refuse any TL1/UDP connection with a
source port < 12 to protect the ISAM against malicious attacks.

CLI
The ISAM supports a Command Line Interface (CLI) as management interface. This
interface is primarily intended as a man-machine interface for the ISAM and is
supported over telnet, SHH, and using the serial interface (Craft).
Please check the following documents for the full list and details of all the supported
CLI commands and events in the ISAM:

Operations and Maintenance using CLI for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT


CLI Command Guide for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT
The ISAM supports up to ten parallel CLI sessions, be it over telnet or over SSH.
There can only be 1 local Craft session.
An alarm is raised whenever a CLI user logs in (successful or not), indicating the IP
address, account name and timestamp of the login trial. Severity, reporting and so on
of this alarm can be configured as with any other alarm. If the login was not
successful, the corresponding alarm needs to be cleared manually by the operator.
To avoid an overflow of failed login alarms (for example, due to a malicious user),
a new failed login alarm will only be generated either when 3 minutes have passed
since the last failed login alarm or when 90 failed logins occurred, whichever comes
first.

xFTP

File Transfer Protocols

The ISAM supports 3 file transfer protocols: FTP, TFTP and SFTP.
TFTP is the simplest of the 3 file transfer protocols, but lacks reliability and security
capabilities. It runs on top of UDP and does not require any username-password
combination. There is also no encryption of data. The ISAM supports both a TFTP
client and server. In server mode, the ISAM can handle up to 14 TFTP sessions.
FTP also lacks any encryption, but requires a username-password identification
(anonymous access is not allowed) and runs on top of TCP/IP. The ISAM only
supports an FTP client.
SFTP has been introduced as part of the SSH implementation. When the ISAM acts
as an SFTP client towards an external SFTP server, the ISAM uses an
operator-configured username and password. The security settings like encryption,
hashing and signature protocols can be configured by the operator via CLI or
SNMPv3. The ISAM supports both an SFTP client and server. In server mode, the
ISAM supports two SFTP sessions simultaneously. Also, in SFTP server mode, the

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user authentication coincides with the SSH authentication, that is, the same
username/password or username/key-pair combinations apply. This means that once
the operator has been configured for CLI or TL1 with a username/password or for
SSH with a username/key pair, the same username can be used for setting up an
SFTP session with the ISAM.
External xFTP servers

External (software download, backup/restore) xFTP servers can be configured in


the ISAM. One and the same external server machine can be used as software
download and backup/restore server, but they can be different machines as well. The
servers might also be used in a redundant mode: if the first server cannot be reached,
automatically the redundant one is tried. Multiple configurations are possible,
depending on the situation and/or requirement of the customer.
Only one account (name, password) can be defined in the ISAM per external server:

Even in case of multiple applications (software download, backup) on one and


the same server, only one account can be specified
The account data is stored in encrypted format
The account data is not readable from any management interface, not even from
the SNMP manager.
In case of SFTP, only one account can be specified. This account will be used
towards all external xFTP servers.
In case of FTP, up to 8 external servers/accounts can be specified, each with their
own account.
In case of TFTP, no account is required, so also none (0) can be specified.
xFTP Protocol selection

The xFTP protocol to be used for example for software download/backup/restore/


operations can be configured in the ISAM as a system-wide selection. That is, only
one xFTP protocol can be selected at a time per ISAM. The selected xFTP protocol
will be used for all applications requiring xFTP, independent of the used xFTP server
or application.
Note however that as an FTP server is not supported in the ISAM (see section
below), selecting FTP as protocol still allows to use the TFTP or SFTP server. When
SFTP is selected as protocol though, the TFTP server will be disabled in the ISAM.
Likewise, when selecting TFTP as protocol, the SFTP server will be disabled in the
ISAM.

xNTP
The ISAM system time can be set in three ways:

the system time can be retrieved using the SNTP protocol to retrieve the time
from a (S)NTP time server

the system time can be retrieved using the NTP protocol to retrieve the time from
(S)NTP time servers
the system time can be set manually by the operator

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4 Management

This is a system wide setting in the ISAM. While SNTP and NTP is mutually
exclusive (that is, either SNTP or NTP can be enabled, but not both at the same time),
the ISAM system time can always be set manually by the operator, even if SNTP or
NTP is enabled.
SNTP Client

Typically, the ISAM system time is retrieved using the Simple Network Time
Protocol (SNTP); the ISAM can cope with both SNTP and NTP servers, in both cases
using the SNTP protocol.
On a per ISAM level, also the polling rate can be specified, applicable for all
specified (S)NTP servers.
Apart from defining the (S)NTP servers, first of all SNTP must be set as the
system-wide option for the ISAM. The (S)NTP server will always provide the UTC
(Coordinated Universal Time): no time zone or daylight savings settings are passed
over the SNTP protocol.
The (S)NTP server can be configured in the ISAM by specifying:

The IP address of the server


The port to be used
Up to three (S)NTP servers can be configured in the ISAM, specifying:

The IP address of the server


The port to be used
The relative priority among the three possible servers
The relative priority defines which server will be polled first to get the time. If none
of the time servers can be reached, even after three retries, an alarm is raised.
NTP Client

Alternatively the ISAM can also retrieve its system time using the NTP protocol
(NTPv3), with up to 5 NTP servers used. Also in this case the NTP servers can be
pre-configured, but no priority is to be specified as this is irrelevant in case of the
NTP protocol. Note the xNTP servers need to be configured separately for the SNTP
and the NTP protocol: the servers defined for the SNTP protocol will not be used by
the NTP protocol and vice versa.
The following can be specified per NTP server:

The IP address of the server


The port to be used (default = 123)
On a per-ISAM level, also the polling rate can be specified, applicable for all
specified NTP servers. If none of the servers can be reached, even after three retries,
an alarm will be raised.
Also when selecting NTP to set the system time, the server will always provide the
UTC time.

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Manual setting

The ISAM system time can also be set manually by the operator. However, if SNTP
or NTP is enabled (see above), the set system time will be overwritten at the next
xNTP poll by the UTC time.
Note As all the management time stamping (such as alarms, syslog
messages, PM, ) is based on the ISAM system time, Alcatel-Lucent
highly recommends to use either SNTP or NTP instead and
discourages any manual time setting in the operational network.
Time zone offset

An operator can also specify a time zone offset in the ISAM, allowing the operator
to mimic local time. This time zone offset:

Is taken into account once the ISAM system time is set for the first time, be it via
SNTP (at the first synchronization with the (S)NTP server), via NTP (when time
is set using the NTP protocol) or manually (time set by the operator)

As long as the ISAM system time has not been set, the system time will remain fixed
to January 1, 1970

The ISAM system time (taking into account the time zone offset) is also stored in
prozone and restored after a reset of the ISAM. If the time cannot be restored from
prozone, the ISAM system time is set fixed to January 1, 1970 again, until the time
is set, either manually or by using xNTP.

Is independent of the fact whether xNTP is enabled or not, that is, it will also be
applied when SNTP and/or NTP are disabled

Has an allowed range of -780 to +780 minutes, with a default value of 0 minutes
Is stored persistently
The time zone offset is applied consistently for all applications in the ISAM,
including SNMP, Syslog and so on, that is the time applied by an application is
always ISAM system time + time zone offset (note the default value being 0, even in
case the operator did not specify any time zone offset value, the above statement still
is correct).
SNTP Server towards ONT/MDU

The ISAM can also act as SNTP server towards the ONTs/MDUs. This means the
ONT/MDU can retrieve its system time directly from the ISAM by using SNTP. The
ISAM acts on behalf of the SNTP server in the network.
The SNTP server addresses are learned by the ONT/MDU using DHCP option 42.
Additional notes

Daylight savings can not be specified nor are applied automatically in the ISAM.
ISAM management applications (5520 AMS, 5529 SDC, 5530 NA, ) typically
expect UTC timestamps from the managed nodes: the ISAM management
application machine will typically apply a time zone and daylight savings
correction on the timestamps received from the nodes, before displaying on the
GUI, just like a with a PC. This also implies that if a time zone offset is set in the
Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02
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ISAM, different from 0, the timestamps on the GUI will be wrong as time
corrections will be applied twice (once in the ISAM with the time zone offset and
again on the management application itself). The ISAM management application
typically will not take into account any time (zone) correction done in the node
itself. Please check on the management applications for this aspect.
The granularity of the ISAM time information, as provided by the ISAM
applications exposing ISAM time information to external applications (Syslog,
5520 AMS, OSS, ), is seconds and has following format
yyyymmdd-hh:mm:ss.

SSH
Secure Shell (SSH) is a protocol that provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity to secure network communications. On top of this protocol, SSH
implementations offer secure replacements for rsh, rlogin, rcp, ftp, and telnet, all of
which transmit data over the network as clear text. In addition, it offers secure
data-tunneling services for TCP/IP-based applications.
SSH has a client-server architecture. The ISAM can act both as an SSH server or an
SSH client; see Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3 SSH client-server architecture in the NE
SSH Appl. protocol

SSH CLI
client appl

SSH CLI
server appl

SSH transport
ssh client

EMS
SSH
Client

ssh server

authentication,
connnection

- DB of client
- Public keys or
passwords

NE

Server authentication
Secure link for CLI/TL1

SSH
Server

- NE public key
- NE private key
- Supported algorithms

Client authentication
SFTP
Client

Secure link for SFTP

File

Secure link for


SW&DB

SFTP
Server

SFTP server
application

SSH server

InterPeak

SFTP
Server

SFTP
Client

- SFTP client
- Username/password

Secure link for the transfer


from FileServer to NE (SW&DB)

SFTP Appl. protocol


SSH transport, authentic,
connection protocol

SFTP client
application

SSH client

System logging
System logging (SYSLOG) allows you to trace and audit system behavior related to
operator and /or system activities. System log entries are issued by actions such as
CLI and TL1 user logins, but also by alarms and video CDR records, for example:

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With system logging, you can do the following:

create up to 64 custom system logs that can be saved locally or to a remote server
location
create filters to determine which messages are sent to the system log files
monitor system logs
You can configure system logs using CLI, TL1 or an EMS. Locally stored syslog
files can be transferred to an external server using xFTP.
File sets

The system logging works with file sets consisting of two log files. The operator can:

Trigger the wrap-around from file1 to file2 in order to upload a stable file1.
Note The ISAM will also automatically copy file1 to file2 when
file1 is full. Both actions (automatic by system / manual by operator)
are performed independently of each other.

Assign a name to this file set


Specify the maximum size of the file set
Configuring system logs

You can configure the following for each system log file:

system log filename (local only), entered using up to eight alphanumeric


characters followed by a dot separator and a three-alphanumeric character
extension. Example: Alrmhigh.txt
destination server type:

all active TL1 and CLI terminals (all-users)


all active CLI terminals (all-CLI)
all active TL1 terminals (all-TL1)
single active TL1 terminal (TL1-user)
local file (file:name:size)
remote host (udp:port:serv-ip-addr)

destination server address, entered as an alphanumeric host name or in standard


dot format (maximum value 255.255.255.255); where 0.0.0.0 is entered for local
files
enable or disable logging
delete a system log file
When a system log file is full, the ISAM will automatically copy the file (file1) to a
backup file (file2) and start overwriting the oldest entries in file1 again.
You can also view system-wide information for system logs. This system-wide
information includes the maximum message size allowed and statistics on the
amount of combined disk space used by the local system logs. The combined
maximum size of all locally saved system log files is 2 Mb.

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System log filters

You can configure filters to define which messages get logged to which system log
files, based on the message type; by default, all message types are logged to the
system log files.
Table 4-2 lists the possible message type and log severity parameters. You can select
which messages are sent to specific system log files using filters and can group
multiple message types.
Table 4-2 Message type and log severity parameters
Item

Description

Parameter

Message type

Authentication actions

AUTH

CLI commands

CLI_CONFIG

TL1 commands

TL1_CONFIG

CLI messages

CLI_MSG

TL1 messages

TL1_MSG

All message types

ALL

Emergency

EM

Alert

AL

Critical

CR

Error

ER

Warning

WN

Notice

NO

Information

IN

Debug

DBG

Log severity

Note Besides these message types, the alarms and the errors
encountered in the system are also logged in the system log files.

Operator access to the system logs

The operator access to the log file is determined by the allowed priority (access
control). Different users have different access rights to the system log file, that is,
some users only have read priority, while other users with higher priority have read
and write (=delete) priority.
The local log files can be retrieved via xFTP to upload to an external server. In this
case the operator can access the log file only after successful xFTP authentication.
System log files are to be deleted explicitly by operator command.

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Viewing and monitoring system logs

The contents of a system log can be viewed either dynamically or statically.


You can monitor remote system logs dynamically on your CLI or TL1 terminal.
Setting the destination server type for the system log file to all active CLI or all active
TL1 terminals sends all messages to the active terminals that have a management
session with the ISAM. When you are finished monitoring the system log, deactivate
system logging for that server.
You can view the static contents of a system log file that is saved to a remote server
location using any text-based editor.

4.3

Management interfaces security


In order to make the ISAM securely managed, the operator must make sure that:

A dedicated management access model is applied.


The secure variants of the used management channels are used.
A secure operator authentication method is used
Unused management interfaces are closed.
The debug port for troubleshooting is closed.

Management interfaces
The following management interfaces can be secured (refer to Figure 4-2):

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)


Can be secured by way of SNMPv3:

Command Line Interface (CLI):


Can be secured by way of Secure Shell (SSH)

Transaction Language 1 (TL1):


Can be secured by way of SSH

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP):
Can be secured by way of Secured File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
Apart from xFTP, which is a system-wide, exclusive setting, the system allows both
the secure and the insecure variant of a management interface to coexist, so that the
operator is still able to contact the system in case the security setup would fail.
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) does not have a secure variant. It is
configured to listen to a single SNTP server (for example the Element Management
System). This configuration is done via one of the management interfaces listed
above. Since the operator can secure these interfaces, the SNTP configuration can be
secured.

Encryption and authentication


SSH, SFTP and SNMPv3 support encryption and authentication. Table 4-3 shows
the supported combinations.

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Table 4-3 Supported SSH and SNMP Authentication and Encryption Schemes
Security
protocol

Encryption
algorithm

Authenticatio
n algorithm

Authentication
mechanism

Combinations

SSH, SFTP

3DES, blowfish,

Hmac-sha-1,
hmac-sha-1-96

Username/password(1)

AES, DES-56

Username/public and
private key

SNMPv3

DES-56

Hmac-sha-1,
hmac-md5

Username/password(1)

Note: Different

password per SNMP


engine.

Nothing
Encryption only
Authorization
only
Encryption and
authorization
Authorization
only
Encryption and
authorization

Note
(1)

The username/password combinations of SSH and SNMPv3 cannot be reused.

Security configuration
The configuration of the initial security parameters and user names in the system is
only possible via CLI. Only the operator with security administrator rights has the
authorization to change the security configuration and to add or remove users.
Once the secure channel has been setup, the SNMPv3 parameters can also be
configured by way of the secured SNMPv3. For TL1 and CLI, the security
configuration remains a privilege of the security administrator (concept known in
both TL1 and CLI).

Default username and password


Two command session interfaces (CLI and TL1) are available to the operator to
configure the system. To access these interfaces for the first time, the operator has to
use the default username and password.
For security purposes, the default username and password must be changed as soon
as possible. The system prompts the operator to do this when he or she logs in for the
first time.

Trace and Debug interface


The ISAM also supports a Trace&Debug (T&D) interface for troubleshooting
purposes. his interface gives access to low level ISAM functionality and is intended
to be used by trained Alcatel-Lucent personnel only. Alcatel-Lucent highly
recommends to disable this interface at any time during normal network operations.
Moreover, as an alternative management interface, the ISAM T&D interface is also
vulnerable to security issues. This can be avoided as much as possible by disabling
this interface whenever it is not used.
The T&D interface can be enabled or disabled using the configure system security
ssh access command: please refer to the CLI Command Guide for FD 100/320Gbps
NT and FX NT for all details.

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4.4

Management access models

Introduction
In most deployment models, the ISAM will use a specific management VLAN for
management. Management access security in this case is guaranteed as follows:

Any management access to the ISAM via a VLAN which is not the management
VLAN is not possible. Such traffic will be dropped.

There is a clear separation between management traffic and user traffic.


Management access is only possible via network ports. The aggregation and core
network should be designed in such a way that non-authorized users cannot get
access to the management VLAN on the network port.
The management access policy will always be a combination of access checks on
different layers:

Layer 1: specific serial connector (for example, CRAFT cable)


Layer 2:
a dedicated management v-VPLS
a dedicated management pseudo-wire tunnel over an MPLS network.
Layer 3: specific IP ACLs (checks for all traffic destined for the CPU (CPU
filters))
Layer 4-7: authentication on protocol level

Using SSH: user password or private public key


Using Telnet: user password
Using UDP: user password
The ISAM can support different management models to secure the access to the
management plane depending on the system configuration:

Management model via a Layer 3 SAP


Management model via an IP interface directly connected to a network port
Management via Layer 3 SAP (IES SAP)
Two different models are possible:
1

All the management plane packets are passing via a dedicated external
Management VLAN (v-VPLS)

There is no explicit external management v-VPLS (VLAN).

All the management plane packets are passing via a dedicated external
Management VLAN (v-VPLS)

A dedicated external management v-VPLS (VLAN) isolates the management plane


traffic from the user plane traffic in the access network.

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All the user plane traffic is passing via another v-VPLS and not via the external
management v-VPLS.
Figure 4-4 Management via a Layer 3 SAP - external management VLAN (v-VPLS)
Management traffic
User traffic

Regular
Ports

v-VPLS
SAPs

Phy

IHub
v-VPLS

IES
SAP

IHub
IES

Ext. mgnt.
v-VPLS
VLAN
4093

IES
Phy
LAG
Phy

v-VPLS
VLAN 23

iBridge
VLAN 23

v-VPLS
VLAN 11

(No VLAN
translation
shown
on user side)

CPU filter

OBC
NT

LT

ISAM

In this case, the security is based on:

No layer 2 checks
Layer 3 checks: By using CPU filters, the operator will only allow management
traffic from the VPLS service of the management VLAN (external management
v-VPLS).
Optional: in combination with checks on the source IP address of the
management stations
Layer 4-7: specific authentication mechanisms on application level
There is no explicit external management v-VPLS (VLAN)

On the access network the user and management traffic is not separated.

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Figure 4-5 Management via a Layer 3 SAP - No external management v-VPLS
User and Management traffic

Regular
Ports

v-VPLS
SAPs

IHub
v-VPLS

IHub
IES

IES
SAP

Phy

v-VPLS
VLAN 11

IES

v-VPLS
VLAN 23

iBridge
VLAN 23

Phy
LAG
Phy

(No VLAN
translation
shown
on user side)

CPU filter

OBC
NT

LT

ISAM

In this case, the security is based on:

No layer 2 checks
Layer 3 checks: by using CPU filters, the operator will only allow management
traffic from the source IP address of the management stations.
Layer 4-7: specific authentication mechanisms on application level

Management via an IP interface directly connected to a network


port
On a network port it is possible to configure an IP interface with a corresponding
encaps-value (VLAN). All IP packets which are destined for the interface IP address
are lifted to the OBC. However, all IP packets which have access to the Base Router
can also access the OBC by using the IP address of the interface as destination IP
address.
If no special protection mechanisms are activated, all packets which have access to
the base router can access the OBC. If a v-VPLS is connected to the base router via
a L3 SAP, all user traffic which is passing via the v-VPLS, can access the OBC. This
is possible by using the IP address of the IP interface (connected to the network port)
or via the IP address of the L3 SAP. All packets which have access to the OBC can
access the management protocols.

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Figure 4-6 Management via an IP interface directly connected to a network port
Management traffic
User traffic

Network
Port

L3
SAP

IP
interface

Phy

v-VPLS
VLAN 23

IES

iBridge
VLAN 23

Phy
Access
Port

v-VPLS
VLAN 11

(No VLAN
translation
shown
on
user side)

CPU filter

OBC
NT

LT

ISAM

In this case, the security is based on:

No layer 2 checks
Layer 3 checks: by using CPU filters, the operator will only allow management
traffic from the source IP address of the management stations (and also the
allowed protocols).
Layer 4-7: specific authentication mechanisms on application level

4.5

Counters and statistics


Counters and statistics serve various purposes in the ISAM, like troubleshooting,
network dimensioning and SLA adherence and are defined on both the network and
subscriber side of the ISAM.
They can be retrieved from the ISAM using CLI, TL1, or an Element Management
System (EMS). See the following documents for detailed information and the
detailed command definitions for retrieving the ISAM counters and/or statistics
using CLI or TL1:

Operations and Maintenance Using CLI for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT


TL1 Commands and Messages for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

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4.6

Alarm management
Alarm management enables you to manage alarm reporting for the ISAM. You can
manage the following alarm attributes and alarm reporting functions for all basic
system alarms, interface related alarms, derived alarms, and Threshold Crossing
Alarms (TCA) indications:

alarm category and definition (fixed per release)


alarm severity (ignore, intermediate, warning, minor, major, and critical)
alarm is service affecting (yes, no)
alarm must be reported (yes, no)
alarm must be logged (yes, no)
alarm lists and logs severity thresholds, that is, the minimum severity of an alarm
in order to be logged or reported in the alarm snapshot and the alarm-changed
trap)
alarm filters: affect the way in which the ISAM reports its own alarms, as well as
the alarms from connected remote expansion units.
See the CLI Commands for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT and the TL1 Commands
and Messages for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT documents for alarm
management command definitions.

Alarm categories and definition


There are four alarm categories:

non-interface related alarms: these alarms include basic system alarms such as
equipment failure alarms.
interface related alarms: these alarms involve ATM and xDSL interfaces.
derived alarms: these alarms are raised in the system when programmed temporal
or spatial alarm filters are used (that is, alarms generated when the conditions set
in an alarm filter are met). See section Programmable alarm filters for more
information about temporal and spacial alarm filters and the derived alarms.
TCA alarms: these alarms are generated when a Performance Monitoring (PM)
counter or actual value of a parameter crosses a defined threshold value
(Threshold Crossing Alert).
Alarms use the same definition method that consists of two main parts:

the alarm type, which provides a general definition of the type of alarm; for
example, an xDSL alarm.

the alarm number, which identifies a specific alarm within that type; for example,
a near-end LOS alarm

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You can view alarm types and definitions as they are recorded in alarm lists and logs
using the TL1, CLI or an EMS like the 5520 AMS. See the Operation and
Maintenance Using CLI for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT and Operation and
Maintenance Using TL1 for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT document for a
complete listing of all alarms, along with their definitions. Alarm definitions are not
user configurable.
Note It is not possible yet to retrieve the GPON alarms via CLI.

This limitation will be removed in a future ISAM release.

Alarm severity
For each individual alarm the operator can configure:

whether spontaneous reporting should take place or not and


the severity level of the alarm.
There are six alarm severity levels listed in ascending order of severity:

ignore
indeterminate
warning
minor
major
critical

In addition to the individual alarm reporting control above, the operator has the
capability to select which alarm severity he wants to see spontaneously reported.
This is useful to avoid being overwhelmed by a flood of non-important alarms. There
are five levels available for the minimum severity which alarms must have to be
reported, listed in ascending order of severity:

indeterminate
warning
minor
major
critical

For additional flexibility this minimum reporting severity level is separately


configurable for:

non-interface related alarms, (cfr. CLI: configure alarm...);


interface related alarms, per interface type like xDSL, Ethernet, Gpn,... (cfr. CLI:
configure interface...)
When the severity level of an alarm equals or exceeds the (system-wide) minimum
severity level, that particular alarm is forwarded to the alarm reporting and logging
filters where it is reported and logged as defined for that particular alarm.

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For TCA alarms, when the TCA feature is enabled for an xDSL subscriber line,
alarm indications are always sent to the alarm reporting and logging filters.
Whenever a minor, major, or critical alarm is received, the corresponding alarm
LED, on the faceplate of the alarm control unit installed in the shelf, is activated as
well.
You can configure the (system-wide) minimum alarm severity level and the
individual severity level of an alarm using CLI, TL1 or an Element Management
System. See the 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN CLI Commands and 7302 ISAM |
7330 ISAM FTTN Operations and Maintenance Using TL1 documents for alarm
management command definitions.
Changing the severity level for an alarm only affects new alarm events and does not
affect alarm indications that have already passed through the alarm reporting and
logging filters.
Note that when the severity level of an alarm is set to ignore (lowest level), these
alarms are completely ignored by the system and no processing will happen
whatsoever - the ISAM will behave as if this alarm just does not exist.

Alarm lists and logs


You can set the alarm logging and reporting mode for individual alarms. When alarm
logging and reporting are enabled, alarm indications are always sent to the
appropriate alarm list and alarm log when the minimum alarm severity level for the
alarm is reached. Alarm logging and reporting are enabled by default, unless
otherwise specified.
There are three types of alarm list:

current alarm list


snapshot alarm list
alarm severity delta logging list
The current alarm list and the snapshot alarm list display only the currently active
alarms. When the alarm reporting mode is enabled, alarm indications are sent to the
current alarm list.
The alarm severity delta logging list is a log (one for each alarm severity) of alarm
indications that can be accessed at any time and contains a historic record of alarm
events (start and end of active alarm). Only alarms that have their alarm logging
mode enabled appear on these alarm severity delta lists.
Note There is no alarm severity delta log for the ignore severity.

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Current and snapshot alarm lists


The current alarm list changes dynamically as alarms are detected and pass through
the alarm filters. Because the list changes dynamically, it is impossible to get a
consistent view of the active alarm status. Therefore, if a stable view of the alarms is
preferred, the snapshot alarm list captures a momentary view of the active alarm
status at the time it is requested by the user. You can configure the minimum severity
level of the active alarms in the snapshot list and you have access to the snapshot
alarm list for a maximum time period of up to 120 seconds. The snapshot alarm list
provides the active alarms ordered first by severity (high to low), and then on
time-of-occurrence.

Alarm severity delta logging list


A separate alarm severity delta logging list exists for five alarm severity levels, there
is no alarm severity delta log for the ignore severity. Each change in the alarm
condition, such as a change of alarm state from alarm-on to alarm-off, is logged.
Alarm state changes are logged in order of occurrence, with a total capacity of 100
entries per alarm severity delta logging list.
You can set the action to be taken when the alarm severity delta logging list reaches
the configured maximum size:

continuous wrap entries, where newer entries overwrite the oldest ones. A flag is
set to indicate that there was a wrap-around

halt alarm logging when the logging list is full. In this case, alarm logging
resumes only after the alarm logging list is manually reset by the operator.
Resetting an alarm severity delta logging list empties the contents of that list.

Alarm clearing
Most alarms are cleared autonomously. Both the alarm-on and alarm-off situation are
detected and reported. The alarm-off will result in the automatic clearing of the
alarm-on from the current alarm list.
However, some alarms cannot be cleared automatically and require operator
intervention to clear the alarm: OSWP-Download-failure is an example of such an
alarm. Also a group of IHub alarms will not be cleared automatically.
In order to clear these alarms, explicit operator intervention is needed using CLI
and/or an Element Management System. The list of alarms that need clearing
through operator intervention is specified in the alarm description document as
specified before.

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Alarm filters
There are three types of filters:

alarm logging filter: determines if the alarm indication should be processed and
recorded in one of the five alarm severity delta logging lists.

alarm reporting filter: determines if the alarm indication should be processed for
a current view or snapshot list.
programmable alarm filters: enable you to customize how alarm reporting occurs
for specific diagnostic and monitoring scenarios.
Alarm filtering applies to both non-interface related alarms, such as equipment
failure alarms, and to interface related alarms, such as ATM and xDSL interfaces. It
is possible to enable and disable alarm filtering for individual alarms.

Programmable alarm filters


There are two types of programmable alarm filters: temporal alarm filters and spatial
alarm filters. You can define a maximum of 31 temporal alarm filters and 31 spatial
alarm filters. See the TL1 Commands and Messages for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX
NT document for programmable alarm filter command definitions. The filters can
also be configured using an EMS. There is no CLI support.
When you use programmable temporal or spatial alarm filters, the ISAM raises a
derived alarm whenever the conditions of the alarm filter are met. The resulting
derived alarm has the same identification parameters as the alarm filter that
generated the derived alarm.
Temporal and spatial alarm filters

Using temporal alarm filters, you can limit the number of alarm state changes that
are reported for a particular alarm. For alarms that are frequently raised, you can
create a temporal alarm filter that will report only one alarm state change for a set
number of state changes that occur over a specified length of time. You can configure
the threshold for the number of state changes, and the time period of the filtering
window. Since temporal alarm filters are severity based, only alarm indications that
equal or exceed the alarm severity level are counted. In other words, it makes no
sense to configure a temporal alarm filter on an alarm that has a severity below the
global alarm severity level.
A temporal alarm is raised in the ISAM when:

the number of alarm events reaches the set threshold during the filtering window
time period, OR

the alarm event remains active for at least the filtering window time (even if the
set threshold is not met)
Figure 4-7 shows how a temporal alarm filter raises a derived alarm after the
configured threshold is reached (in this case set to 3). In the first case only 2 alarm
events occur during the filtering window time T, so no derived alarm is raised. In the
other cases, 3 alarm events occur in the window T, and a derived alarm is raised.

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Figure 4-7 Temporal alarm by quantity
Only 2 events in time T:
no temporal alarm is
raised

Alarm
event

Threshold = 3

Temporal
alarm
Temporal alarm is cleared when
the alarm event is cleared

Figure 4-8 shows how a temporal alarm filter raises a derived alarm when the alarm
event is active for at least the filtering window time T. In the first case the alarm event
is cleared before T, so no derived alarm is generated; in the second case an alarm
event remains active for more then T, in which case the derived alarm is raised.
Figure 4-8 Temporal alarm by time
Event is cleared again
before time T expires:
no temporal alarm is raised

Alarm
event

Threshold = 3

Temporal
alarm
Temporal alarm is cleared when
the alarm event is cleared

So the temporal alarm is always raised when the condition is met, and cleared
whenever the alarm event, triggering the alarm filter condition, is cleared,
independent of the filtering window time. See also Figure 4-7 and Figure 4-8.
A temporal alarm filter becomes active whenever the alarm event is raised on an
ISAM object (for example, on a port, ONT, ), i.e. at that moment timer T is started
(see figures above) and the number of occurrences is counted. Each such filter can
be activated (by the alarm event) on at most 50 different objects at a time. A filter
becomes inactive again for a certain object whenever the condition is cleared (and so
no derived alarm is generated, or the derived alarm is cleared).
Temporal alarm filters are useful for, for example, TCA alarms that can be raised
frequently. Using temporal alarm filters, you can filter out minor TCA alarm
indications and provide better visibility of major TCA alarm conditions.
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Using spatial alarm filters, you can create a unique alarm condition such that when
a specified group of individual alarms are raised, a derived alarm is reported. This is
used to identify alarm conditions that are characterized by a certain set of alarm
conditions occurring simultaneously. Say, for example, that 100 objects in the
system can experience the same alarm condition. A spatial alarm can be configured
on top of the basic alarm. The spatial alarm is generated (that is, derived alarm-ON
condition) at the moment that a predefined number of these objects are in alarm (that
is, basic alarm-ON condition).
Identification of alarm filters and derived alarms consists of two main parts: a type
identifier and a number. Temporal and spatial alarm filters have a unique filter type
identifier. Derived alarms have a unique alarm type identifier. The number used in
the identification of derived alarms matches the number assigned to the alarm filter
that generates the derived alarm. Additionally, each derived alarm entry recorded in
alarm reporting and logging lists contains the identification of the affected
component. In the case of an interface related derived alarm, the identification of the
affected interface is provided.
The state change of a derived alarm must pass through the alarm reporting and
logging filters before being added to the alarm reporting lists (current and snapshot
alarm lists) and the alarm severity delta logging lists respectively. A derived alarm
that is generated from a temporal filter is identified as an interface-related alarm if
the basic alarm, referenced by the filter, is also an interface-related alarm. The
derived alarms generated from spatial alarm filters are always identified as
non-interface-related alarms.
Configuring programmable alarm filters and derived alarms

You can activate and deactivate alarm filters after they are created using TL1 and/or
an EMS like the 5520 AMS. When you create a temporal or spatial alarm filter, the
ISAM automatically copies the parameter settings of the basic alarm to which the
alarm filter applies, and uses those parameter settings as default settings for the
derived alarm. The settings include:

alarm category
severity level
service affecting or non-service affecting
reporting mode
logging mode

You can change these settings for the derived alarm, but not if the alarm filter is
active. You must first deactivate the alarm filter.
After the filter is deactivated, you can configure the filtering threshold, filtering
window, and the alarm to which the filter applies. Once configured, you must
manually reactivate the alarm filter.
Alarm reporting

Alarm reporting of the basic and derived alarms occurs differently, depending on
whether or not alarm filters are configured for the basic alarm.
If no alarm filters are configured for the basic alarm, then alarm state changes of the
basic alarm are always reported to the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists
when the alarm conditions are met.
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If a temporal alarm filter is configured for a basic alarm, only state changes of the
derived alarm are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists during
the time period when the derived alarm is on. During the off period, state changes of
the basic alarm are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists.
With spatial alarm filters, both the derived alarm state changes and the basic alarm
state changes are recorded in the appropriate alarm reporting and logging lists.

External alarms profiles


The ISAM equipment practices provide an external alarm interface to which up to 5
external alarms can be connected, be it in a CO or cabinet environment. Upon alarm
condition detection, the ISAM will raise an external alarm, also known as
'customizable alarm' and/or 'environmental alarm', and are configured and handled
in the ISAM like any other, internal ISAM alarm (severity, logging, filtering, ).
For these external alarms, also an external alarms profile can be defined, reflecting a
configuration of external alarms parameters that correspond to a certain environment
where the ISAM is located (outdoor cabinet, CO, basement cabinet, ). Using these
external alarms profiles, we avoid the need to specify these parameters for each
ISAM separately.
The external alarms profile can be assigned either to the NT, or to the remote LT (in
case of a REM).
Note this profile is only applicable for the external alarms.

4.7

Software and database management


Software and database management is all about controlling the OSWP (Operation
SoftWare Package) on the system. On the ISAM a set of software and database
management features are available, that are both powerful and efficient from an
operational point of view.
A Push-Button Migration tool (PBMT) is delivered together with the ISAM
software. This tool provides all the required functionality to migrate and/or upgrade
an ISAM to a new software load, automating all the different steps of the software
upgrade and migration process.
The PBMT is expected to run on the same machine as the 5520 AMS, as the PBMT
needs certain specific files for its proper execution.
The PBMT is supported on both a Sparc and x86 platform (Solaris OS), delivered as
one installation package. At run tim, the correct libraries and executables will be
selected. Support is only provided for migrations to the target release (that is, the
release for which the PBMT is delivered).

OSWP and databases


The ISAM is capable of hosting an active (operational) and a non-active (stand-by)
Operational SoftWare Package (OSWP). Each package consists of a software
version and a set of system databases. Only one of the 2 OSWP packages can be
active in the ISAM, but the operator can switch between packages, making the one
operational, and the other stand-by.

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Each package also consists of a set of system databases, more in particular the IHub
database, the IACM database and the xVPS databases (one physical database per
xVPS pair). From an operational point of view, if not mentioned otherwise explicitly,
the actions (backup, restore, migrate) will be executed on the set as a whole, not
on an individual database of the set.
What, in case of GPON deployment, is not part of these packages however is the
ONT software. All ONT software files are stored in a dedicated 1G partition on the
compact flash (CF) of the NT. All ONT data, managed via the ISAM, is part of the
IACM database: the ONT can have its own database as well, this however not being
managed by/via the ISAM. The OLT software and database is part of the OSWP as
described above. The link between the ONT type and/or a specific ONT instance and
its (specific) ONT software is (persistently) stored in the ISAM MIB - the partition
on the NT CF is only a storage for the ONT software files. Management of these
software files (downloading to the ISAM, deleting, ) is done via an external
manager, be it the 5520 AMS, the PBMT (Push-Button Migration Tool) or using CLI
and/or TL1.

Software upgrade and migration


Of course there are rules on compatibility between software and databases: a package
can only become active, when the software version and the system databases in the
OSWP are compatible with one another. In this context, we make a distinction
between:

Software upgrade is the process to upgrade a network element to a higher


software release not involving a migration of the system databases - there is no
system database change
This procedure is typically to be used when upgrading to a release in the same
software stream, for example, from R3.6.01 to R3.6.03c
Migration is the process to upgrade a network element to a higher software
release requiring a migration of the system databases
This procedure is normally to be used when upgrading to a release from a higher
software stream, for example, from R3.6.01 to R4.0.02
A complete software upgrade/migration activity consists of a sequence of actions:
1

The operator demands the system to download a new OSWP. This demand is the
trigger for the system to initiate a file transfer session with the external file server
specified by the operator. So it is not the operator who puts the software on the
system disk.

In case of GPON, new ONT software is placed on the NT CF by the 5520 AMS,
PBMT and/or using CLI or TL1, potentially together with a clean-up of older
software files.

The operator starts an off-line conversion of the database from the source release
to the destination release. It is the responsibility of the off-line migration tool to
upload the complete database, convert it to the destination release and to
download it to the node again. In case of new ONT software, the description of
the to-be-used software version on the ONT, is updated in the database as well,
as part of the off-line migration.

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In case of GPON, the ONT software is pre-downloaded to the ONTs at operator


demand. The software is downloaded to the ONT via the OMCI channel, but is
not activated yet on the ONT - also the ONT can have an active and a standby
software load in parallel

When the new OSWP is downloaded, and, in case of GPON, the new ONT
software is pre-downloaded to the ONTs, the operator activates this new OSWP.
The system will restart and come up with an upgraded software version. All
persistent configuration data remains available. Due to the new ONT software
description in the ISAM database, the OLT will trigger the ONTs to restart with
the new ONT software.

Once the upgrade is successful, the operator can remove the former OSWP from
the system in order to free space for the next upgrade.

Some remarks:

The ONT software is pre-downloaded to the ONTs using the OMCI channel,
prior to the activation of the new OSWP.
The ONT software activation is triggered by the OLT, also using the OMCI
channel.
OLT and ONT software activation are not coupled: OLT and ONT software can
be upgraded independently if required.
Note that migrations and software upgrades do not have to be between consecutive
software releases/streams: the necessary functionality has been provided to be able
to 'skip' intermediate upgrade/migration steps. While no point for software upgrades,
this is less evident for migrations.
Also, in case of a failure to upgrade, the ISAM will automatically switch back to the
OSWP and resume services. This also implies that the ONT will also re-start with the
old, previous software, as the ONT software activation is triggered by the OLT,
following the configuration settings done before. If the ONT itself fails to start with
the new software load, the ONT will also re-start autonomously with the previous,
old software load. The OLT software will NOT be restarted in that case. This implies
that the ONT will not be able to support the services and features of the correct, new
load, but, as the ONT becomes active again, a new load can be downloaded and the
restart of the ONT retried.
Note Due to the introduction of a new version of the IPD stack
(SROS ed.08) in R4.3.01, a R4.3.01 (or higher) ISAM database is
NOT backwards compatible with a R4.3 ISAM database!

The necessary functionality has been added to make sure the R4.3
OSWP, with related (R4.3) database, can still be activated again, even
after a successful R4.3.01 upgrade. The changes done with R4.3.01
will of course be lost as the R4.3 OSWP can -not- work with a R4.3.01
(or higher) version of the database. R4.3.01 (or higher) can work with
any R4.3.x database; in case R4.3.01 (or higher) starts with a R4.3
version of the ISAM database, the R4.3 database will be upgraded
first.

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Backup and restore


Next to a software upgrade and/or migration, database management also requires the
regular creation of backups in order to minimize the configuration loss in case of a
system crash. This can be done either manually or automatically. These ISAM
backups can afterwards be restored on the ISAM if needed.
For IHub-based NT boards, only one type of backup can be taken, always containing
all the ISAM configuration data and all the ISAM OAM data for remote management
(such as the IP address, next-hop and so on).
Note that in case of automatic backup enabled, the TFTP protocol cannot be used, as
the TFTP protocols implies the file name to be known already up front at the server
side. Given the format of the generated backup file name, this is however not
possible. Alternatively SFTP or FTP can be used.
The configuration data of the ISAM is autonomously saved to the ISAM database on
the NT CF at different criteria:

IACM: the database changes are cached in the system and autonomously saved
to the CF

Every 60 seconds, and/or


Whenever the cache of 5K is full (corresponds to 22 database updates), and/or
On request of an IACM application, for example to safeguard some critical data
(software steered), and/or

As part of an ISAM database backup request


xVPS: the database changes are autonomously saved to CF
Every 10 minutes if the xVPS configuration has changed indeed and the last xVPS
configuration change is at least 1 minute ago, and/or

As part of an ISAM database backup request


IHub: the database changes are autonomously saved to CF
Every 10 minutes if the IHub configuration change, and/or
As part of an ISAM database backup request
The IHub configuration data can be saved to NT CF (database) at operator request as
well, for example, at the end of a IHub configuration script. This is however not
possible for the IACM data.
Note Due to the introduction of a new version of the IPD stack
(SROS ed.08) in R4.3.01, a R4.3.01 (or higher) ISAM database is
NOT backwards compatible with a R4.3 ISAM database!

This implies that R4.3 can only work with a R4.3 version of the ISAM
database and it is NOT possible to start R4.3 with a R4.3.01 (or
higher) version of the database.
R4.3.01 (or higher) can work with any R4.3.x version of the ISAM
database; in case a R4.3 version of the database is detected, it will be
upgraded to a higher version first.
Practically this implies that R4.3 backups can also work with R4.3.01
or higher, but R4.3.01 (or higher) backups cannot work with R4.3.

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Active load
The release name of the current active ISAM software package (for example,
R3.6.01) can be consulted via EMS, TL1 and CLI.

Voice service management


The behavior of POTS voice services on ONTs can be controlled by downloading a
service configuration in XML format onto the ONT. This XML file can be sent to the
ONT via the in-band communication channel, used to provide data service.
In some cases, operators may require that the XML is downloaded to the ONT via
the Management VLAN, in order to provide a higher level of security. This approach
includes the following steps:
1

The Element Manager generates the ONT service configuration in XML format
and makes it available on an FTP server reachable by the ISAM

The ISAM NT downloads the XML file from the FTP server

The XML file is sent to ONT using an internal OMCI channel

This approach is supported on Alcatel-Lucent Single Family Unit (SFU) and


Multi-Dwelling Unit (MDU) ONTs that do not use TR-069 for voice provisioning.

4.8

Equipment monitoring

NT CPU load
The average NT CPU load can be monitored using CLI, TL1 and/or an Element
Management System.
For IHub-based systems, only the IACM CPU load can be consulted this way: the
IHub CPU load can be measured using an IHub dedicated mechanism (see the IHub
configuration guides for more specifics).
The CPU load is expressed as a percentage, ranging from 0% (no load at all) to 100%
(full load), and represents the average CPU load over the monitored period.
The monitoring is to be started and stopped explicitly at operator request. By default
(at ISAM start-up), the monitoring is not active. Once started at operator request, the
monitoring of the CPU load continues until the operator explicitly stops the
monitoring.

NT memory usage
The actual NT memory usage can be polled using CLI, TL1 and/or an Element
Management System.

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For IHub-based systems, only the actual memory usage of the IACM is counted: the
memory usage of the IHub can be measured using an IHub dedicated mechanism (see
the IHub configuration guides for more specifics). Moreover, in the IHub not all
memory is allocated up front during the initialisation phase, but is rather dynamically
allocated whenever there is a need: an out-of-memory alarm is generated when the
IHub gets into memory problems.
Both the absolute value (expressed in Mbytes) as well as the relative value (used
percentage of the total available memory) is returned: always the actual values as of
the moment of the request are returned.

Thermal sensor data


Thermal sensor data can be retrieved from each board equipped with thermal sensors
and running software (so, for example, not from a passive splitter board).
Per thermal sensor, the following data can be retrieved (all expressed in degrees
Celsius):

actual temperature
low threshold temperature for TCA (T0_low)
high threshold temperature for TCA (T0_high)
low threshold temperature for shutdown (T1_low)
high threshold temperature for shutdown (T1_high)

Only read access is provided for these parameters and none of the threshold
temperature parameters can be changed by the operator. They are fine-tuned by
Alcatel-Lucent in function of the actual board type and board variant.
The thermal sensor data as specified above can be retrieved via CLI, TL1 and/or
using an Element Management System, and are always the actual values as measured
at the moment of the request.

4.9

Access node control protocol


The purpose of the Access Node Control Protocol (ANCP) (also known as Layer 2
Control Protocol (L2CP)) is to allow a Broadband Network Gateway (BNG) to
manage service related parameters of a DSLAM. The relevant standard is still under
definition in IETF. In the ISAM a pre-standard is implemented.
In the draft ANCP standard some basic capabilities are defined, of which 2 are
currently supported on the ISAM:

Access Topology Discovery:


Provides dynamic discovery of access topology by the BNG to provide tight QOS
control in the access network (that is, the Ethernet Aggregation network up to and
including the xDSL access loops). This can be done, for example, by shaping the
traffic towards the user at the bitrate currently available in the xDSL line of the
user.
Layer 2 Operations and Maintenance:
BNG controlled, on-demand xDSL access loop test capability.

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In the ISAM up to 62 ANCP partitions can be configured, each partition grouping a


number of xDSL subscriber lines (excluding VDSL bonding interfaces; ANCP on
SHDSL lines is only supported on NSLT-B). One particular xDSL subscriber line
can only belong to maximum 1 ANCP partition and each partition is managed by a
dedicated set of BRASs via an ANCP session. The partitions are created and
identified by the ISAM operator: the BNG/BRAS cannot set its own partition ID.
The partition ID can be signaled to the BNG/BRAS in the ANCP packet header.
Up to 62 different ANCP sessions are supported, where for each ANCP partition,
multiple sessions can be defined. But it is not allowed for one session to manage
multiple partitions.
The ANCP protocol only runs in the context of the base router.
The BRAS and aggregation switches are directly attached to the ISAM via a L2
EMAN, through a dedicated VLAN, distinct from the VLAN used for ISAM
management. The ANCP VLAN ID is fully configurable by the operator, and even
multiple ANCP VLANs can be defined (the ANCP messages going to multiple
VLANs).
When using an MPLS-based access network, ANCP sessions can be established over
an Ethernet Pseudowire (PW) (see Chapter MPLS for more details).
The ANCP traffic can either be sent in a dedicated PW, or in the same PW used for
data traffic. In the case of a shared PW, different VLAN IDs need to be used in order
to make a distinction between the ANCP traffic and data traffic.
An alarm is raised whenever the ANCP connection between BRAS and ISAM is lost
for some reason.

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5 Line testing features

5.1 Overview

5-2

5.2 Metallic test access

5-4

5.3 Single-Ended Line Testing


5.4 Dual-ended line testing

5-7
5-8

5.5 Metallic-Ended Line Testing


5.6 ATM F5

5-9

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5.7 Link Related Ethernet OAM


5.8 Narrowband Line Testing
5.9 SFP diagnostics
5.10 Embedded OTDR

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5-14

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5 Line testing features

5.1

Overview
This chapter describes the various line testing features within the ISAM and ISAM
Voice.
All line testing capabilities provide a means to execute pro-active and/or re-active
measurements to diagnose (potential) issues with the deployed equipment. As such
they can:

bring OPEX savings such as the ability to save on buying external test equipment,
avoiding truck rolls
increase customer satisfaction due to decreased service degradations or
interrupts.
The line testing capabilities depend upon the type of interface. For an overview of
the different types of interfaces (both for ISAM and ISAM Voice), see
chapter System interface overview.
ISAM supports line testing for:

Ethernet network and subtending interfaces


DSL interfaces (ATM or PTM mode) at the subscriber side
Active Ethernet interfaces
POTS and ISDN lines at the subscriber side
xPON interfaces

But before considering the line test capabilities of these lines, we have to consider
the nature of DSL versus POTS and ISDN.
DSL is a transmission technology that works in overlay with POTS or ISDN lines:

narrowband is used for the POTS or ISDN signals


broadband is used for the DSL signal.
Both narrowband and broadband signals can be transported simultaneously on one
physical line and a splitter technology is used to multiplex or split these signals. The
part of the ISAM processing broadband is named the DSL line. The part of the ISAM
Voice processing narrowband is named the POTS line or the ISDN line. Therefore,
although a DSL line and a POTS or ISDN line are distinct lines from the perspective
of the ISAM or the ISAM Voice, they can correspond to one physical line.
Therefore, some tests will test the DSL line (broadband), other tests will test the
POTS or ISDN line (narrowband), but some tests will affect both.
The splitter technology can be integrated or can be outside of the ISAM or the ISAM
Voice (refer to the 7302 ISAM Product Information or the 7330 ISAM FTTN Product
Information). If integrated, this technology is supported by dedicated boards
(appliques) that are managed from the ISAM, or is integrated within the DSL board.
The splitter boards work in conjunction with the DSL LT boards. The physical lines,
carrying both broadband and narrowband, are identified with the same identifier as
the DSL line.

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5 Line testing features

The overview of the line testing features:

tests for the physical subscriber line:


Metallic Test Access (MTA)
tests for a DSL line:
MTA
Single-Ended Line Test (SELT)
Dual-Ended Line Test (DELT)
Metallic-Ended Line Testing (MELT)
the DSL line can be of ATM or of PTM mode:
For DSL lines of ATM mode: ATM F5
For DSL lines of PTM mode: Link related Ethernet OAM
tests for a POTS or ISDN line:
MTA
Narrowband Line testing
tests for an Ethernet subscriber line:
Link related Ethernet OAM
SFP diagnostics
tests for an Ethernet network or subtending interface:
SFP diagnostics
tests for an xPON interface:
SFP diagnostics
Embedded OTDR
Note MTA appears on the list of test capabilities for the physical
line, the DSL line, and for the POTS/ISDN line. This reflects that
some MTA tests are for broadband, some for narrowband, some are
outward towards the subscriber line, and some are inward towards the
MODEM/SLIC.
Figure 5-1 Position line testing capabilities for DSL - POTS/ISDN lines

DSL applique
RTU

(MTA)

Relays

DSL LT

Subscriber line

(SELT, DELT)

Modem

DSL
line

LPF
Towards PSTN or ISAM Voice

Voice LT
SLIC
(Narrowband
line testing)

POTS/ISDN

Relays

line

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Voice applique

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5.2

Metallic test access


MTA provides a set of subscriber line tests both for narrowband and for broadband.
MTA is performed on a line-by-line basis using TL1 or AMS.
MTA is a partially integrated test facility:

MTA relies on a non-integrated Remote Test Unit (RTU) that is connected to the
ISAM or ISAM Voice.

MTA requires MTA-capable appliques terminating the subscriber line.


MTA can be used to set the relays so that the RTU gets outward access to, for
example, the narrowband physical line, the broadband physical line, or the full
physical line. MTA also allows setting the relays so the RTU gets inward access to
test, for example, the narrowband towards the LT board terminating the POTS or
ISDN line, or the broadband towards the LT board terminating the DSL line.
Note that it is possible to test the narrowband of a line from two different places:

the narrowband line can be tested outward from the Voice applique, in which case
it is managed as a test of the POTS line.
Although the MTA technology applies in principle to POTS and ISDN, it must
be noted that it is supported only for POTS.
the narrowband line can be tested outward from the splitter board (DSL applique)
that is associated with a DSL LT board, in which case it is managed as a test of
the DSL line.
In this way the MTA technology is supported for POTS and for ISDN lines.
It is also possible to equip collocated expansion shelves with MTA-capable
appliques and to connect them to the host shelf with a cable, to support the same tests
from the RTU connected to the host shelf.
Some tests can be executed during turn-up of a subscriber line, for example, the
operator can test the line to verify whether it is suited to carry the promised xDSL
service. After the service has been established, the operator can also perform a
variety of tests during routine or diagnostic tests.
Testing using MTA can be either single-ended or dual-ended.

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5 Line testing features

Test access modes


The following test access modes are supported for each Test Access Port (TAP):

Released mode: releases all test connections and frees all TAP resources.
Loop around mode: characterizes the TAP so that its influence can be deducted
from the parameters measured during the split access mode.
Split access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows the test system
testing outward towards the line and testing inward towards the LT equipment.
Note Only full MTA requires all the test access modes.

Figure 5-2 shows the test access modes.


Figure 5-2 Test access modes
Released

Loop around
Line

Line
Facility pair

Facility pair

RTU

RTU

xTU-C
Equipment pair
DSLAM

xTU-C
Equipment pair

LPF

DSLAM

PSTN

LPF
PSTN

Line
Facility pair
RTU

xTU-C
Equipment pair
DSLAM

LPF
PSTN

Split access

The two following access modes are partial implementations of the split-access
mode and are called limited test access:

Limited outward access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows testing
outward towards the line. The Low Pass Filter (LPF) and the line to the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) remain connected to the line. This limits
the number of measurements that the test system is capable of.
Undisturbed outward access mode: provides a breaking connection that allows
testing outward towards the line. The LPF and the line to the PSTN are either not
present or they have been removed from the line. This ensures that the
measurements are not disturbed by the presence of the LPF or the DC battery
voltage that is put on the line.
Figure 5-3 shows the partial implementations of split-access mode.

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5 Line testing features


Figure 5-3 Partial implementations of split-access mode

Limited outward access

Undisturbed outward access


Line

Line
Facility pair

Facility pair

RTU

RTU

xTU-C

xTU-C
Equipment pair

LPF
DSLAM

Equipment pair
DSLAM

PSTN

LPF
PSTN

MTA support in the 7302 ISAM


Full test access scenarios are supported, using the Metallic Test Access Unit
(MTAU) function. The MTAU function is implemented using a test applique and LT
appliques, which are present in the splitter shelf. Using this function, a test head or
Remote Test Unit (RTU) can get metallic access to a line in the 7302 ISAM by way
of a TAP, to perform the necessary tests.

MTA support in the 7330 ISAM FTTN


Full test access scenarios are supported in the 7330 ISAM FTTN. The expansion
nodes (expansion shelf and REM/SEM) do not support MTA.

The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf supports MTA through an MTAU function
implemented by the test access board (or NTIO board with MTA function), in
conjunction with the multi-ADSL and POTS splitter appliques. All units must be
present in their respective shelf for the MTAU function to operate. Using this
MTAU function, a test head or RTU can use a single TAP on the test access board
to get metallic access to any subscriber line connected to the 7330 ISAM FTTN.
The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf uses an RJ-45 MTA connector on the test access
board as the TAP for the test in and test out signals between the testhead and the
shelf.
The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf uses these boards to provide a relay-based matrix to
connect the test in and test out signals with the backplane for connection to the
appropriate applique installed in the shelf.
The 7330 ISAM FTTN shelf supports MTA on the multi-ADSL and POTS
splitter appliques. On-board relays are used to connect the test in and test out
signals to the appropriate connected subscriber line.
Note 1 The MTA test bus may be interconnected / daisy-chained

for up to 8 collocated FTTN host nodes using a maximum cable


length of 10 m.
Note 2 Since MTA is currently supported on host nodes only, the

Test Operating System must ensure that only one port in this daisy
chain configuration is enabled at any one time

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5 Line testing features

Test Access Control


Test Access Control (TAC) is done with TL1 commands, which are sent using the
TL1 agent of the 7302 ISAM or 7330 ISAM FTTN shelves in response to the test
head.

5.3

Single-Ended Line Testing


Single-Ended Line Testing (SELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board. SELT
does not require CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line.
SELT can be used as a base for a DSL service level agreement between provider and
customer, and for fault detection, and monitoring of line degradation. SELT works
together with external data analysis software, such as the Alcatel-Lucent 5530
Network Analyzer (5530 NA), to provide loop pre-qualification and maintenance of
the network.
Note See the 5530 Network Analyzer User Guide for more
information about SELT using the 5530 NA.

SELT can be performed from the DSL LT board without need for support by the CPE
or for a craftsman to be present at the customer premises.
SELT is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR). An excitation signal is
sent on the line and its echo response is analyzed. Processing of the echo response is
done in the 5530 NA. The polarity and position of the reflections indicate the loop
length, attenuation, presence of a gauge wire change, and an open, short, or bridged
tap and its distance from the DSL LT board of the line under test.
SELT provides a line test tool built inside the xDSL modem to measure the loop
characteristics between the U-C and the U-R interface and allows for:

detection and location of metallic faults (open/short).


detection, location and length of bridge taps.
noise measurement and detection of interferences.
measurement of the line attenuation.
estimation of the maximum achievable bit rate.
estimation of the line length.

The operator can check the presence and quality of, for example, a wire termination
Main Distribution Frame (MDF) or SAI / DFI (Service Area / Feeder Distribution
Interface). This feature can be of help in situations where this interconnection is
being provisioned by a third party.

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SELT support
SELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards
VDSL LT boards
VDSL2 LT boards
These boards can be located in the main subrack or in remote subracks (FD-REM,
VSEM-D, ).

SELT measurements
The following SELT measurements and tests are supported:

uncalibrated echo response


echo variance
noise
The ISAM allows up to 5 simultaneous SELT measurements per LT board.

5.4

Dual-ended line testing


Dual-Ended Line Testing (DELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board. DELT
requires a CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line.
This loop diagnostics function enables the immediate measurement of line
conditions at both ends of the line without dispatching maintenance technicians to
attach test equipment to the line. The resulting information helps to isolate the
location (inside the premises, near the customer end of the line, or near the network
end of the line) and the sources (cross-talk, radio frequency interference, and bridged
tap) of impairments.

DELT support
DELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards
VDSL LT boards
DELT measurements
The following diagnostic measurement data are collected during a test using DELT:

5-8

actual operational mode


operational mode capabilities (ATU-C/ATU-R)
SNR margin (US/DS)
loop attenuation (US/DS)
signal attenuation (US/DS)
aggregate output power (US/DS)
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5 Line testing features

5.5

actual PSD (US/DS)


attainable bit rate (US/DS)
modem identification parameter: ATU-R ModemVendorID
carrier-related data: Hlog (US/DS), Hlin (US/DS), QLN PSD (US/DS), SNR
(US/DS)

Metallic-Ended Line Testing


Metallic-Ended Line Testing (MELT) tests the DSL line from the DSL LT board.
MELT does not require the CPE to be connected to the peer side of the line.
MELT can be used as a base for fault detection and monitoring of line degradation.
MELT works together with external data analysis software, such as the
Alcatel-Lucent 5530 Network Analyzer (5530 NA), to provide loop pre-qualification
and maintenance of the network. Also basic management, to start measurements and
report results, is provided through CLI.
Note See the 5530 Network Analyzer User Guide for more
information about MELT using the 5530 NA.

MELT is performed from the DSL LT board without need for support by the CPE or
for a craftsman to be present at the customer premises.
The MELT functionality is based on the technology for the narrowband POTS
subscriber lines.
MELT provides a line test tool built inside the ISAM to measure the loop
characteristics between the U-C and the U-R interface and allows for:

detection and location of metallic faults (open/short/bad contacts)


detection of cable degradation (for example, due to cable moisture)
detection of external voltages
line pair identification
detection of signature topologies

MELT support
MELT measurements are supported on the following boards:

multi-ADSL LT boards
VDSL LT boards
SHDSL boards
The list of xDSL LT boards for which MELT testing is supported can be found in the
Product Information manual.

MELT measurements
ISAM limits to execute only one MELT session at a time at an LT board.
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The following MELT tests are supported:

Foreign AC voltage:
Measures foreign AC voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.
Result values:

Measured AC Voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.


Measured AC voltage frequency of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.
Foreign DC voltage:
Measures foreign DC voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.
Result values:

Measured DC Voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b


Capacitance:
Measures capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
Result values:

Measured capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b


Measurement AC voltage used for determining the capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth,

and a/b
Measurement AC voltage frequency used for determining the capacitance of
a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
On-board capacitance used for correcting the measured capacitance value of
a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b

Insulating resistance:
Measures insulating resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b and b/a.
Result values:

Measured resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b and b/a


Measurement DC voltage used for determining the resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth,
a/b and b/a.

Measurement DC current used for determining the resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b
and b/a.

Termination detection: detects whether a termination circuit connects to the line


Cable Pair identification (search tone generation)
Hazardous voltage (DC>120V or AC>50V).
Galvanic Signature Detection (For ADSL/VDSL; not for SHDSL).
End Device Capacitance Detection.
PPA Detection (ppa / ppa-invers / ppa-not-detected / analysis-not-available)
ROH Detection (For ADSL/VDSL, not for SHDSL)
Conductance (a/Earth, b/Earth and a/b).
Susceptibility (a/Earth, b/Earth and a/b).

Enhanced MELT Test result reporting offering the following information:

The time stamp the MELT test has finished


The remaining time the search tone will be played (Cable pair Identification)
Validity flag indicating whether the result of a MELT test:
was not taken or the result is not reliable
was taken and the result is reliable.
Textual clarification of the returned MELT test result status.

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The MELT Group test capability supports the following execution modes:

Legacy MELT Group test including


Foreign DC Voltage
Insulating Resistance
Capacitance
Capacitance Of Signature
Resistance of Ringer
and only providing the MELT test results.

MELT Group test with extended reporting including


Foreign DC Voltage
Insulating Resistance
Capacitance
Capacitance Of Signature
Resistance of Ringer
and providing the MELT test result values together with the conditions (Used
AC/DC voltage, frequency, calibration capacitance) under which the tests were
executed
MELT Collective Group test including

Foreign AC Voltage
Foreign DC Voltage
Insulating Resistance
Capacitance
Capacitance Of Signature
Resistance of Ringer
Conductance
Susceptibility
PPA Detection
Galvanic Signature Detection
End Device Capacitance Detection
ROH-Detection

and providing the MELT test result values together with the conditions (Used
AC/DC voltage, frequency, calibration capacitance) under which the tests were
executed
Further on, the capability is offered to request:

The Chipset Vendor Identity / HW version / FW version


During MELT session execution, an overview of the busy ports and busy reason
(awaiting execution, execution on-going, playing search tone, test finished).

5.6

ATM F5
On ATM based DSL interfaces it is possible to use ATM F5 loopback. The following
functionality, as is specified in ITU-T I.610, is supported:

active: the operator asks for a loopback test


passive: the CPE triggers a loopback test and the ISAM responds
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5.7

Link Related Ethernet OAM


Introduction
Link-Related Ethernet OAM (IEEE 802.3 clause 57 standard) enables network
operators to monitor the health of the network and quickly determine the location of
failing links or fault conditions. The feature allows remote side information to be
retrieved for a link connected with a node for which SNMP may not be available as
default.
The feature does not include functions such as station management, bandwidth
allocation or provisioning functions, which are considered outside the scope of this
standard.
Figure 5-4 shows a typical Link Related Ethernet OAM configuration.
Figure 5-4 Typical Link Related Ethernet OAM Configuration
7302 ISAM
or
7330 FTTN
CPE
IEEE802.3 clause 57
(Link Ethernet OAM)

General description
Link-Related Ethernet OAM information is conveyed in Slow Protocol frames called
OAM Protocol Data Units (PDUs). Link-Related Ethernet OAM PDUs contain the
appropriate control and status information used to monitor, test, and troubleshoot
OAM-enabled links. Link-Related Ethernet OAM PDUs traverse a single link, and
as such, are not forwarded by MAC clients (for example, bridges or switches).
Link-Related Ethernet OAM provides a mechanism, called discovery, to detect the
presence of an OAM sub-layer at the remote DTE. During the Discovery process, the
ISAM and the CPE exchange their respective configuration information and evaluate
the remote information to determine compatibility. The decision for accepting
remote configuration is based on the remote system OAM mode, version, maximum
PDU size, Parser Action, Multiplexer Action, and function supported information. If
these parameters are accepted, the discovery will complete and-Link Related
Ethernet OAM will be operational. Otherwise, the remote configuration is rejected
and requires operator intervention to rectify the conflicting parameters.
Link-Related Ethernet OAM has provision to retrieve one or more MIB variables,
also referred to as attributes, from the CPE. The operator can retrieve MAC layer
counters and PME counters from the CPE after successful completion of discovery.
The ISAM supports some Link-related Ethernet OAM functions on its Ethernet and
EFM user interfaces, that is, on interfaces terminated on LT boards.

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Link-Related Ethernet OAM procedures


The following sections describe the different Link-Related OAM procedures, as
defined in the standard IEEE 802.3 clause 57, and its support within the ISAM.
Discovery

The first phase of Link Related Ethernet OAM is discovery. This phase is started
when the operator enables the Link Related Ethernet OAM feature.
Discovery has 3 main functions:

provide a mechanism to detect the presence of an OAM sub-layer


identify the devices in the network, along with OAM capabilities
setup of the OAM link
During this discovery procedure the ISAM always negotiates to become the active
DTE. The ISAM never accepts to become the passive DTE. The ISAM never accepts
the peer DTE to become active (the standard allows both sides to be active).
Link monitoring

The standard defines link monitoring tools for detecting and indicating link faults
under a variety of circumstances. Both Event Notification and Variable Retrieve are
part of link monitoring.
1

Link monitoring uses the Event Notification OAM PDU, and sends events to the
peer OAM entity when the number of problems detected on the link cross a
threshold.

The manager can initiate a Variable Request to retrieve data about the link from
the peer side. This capability allows emulating a non-intrusive loopback. It
behaves like a L2 ping as each Variable Request shall be replied with a
Variable Response.

The ISAM does not support Event notifications: it does not generate Event
Notifications and ignores received Event Notifications.
The ISAM allows the manager to initiate a Variable Request to retrieve remote CPE
data to know the current link status. It supports to retrieve:

Physical Medium Entity (PME) data


PME Aggregation Function (PAF) data
By forcing the peer side to be in passive mode, the ISAM does not support the peer
side to retrieve data from the ISAM through Variable Requests / Responses.
Remote failure indication

A set of flags in the header of any OAM PDU allows an OAM entity to convey severe
error conditions to its peer.
The ISAM does not report critical events to the peer side.

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The ISAM reports reception of following critical events from peer:

Dying Gasp
Critical Event
Link Fault
Remote Loopback

Link-Related Ethernet OAM provides an optional data link layer frame-level


loopback mode, which is controlled remotely. This means: one side forces the peer
side to go in a loop mode and to send back the received frames.
The ISAM Ethernet line card supports a method to invoke remote loopback at the
peer end. The looped back traffic can be monitored using performance counters at
the Ethernet physical layer of the line card. ISAM does not support generation of test
traffic towards the peer and relies on network traffic (or an upstream device) to be
used during loopback.
As an active DTE, ISAM ignores any remote loopback request received from the
peer.
GPON / DSL LT boards do not support invocation of remote loopback at the peer
end.

5.8

Narrowband Line Testing


Narrowband Line Testing provides a set of tests for the narrowband on POTS/ISDN
subscriber lines, to tests the line from the SLIC on the Voice LT board. Narrowband
line testing support is LT board hardware and software dependent.
Management of the narrowband line test feature for ISAM Voice is supported by the
5530 Network Analyzer. Also basic management to start measurements and report
results is provided through CLI and 5520 AMS.
Narrowband line testing is supported for:

POTS/ISDN LT boards operating in the H.248 environment


POTS LT boards operating in the SIP environment.

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5 Line testing features

Line testing support on POTS


The following test can be performed with the narrowband line testing feature (on
POTS (H.248 and SIP):

Electrical measurement tests:


The purpose of these tests is the measurement of electrical parameters. These tests
do not require customer assistance. Any or all of these tests can be invoked in the
same test request for a given user port. Electrical measurement tests are:

Foreign voltage (AC/DC): measures foreign voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.
Capacitance: measures capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.
Insulating resistance: measures insulating resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, a/battery,
b/battery, and a/b.

Impedance: measures the impedance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b.


Termination (M Socket detection): detects whether a phone, or just a resistance
connects the line.

Feeding voltage: measures voltage over wires in open circuit and verifies that the
voltage remains within thresholds.

Feeding current: for NPOT-A a resistor, loading the wires, is connected and the

current in limiting mode is measured. For NPOT-B and NPOT-C, the system will
measure the real feeding current on the subscriber line.
Noise level: detects abnormal noise level, for example, crosstalk
Longitudinal current (Supported on NPOT-B and NPOT-C, SIP only)

Group test:
This test consists of a combination of the predefined electrical measurements
requested by the OS in previous electrical measurement tests. The test combines
voltage, capacitance and insulating resistance measurements.

AC foreign voltage: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b


DC foreign voltage: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
capacitance: a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
insulation resistance: a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b, and b/a

Detection of electronic ringers.


Two types of electronic ringers can be detected (Supported on NPOT-B and
NPOT-C, SIP only).
Termination (M-Socket) detection)
Detects if the line is connected by an M-socket (470k ohm resistance in series
with a diode) or a resistance.
Dial tone test:
This test checks the ability of the line circuit to detect an off-hook and to check
the provision of the dial tone. An off-hook condition is simulated in the ISAM.
This off-hook must be detected by the line circuit and is further processed by
call-handling software. For H.248 the MGC then interprets it as a real off-hook
and sends a dial tone. For SIP, ISAMV will generate a dial tone upon receiving
the off-hook event.
The time is measured and compared with a predefined threshold. Returned result
is the delay-to-dial tone.

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Howler tone test:


This test lets the user know that the handset is not on-hook and restores the user
state from parking to idle after the handset goes on-hook. If the user does not go
on-hook, the howler tone is stopped after a predefined time-out. The howler tone
level and frequency depend on the specifications in different countries.
Status monitor:
This test lets the operator know the status of the indicated user.
Talking tests are supported on ISAM, but not on NA5530. The following tests are
supported:

Talking with Subscriber


Subscriber Private Meter Pulses
Resistance of user's loop (AB)
Line Reverse
Ring Subscriber with Auto Ring Trip
DP/DTMF Signal

Block Reading Mode:


One extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance,
Insulation Resistance) for the basic electrical test types, it will return 20 reading
results of one electrical test item in each session.
Continuous Reading Mode:
Another extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance,
Insulation Resistance) for the basic electrical test types, in one test session, the
operator can repeat the test item after the last test result is reported to it. This
mode also accepts only one electrical test item in each session.

Line testing support on ISDN


ISDN line test is only supported in H.248 environment.
The following tests can be performed with the narrowband line testing feature on
ISDN (H.248):

ISDN BA loopback test with test pattern:


Complete loopback with test pattern.
Loopback of full bit stream (B1 and B2 and D channel)

Loopback at ISDN LT and NT/NT1

5-16

Self test on layer 1 by the ISAM-V: ISAM-V generates a test pattern and activates
a loopback at the LT + verification and evaluation of received test pattern.
Test towards the NT/NT1: ISAM-V generates a test pattern and activates a loopback
at the NT + Verification and evaluation of received test pattern
Only when the transmitted and received patterns are exactly the same, the test is
considered as passed.
The test pattern is hard-coded (NOT configurable).
Precondition for executing ISDN BA loop back test:
The ISDN BA loop back test will be rejected in case the ISDN B channel would be
busy.
Otherwise the ISDN BA loop back test (including loopback test to the NT board and
loopback test to the LT board) will be accepted and executed (on condition that the
ISDN user port has been provisioned).

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ISDN electric line tests:


Foreign voltage (AC/DC): measures foreign voltage of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
Resistance: measures insulating resistance of a/Earth, b/Earth, a/b and b/a
Capacitance: measures capacitance of a/Earth, b/Earth, and a/b
Precondition for executing ISDN electric tests:
The tests should be supported in any port status except for line busy.

Extended Test modes


The following extended test modes can be performed:

Block Reading Mode:


One extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance,
Insulation Resistance) for the basic POTS electrical test types, it will return 20
reading results of one electrical test item in each session.
Continuous Reading Mode:
Another extended new test mode (only for Foreign Voltage AC/DC, Capacitance,
Insulation Resistance) for the basic POTS electrical test types, in one test session,
the operator can repeat the test item after the last test result is reported to it. This
mode also accepts only one electrical test item in each session.
Note Both extended test modes are not supported on ISDN.

Enhanced NBLT result reporting (SIP based VoIP service only)


The NBLT result reporting offers the following additional information:

The time stamp the NBLT test has finished


The remaining time the search tone will be played (Cable pair Identification)
Textual clarification of the returned NBLT test result status.
Further on, the capability is offered to request during NBLT session execution, an
overview of the busy ports and busy reason (awaiting execution, execution on-going,
playing search tone, test finished).

5.9

SFP diagnostics
SFPs are used to terminate network, subtending, inter-shelf, line board Ethernet
interfaces or xPON.
The ISAM supports the digital diagnostics function in line with SFF-8472.
When isolating a data path problem, for example, fiber degradation, the operator can
use the management interface to retrieve the instantaneous received optical power
level and transmitted optical power level from an SFP.
This diagnostics functionality is available on all SFP, SFP+ and XFP interfaces of
the ISAM system.

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5.10

Embedded OTDR
Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) is an opto-electronic measurement
technology used to characterize an optical fiber plant. Classical OTDR uses external
measuring equipment which injects a series of optical pulses into the tested fiber.
From the same end of the fiber the equipment then extracts light that is scattered
(Rayleigh backscatter) or reflected back from points along the fiber.
OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber length and the overall attenuation,
including splice and mated-connector losses. OTDR is also commonly used for fault
finding on installed systems.
Figure 5-5 shows the main advantages of the embedded OTDR solution.

the easy deployment


the integrated management
the OTDR measurements are possible without the requirement for expensive
external test equipment

the measurement capability is always available and is non-service affecting


the measurements do not require an operator to be on-site
Figure 5-5 Embedded OTDR main advantages
GPON
OLT

Fibre coupler
(signal attenuated)
Splitter

F1
Optical switch

Filter at ONT
to block OTDR
signal

F2

ONT
OTDR

Analysis
tool

OTDR
1310

1490

1625 nm

GPON
OLT
Splitter

F1
F2

Embedded OTDR
SFP

Network
analyzer

1310

ONT

1490
Also used as OTDR

The ISAM supports SFPs for GPON and EPON interfaces that have an embedded
OTDR capability, allowing OTDR measurements without the requirement for
expensive external test equipment. Therefore, the measurement capability is always
available, is non-service affecting and does not require an operator to be on-site.
The 5530 NA-Fiber provides the necessary support to interpret the results of the
OTDR measurements.

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6 Network timing reference support


in ISAM

6.1 Introduction

6-2

6.2 ISAM clock system and NTR extraction


6.3 Downstream NTR clock distribution
6.4 Applicable standards

6-6
6-16

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

6.1

Introduction

Scope
This chapter describes the different clock systems and Network Timing Reference
(NTR) capabilities of the ISAM. A specific ISAM board will not support all of these
capabilities. To know which of these functions are supported on a specific ISAM
board, refer to the Product Information document and/or the Unit Data Sheet (UDS)
of that board.
This section focuses on both the 24G NT family and the 100G/320G NT + FX NT
family. Whether or not an NTR function is supported is board dependent rather than
family dependent. This is the rationale to cover both families.
Example: SyncE is supported on some board variants in the 100Gbps/320Gbps NT
family, but is not supported on the cheaper ones. And while SyncE is not supported
on most boards in the 24Gbps NT family, it is supported on the NRNT-A board (that
is, the NT board for Standalone REM).
A summary of NTR capabilities of the most advanced board variants in each family
is given in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2. In many cases, less advanced board variants
with fewer or no NTR capabilities are available. These can be used for deployments
where these capabilities are not needed. The next section will clarify this at a high
level.

Applications as driver for specific clock or NTR requirements


This section discusses high-end NTR capabilities on the ISAM such as BITS, SyncE,
NTR on DSL, and so on. However, many applications such as High Speed Internet
(HSI), Video, Packet Voice, Data Offload in Mobile Backhaul do not require such
high-end clock system (see Table 6-1). For these applications the usual and less
complex NTs and LTs are sufficient for network deployments.
Each access technology (ADSL, VDSL2, SHDSL, Ethernet, GPON and EPON) may
have its specific clock requirements to guarantee synchronization and proper
functioning between both ends (CO and end-user). However, in general, these clock
requirements are taken care of in the design of line boards (LTs) for that specific
access technology, and do not impose any restrictions on the specific NTs which can
be used. Some exceptions exist (for example, voice over POTS line) and they will be
covered in the section on that access technology. Clock requirements or restrictions
related to a specific access technology, are in general not in the scope of this chapter.
Table 6-1 Specific clock requirements per application
Application
(over DSL, Ethernet or
PON)(1)

Required on NT

Required on LT

High Speed Internet (HSI),

External NTR source: not required

Video,

Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or


50 ppm is sufficient)

All LTs are suited, that is,


no specific clock
requirements on LT.

Packet Voice
(1 of 2)

6-2

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Application
(over DSL, Ethernet or
PON)(1)
Voice via POTS line

Required on NT

Required on LT

External NTR source: not required

All voice LTs are suited,


that is, no specific clock
requirements on LT.

Local Clock Accuracy: 4.6 ppm is


required
Long fax or modem calls via POTS
line

External NTR source: SyncE In or


BITS In

All voice LTs are suited,


that is, no specific clock
requirements on LT.

NTR distribution from network


node to network node (for
example, to other DSLAMs)

External NTR source: SyncE In


or BITS In
NTR Out: SyncE Out or BITS
Out

NT or NTIO output can be


used, and then no
requirements on LT.

External NTR source: not required

All LTs are suited, that is,


no specific clock
requirements on LT.

Mobile backhaul data offload

Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or


50 ppm is sufficient)
Full mobile backhaul (with
frequency synchronization)

External NTR source: SyncE In or


BITS In

Alternatively, SyncE
output on an Ethernet LT.

Full mobile backhaul with phase


synchronization or ToD
requirement

DSL LTs: NTR on


VDSL2 or SHDSL
(Note: NTR on ADSL is
not supported on
DSL-LTs)
Ethernet LTs: SyncE
out
PON LTs: no specific
clock requirements on
LT (Note: ONT with
BITS out or SyncE out
needed)

Not supported.

Not supported.
Note: Phase synchronization or
ToD is only required for some
mobile applications, and even then
in most cases an alternative option
exists which does not require
these features.
Alternative solution: Provide
Mobile Backhaul data offload only,
with phase sync or ToD via a
different channel (for example,
GPS/ GNSS receiver)

Packet-based Business
applications

External NTR source: not required

Business applications with NTR


requirements (for example, TDM
leased lines)

External NTR source: SyncE In or


BITS In

Local Clock Accuracy: low (32 or


50 ppm is sufficient)

All LTs are suited, that is,


no specific requirements
on LT.

DSL LTs: NTR over


SHDSL or VDSL2
Ethernet LTs: SyncE
out
PON LT: no specific
clock requirements on
LT

(2 of 2)
Note
(1)

DSL is a generic term in this chapter referring to ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+, VDSL2 and SHDSL. PON is
a generic term in this chapter referring to both GPON and EPON

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6-3

6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Only some applications such as Full Mobile Backhaul (with frequency


synchronization) and some Business Applications (for example, TDM leased lines)
will require NTR support (see Table 6-1). This then means that NT boards are
required which either support BITS inputs or SyncE inputs, and LT boards
supporting NTR over DSL in case of SHDSL or VDSL2, and SyncE out on Ethernet
lines. For PON LTs, there are no specific requirements, since the framing of PON
has inherent sufficient high clock quality (assuming the appropriate NT is used). But,
an ONT needs to be selected with an NTR output (for example, SyncE on an Ethernet
output port, or a BITS out).
NTR in mobile applications, and especially in mobile backhaul, frequency
synchronization has always been sufficient in the past, and phase synchronization or
ToD was not required. With new mobile generations (for example, LTE) also the
latter requirements may appear. However, in general, different options exist in the
new mobile standards, and only some of these options (for example, TDD
technology) require ToD, while mostly alternative options (for example, FDD) exist
which do not require this. It depends very much on the selected technology which
will be used in a mobile network, if phase synchronization or ToD will be possibly
required there. Even if the latter is the case, the ISAM is then still capable to transport
the mobile data, if the phase synchronization or ToD timing signal is transported in
parallel via an alternative way (for example, via GPS/ GNSS).
To know which NT boards and LT boards in the ISAM portfolio support the specific
NTR requirements for a certain application (according to for example, Table 6-1),
please consult the Product Information document and/or the UDS of that board.
The ISAM NTR features support a very wide range of applications. On the market
other clock solutions are available, which in most cases are just alternatives, that is,
they just support the same applications in a different way. In some cases, they may
be transparent to the ISAM, and could therefore also be used. An example is
Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR). ACR requires larger buffers and a better local
oscillator in the end-receiver, and will therefore be more expensive. An investment
in a somewhat more expensive ISAM NT board with SyncE or BITS support will
then probably be better than having to deploy a more expensive receiver with ACR
at every end-user. Secondly, the larger buffers needed for ACR increase the
end-to-end delay and may therefore require echo-cancellation for interactive services
(for example, voice or video calls).

Overview of NTR support on ISAM


Table 6-1 made clear that NTR is not required for all applications. However, in some
cases it is required. Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 give a high-level view on the supported
options on NT boards and LT boards for the FD 24Gbps family and the FD
100/320Gbps NT and FX NT family, respectively.

6-4

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Sync Eth

8 kHz
8
kHz

GE PHY

NRNT -A

Optional GE
network

8 kHz
8
kHz

DSL

backplane
backplane

DSL

POTS/ISDN

NTR
DSL

POTS/ISDN

SEM/Distributed REM

8 kHz

Eth

POTS/ISDN

backplane

NT

Hub ISAM

Sync Eth

NT

DSLLT
Voice DSL
LT

CTRL

Eth

NTR

8 kHz
backplane

DSL
LT

backplane

backplane
backplane

NTIO

8 kHz

8 kHz
8
kHz

GE PHY

DSL
LT

NT

Sync Eth
GE PHY
NTR
DSL

GE PHY
Voice

NTIO

8 kHz
backplane

Sync Eth

Voice

8 kHz

G.703

8 kHz
8
kHz
backplane
backplane

NTR

GE PHY
backplane

BITS

backplane
backplane

Standalone REM

Sync Eth

BITS
G.703

DSL
Voice DSL
LT
LT

Figure 6-1 Overview of possible NTR support on some LTs and some NTs in the FD
24Gbps NT ISAM family

8 kHz

7330 RA

backplane

Optional
PDH/SDH
network

POTS/ISDN

BITS
G.703
Outdoor ISAM

Optional
PDH/SDH
network

Collocated ISAM shelves

GPON

8 kHz
backplane

Eth

NT

Optional GE
network

GPON PHY
GPON
Sync Eth
GE PHY

8 kHz
backplane
8 kHz
backplane

8 kHz
backplane

NT
NT

BITS or Sync Eth


G.703
GE PHY

Sync Eth
GE PHY

Sync Eth
GE PHY

DSL
LT

POTS/ISDN

Sync Eth
GE PHY

POTS/ISDN

SEM/Distributed REM
Sync Eth
GE PHY

Hub ISAM

8 kHz
backplane

NTR
DSL

Voice

8 kHz
backplane

NTR
DSL

DSL
LT

8 kHz
backplane

DSL
LT

NTIO

NT

Sync Eth
GE PHY

8 kHz
backplane

Voice

Eth

Sync Eth
GE PHY

CTRL

8 kHz
backplane

8 kHz
backplane

BITS
G.703

NTIO

GPON

GPON PHY
GPON

Voice

Figure 6-2 Overview of possible NTR support on some LTs and some NTs in the FD
100/320Gbps NT ISAM family

BITS
G.703

NTR
DSL

POTS/ISDN
Sync Eth
GE PHY

Outdoor ISAM

The FX NT supports in addition also IEEE1588 as NTR source as indicated in


Figure 6-3.

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3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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November 2013

6-5

6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Sync Eth
GE PHY

Optional GE
network
IEEE1588
GE

IEEE1588
GE

GPON

Sync Eth
GE PHY

8 kHz
backplane

GPON PHY
GPON

8 kHz
backplane

GPON

Hub ISAM

Sync Eth
GE PHY

GPON PHY
GPON

8 kHz
backplane

GPON PHY
GPON
Sync Eth
GE PHY
Sync Eth
GE PHY

8 kHz
backplane

NT

BITS or Sync Eth


GE PHY
G.703

GE PHY
Sync Eth
GE PHY

GPON

8 kHz
backplane

IEEE1588
GE

GPON PHY
GPON

Eth

8 kHz
backplane

GPON PHY
GPON

NT

NTIO

NT

Sync Eth
GE PHY

GPON PHY
GPON

NTIO

8 kHz
backplane

GPON GPON GPON

8 kHz
backplane

BITS
G.703

Eth

Figure 6-3 NTR options for FX NT ISAM family

NT

Optional
PDH/SDH
network

BITS
G.703
Outdoor ISAM

Collocated ISAM shelves

Note For an overview of which NT boards and which LT boards


support the required synchronization functions, refer to the Product
Information document of your system and/or the Unit Data Sheet
(UDS) of that board.

Although not shown in these figures, also deployments with a mix of nodes are
possible from both figures. For example, a standalone REM connected via SyncE to
an Ethernet output on an Hub ISAM with NT from the FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX
NT family.
Note The distributed REM requires a fiber connection per LT
board for the data transport. However, only the fiber to LT1 transports
the NTR signal, which is then distributed in the REM to both LT
boards. Hence, when that fiber link is broken, the NTR features
described in this chapter are not fully supported anymore for all lines
in that distributed REM.

6.2

ISAM clock system and NTR extraction

High level description of the external port selection for NTR


Figure 6-4 gives a high level description on how the external port is selected that will
be used for NTR extraction. This is valid for BITS, SyncE and IEEE1588 which are
linked to physical ports.

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

An ISAM hardware configuration has a number of external ports RJ45-a, RJ45-b,


SFP-1,, SFP-n, XFP-1,, XFP-m available on NT-A, and possibly also on NT-B,
and NTIO, in case the latter are also present. Not every port can be used for
synchronization input. Hardware design of the specific ISAM boards determine
which ports can be used for SyncE input (some Ethernet ports) or BITS input (some
RJ45 ports), and this will then form a subset of the total number of external ports (see
Figure 6-4).
Figure 6-4 Port selection for external NTR (SyncE and BITS)
Ports which
support
synchronisation
input (BITS, SyncE
or IEEE1588)

RJ45-a
RJ45-b
SFP-1

SFP-n
XFP-1

XFP-m

HW design
of specific
card

RJ45-a
RJ45-b
SFP-f

SFP-g
XFP-r
...
XFP-s

Static
configuration on
ISAM

Static
selection of
2 ports for
NTR input

T
U

ISAM
clock
system
operation

Dynamic
selection of
1 port for
NTR

R ef e
renc
e
=R

External
ports on NT-A,
(NT-B and
NTIO)

Clock
distribution
on ISAM
backplane
to LTs
and then
to access lines

Note:
RJ45-a is the connector for BITS-A on NT-A
RJ45-b is the connector for BITS-B on NT-B

The operator needs to configure which of these ports are valid inputs for NTR in his
network deployment. Maximum two ports can be configured for this (T and U in
Figure 6-4).
The ISAM clock subsystem will then dynamically select one of these two ports as
NTR reference, according to the actual quality of the NTR signals on these ports,
configured priority of these ports, and so on, according to the ITU Rec G.871 section
5.6 criteria and selection algorithm.

Possible External NTR sources


The ISAM supports the following external NTR clock sources:

One BITS / SSU interface per NT faceplate:


This interface supports a 2.048 MHz plain clock signal, an E1 framed signal, or a
DS1 framed signal. For ETSI markets, the default expected input is an E1 framed
signal.
SSM is not supported on this interface.
BITS has been a very common way of clock distribution in PDH/SDH networks
for already a long time, and is therefore available in many COs. Even after
migration from PDH/SDH networks to Metro Ethernet, it is still available in
many cases for clock distribution. Because Synchronous Ethernet requires new
specific hardware not yet available on first generations of Metro Ethernet
networks, BITS is still an important option for providing NTR to ISAMs in COs.

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6-7

6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

One or more Synchronous Ethernet interfaces on the NT or NTIO faceplates:


This can be only supported on optical 1 GE, 2.5 GE and 10 GE interfaces, and not
at other speeds (for example, 100 Mbps), nor on any electrical interface.
SSM can be enabled on these interfaces.
Further network rationalization is the driver to move all functions to the Metro
Ethernet, so the PDH/SDH network becomes completely obsolete. Consequently,
over time, SyncE will become the more important solution for NTR. Since
SyncE-support requires specific hardware, upgrades of some nodes in the Metro
Ethernet network may be required.
One or more PTP (also known as IEEE1588v2) clock sources:
This is a packet-based clock synchronization method using Ethernet packets.
Next to support for frequency synchronization this protocol also provides support
for time synchronization over a packet network. ISAM currently only supports
frequency synchronization.
Figure 6-1, Figure 6-2 and Figure 6-3 give a high-level view of the possible
interfaces to external NTR sources for the FD 24Gbps NT family, the FD
100/320Gbps NT family and the FX NT family, respectively. More detailed
information on the actual capabilities of specific boards is available in the Product
Information document for your product and/or the UDS. Also there one can find
which ports on these boards can be used as external NTR sources (and which ones
not).

Single NT clock operation


Figure 6-5 shows the NTR configuration with a single NT board, and with an NTIO
board added as a possible option. The internal system NTR clock can be
synchronized to any of the external NTR sources described in the previous
subsection: BITS, SyncE and IEEE1588.
Figure 6-5 ISAM configuration for NTR provisioning with single NT.
SFP

NT Front plate
1 GE Ethernet
Sync Eth out

LT 1
Sync Eth out

SFP

NT Front plate
1 / 10 GE
Sync Eth in

SFP+
SFP

NTIO Front plate


1 GE Sync Eth out
SFP
SFP

Sync Eth out

PHY

PTP
IEEE
1588

1 GE NTIO
T3 : BITS /SSU 1 in
NTIO Front plate
10 GE Sync Eth in
Sync Eth out

XFP

S
E
L

TC/
OC XO

NTR clock generation

SFP

LT 18

PHY

NTR clock source


selection

NTIO Front plate


1 GE Sync Eth in
Sync Eth out

T4 : BITS/SSU
1 out
T0 8 kHz
NTR 1 to
LT 1 -18

XFP

10 GE NTIO

Single NT

The 8 kHz NTR signal generated by the internal system NTR clock is distributed to
the subscriber interface logic on the LT boards.
6-8

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Up to two ports can be configured as valid external NTR input ports (see High level
description of the external port selection for NTR). One will be the reference, and
the other one is for protection (see Clock protection: Overview).
If all available external NTR clock sources fail, then this clock will switch to
Hold-over mode, if locking to the external NTR clock source was completed at the
time of failure.
In case no valid external NTR clock source is connected during system start-up, the
internal NTR clock will remain in free-running mode, that is, it will adapt to the
output frequency of its local oscillator.

Clock protection: Overview


When applications are running on equipment connected to ISAM which require
NTR, it is important that this NTR signal is provided uninterrupted, and that
protection is available against degradation or failure of selected external NTR
sources. This is supported in the following ways:

Switching to another redundant external NTR clock source, if available


(see Clock protection: External NTR source protection).

An internal NTR clock hold-over function (see Figure 6-6), which continues to
apply the last known clock correction data to the internal NTR clock, in order to
keep the NTR clock to dependent equipment as stable as possible during absence
of external references.
Switching to a second NT with identical NTR clock system when the active NT
fails (see Clock protection: NT redundancy)
Figure 6-6 States and state transitions for the internal NTR clock

AUTONOMOUS MODE
Holdover mode
- freeze holdover
memory
- lock clock to
holdover memory
No valid reference
nor memory
available

Free-run mode
- rest holdover
memory
- free-run clock
Valid reference
available

Locked mode

Configure autonomous mode

No valid reference
nor memory
available

FORCED FREE-RUN MODE

- update holdover
memory
- lock clock to
selected reference

Free-run mode
Configure forced
free-run mode

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- rest holdover
memory
- free-run clock

November 2013

6-9

6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Clock protection: External NTR source protection


Up to two ports can be configured as valid external NTR input ports (see High level
description of the external port selection for NTR). One port will be the reference,
the other port is for protection. If the reference fails, then the other selected NTR
input port will be used for clock synchronization.
NTR clock source failure is detected from:

Loss of Signal
A signal frequency that falls outside the capture range of the internal system NTR
clock

Failure to receive SSM messages on an SSM enabled Synchronous Ethernet link


during more than 5 seconds
Reception of SSM messages with a QL value below the configured threshold
value.
Not locked on PTP packet stream (IEEE1588)
Per external NTR source type, the following protection is supported:

BITS input redundancy always requires 2 NT boards, since maximum one BITS
input interface is available on NT boards. If the reference BITS input fails, then
the BITS input on the other NT will be used as NTR, even if this other NT board
is in standby mode. The ISAM is in general hardware-ready to support this type
of BITS input redundancy, but up to this release, software support for this has
been implemented on NANT-A and NANT-D only. BITS input redundancy is not
supported on other NTs, but this will be planned in a future release.
SyncE source redundancy is supported with all input ports either on one NT
board, or on one NT board and NTIO board.
IEEE1588: the PTP circuitry on the NT can perform the Best Master Algorithm
on three different, configured PTP Masters, but it can track only one of these
actively. Therefore, actively tracking two redundant Grand Masters will require
a redundant NT pair. Resilience with respect to L2 connectivity can be guaranteed
via the usual means like LAG. The clockClass field in the PTP messages is not
used by the ISAM.
Any mix of BITS and SyncE is supported when both inputs are on the same NT, or
on one NT and NTIO. For example, BITS as the reference for NTR, while SyncE as
NTR source protection.
Note 1 IEEE1588 cannot be mixed with BITS or SyncE.
Note 2 The reception of PTP frames on an NTIO port is not

supported on IEEE1588.
However, such combinations are expected to be less common in the field, since either
the long-existing BITS on the PDH/SDH network is used, or else this network has
been completely outphased and the network has moved fully to metro Ethernet
aggregation and uses SyncE or IEEE1588.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Clock protection: NT redundancy


Also in ISAM configurations with NT redundancy, the NTR function should restore
and this to the same quality, when an NT fails and the redundant NT takes over. The
following restrictions have to be taken into account:

In case SSU / BITS is applied, a valid signal has to be provided to both NT board
front plates. This will guarantee that the system NTR clock on the stand-by NT
board can be synchronized to the network in case the active NT board hardware
fails or is removed.
The BITS signal on the NT in stand-by mode can be monitored
In case NT redundancy needs to be provided with SyncE for NTR, the SyncE
input(s) should be connected to the NTIO board which has connections to both
NTs. In this way, also SyncE input redundancy can be supported.
In case IEEE1588 is applied, both the active and the standby NT can actively
track one PTP Grand Master out of the maximum three devices configured per
NT. Full clock redundancy is also supported in PTP mode.
Once the redundant NT has taken over from the failing NT and has arrived in a stable
state, the NTR function will be compliant to the typical related standards. These
standards also define the maximum allowed phase jump during a transient effect.
Switch-over from a failing NT to a redundant NT is one of these transient effects, and
ISAM does exceed in that case the maximum allowed phase jump. Since such NT
switch-overs are exceptional, and since phase jumps may be filtered to some extent
by end-user equipment, the impact on services is expected to be limited.

Detailed behavior of internal system NTR


The operator can configure the following elements regarding NTR:

The external NTR source(s) to be used:


BITS/SSU
Synchronous Ethernet interfaces
IEEE1588
Enabling and disabling of the reception of SSMs that carry a QL, on the one or
two external NTR clock sources that have been configured as nominated for
network synchronization purposes by the operator.
The default setting is DISABLE. For the BITS/SSU and IEEE1588 interface,
this setting cannot be changed (that is, the QL is to be configured statically by the
operator).
The QL value applied for an external NTR clock source, in the algorithm that
performs the selection of one external NTR clock source from up to two
configured as nominated, and in case reception of SSM for that NTR clock source
is disabled.
The default setting for the value is equal to QL-PRC (code 0010b) for ETSI,
and QL-PRS (code point 0000b) for ANSI.
The target QL value that is applied as minimum threshold for eligibility of an
external NTR clock source, in the algorithm that performs the selection of one
external NTR clock source from up to two configured as nominated, and in case
reception of SSM for that NTR clock source is enabled.
The default setting for the value is equal to QL- DNU (code 1111b).

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6-11

6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The static relative priority to be applied for an external NTR clock source, in the
algorithm that performs the selection of one external NTR clock source from up
to two configured as nominated, in case the respective Quality Levels (QL) of the
two sources are identical. The QL for each of both NTR clock sources can be
either communicated via the Synchronization status Messages, or is fixed to a
default value.
Revertive or non-revertive operation of the external NTR clock signal selection.
The default setting is Revertive mode
Override of synchronization to any external NTR clock source, and forcing of
free-running or hold-over mode for the internal NTR clock function.
The target QL to be applied as minimum threshold for the internal system NTR
clock, for generating an SSU / BITS out signal.
The default setting for this target QL value is equal to QL- DNU (code 1111b).
The system performs the following autonomous NTR clock management functions:

Monitoring of the signal status (signal present, frequency within the capture
range) and the QL of up to two external NTR clock sources that are configured
by the operator as nominated.
Selection of the external NTR clock source that fits best the selection criteria,
from up to two sources configured as nominated. Selection happens as specified
further.
Disabling of the SSU / BITS output signal(s) in case the QL, which can be
attributed to the internal system NTR clock, drops below the configured
threshold.
The operator can retrieve the following information:

The status of BITS / SSU, Synchronous Ethernet and/ or IEEE1588 interfaces


nominated as external NTR source(s): not available, available but not used,
used.
The number of switch-over actions between nominated external NTR clock
sources. In revertive mode, switch-over between nominated external NTR clock
sources may happen without further alarm generation.
The operator can receive the following alarms:

Unavailability of any nominated external NTR clock source for reasons that
include:

Frequency out of range


Loss of Signal
Time-out for SSM reception, if enabled
Received SSM-QL below the target QL, default or configured
Not locked on PTP packet stream (IEEE1588)

Unavailability of all nominated external NTR clock sources for the reasons
mentioned above, with defaulting to hold-over mode for the internal NTR clock.
BITS output signal disabled:

Internal system NTR clock QL drops below the output threshold QL, default or
configured.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

In the default NTR switching mode (revertive mode), the ISAM selects the most
appropriate NTR clock source for synchronizing its output NTR signals, and for
protecting against failure of external NTR clock sources, as follows:

In case two external NTR clock sources have been configured by the operator as
nominated, and both are active, then selection of the external NTR clock source,
to which the internal system NTR clock will synchronize, is subject to the
following rules:

The external NTR clock with highest Quality Level (QL), is selected as actual

reference for the internal NTR clock. The QL of an external NTR clock source is
communicated by means of SSM messages received on the interface related to the
source. If SSM reception is not supported, or disabled on that interface, then a QL
value configured by the operator, or a default QL value is applied, as described
above.
In case both external NTR clock sources exhibit the same QL, then their relative
priority is determined by the external NTR clock source priority list as configured
by the operator.

After restoration or upgrading of an external NTR clock source, the selection


depends on revertive or non-revertive mode setting, as configured by the
operator.
In case only one external NTR clock source has been configured by the operator
as nominated, or in case only one is active, then the internal system NTR clock
will switch to hold-over mode when this external NTR clock source fails, or is
removed.
In hold-over mode, the internal system NTR clock maintains application of the
last stored correction values which describe the deviation of the own free-running
oscillator signal relative to the external NTR clock source signal which was
applied last.

NTR management

Configuration: external NTR clock source priority list

This command allows the operator to configure two NTR clock sources, with an
operator assigned priority between them, as nominated references for the internal
system NTR clock. Each of these two sources can be independently designated to be:

The BITS interface on the faceplate of an NT board.


The 1GE /10GE interface on the faceplate of an NT board.
One of the two dedicated 1GE interfaces on the faceplate of a 1GE NTIO board.
The IEEE1588 interface receiving PTP messages from Master(s) over any
external interface.

The system factory default is none: no external clocks are selected. In this case the
system automatically selects the internal free-run system NTR clock for downstream
NTR timing.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Configuration: SSU/BITS input interface(s)

This command allows the operator to configure the BITS mode of the external clock
source to E1, DS1, 2048KHz or auto-select. The BITS mode applies to the system,
that is, any configured BITS clock source.
The system factory default is auto-select. In this case, the system automatically
selects E1 for the system with the NT capabilities for clock device type of E1, or DS1
for clock device type of T1. This setting can be viewed in the clock status command.
When the BITS mode is configured to auto-select, the actual BITS mode will
display E1 or DS1 depending on the NT capabilities.
However, the system does not restrict the manual configuration of DS1 or E1 to
a specific NT capability of the clock device type.
Configuration: Synchronous Ethernet input interface(s)

This command allows the operator to configure the Ethernet interface(s) which can
provide their extracted data clock as external NTR clock source. As mentioned
above, 1 or 2 external NTR sources can be configured as clocks for synchronizing
the internal system NTR clock too. Therefore, between 0 and 2 synchronous Ethernet
links can be designated as external NTR clock sources.
The selected Ethernet interface(s) is (are) identified by means of:

The board slot: NT-A, NT-B, NTIO slot, or none


The port type: SFP, XFP or none
The port number on the board: depends on SyncE port supported, or none
The system factory default is none.
Configuration: IEEE1588

The following needs to be configured for IEEE1588:

The IEEE1588 interface as well as the external interface on which PTP messages
will be received have to be attached to a L2 forwarder.
Host IP address of the IEEE1588 slave and gateway IP address + mask
Host IP address and priority of acceptable Master(s) from which PTP messages
will be received and used as external NTR clock source.
IEEE1588 protocol specific parameters (PTP Domain and mode)
Configuration: NTR Switching Mode

This command allows the operator to configure the external NTR selection mode to
be either:

Revertive:
the system NTR clock always selects as reference the external NTR clock source
with highest QL, or the one configured as preferred by the operator if the QLs of
both nominated external NTR clock sources are equal, whenever this clock
source is available.

6-14

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Non-revertive:
the system NTR clock keeps the currently selected external NTR clock source as
a reference, until it is no longer available for selection, for reasons listed above,
or until it is disabled by the operator. This is the case even if another external NTR
clock source, with better QL or higher preference as configured by the operator,
has become available since the selection of the currently selected external NTR
clock source.
The system factory default is revertive
Configuration: enabling of Synchronization Status Messaging (SSM)

Synchronization Status Messages (SSM) are required to allow the downstream


element that requires synchronization to know the quality of the upstream clock.
Typically, it allows a downstream element which has the choice between different
upstream clocks to select the one with the best quality, or the one which meets the
minimum required quality. Even when there is only one upstream clock available,
such as, for example, in the case of a mobile base station connected to a DSL line,
SSM has value. If SSM indicates that the quality of the upstream clock degrades
below the quality of the local clock of the base station, the latter can switch to the
local clock for synchronization. More information about SSM can be found in G.781
with extensions for Synchronous Ethernet in G.8264.
Several commands exist to enable or disable the support of the Synchronization
Status Message (SSM):

enable or disable the handling of received SSM messages on ports configured as


NTR clock source(s).
enable or disable transmitting SSM messages per port, and this for the following
cases:

Synchronous Ethernet output ports on NT cards, NTIO cards and NELT-B


VDSL2 ports and SHDSL ports on some LT cards (only SSM transmission and not
SSM reception). And then it is only supported in EFM mode and not ATM mode.

The system factory default is disable.


SSM is not supported for BITS-A, BITS-B and IEEE1588.
Configuration: forcing selection of the internal system NTR clock

This command allows the operator to force the transmitted downstream NTR clock
to be synchronous to the internal system NTR clock, without synchronization to any
external NTR clock source. The internal NTR clock can be in free-running, or in
hold-over mode, when it was synchronized previously to an external NTR clock
source.

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Status: nominated NTR clock status

This command allows the operator to query the status of the NTR clock source(s).
The following command results are listed:

the NTR clock source: BITS-A (on NT-A), BITS-B (on NT-B), Sync Eth 1 (from
NT or NTIO), Sync Eth 2 (from NT or NTIO), IEEE1588-A (on NT-A),
IEEE1588-B (on NT-B), local.
the Quality Level (QL) of the source: code points 0000b - 1111b (0 15)
the operator configured priority of the source: 1 3
The operational status of the source:

6.3

REFERENCE: the clock source is selected as the reference clock.


VALID: the clock source is available for selection.
FAILED: the clock source failed or is not available for selection.
DO_NOT_USE: the clock must not be used as indicated by SSM (or time-out).
UNKNOWN: the clock status is unknown (start-up, system fault).
FORCED: the clock is manually selected.
NO_SYNCE_CONFIG: the synchronization source is not bound to a physical port.
NO_SYNCE_SUPPORT: the syncE is bound to a port that does not support syncE
clock extraction.
ON_PEERNT_NOT_READY: the clock is configured on the faceplate of a peer NT
that is not ready to participate in clock management.
SYNCE_NOT_AVAILABLE: the syncE is not available because the required
equipment is not available.
MISSING: No SSM packets received for 5 seconds
INVALID: Incoming signal is valid on the hardware level, but the source is rejected
for quality reasons (below target QL).

Downstream NTR clock distribution


In the introduction of this chapter the drivers for NTR where explained, and include
distribution of NTR to other network nodes, as well as distribution of NTR over
access lines to the end-user or business user.
Figure 6-7 NTR distribution over access lines for different services
Mobile backhauling
Accurate synchronization
of base stations

ISAM
Network Timing Reference

High-stability
clock on NT
BITS interface
on NT
NTR support
on LTs

6-16

November 2013

Network Timing Reference

Leased lines
Cost-effective central
clock for synchronization
of all CPEs
Voice
High-stability clock for
long-lasting fax and
modem calls

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

The typical options provided for delivering NTR to other network nodes are:

BITS out on some NT boards


SyncE out on some Ethernet interfaces on some NT, NTIO and Ethernet LT
boards.
This can be supported on optical Ethernet interfaces only, and not on electrical
ones. Secondly, it can be supported at speeds of 1 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps,
but not at for example, 100 Mbps.
In the normal default case, the BITS out on the NT board is filtered by the SETG
function (see Annex 7 in G.8262/G8264) in order to achieve compliance to G.813
option 1 for BITS out. But alternative configurations of the ISAM clock system are
possible as suggested in Annex7 in G.8262/G8264, allowing that the SyncE input(s)
are passed through unfiltered to the BITS output. Typically the unfiltered BITS
output will then be connected to an SSU device.
The typical options provided for delivering NTR to access lines or end-users are:

NTR on VDSL2
NTR on ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ is not supported
NTR on SHDSL
SyncE out on some Ethernet interfaces on some NT, NTIO and Ethernet LT
boards.
This can be supported on optical Ethernet interfaces only, and not on electrical
ones. Secondly, it can be supported at speeds of 1 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps,
but not at for example, 100 Mbps.
GPON
EPON
To know which specific NT, NTIO, or LT boards do support the above NTR
distribution on their outgoing interfaces, refer to the Product Information document
and/or the UDS. A high-level view of the capabilities of the 24Gbps FD NT family,
the 100Gbps /320Gbps FD NT family and the FX NT family is represented in
Figure 6-1, Figure 6-2 and Figure 6-3 respectively.

6.4

Applicable standards

Output NTR clock support on ADSL(2)(plus) lines: The NTR section in ITU Rec
G.992.1 / G.992.3 / G.992.5 is not supported. NTR for ADSL is not supported.

Output NTR clock support on SHDSL lines: ITU Rec G.991.2


NTR for SHDSL is supported on selected ISAM SHDSL Line Termination board
types.
Output NTR clock support on VDSL2 lines: ITU Rec G.993.2
NTR for VDSL is supported on selected ISAM VDSL Line Termination board
types.
Output NTR clock support on POTS lines: Not Applicable
An analogue POTS interface does not provide a clock signal in downstream
direction

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6 Network timing reference support in ISAM

Output NTR clock support on Synchronous Ethernet lines: ITU Rec


G.8261/Y.1361
NTR by means of Synchronous Ethernet is supported on selected ISAM Ethernet
Line Termination board types.
Output NTR clock quality on ISAM NT:

Output NTR clock free running accuracy, hold-over frequency accuracy, Jitter and

wander generation, phase variation in case of interruptions on synchronization input


signals:
- ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1 (Note: As explained above, ISAM is not fully
compliant in case of transient behavior.)
- ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1
Output NTR clock jitter and wander transfer
- ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1
- ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1

Input external NTR clock source quality on ISAM NT


Input NTR signal clock pull-in & pull-out ranges:

- ETSI SSU: ITU-T G.813 Option 1


- ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1
Input NTR signal jitter and wander tolerance:
- ETSI SSU: ITU-T G. 813 Option 1, G.823
- ETSI Synchronous Ethernet: ITU-T G.8262 Option 1
- ETSI/ANSI PTP: ITU-T G.8261 (note: PDVs indirectly specified by means of
network topologies and traffic models)

NTR management, including SSM: ITU-T G.781 781 Option 1 to a large extent
SSM transport
BITS / SSU: ITU-T G.704 (1998)

6-18

ISAM does not support SSM reception or generation on BITS / SSU interfaces.
Synchronous Ethernet: IEEE 802.3 Organization Specific Slow Protocol (OSSP)
Annex 43B (2005), ITU-T G.8264

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7 xDSL features

7.1 Overview

7-2

7.2 Configurable impulse noise protection


7.3 RFI Notching

7-4

7.4 Low-power modes

7-4

7.5 Seamless rate adaptation

7-6

7.6 Upstream power back-off

7-7

7.7 Downstream power back-off


7.8 Impulse noise monitor
7.9 Virtual noise

7-9

7-10

7-10

7.10 Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX)


7.11 Per-line configuration overrule

7-12

7-13

7.12 Configurable US/ DS memory split


7.13 Vectoring

7-3

7-14

7-14

7.14 Fall-back configuration for vectoring

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7-1

7 xDSL features

7.1

Overview
Table 7-1 lists the different features described in this chapter, indicating for which
xDSL mode the feature is supported on xDSL LT boards and ONUs.
Table 7-1 Supported xDSL features
Feature

xDSL LT

Configurable impulse noise protection

xDSL
ONU

ADSL

ADSL2

ADSL2+

READSL2

VDSL2

VDSL2

RFI Notching

Low-power modes

Seamless rate adaptation

Upstream power back-off

L2 low-power mode
L3 idle mode

UPBO policing

Equal RXPSD UPBO

Equal FEXT UPBO

Downstream power back-off

Virtual noise

Per-line configuration overrule

Impulse noise monitor

Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX)

Configurable US/ DS memory split

Vectoring

Fall-back configuration for vectoring

Table 7-2 gives an overview of the supported VDSL2 profiles. Each profile defines
normative values for a set of parameters, as defined by G.993.2.
Table 7-2 Supported VDSL2 profiles
VDSL2 Profile

xDSL LT

8a, 8b, 8c, 8d

12a, 12b

17a

30a

7-2

November 2013

xDSL ONU

X
X

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7 xDSL features

Table 7-3 gives an overview of the supported VDSL2 bandplans. A bandplan is a


partitioning of the frequency spectrum into non-overlapping frequency bands, each
of which is allocated for either upstream or downstream transmission.
Table 7-3 Supported VDSL2 bandplans
VDSL2 Bandplan

xDSL LT

xDSL ONU

Region A(1) 998

Region B(2) 998

Region B 998E

Region B 998ADE

Region B 997

Region B 997E

Notes
(1)
Region A = North America
(2)
Region B = Europe

7.2

Configurable impulse noise protection


Standards specify that a DSL link must comply with a Bit Error Ratio (BER) < 10-7,
in the presence of a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) margin of 6 dB. For some types of
service (for example IPTV, when using codecs with insufficient error concealing),
subscriber comfort requires even higher line quality, that is, BER < 10-10 or better.
DSL modems can be trained at initialization to achieve these quality levels in the
presence of stationary background noise.
Impulse Noise Protection (INP) is the ability to protect the transmission against
impulse noises. These impulse noises differ from the stationary noise in the sense
that they are transitory noises and that their power levels are high enough to be able
to cause data errors on the xDSL lines. INP is important in the IPTV network. With
the general evolution from pure High-Speed Internet (HSI) to triple play service
offering, there is an increasing need for techniques that help to improve and assure
the stability of the DSL line.
Configuring INP provides the ability to configure the upstream and downstream
minimum INP parameters in the service profile.
The standards include several provisions to reduce the number of errors that occur
due to impulse noise. The primary one is interleaving combined with Forward Error
Correction (FEC) using Reed-Solomon (RS) error correcting codes.

Reed-Solomon
Reed-Solomon (RS) adds extra bytes to a group of data bytes when it is sent. These
bytes are also known as the RS word. When data corruption is detected at
reception, the RS decoder is able to use the extra bytes to locate the errors and to
recover the original message. However, this only is effective up to a certain
maximum number of errored bytes. In order to correct impulse noise errors, RS needs
to be combined with interleaving.
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7-3

7 xDSL features

Interleaving
Instead of transmitting the RS words directly on the line, the different RS words are
first mixed and spread over time. This process is called interleaving. This has the
advantage that when a burst of errors occurs on the line, it will hit bytes of different
RS words. After reconstruction of the original RS words (by the de-interleaver), the
errors will be spread over multiple RS words, such that each RS word is only affected
by a small amount of errors and is therefore much easier to correct. The RS word can
be corrected if its number of errors is within the RS correction boundaries.
The main disadvantage of interleaving is an extra interleaving delay. Constructing
the blocks that will finally be transmitted over the line takes time, as the modems
have to wait for a while before they can actually start transmitting. At the receiving
side, it also costs extra time to reconstruct the original RS word. The first original RS
word cannot be reconstructed before all of its bytes have been received.
Using smaller interleaving depths, that is, by taking bigger chunks of the original RS
words, can lead to a lower interleaving delay. This has the disadvantage that errors
will be spread over less RS words on the receiving side, with the possibility that they
cannot be corrected.
In the case that a high INP together with a low delay is required, extra RS bytes will
have to be added to increase the RS correction capability. This however can lead to
reduced bit rates.
It becomes clear from the above that when configuring the INP, a trade-off has to be
made between:

robustness of the line against impulse noise


interleaving delay
achievable bit rate

7.3

RFI Notching
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) notching is used to alleviate signal interference
in certain frequency bands. VDSL2 and ADSL2Plus provide the capability to reduce
the Power Spectral Density (PSD) within certain frequency bands and thus notch the
PSD in areas to reduce egress into certain services such as HAM radio. HAM radio
is an Amateur Radio service enjoyed by radio enthusiasts. Shortwave radio can
broadcast over long distances aided by relay signals.

7.4

Low-power modes

L2 low-power mode
First-generation ADSL transceivers operate in full-power mode day and night, even
when not in use. With several millions of deployed ADSL modems, a significant
amount of electricity can be saved if the modems engage in a stand-by mode or sleep
mode just like computers. This would also save power for ADSL transceivers
operating in small remote units and Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) cabinets that operate
under very strict heat dissipation requirements.
7-4

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To address these concerns, the ADSL2/ADSL2+ standards define L2 low-power


mode in addition to the full power mode (called L0 power mode). This power
management mode helps reduce the overall power consumption while maintaining
the ADSL always-on functionality for the subscriber.
This mode enables statistical powers savings at the ADSL transceiver unit in the
central office (ATU-C) by rapidly entering and exiting low power mode based on the
downstream subscriber traffic running over the ADSL connection.
By enabling the L2 low-power mode, the average power consumption and
dissipation of a line is reduced because the modem reduces dynamically the
downstream transmit Power Spectral Density (PSD) in case there is no subscriber
data to transmit in the downstream direction. A low-rate connection is however
always assured for minimum keep-alive data. The DSL line automatically returns to
the full PSD/full data rate if subscriber data arrives, without loss of data.
In the L2 mode, only the downstream data rate is lowered. The data rate of the
upstream remains unchanged. This because in ADSLx the downstream transmitter
constitutes a much larger consumer of power than the upstream transmitter.
The L2 entry and exit mechanisms and resulting data rate adaptations are
accomplished without any service interruption or even a single bit error, and as such,
are not noticed by the subscriber.
However, L2 low-power modes will lead to time varying crosstalk which might
impact the stability of customers sharing the same binder.
Exit out of L2 mode into L0 mode can also be triggered from the CPE end, in case
of significantly changed channel conditions.
With the support of the enhanced L2 defined in ITU-T G.992.3 (2009) Amendment
4, it is now possible to use:

Extended range of Lp values in the L2 low power mode:


This allows to support higher bit rates in low power mode, thus limiting the delay
incurred by delay-sensitive services, or to support higher bit rate services while
maintaining high levels of power saving.
Extended range for the Gi gain scaling in L2 low power mode:
This provides finer control of power reduction via Gi scaling, leading to better
power savings than previously possible with flat power reduction only.

L3 idle mode
This mode enables overall power savings at both the XTU-C and the remote xDSL
transceiver unit (XTU-R) by entering into sleep/stand-by mode when the connection
is not being used for extended periods of time (that is, subscriber asleep, modem
asleep).
The L3 power mode is a total sleep mode where no traffic can be communicated over
the xDSL connection. When the subscriber goes back on-line, the line has to be
re-initialized to enter the L0 state again.
The modem can enter the L3 state upon guided power removal (L3 Request exchange
between xTU-R and xTU-C, also known as orderly shutdown), power loss or
persistent link failures during Showtime (also known as disorderly shutdown).

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7-5

7 xDSL features

During the L3 state, power savings at the XTU-C are realized independent of the
used ADSLx or VDSL2 mode by putting certain Analog Front End (AFE) blocks and
line drivers in power down mode. This power saving mechanism is also available in
case no xTU-R is attached but the ports are in listening mode and configured in
admin-up.
Figure 7-1 illustrates the L2/L3 power modes.
Figure 7-1 L2/L3 power modes
Initialization

Showtime

Low traffic causes switch to L2

(L0)

Resynchronisation or
L3 Power mode

Resynchronisation or

IDLE (L3)

7.5

L3 Power mode

High traffic causes


switchback to L0

Low Power
Low
Power
Showtime
(L2)
Showtime (L2)

Seamless rate adaptation


ITU-T G.997.1 defines 3 types of Rate Adaptation (RA) modes:

RA Mode 1 (Operator Controlled):


Bit rate is configured by operator, no rate adaptation

RA Mode 2 (Rate adaptive at startup):


At startup, the bit rate is selected between a configured minimum and a
configured maximum. The actual bit rate remains fixed while the modem is in
showtime.
RA Mode 3 (Dynamic rate adaptive):
The bit rate dynamically changes between a configured minimum and a
configured maximum, even while the modem is in showtime.
The dynamic rate adaptive mode is also called Seamless Rate Adaptation (SRA).
This feature is supported in all ADSL2x (ADSL2, ADSL2+, READSL2) modes of
operation and in VDSL2 mode of operation.
SRA improves the stability of the line (that is, reduces the number of spontaneous
retrains) by dynamically reducing the bit rate, without loss of data and without bit
errors, in case of a slow decrease of the SNR to an SNR below a preset value. SRA
can also assure that at any moment in time the line operates at the maximum
achievable bit rate by dynamically increasing the bit rate, without loss of data and
without bit errors, in case the SNR increases above a preset value.
SRA enables the modem to change the data rate of the connection while in operation
without any service interruption. The modem detects changes in the channel
conditions (for example, increase in noise level) and adapts the data rate to the new
channel condition without a need to resynchronize the line.
The upshift and downshift noise margin thresholds and time intervals for SRA are
fully configurable.
Figure 7-2 illustrates SRA.

7-6

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7 xDSL features
Figure 7-2 Seamless Rate Adaptation
Maximum Noise Margin
Increase data rate if Upshift
time interval has elapsed
Upshift Noise Margin

Increase
data rate

Target Noise Margin


Downshift Noise Margin
Decrease data rate if Downshift
time interval has elapsed

Decrease
data rate

Minimum Noise Margin

0 dB Margin

The upshift and downshift rate adaptation events due to SRA are counted in
15-minute and 24-hour Performance Monitoring (PM) intervals.
SRA can encounter upshift and downshift limitations on lines activated with
interleaving:

ADSL2(+):
The SRA protocol can only change parameter L (number of bits per DMT
symbol).
SRA downshifts are limited by the configured maximum interleaving delay as
SRA downshift results in an increase of the delay.
SRA upshifts are limited by the configured minimum impulse noise protection as
SRA upshift results in a decrease of the impulse noise protection.
VDSL2:
The SRA protocol can change both parameter L (number of bits per DMT
symbol) and parameter D (interleaving depth). This allows to keep the delay and
impulse noise protection constant after a rate adaptation. When all allocated
interleaving memory is used, upshift rate adaptations are still limited by the
configured minimum impulse noise protection.

7.6

Upstream power back-off


Upstream Power Back-off (UPBO) is a remedy to the upstream far-end cross-talk
(FEXT) problem, see Figure 7-3.

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7-7

7 xDSL features
Figure 7-3 Far end cross-talk

NE
short loop

FEXT

CPE

long loop

CPE

weak Rx signal; strong FEXT signal from short loop

It allows to reduce the upstream transmit PSD on short lines in order not to impact
the upstream performance on longer lines unreasonably. Without UPBO, the nearby
CPE would transmit at full power and would inject excessive FEXT in the upstream
receiver of the long line.

UPBO policing
The main purpose of VDSL2 UPBO policing is to avoid the usage of a CPE not
complying with the UPBO configuration. When the CO modem detects such a
non-compliant CPE, an alarm is raised and optionally the line is automatically
shutdown. The expected behavior is configurable.
A line that has been automatically shut down because of policing can be triggered to
re-initialize by toggling its administrative state (down/up).

Equal RXPSD UPBO


This is the form of UPBO first standardized in G.993.2. The goal of this UPBO is to
equalize the upstream received signal PSD. The support of this form of UPBO is
mandatory at both DSLAM and CPE.

Equal FEXT UPBO


The goal of this second form of UPBO is to equalize the level of FEXT VDSL2
self-crosstalk noise. This results in available upstream bitrates that are further
optimized compared to the bitrates obtained with Equal RXPSD UPBO.
This form of UPBO is introduced because the equal RXPSD UPBO does not exactly
equalize the impact of all lines to each other, but gives a different FEXT level impact
proportional to the loop length, i.e. the short lines give a lower FEXT impact to long
lines then vice versa. As a consequence, the equal RXPSD UPBO is actually
implying too much power cutback on the short lines.
The Equal FEXT UPBO can be explained as first applying the equal RXPSD method
but adding a loop-length-dependent delta FEXT factor, thereby equalizing the
impact among the lines. This equalization is executed with respect to a reference
FEXT level, characterized by a reference electrical length (kl0_ref). This parameter
is configurable for each upstream band. Alternatively an automatic configuration
mode is available: if the Equal FEXT parameters for all bands are all set to automatic,
the modem uses a dedicated mechanism to automatically calculate good values for
the Equal FEXT parameters, without manual configuration by the operator.
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7 xDSL features

The equal FEXT UPBO method is standardized in G.993.2 Amendment 2, and is


supported in the ISAM.

7.7

Downstream power back-off


With the introduction of remote cabinets, one can have deployment of DSL lines
from different locations: some from the central office (CO), some from the remote
terminals (RT). In case lines deployed from the CO and lines deployed from the RT
share the same cable binder, a near-far crosstalk problem occurs.
The crosstalk from the near-end disturbers can be much higher than before, such that
the signal from the far-end transmitter is completely degraded. Very often this results
in a loss of the service on the line deployed from the CO.
This near-far effect both occurs in upstream and in downstream direction. In
upstream direction however, the typical services from the CO (ADSL2/2+) only use
lower frequencies, where the coupling is much lower than on higher frequencies.
That is why this problem mainly affects downstream communication (for the CO
lines).
In order to give equal priority both to CO and RT, the RT applies downstream power
reduction (also called Downstream Power Back-Off (DPBO)) on the frequencies that
it has in common with the lines from the CO. As such, the lines from the CO can be
protected, and also the RT can still have a decent bit rate on those overlapping
frequencies. See Figure 7-4.

Remote Terminal

PSD

Figure 7-4 Crosstalk in mixed CO-RT deployment

Customer Premises
frequency

Central Office

CO

Remote Terminal

PSD

PSD

NT

PSD

NT

RT

frequency

frequency

Initially, it was only possible to configure downstream PSD shaping by configuration


of a PSD Mask using a list of breakpoints, as part of the xDSL spectrum profile.
Although such a list of breakpoints allows for a high degree of flexibility, it lacks
user friendliness. Within ITU-T, the so-called E-side Model for Downstream PSD
Shaping has been defined, which provides several high-level parameters that are
used to configure the PSD shape at the RT.
The E-side parameters are configurable via a special DPBO profile, which can be
assigned either to an xDSL LT board or to an xDSL port.

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7 xDSL features

Since DPBO PSD shapes can be configured in several ways, a number of priority
rules apply:

The DPBO profile parameters take precedence upon the downstream PSD shape
configured via the xDSL spectrum profile.

The DPBO profile parameters configured at LT board level apply, unless


port-specific DPBO parameters are configured as well.
The DPBO profile parameters apply to ADSL2+ and VDSL2.

7.8

Impulse noise monitor


The Impulse Noise Monitor (INM) collects data characterizing the impulse noise on
a particular line. This data can eventually be used to optimize the line configuration
for triple play (for example, minimum INP and maximum delay).
An impulse noise measurement can be started or stopped on a particular line for the
upstream direction, for the downstream direction, or for both. The upstream
measurements are performed by the XTU-C (CO side) and the downstream
measurements are performed by the XTU-R (CPE side), as illustrated in Figure 7-5.
The collected data is eventually represented as a set of impulse noise histograms,
both for the 15 minute and 24 hour PM intervals:

Impulse Noise Inter arrival time histogram


Impulse Noise Equivalent INP histogram
Figure 7-5 Impulse Noise Monitor in XTU-R and XTU-C
US

xTU-C
Impulse Noise
Sensor

Indication of
xTU-R
Severely
Degraded Data
DS
Symbols
EOC
Impulse Noise anomalies
INM Anomaly

Sensor

Counters

INM Anomaly
Counters

INM PM
counters
15min and 24h

INM PM
counters
15min and 24h

Impulse noise measurements can be performed without service interruption.

7.9

Virtual noise
By configuring virtual noise, it is possible to minimize the impact of time varying
crosstalk on the stability of a DSL line. Virtual noise is an operator specified noise
PSD, using a piecewise linear model with breakpoints and a special SNRM mode. It
can be configured as a transmitter-referred noise PSD (TxRefVN, supported for
downstream and upstream) or as a receiver-referred noise PSD (RxRefVN,
supported for upstream only).

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7 xDSL features

The transmitter-referred virtual noise PSD (TxRefVN) is converted by the receiver


to a receiver virtual noise PSD. The receiver determines its bitloading based on the
maximum of the received virtual noise and the received real noise. For a given
transmit signal PSD, the definition of a transmit virtual noise PSD can also be seen
as equivalent with setting a limit to the SNR that can be used by the receiver in the
bitloading process.
In downstream, when protecting a fixed data rate for all lines against VDSL2 self
FEXT crosstalk, the VN configuration is loop length independent. For more
elaborate cases, the TxRefVN can be configured using a limited set of profiles (for
example, to cover data rate with the loop length dependency, non FEXT noise, and
so on).
Transmitter referred virtual noise can also be used with a single or a limited set of
profiles in upstream if no UPBO is enabled.
When UPBO is enabled or in the presence of other noise (non FEXT), the TxRefVN
becomes highly loop length dependent. To cope with this loop length dependency,
the per line overrule mechanism can be used. In case the operator does not wish to
use a per line management, an alternative for upstream (where UPBO is applied) is
to use the receiver referred virtual noise (RxRefVN) configuration option that can be
configured with a unique VN profile setting independently of the loop length.
As indicated in Figure 7-6, during initialization, the DSLAM forwards the virtual
noise downstream (DS) breakpoints to the CPE. The CPE calculates the DS virtual
noise based on the DS loop attenuation and takes the maximum of this virtual noise
and the actual received DS noise. The DSLAM does the same in upstream (US)
direction, based on the received US noise, the US virtual noise and the US loop
attenuation (in case of TxREFVN).
Transmitter-referred virtual noise is included in the VDSL2 standard (G.993.2) as an
optional feature.
Figure 7-6 Virtual noise concept
Loop attenuation

VN Breakpoints
DS/US
VDSL2

[Loop
attenuation]

CPE

DSLAM

Received
Noise US

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Received
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7 xDSL features

7.10

Physical Layer Retransmission (RTX)


The Bit Error Rate (BER) requirements for providing High Speed Internet (HSI)
service are not too stringent. Transmission errors on the line are effectively hidden
by retransmissions at the TCP-IP layer. With the evolution towards IPTV, much
lower BER figures are required.
Impulse noise is the common cause for errors on the DSL line. Two types of impulse
noise are defined:

Single High Impulse Noise Environment (SHINE): impulse noise occurring at


random time instants
Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise (REIN): periodic impulse noise, occurring at
near equidistant time instants
Forward Error Correction (FEC) is the traditional error correction technique to deal
with impulse noise, as defined in the ADSL, ADSL2(Plus) and VDSL2 standards.
FEC is very well suited to protect against REIN, but due to the fixed overhead, FEC
is not very efficient to protect against SHINE.
An alternative technique for impulse noise protection is to use retransmission.
Because there is no fixed overhead, retransmission is best suited to protect against
SHINE. Retransmission is available at the higher layers (TCP-IP retransmission for
HSI, End-to-end retransmission for video), but is now also defined for the DSL
physical layer.
ITU-T recommendation G.998.4 (G.inp) specifies techniques beyond those defined
in the existing DSL recommendations to provide enhanced protection against
impulse noise or to increase the efficiency of providing impulse noise protection.
Both REIN and SHINE are handled efficiently on the DSL physical layer.
G.998.4 defines downstream retransmission both for VDSL2 mode and
ADSL2(Plus) mode. Support of retransmission in upstream is optional and only
defined for VDSL2 mode.
The concept of DSL physical layer retransmission is illustrated in Figure 7-7:

The transmitter groups user data in Data Transfer Units (DTUs) and adds a Cyclic
Redundancy Check (CRC) and sequence number.

The receiver uses the CRC to detect errors and requests a retransmission of a DTU
when in error.
Figure 7-7 DSL physical layer retransmission concept

??
DTU

CPE

DTU
DSLAM

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7 xDSL features

The configuration parameters for retransmission are defined within a separate RTX
profile. The RTX profile is optional when configuring an xDSL port. If no RTX
profile is assigned, retransmission will be disabled.
A specific set of Performance Monitoring (PM) parameters is defined, monitoring
the quality of the line when retransmission is enabled.

7.11

Per-line configuration overrule


The configuration parameters for xDSL lines are provisioned by means of profiles.
Typically, the same configuration profile is used on multiple lines that share similar
line characteristics and offer the same type of service. If a small deviation is required
for the configuration of a particular line, then a completely new profile has to be
assigned to this line.
The per-line configuration overrule feature allows to overrule part of the xDSL
configuration parameters on a per-line basis, as shown in Figure 7-8.
Figure 7-8 Per-line configuration overrule

XDSL Profiles

Parameter 1

Actual
configuration

Parameter 2

Parameter 3

Parameter 1

Parameter N

Parameter 2

merge

Parameter 3

XDSL per-line
overrule parameters

Parameter N

Parameter 2
Parameter N

This allows fine-tuning the configuration of individual lines, deviating from the
overall settings configured via the profiles.
When using this feature, one should take care that the overruled parameter values do
not result in an inconsistency with the parameters that are configured via the profiles.

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7 xDSL features

For bonded XDSL lines, the data rate, impulse noise protection and delay
configuration of the individual lines are derived from the bonding profile parameters.
A subset of the per-line configuration overrule parameters related to data rate,
impulse noise protection or delay will also be taken into account for bonded lines:

Maximum data rate


Minimum Impulse Noise Protection

7.12

Configurable US/ DS memory split


The aggregate interleaver or G.inp (G.998.4) memory supported for the different
VDSL2 profiles is defined by the VDSL2 standard (G.993.2). This aggregate
memory has to be split in the upstream and downstream direction, making a trade-off
between upstream and downstream data rate.
By default, a vendor discretionary algorithm is used to determine the memory split
between upstream and downstream. The configurable US/DS memory split feature
gives the operator manual control of the memory split. The percentage of memory
allocated to the downstream direction can be configured in steps of 1 percent. The
remaining memory is automatically allocated to the upstream direction.
By manually configuring the VDSL2 memory split, the operator has full control and
can make a better trade-off between upstream and downstream performance in case
the automatic algorithm does not provide the expected results.

7.13

Vectoring
VDSL2 vectoring takes full advantage of existing copper binders by making
conditions in the field as close to ideal as possible. Vectoring is not a method for
raising the theoretical maximum transport speeds. Instead, this noise-cancellation
technology addresses the gap between the theoretical maximum rate and the speeds
that service providers can deliver in typical field conditions.
In most deployments, telephone lines that carry VDSL2 signals are part of cables
(sometimes partitioned in smaller cable bundles) that contain 10 to a few hundred
lines positioned very closely together. This close proximity results in crosstalk, and
the higher the number of lines in a cable (bundle), the more crosstalk is generated.
Crosstalk is the main reason why lines in the field perform significantly lower than
their theoretical maximum. Vectoring enables each line to perform as if it is alone,
that is, without crosstalk. In a dynamic process, vectoring continually measures and
cancels this crosstalk, so all lines can operate at much higher capacity, as shown in
Figure 7-9.

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7 xDSL features
Figure 7-9 Typical vectoring gains
120

Optimal VDSL2 performance


100

Mbps

80

Near-optimal
field performance
with vectoring

60

40

20

Reduced field
performance due
to crosstalk

0
100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

Although most of the processing and necessary intelligence for vectoring resides in
the Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM), minimal support is
needed at the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) for the efficient estimation of the
crosstalk from the line into the neighboring lines and vice versa. This additional
functionality at the CPE side is defined by the International Telecommunication
Union (ITU) vectoring standard, G.993.5 (G.vector).
In order to achieve the full vectoring gain, all VDSL2 lines in the cable need to
participate in the crosstalk estimation. Otherwise, the crosstalk from some lines will
remain un-cancelled, reducing bit rates on vectored lines. The ultimate situation is
where all VDSL2 lines operate in G.vector mode.
Most of the existing VDSL2 CPEs in the field can be software upgraded to support
vectoring, or to be at least vectoring-friendly. The latter has been defined by the
ITU in Annexes X and Y of the VDSL2 standard (G.993.2) and allows the crosstalk
from the legacy line into the neighboring vectored lines to still be measured. Annex
X defines requirements for downstream friendliness such that the crosstalk from the
legacy line into the neighboring vectored lines can be estimated and cancelled in
downstream direction only. Annex Y defines requirements for full friendliness,
allowing estimation of crosstalk from the legacy line into the neighboring vectored
lines in up- and downstream direction. In principle, friendly customers do not
benefit from vectoring gains but their equipment no longer impairs vectoring for
subscribers who are paying for this enhancement.
For legacy VDSL2 CPEs that cannot be upgraded to support vectoring or
vector-friendliness, the Zero-Touch Vectoring feature can optionally be enabled to
cancel the crosstalk from such legacy line into the neighboring vectored lines (in
downstream direction only).

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7 xDSL features

Depending on the deployment scale (that is, the considered VDSL2 lines in the cable
binder) two vectoring types can be distinguished:

Board Level Vectoring (BLV):


Vectoring on one LT board (for example, 48 lines) and consequently only suited for
deployment scenario with deep fiber penetration where small remotes are installed.

Only the crosstalk between the lines on the same board can be cancelled.
System Level Vectoring (SLV):
Vectoring over multiple LT boards and consequently suited for deployment
scenarios where bigger cabinets are installed.

Crosstalk between lines on different LTs can be cancelled


The main additional functional blocks for a vectoring system (compared to a
non-vectoring VDSL2 system) are the following:

Vectoring Control Entity (VCE):


The VCE will control the Vectoring state machine and will use the incoming error
samples to do the calculation of the crosstalk coefficients.
The VCE is located on the LT board for BLV, whereas it is on the Vector
Processing board for SLV.
Pre-/Post-coder
The Pre-/Post-coder will perform the actual crosstalk cancellation by
manipulating the outgoing/incoming signals from the different DSPs.
To configure vectoring on the ISAM you will need to create two new profiles: the
vectoring profile and the VCE profile. The VCE profile is assigned to the board
containing the VCE (LT board for BLV and Vector Processing board for SLV) while
the vectoring profile is assigned to the lines.
In case of SLV, the Vector Processing board is communicating with the LT boards
by means of dedicated front cabling. There are two modes of operation:
1

Auto-discovery mode disabled on VP and LT boards (default mode):


When auto-discovery is disabled, the connection between the VP links and LT
boards has to be configured. This is a precondition for being able to assign a
vectoring profile to an LT port. Failures of the VP-LT cable are reported on the
corresponding VP link.

Auto-discovery mode enabled on VP and LT boards:


When auto-discovery is enabled, there is no need anymore to configure the
connection between the VP links and LT boards. Once auto-discovery is enabled
on the LT, vectoring profiles can be assigned to the LT ports. Failures of the
VP-LT cable are reported on the corresponding LT.

Vectoring operation requires synchronization between the LT and the VP card.


When installing the VP-LT cable, this synchronization will automatically be
executed in case at least one LT port has been configured in vectored mode. In case
all LT ports are still configured in non-vectored mode, the synchronization will be
postponed until a vectoring profile gets assigned to at least one port of this LT. The
VP-LT synchronization results in a resynchronization of all DSL lines of this LT.

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7 xDSL features

A System Level Vectoring group can be composed of VP and SLV LT boards


located in different ISAM shelves, managed as separate network elements. This type
of setup is called Cross-DSLAM Level Vectoring (XDLV) and is shown in Figure
7-10. Because of the limited VP-LT cable length, the equipment still has to be
collocated.
Figure 7-10 Cross-DSLAM Level Vectoring

ISAM 1
VP
NT

LT
LT
VP-LT
cables
ISAM 2
LT

NT
LT

Constraints:

XDLV is only possible when auto-discovery mode is enabled. Without


auto-discovery, the VP and the LT boards have to be managed by the same ISAM.
XDLV requires compatible SW releases for the VP and LT boards. In case a SW
incompatibility is detected, a VP/LT mismatch alarm will be raised. By default,
the XDSL LT ports with a vectoring profile will not synchronize anymore, but the
system can be configured to autonomously switch such lines to a fall-back
VDSL2 configuration with limited spectrum usage.

7.14

Fall-back configuration for vectoring


The vectoring profile specifies the type of CPE allowed on a line:

G.Vector CPE
G.Vector friendly CPE for downstream direction (G.993.2 Annex X)
Full G.Vector friendly CPE (G.993.2 Annex Y)
Legacy VDSL2 CPE

If the type of connected CPE does not match any of the allowed types, then by default
the line will not initialize in order not to disturb the other lines of the vectoring group.
As an alternative, the system can be configured to autonomously switch the line to a
fall-back VDSL2 configuration with limited spectrum usage in case a CPE capability
mismatch is detected. When the mismatch disappears, the line will autonomously
switch back to the normal configuration.

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7 xDSL features

In case of communication problems between the LT and the VP board in case of


SLV, the lines configured with a vectoring profile will by default not initialize
anymore in order not to disturb the other lines of the vectoring group. As an
alternative, the system can be configured to autonomously switch the lines to a
fall-back VDSL2 configuration with limited spectrum usage in case of detection of
VP/LT communication problems. When the communication recovers, the lines will
autonomously switch back to the normal configuration.
The definition of the fall-back configuration as well as the enabling of the fall-back
mechanism can be specified at XDSL LT board level:

For BLV, the feature can optionally be enabled for the detection of a CPE
capability mismatch.

For SLV, the feature can optionally be enabled for the detection of VP/LT
communication problems. If enabled, the feature can additionally be enabled for
detection of a CPE capability mismatch.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

8.1 Introduction: GPON Network

8-2

8.2 Alcatel-Lucent GPON Network Architecture


8.3 GPON Implementation of ISAM
8.4 V-OLT GPON Functions
8.5 Protection

8-2

8-3

8-12

8-12

8.6 ONU Functions

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8-1

8 GPON Network Architecture

8.1

Introduction: GPON Network


An Optical Distribution Network (ODN) based on Gigabit Passive Optical Network
(GPON) technology consists of two main parts that may be implemented by network
equipment that can be categorized as follows:

Optical Line Termination (OLT):


This unit provides central processing, switching, and control functions. This
equipment is located at the network side of the Optical Distribution Network
Optical Network Unit (ONU):
This unit is located at the subscriber premises as distributed end-points of the
ODN. This equipment implements the GPON protocol and adapts GPON
Protocol Data Units to subscriber service interfaces.
Note There is a specific case for ONU equipment that is generally
referred to as Optical Network Termination (ONT). This specific term
is generally used to designate a single-user subscriber premise
equipment.

8.2

Alcatel-Lucent GPON Network Architecture


In the Alcatel-Lucent GPON network architecture, the OLT function is provided via
three distinct equipment types:

Packet - Optical Line Termination (P-OLT) unit which corresponds to the ISAM
with its NT and GPON LTs.
Video - Optical Line Termination (V-OLT) unit which distributes Radio
Frequency (RF) overlay video signals across the GPON if the network provider
chooses this method for providing Video Services. (This optional equipment is
provided by a third-party supplier and hence outside of the scope of ISAM)
Wavelength Division Multiplexer which is only needed in case of V-OLT
presence in the network, and which is used to mix and separate the RF Video
signal into/from the optical fiber going towards ONUs. (This optional equipment
is also outside of the scope of ISAM)
Alcatel-Lucent also provides a wide variety of ONU equipment which works
seamlessly together with the ISAM (P-OLT) products to form a fiber access network
capable of delivering high quality voice, video, and data services to both
single-family or multi-dwelling residential subscribers and business subscribers.
This model is shown in Figure 8-1.

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8 GPON Network Architecture


Figure 8-1 ISAM GPON Network Architecture
Network

Central office or
remote terminal

Fiber
distribution

Passive
outside
plan

ONTs

End user

Optical link length 1

Optional RF
router
V-OLT/EDFA

RF Video
provider
network

Ethernet

1,550 nm

IPTV

MDU
WDM

Internet

Edge switch
router

1,490 nm
1,550 nm

2.4 Gb/s

1,310 nm

1.2 Gb/s

ISAM

PSTN

Voice
gateway
EMS/NMS
Class 5
switch

Softswitch

1 The maximum optical link length depends on the specific equipment and deployment conditions

Standards
The Alcatel-Lucent GPON network is developed based on the following ITU-T
standards:

8.3

G.984.1 (GPON Service requirements)


G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer)
G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer) amendment 1
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer)
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer) amendment 1 and 2
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI)
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI) amendments 1 and 2

GPON Implementation of ISAM


ISAM provides the core processing, switching, and control functions and interacts in
the upstream direction with the Ethernet switch and voice gateway using the NT
cards. The ISAM shelves with their NT and GPON LT boards comprise the
conceptual P-OLT system from the GPON Network point of view.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

The Alcatel-Lucent ONU products are edge devices that use GPON technology to
extend a fiber optic cable from a P-OLT shelf to a subscriber residence, including
single-family residences, multi-dwelling residences such as an apartment building,
and small office / home office applications.
There are two types of GPON LT boards in ISAM with different GPON capacities:

2.4Gb/s Downstream / 1.2Gb/s Upstream


10Gb/s Downstream / 2.5Gb/s Upstream
Transmission Convergence Layer - Multiplexing Architecture
ITU-T GPON recommendations provide two multiplexing mechanisms: ATM base
and GEM base.
ISAM only supports GEM multiplexing. The ATM partition is not supported.
Figure 8-2 GPON Functional Blocks
PLOAM

OMCI

TC Adaptation sub-layer
OMCI adapter

VPI/VCI
filter

Port-ID
filter

ATM TC
adapter

GEM TC
adapter

GTC Framing sub-layer

PLOAM
partition

Alloc-ID
filter

Alloc-ID
filter

Embedded
OAM

ATM partition

GEM partition

Frame
header

- BW Granting
- Key Switching
- DBA

Multiplexing based on frame location

In downstream direction, the GEM frames are carried in the GEM partition, and
arrive at all the ONUs. The ONU framing sublayer extracts the frames, and the
GEM TC adapter filters the GEM fragment based on their 12-bit port ID. Only
frames with the appropriate port IDs are allowed through to the GEM client
function at the ONU.
In upstream direction, the GEM traffic is carried over one or more Transmission
Containers (T-CONTs). The OLT receives the transmission associated with the
T-CONT, and the frames are forwarded to the GEM TC adapter, and then to the
GEM client function at the OLT.

8-4

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One ONU can be served by one or several T-CONTs, but a given T-CONT can only
be used by a single ONU. Also, a given T-CONT can transport traffic from several
GEM ports, but traffic from a given GEM port can only be carried by a single
T-CONT.
ISAM GPON-LTs support 2.048 GEM clients (also called GEM ports) and 1.024
T-CONTs per GPON interface. Both GEM ports and T-CONTs are internal GPON
protocol constructs/abstractions that are not directly exposed to the operator for
convenience and ease of management.

Transmission Convergence Layer - GPON Media Access Control


The Transmission Convergence layer in ISAM provides media access control for
upstream traffic.
Figure 8-3 PON media access control concept
Downstream

Frame header (PCBd)

Payload for downstream

US BW Map

Alloc ID

Start

End

Alloc ID

Start

End

Alloc ID

Start

End

100

300

400

500

520

600

Upstream

T-CONT1
(ONU1)
Slot
100

T-CONT2
(ONU2)
Slot
300

Slot
400

T-CONT3
(ONU3)

Slot Slot
500 520

Slot
600

In the basic concept, downstream frames indicate permitted locations for upstream
traffic and upstream frames synchronized with downstream frames as outlined in
Figure 8-3.
The ISAM sends pointers in the frame header Physical Control Block downstream
(PCBd). The pointers indicate the time at which each ONU must begin and end its
upstream transmission. In this way, only one ONU can access the GPON at any time,
and there is no contention in normal operation. The pointers are 2 bytes long and
given in units of bytes, allowing the OLT to control the GPON at an effective static
bandwidth granularity of 64 kb/s. The size of the GTC frame is 125 s. The
downstream payload contains GEM packets that are uniquely destined to some
specific T-CONT/ONUs. The ONUs examine the GEM header and only process the
GEM packets which port IDs match its own.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

Transmission Convergence Layer - Upstream and Downstream


Frames
Figure 8-4 shows the PON downstream frame format.
Figure 8-4 PON Downstream Frame format

PCBd
n

Payload n

TP-Frame = 125 S

PCBd
n+1

PCBd
n+2

Payload n+1

"Pure" ATM cells


Section

TDM & Data Fragments over GEM


Section

N x 53 bytes

Figure 8-5 shows the PON upstream frame format.


Figure 8-5 PON Upstream Frame Format
Upstream Frame

PLOu

PLOAMu PLSu

DBRu
X

Payload X

DBRu
Y

PLOu DBRu

Payload Y

ONT A

Payload Z

ONT B

Transmission Convergence Layer - GEM Encapsulation of


Ethernet Packets
Ethernet packets are encapsulated by ISAM and ONUs into GEM as shown in
Figure 8-6. Each packet is mapped into the GEM frame. The Preamble and SFD
bytes are not included in the GEM frame.
Figure 8-6 Ethernet encapsulation over GEM
Ethernet Packet

GEM Frame
PLI

12

Inter Packet Gap

Preamble

PTI

SFD

CRC

DA

Port-ID

SA

Length/Type

5 Bytes

GEM Payload

MAC client Data


4
1

8-6

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FCS
EOF

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Each produced GEM fragment is transmitted contiguously. A fragment cannot


straddle a frame boundary. Therefore, the fragmentation process must be aware of
the amount of time remaining in the current partition or payload, and must fragment
its user data frames appropriately.
Figure 8-7 shows different possibilities of user frames fragmentation.
Figure 8-7 Fragmentation Examples
Case 1

Case 2

User Frame

GEM
PTI:
001

Full
Frame

Case 3

User Frame

GEM
PTI:
001

#1

GEM
PTI:
001

User Frame

#2

GEM
PTI:
001

#1

GEM
PTI:
001

#2

GEM
PTI:
001

#3

Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment


Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment (DBA) is the process by which ONUs and their
associated T-CONTs dynamically request upstream bandwidth.
ISAM processes the implicit bandwidth requests from ONU via idle cell monitoring
and reassigns upstream bandwidth accordingly.
In the idle cell monitoring implementation, ISAM bandwidth reassignment is applied
to the distribution of the non-guaranteed or un-assured portion of the service traffic
in order not to disturb the guaranteed traffic contracts.
T-CONTs are used for the management of upstream bandwidth allocation in the
GPON section of the Transmission Convergence layer. As such, T-CONTs are
primarily used to improve the upstream bandwidth use on the GPON.

Forward Error Correction


Forward Error Correction (FEC) is used by the transport layer of ISAM and it is
based on transmitting the data in an encoded format. The encoding allows the
decoder to detect and correct the transmission errors. For example, for input BER of
10-4, the BER at the FEC decoder's output may drop to 10-15. By using the FEC
technique, data transmission with low error rates can be achieved, and
retransmissions are avoided.
FEC results in an increased link budget. Therefore, higher bit rate and longer distance
from the ISAM to the ONUs can be supported. Alternatively, by using this process a
higher number of splits per single GPON tree can be achieved over an equivalent
distance.
The FEC encoding and decoding of ISAM is based on Reed-Solomon (block based
FEC).
Reed-Solomon (RS) is a block-based code, which takes a data block of constant size
and adds extra redundant bits at the end, thus creating a code word. Using those
extra bits, the FEC decoder processes the data stream, discovers errors, corrects
errors, and recovers the original data. Reed-Solomon code is specified in CMTT
recommendation CCIR 723.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

When using a block-based FEC, original data is preserved. Therefore, by ignoring


the parity bits, even if the other side does not support FEC, the original data can be
processed.
However, block-based FEC error correction is not efficient for very high BER levels
(for example, for 10-3 BER, a decoding error will be generated).

Delay Tolerance
For the upstream GPON transmission, ISAM provides a configurable Delay
Tolerance parameter to realize optimal latency and delay variation characteristics on
the GPON link.

Security
ISAM uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security. Internally AES is
enabled/disabled by ISAM for individual port IDs in conformance with the GPON
protocol standards. However, management model granularity is provided on a
per-ONU basis.
Advanced Encryption Standard is a block cipher that operates on 16 byte (128 bit)
blocks of data. It accepts 128, 192, and 256 bit keys. This algorithm is described in
documents published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
in the USA.
There are several modes of operation for this standard. However, only the Counter
(CTR) mode is used by ISAM. In this mode, the cipher generates a stream of 16-byte
pseudorandom cipher blocks which are exclusive-ORed with the input clear-text to
produce the output of cipher-text. The cipher-text is exclusive-ORed with the same
pseudorandom cipher blocks to regenerate the clear-text. The key length is fixed at
128 bits.

ONU Ranging and Discovery


When ISAM is ranging new ONUs, working ONUs must temporarily stop
transmissions. This is done by opening a ranging window to discover new ONUs.
Two activation/ranging methods supported by ISAM

Configured-S/N:
The serial number of the ONU is registered in advance at the OLT and used for
authentication of the matching ONT.
Discovered-S/N:
The serial number of the ONU is not registered at the OLT. It requires an
automatic detection mechanism of the serial number of the ONU based on the
operator-assigned ONU Registration ID that is provisioned locally at the ONU
and at the ISAM for a match. In case a new ONU is detected, an ONU ID is
assigned and the ONU is activated.

Operator-assigned ONU Registration ID can take two forms: a simple Subscriber

8-8

Location IDentifier (SLID) or a LOgical IDentifier (LOID, which consists of a


logical subscriber location designation and an associated password).
The use of SLID vs. LOID based authentication is provisionable on a per-PON
basis.

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Concurrent Use of Activation/Ranging Methods:


ISAM also allows a special per-PON configuration in order to support ONUs
conforming to either Configured-S/N or LOID-based Discovered-S/N authentication
methods to be mixed on the same PON. In this case LOID-based Discovered-S/N has
precedence over Configured-S/N mode in processing each ONT.
SLID/LOID-Serial_Number Bundling and Anti Snooping Function:
SLID or LOID (G.988) association with a S/N may to be locked after a user defined
time period (for example, 4h/24h) following the first ranging of the ONT with a
certain Serial Number. This will allow for changing of ONT during installation. In
this case, after the defined period of time, the installed ONT hence its Serial Number
shall be considered as final per operator's intentions and the SLID/LOID association
to this Serial Number shall be frozen.
After this defined transition period any detected mismatch results in an alarm.
The function of bundling or un-bundling between SLID/LOID with SN is
configurable per ONT.
There are three triggers for initiating the activation of an ONU:

The network operator enables the activation process to start when it is known that
a new ONU has been connected.
The OLT automatically initiates the activation process, when one or more of the
previously working ONUs are 'missing', to see if those ONUs can return to
service. The frequency of polling is programmable.
The OLT periodically initiates the activation process, testing to see if any new
ONUs have been connected. The frequency of polling is programmable.

ONU Activation
The activation process is performed under the control of ISAM.
The activation procedure is performed by the exchange of upstream and downstream
flags and Physical Layer Operations Administration and Maintenance (PLOAM)
standard messages defined for GPON, as follows:
1

ONU receives the requested GPON operating parameters from ISAM.

ONU adjusts it parameters accordingly.

ISAM discovers the Serial Number of a new connected ONU.

ISAM assigns an ONU-ID to the ONU.

ISAM measures the round-trip delay of the ONU transmission.

ISAM notifies the ONU of the equalization delay.

ONU adjusts the transmission phase to the notified value.

In the normal operating state, all the transmissions can be used for monitoring the
phase of the arriving transmission. Based on the monitoring transmission phase
information, the equalization delay can be updated.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

ISAM broadcasts the Serial-Number requests to all ONUs in the Serial-Number


state. Consequently, more than one Serial-Number transmission can simultaneously
arrive at the OLT causing a collision. The Random Delay Method is used to resolve
this problem.
Based on the Random Delay Method, each Serial-Number transmission is delayed
by a random number of delay units generated by each ONU. The delay units are 32
bytes long for all bit rates. The random delay must be an integral number of delay
units. Following each response to a Serial-Number request, the ONU generates a new
random number, thus collisions are easily and efficiently prevented.

OMCI
The ONT Management and Control Interface (OMCI) is the ITU-T G984.4-based
open interface definition that provides the management model for provisioning and
surveillance related functions between ISAM and ONUs.

Transmission Convergence Layer Performance Monitoring


ISAM provides on-demand counters to monitor GPON TC layer traffic and
performance. The related counters are collected internally on a GEM-port basis from
both ends of the GPON section, and are presented to the operator on a per-ONU and
per-UNI basis. In addition, the same set of counters is also supported for the shared
Multicast GEM port of the PON.

Rogue ONT Detection and Defense Mechanism


The Rogue ONT Diagnostic feature of the ISAM provides a means of monitoring
ONT behavior on the PON and identifying rogue ONT(s) through the problematic
symptoms of other ONTs on the optical network. Alarm notifications are generated
upon detection of Rogue ONTs.
There are four Rogue ONT detection methods:

The on-demand ON/OFF test which is a service-affecting test whether or not a


rogue ONT is detected.
The on-demand pattern test which is a non-service affecting test unless a rogue
ONT is present on the PON.
The background pattern test which is run in background mode on the ONTs at
regular intervals or on a given ONT when it ranges. This test is disabled by
default.
The background ON/OFF test which is triggered by PON LOS to run a test on
each ONT.
On Demand ON/OFF Test

This test is also called the manual stuck laser test or the manual on/off test.
This test is service affecting as all ONTs on the PON are disabled during the test.
The Disable Serial Number PLOAM message is used for testing. This PLOAM is
sent to each ONT in turn. G984.3 states that on receiving this message the ONT
should go to Emergency Stop State and disable the TX optics.

8-10

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A broadcast option has been added to the Disable Serial Number PLOAM message
to allow the disabling of ONTs which have been added to the PON but are not yet
provisioned at the time of the test. This enhancement is not defined in G984.3.
On-Demand Pattern Test

An ONT which is exhibiting rogue behavior by transmitting outside its assigned time
slot should impact other ONTs on the PON. The on-demand pattern test uses the
Diagnostic PLOAM message to trigger a test mode on an individual ONT while
monitoring for adverse impacts on the other ONTs. The impacts may include a
change in alarms or an ONT moving to INACT state.
The pattern test enabled on one ONT generally does not have an impact on other
subscribers unless the ONT being tested is rogue. However, in case of RF overlay,
and depending on specific channel line up frequencies, a small amount of transitory
interference might be observed on the video signal. If a rogue ONT is found, other
subscribers would be impacted for a few seconds on the first check.
This test is implemented via an ONT Diagnostic Vendor Specific PLOAM message
not detailed in G984.3.
Background Pattern Tests

The background pattern test utilizes the same algorithm as the on-demand Pattern
Test and is disabled by default.
When enabled, the diagnostics will trigger a test under two conditions:

An ONT ranges
The background timer expires.
Execution of the background test is by default scheduled at an interval of 12 hours.
This interval can be configured.
Background On/Off Test

This test is also called the background stuck laser test or Background On/Off test.
The test algorithm is the same as the manual on/off test. The test is disabled by
default and is service affecting.
The trigger for this test is a PON LOS event where the RX laser is detected to be on,
corresponding to an ONT continuously transmitting irrespective of its allowed
window
Automatic RF Service Shutdown

ISAM supports the management capability to provision the automatic RF Video


service shutdown function. This capability consists in provisioning a configurable
setting for ONTs supporting the underlying function to use in order to determine the
period of time to assure continued video service for, in case of communication loss
between the OLT and the ONT. RF video service in such ONTs is only restored after
a successful re-range with the OLT.

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8 GPON Network Architecture

8.4

V-OLT GPON Functions


V-OLT is an optional network equipment that is used to distribute Radio Frequency
(RF) video signal from service providers to the ONUs. This equipment is not part of
ISAM. The following description of the V-OLT function is provided for
informational purposes.
Note however that occasionally, when fiber and equipment in the GPON network are
shared, a so-called Raman Effect can occur where signals cross over from
downstream digital signals in the lower spectrum and cause visible lines on overlaid
broadcast RF video signals. The effect is usually more prominent in the low end
video channels that are in the 1550 to 1560 nm range.
The ISAM GPON LTs provide a Raman crosstalk reduction feature that can be
enabled if distortion, caused by downstream digital data signals on the GPON
network, is visible on the lower spectrum video channels.

Radio Frequency Video Signal Distribution


The V-OLT uses Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA). The distribution requires
a Wavelength Division Multiplexer (WDM) to be overlaid into the fiber path.
The distribution of the optical video signal is described as follows:

The V-OLT receives an incoming wavelength optical signal with embedded


video channels through a fiber path from the cable TV head-end equipment.
The V-OLT amplifies and splits the optical signal into multiple optical feeds to
the video coupler.
The video coupler merges the video signal over the fiber paths.
The fiber paths carry the optical signals between the P-OLT and the ONUs.

RF Video Services
The V-OLT supports the full cable television (CATV) spectrum from 47 MHz to 862
MHz.
Access to video services may require a Set-Top Box (STB) between the video output
of the ONU equipment and other Customer Premises Equipment (CPE).
The V-OLT requires a separate Element Management System (EMS) to control
video output signals from the V-OLT equipment.

8.5

Protection
ISAM supports Type-B protection per ITU-T specification G984.1. Refer to
section Subscriber interface redundancy in chapter Failure protection and
redundancy provisions in ISAM for further information.

8.6

ONU Functions
ONU functions are described in chapter ISAM Support for the GPON ONU.

8-12

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

9.1 Introduction

9-2

9.2 ONU Product Identification


9.3 Ethernet features
9.4 xDSL features
9.5 Wi-Fi

9-5

9-7

9-7

9-7

9.6 DS1/E1 Features


9.7 Video Overlay

9-7
9-10

9.8 Home Phoneline Network (HPNA)


9.9 Power over Ethernet

9-11

9-12

9.10 Ethernet loopback detection

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9-12

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9-1

9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

9.1

Introduction
The Optical Network Unit (ONU) in conjunction with the ISAM OLT products work
seamlessly together to form a fiber access network capable of delivering high quality
voice, video, and data services to both single-family or multi-dwelling residential
subscribers and business subscribers
This chapter describes the ONU support in ISAM.
Figure 9-1 ISAM GPON Network Architecture
Network

Central office or
remote terminal

Fiber
distribution

Passive
outside
plan

ONTs

End user

Optical link length 1

Optional RF
router
V-OLT/EDFA

RF Video
provider
network

Ethernet

1,550 nm

IPTV

MDU
WDM

Internet

Edge switch
router

1,490 nm
1,550 nm

2.4 Gb/s

1,310 nm

1.2 Gb/s

ISAM

PSTN

Voice
gateway
EMS/NMS
Class 5
switch

Softswitch

1 The maximum optical link length depends on the specific equipment and deployment conditions

P-OLTs and V-OLTs


The P-OLT and V-OLT reside in the central office (CO) or controlled environment
vault (CEV) and provide interfaces between the network and the Gigabit-capable
Passive Optical Network (GPON).

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

GPON ONUs
The Alcatel-Lucent GPON ONU products are subscriber/customer co-located edge
devices that use GPON technology to extend a fiber optic cable from a P-OLT shelf
at a CO to a subscriber residence, including single-family residences (SFU),
multi-dwelling residences (MDU) such as an apartment building, and small office
home office applications. The ONUs terminate the GPON physical and transmission
convergence layer and provide the specific service interworking function required at
the subscriber residence (for example, High Speed Interface, POTS, DS1 CES and
so on).
The Alcatel-Lucent GPON ONU products provide the following functions and
services:

network demarcation for all services


voice interworking function from the analog POTS lines to the VoIP/Ethernet

layers
interworking functions between the GEM and Ethernet layers
interworking functions between the PON optical overlay and the RF video
interface
CES encapsulation of DS1/E1 using the MEF-8 packetization format for
transport across the layer 2 Ethernet PON
mux and demux functions to the PON
optical to electrical conversion
located at subscriber residence

All Alcatel-Lucent GPON ONUs were developed using the following GPON ITU-T
standards:

G.984.1 (GPON Service requirements)


G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer)
G.984.2 (GPON PMD layer) amendment 1
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer)
G.984.3 (GPON TC Layer) amendment 1 and 2
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI)
G.984.4 (GPON OMCI) amendments 1 and 2
G.988 (OMCI)
OIG Implementers Guide
Note As already stated in chapter GPON Network Architecture,
the term ONT (Optical Network Termination) is an implementation of
the more general used term ONU (Optical Network Unit). This
document uses the general term for all Optical Network devices

Indoor ONU
The indoor ONU terminates services at the subscriber premises and is used for
subscribers living in single-family residences. The indoor ONU is suitable for
installation on a desktop or for attaching to an interior wall.

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

Outdoor ONU
The outdoor ONU terminates services at the subscriber premises and is suitable for
single residences and Small Office Home Office (SOHO) applications. The single
residence and SOHO outdoor ONUs have environmentally-hardened enclosures that
can be installed outside the subscriber premises.

MDU outdoor ONU


The MDU ONU terminates GPON layer services and is suitable for multi-dwelling
unit (MDU) applications. The MDU ONU supportsVDSL2 interfaces and Ethernet
interfaces that are terminated at the customer's premise.

Business ONUs
All business ONUs are suitable for small business applications and provide voice,
data and IP video, and optional RF video services to subscribers and support CES
DS1 or E1 connections at the business premises.

9-4

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

9.2

ONU Product Identification


Table 9-1 provides the identification information for the ONU product series.
Table 9-1 ONU Product Series Identification
Series

Description

I-series

Indoor ONUs

O-series

Outdoor ONUs

M-series

Modular ONUs

S-series

Service plug-ins for modular ONUs

B-series

Business ONUs

In a product series, each ONU model can be further identified by a designation that
defines the characteristics of the particular model, such as the number of voice, data,
and video interfaces.
Table 9-2 provides the designation for the different models of indoor and outdoor
ONUs.
Table 9-2 General ONU Mnemonic Designation
Position in mnemonic

Description

Beginning character

Indicates the series to which the product belongs

First digit after the dash

Refers to the number of POTS interfaces

Second digit after the dash

Refers to the number of data interfaces

Third digit after the dash

Refers to the number of video/MoCA interfaces

Character after the third


digit

Refers to the type of data service supported. The codes for the
supported types are:

Ending character

E for 10/100BASE-T Ethernet


G for 10/100/1000BASE-T Ethernet (Gigabit Ethernet)
V for VDSL
M for MoCA and 10/100/1000BASE-T Ethernet (Gigabit Ethernet)
W for Wi-Fi

Refers to the variant

Table 9-3 provides the designation for the different MDU models.
Table 9-3 MDU Mnemonic Designation
Position in mnemonic

Description

Beginning character

Indicates the series to which the product belongs

First digit after the dash

Refers to the number of POTS interfaces

(1 of 2)

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

Position in mnemonic

Description

Second digit after the dash

Refers to the number of data interfaces

Third digit after the dash

Refers to the number of VDSL interfaces

Character after the third


digit

Refers to the type of data service supported. The codes for the
supported types are:

Ending character

E for 10/100BASE-T Ethernet


G for 10/100/1000BASE-T Ethernet (Gigabit Ethernet)
V for VDSL

Refers to the variant

(2 of 2)

Table 9-4 provides the designation for the business ONUs.


Table 9-4 Business ONU Mnemonic Designation
Position in mnemonic

Description

Beginning character

Indicates the series to which the product belongs

First digit after the dash

Refers to the number of POTS interfaces

Second digit after the dash

Refers to the number of data interfaces

Third digit after the dash

Refers to the number of video interfaces

Fourth digit after the dash

Refers to the number of DS1/E1 interfaces

Ending character

Refers to the variant

General ONU Features


GPON ONUs support the following main GPON features:

GEM mode support for efficient IP/Ethernet service traffic transport


2.488 Gb/s line rate downstream and 1.244 Gb/s line rate upstream
Class B+ optics with 28 dB optical link loss (without FEC)
Rx optical sensitivity of -27 dB (without FEC)
Class C+ optics with 32 dB optical link loss (with FEC)
Rx optical sensitivity of -30 dB (without FEC)
integrated diplexer for ONUs supporting POTS and data
integrated triplexer for ONUs supporting POTS, data, and RF video
1490 nm wavelength downstream, 1310 nm wavelength upstream, and optional
1550 nm downstream for RF video overlay

single mode fiber and use SC/APC optical port


G.984.3-compliant Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA)
G.984.3-compliant Advanced Encryption System (AES) with operator
enable/disable per port-ID level

9-6

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

G.984.3-compliant Forward Error Correction (FEC) for longer reach upstream


and downstream

G.988-compliant ME extension for PoE management with operator


enable/disable per Ethernet interface to allow control of the output power level on
each PoE port

9.3

Ethernet features
The Ethernet interfaces on the ONUs support the following primary features:

Ethernet ports are IEEE 802.3 Compliant


IEEE 802.1Q, 802.1x port-based authentication, and 802.1p (QoS classification
per Ethernet port support
Layer 3 DSCP to 802.1p mapping to allow L3 CoS over the Layer 2 network
supports full or half duplex operations
supports auto-negotiation or manual setting by operator
supports the PoE control ME to monitor and configure the output power level in
the PSE (MDU ONU) which includes alarms if the ONU is unable to supply PoE
demand
Supports loopback detection capability

Refer to chapter Layer 2 forwarding for details on the supported Ethernet L2


forwarding features.

9.4

xDSL features
Refer to chapter xDSL features for an overview of the supported xDSL features.

9.5

Wi-Fi
The ONU supports IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n Wi-Fi certification.

9.6

DS1/E1 Features
Only one CES encapsulation mode can be configured per ONT. i.e. If a given DS1
port on an ONT is configured in MEF8 CES mode, SAToP CES cannot be
configured on a different DS1 port on the same ONT

MEF8 CES Overview


The ISAM performs Circuit Emulation Services (CES) encapsulation on DS1 and E1
TDM traffic for transport as Ethernet layer 2 over the GPON using the Metro
Ethernet Forum standard MEF-8 payload structure and pseudo-wire (PW)
technology.
CES and the DS1 or E1 ports may be provisioned on the business ONU using a CLI,
a TL1 or an AMS management session with the P-OLT.
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The business ONU supports DS1 and E1 service connections at the subscriber
premises. The following TDM link types are supported:

structured (fractional) DS1 or E1


unstructured DS1 or E1
At the subscriber premises, the business ONU terminates DS1 or E1 links from the
subscriber. The TDM traffic is adapted and packetized using MEF-8 pseudo-wire
technology before being transported across the GPON. MEF-8 is the payload option
that is used. The MEF-8 packets are multiplexed with the Ethernet layer 2 data traffic
at the business ONU GPON port.
When the MEF-8 packets are received at the ISAM P-OLT that is installed at the CO,
the P-OLT forwards the packets to the destination PSTN, typically via a G6 voice
gateway that is connected to the IP network.
Figure 9-2 CES DS1 or E1 Traffic between the ONU and PSTN over the GPON via
the P-OLT

EMS

DS1 or E1

Class 5 PSTN
switch

GE

L2
Ethernet
cloud

GE

GPON

P-OLT

Voice gateway
(G6)

DS1 or E1
Business
ONT

DHCP server

In the downstream direction, DS1 or E1 traffic from the PSTN is sent to the G6 voice
gateway, which performs Ethernet layer 2 encapsulation using the MEF-8 payload
format and sends the traffic out to the Ethernet network to the ISAM P-OLT. The LT
board installed in the ISAM P-OLT forwards the packets to the business ONU over
the GPON. At the subscriber premises, the business ONU de-encapsulates the
packets and forwards the DS1 or E1 payload to the DS1 or E1 port, which is
terminating the DS1 or E1 lines at the subscriber premises.

MEF8 Structured and unstructured DS1 and E1 services handling


for CES
Structured DS1 or E1 services emulate fractional services where the 1.544 Mb/s
DS1, or 2.048 Mb/s E1, bandwidth is subdivided into DS0 64 kb/s channels. Framing
is used to group together multiple DS0s when the service is structured or fractional.
Unstructured services treat the full bandwidth of a DS1 or E1 link like one large
channel, ignoring any framing.

9-8

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CES encapsulation is a method of carrying TDM traffic in an Ethernet frame so that


there is minimal loss of quality. The ISAM performs CES on the TDM traffic
received at the ONU DS1 or E1 port using the MEF-8 payload structure for transport
as Ethernet layer 2 packets over pseudo-wires (PW). The TDM payload within the
MEF-8 packet, whether it is structured or unstructured, is treated as a bitstream. The
MEF-8 packets are multiplexed along with other Ethernet layer 2 data packets at the
ONU before being transported across the GPON.
In unstructured mode, the payload size is fixed at eight DS0 frames per MEF-8
packet. For DS1, the payload length is fixed at 192 bytes per frame. For E1, the
payload length is fixed at 256 bytes per frame. In structured mode, the payload length
is determined from the encapsulation delay setting.

SATOP CES
The ISAM performs Circuit Emulation Services (CES) encapsulation on DS1 TDM
traffic for transport as Ethernet layer 2 over GPON using the Structure Agnostic
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) over Packet (SAToP) via UDP pseudo-wire
(PW) demultiplexing.
CES via SAToP and the DS1 ports may be provisioned on the business ONU using
a CLI, TL1 or an AMS management session with the P-OLT.
The business ONU supports DS1 service connections at the subscriber premises.
SAToP is an emulation of unstructured TDM circuits only.
At the subscriber premises, the business ONU provides an Interworking function
(IWF) which segments and encapsulates TDM into SAToP packets and that in the
reverse direction decapsulates SAToP packets and reconstitutes the TDM service.
The TDM traffic is adapted and packetized using SAToP pseudo-wire technology
over Ethernet Layer 2 before being transported across the GPON.
When the SAToP packets are received at the ISAM P-OLT that is installed at the CO,
the P-OLT forwards the packets to the destination PSTN.
The payload size is fixed. For DS1, the payload length is fixed at 192 bytes per frame.

CES clocking and synchronization


The same clocking reference at both ends of the DS1 or E1 link is required to meet
the wander requirements of TDM traffic.
The business ONU can use one of two clocking sources for CES:

a derived GPON clock at 16.384 MHz


a 6.384 MHz local oscillator.
When the system clock for CES is derived from the GPON, the upstream P-OLT
locks to the BIT clock and supplies the ONT with an Ethernet clock that is traceable
to a network timing reference. The supplied Ethernet clock is used for differential
clock recovery and for timing the upstream pseudo-wire CES packet streams in the
absence of a valid TDM recovery clock. The local oscillator is only used if adaptive
mode is selected.

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The downstream TDM streams may be timed from one of two clocking sources:

a 16.384 MHz adaptive clock received from the CES packet stream.
a differential clock recovered from the CES packet stream via the GPON.
When the clock is received from the GPON, the GPON must be configured to send
RTP packets.
In adaptive timing, a local, free-running 25 MHz clock is used. The generated bit rate
is determined by the long-term average data rate. The attached DS1/E1 equipment
must be loop-timed. In differential timing, a 16.384 MHz reference clock is
synchronized to the PON. Both ends of the DS1/E1 CES PW must use the same
reference clock frequency and be synchronized to a common source. RTP is used to
transport the transmitted bit rate information. The DS1 or E1 equipment that is
attached to the terminating CES PW devices must be loop-timed. In loop timing, the
received clock rate is used for the transmitted clock rate. The DS1/E1 equipment that
is attached must be source-timed, not loop-timed.
Timestamps within the CES packets are used for carrying timing information across
the network. Timestamp values are generated in differential format when the
interface is operating in differential timing reference mode. Otherwise, the
timestamp values represent absolute time.
An RTP header can be added to each CES packet for timing purposes and determine
whether or not to include the 4 byte control word immediately preceding the RTP
header.
Configure RTP header parameters using a CLI, a TL1 or an AMS management
session with the P-OLT

9.7

Video Overlay
The ISAM can provide RF video service through the video overlay function. The
function operates downstream in the 1550 nm optical band. Signals sent over the
overlay network are presented to the subscriber as RF signals from a video F-type
connector in the ONU.
The RF video service in the downstream 1550 nm optical band supports most
available cable television (CATV) services, including standard analog broadcast
channels, as well as standard and high definition digital broadcast channels. In the
upstream direction, the 1310 nm return channel is carried over an HSI service. For
access to these services, a set-top box may be required between the video output of
the ONU equipment and the customer's television set.
Within the ONU functional blocks, the RF subsystem is an RF amplifier that
produces the required RF output for the subscriber video equipment. The RF
subsystem monitors the levels of optical and RF signals in support of the
performance management functions. The RF video service is optional and
independent of the SoC functions.

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Figure 9-3 Video overlay service in ISAM
Video head end

Analog
channels
Digital
channels

Core transport

Central office

Fiber (PON)
Distribution

Broadcast
video

ONT

Home network

1550 nm
(downstream RF video)
Video RF mux

Video optical
transmitter

Coax

EDFA

1310 nm
(upstream)
B

Private
network
Power

Major Alarm

Processor

Minor Alarm

WDM
IP
Network

VoD
server

VoD

Ethernet
Router

Coax

ISAM
Ethernet

Coax

1490 nm
(downstream data)

A Analog broadcast No STB needed


B Digital broadcast STB needed
C Broadcast and VoD STB needed

9.8

Home Phoneline Network (HPNA)


HPNA is a subscriber interface that is preferred by some service providers. The
technology allows the service provider to deploy high bandwidth services (> 10
Mb/s) without the need to install CAT5 wiring in older homes that were not wired
for broadband services. Two options exist to match the possible subscriber's wiring:

HPNA over twisted pair


HPNA over COAX.
HPNA is an integrated protocol stack handling PHY, Data Link, Convergence and
Management Layers. The HPNA protocol provides a synchronous, collision-free
media access method. A master device on the network control access to the network
and periodically registers devices on the network. Devices compatible with version
3.1 of the HPNA standards are backwards compatible with previous versions of
HPNA.
HPNA over Twisted Pair provides relatively broadband services over CAT3 or better
wiring. This HPNA physical layer is compatible with POTS, V.90 and various other
protocols.
HPNA over COAX provides relatively broadband services over COAX wiring. This
HPNA physical layer is compatible with VDSL, VDSL2 and Cable-TV signals.
ISAM provides support of HPNA 3.1 over COAX. HPNA 3.1 complies with the
following specification:

certified as HPNA 3.1 compliant by a NRTL


HomePNA 3.1b Certification Specification version 0.5WD (Jan/2010)
HomePNA Plugfest Certification Guidelines Rev2 (Oct/2008).
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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

G.9954 Home networking transceivers - Enhanced physical, media access, and


link layer specifications

The throughput:
Bi-directional throughput over the HPNA port shall be at least 38 Mbps in each
direction for 1514 byte packets.

Unidirectional throughput over the HPNA port shall be at least 96Mbps.

9.9

Power over Ethernet


Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology describes a system to pass electrical power
safely, along with data, on Ethernet cabling. Power is supplied in common mode over
two or more of the differential pairs of wires found in the Ethernet cables and comes
from a power supply within a PoE-enabled networking device such as an Ethernet
switch or can be injected into a cable run with a midspan power supply.
The IEEE standard for PoE requires Category 5 cable or higher for high power levels,
but can operate with category 3 cable for low power levels.
The IEEE 802.3af-2003 PoE standard provides up to 15.4 W of DC power (minimum
44 V DC and 350 mA) to each device. The IEEE 802.3at PoE standard also known
as PoE+ or PoE plus, provides up to 25.5 W of power. PoE is presently deployed in
applications where USB is unsuitable and where AC power would be inconvenient,
expensive or infeasible to supply. Foe example, PoE is especially useful for
powering IP telephones, wireless LAN access points, cameras with pan tilt and zoom
(PTZ), remote Ethernet switches, embedded computers, thin clients and LCDs which
is approximately 100 m of cable.
PoE has several advantages, including:

Cheaper cabling
A true gigabit connection to every device is possible
Global organizations can deploy PoE everywhere without concern for any local
variance in AC power standards, outlets, plugs, or reliability.
The PoE interface of the ISAM complies with IEEE 802.3at, and is backwards
compatible with IEEE802.3 af.

PoE supported through FE ports

9.10

Ethernet loopback detection


The GPON ONU supports the loopback detection in the same Ethernet port or
different Ethernet ports.
The GPON OLT allows you to enable or disable the function per ONT.
When a loopback is detected on the ONU side, the ONU will trigger an alarm and
send it to the OLT. The OLT reports the alarm messages to the AMS. The alarm will
be cleared by the ONU when the loopback issue is resolved.

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The OLT can be configured to enable or disable the action of shutting down the port
where the loopback exists. Depending on the configuration, the ONU or the OLT will
shutdown the port.

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9 ISAM Support for the GPON ONU

9-14

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10 EPON Network Architecture

10.1 Overview

10-2

10.2 EPON network

10-2

10.3 EPON implementation of ISAM


10.4 EPON system capacity

10-9

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10 EPON Network Architecture

10.1

Overview
The 7360 ISAM FX is an optical fiber distribution network that delivers voice, data,
and video services to residential and business subscribers using the Ethernet passive
optical network (EPON) technology, the Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) or
Point-to-point Ethernet technology.
This chapter provides information about the EPON optical distribution network.

10.2

EPON network
As with the GPON network, the 7360 ISAM FX EPON optical distribution network
extends optical access across the last mile of the communications network to the
subscriber, using fiber optic cabling to provide services from the network to
residential or business subscribers.

EPON network elements


The 7360 ISAM FX EPON optical distribution network consists of the following
network elements:

EPON OLT
EPON
10G EPON
EPON ONU

Figure 10-1 shows the EPON network elements deployed in a network topology.

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Figure 10-1 EPON network topology

PC
EPON
ONU
Video Server

STB

TV
PC

LAN

EMAN
Splitter

EMS

STB

RGW

EPON OLT

PSTN

Phone
Voice Gateway

EPON
ONU

Wireless access

Mobile
device

EPON OLT

The optical line termination unit is the equipment located at the network side of the
optical distribution network. The OLT performs a network-to-EPON and an
EPON-to-network interface function to support the transmission of services and
traffic between the network and the EPON ONU.
The P-OLT resides at the central office of the service provider. The EPON OLT
provides uplinks to the EMAN and access interfaces for subscribers, and serves two
main functions:

performs conversion between the electrical signals used by the service provider
equipment and the fiber optic signals used by the passive optical network

coordinates the multiplexing between the conversion devices (ONUs) on the


other end of the optical network
The EPON OLT supports ONU data configuration preservation using OAM
channels to improve service recovery time on end-to-end solutions when the ONU
or the OLT power switches off and on.
The EPON OLT supports forwarding of IPv6 UC and MC traffic in the iBridge
VLAN at the data plane.

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10 EPON Network Architecture

The EPON OLT supports downstream broadcast flooding. When the secure
forwarding mode is disabled in the RB VLAN, the OLT ensures that received ARP
packets are forwarded correctly in both the upstream and downstream directions so
that there is no need for operator involvement. In the case where RB VLAN flooding
is enabled and CVLAN translation is required at the same time, CVLAN translation
for flooding packets will not be completed by the OLT resulting in incorrect
downstream forwarding behavior. Therefore, CVLAN translation in RB VLAN
flooding is not supported.
Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay Agent (LDRA), including Option 18 for Circuit ID and
Option 37 for Remote ID, is supported by the EPON OLT in all forwarding models
except CC VLAN and S RB VLAN for IPv6 subscriber identification. IPv6
addresses are copied transparently and are not modified or stored. For Option 18,
relay agents identify the interface where the client message is received. For Option
37, relay agents that terminate switched or permanent circuits identify the remote
hosts. ISAM allows insertion for one or both options to enable LDRA and when both
options are disabled, LDRA is disabled.
The EPON OLT supports DHCP Relay Agent Information Object (DHCP Option
82). This is an optional parameter that the relay agent adds to the DHCP request
messages to identify the circuit to which a user is connected. In the upstream
direction, the EPON OLT adds a relay-tag containing user-port information to the
upstream PPPoE discovery packets, depending on the configuration. In the
downstream direction, the EPON OLT does not process the PPPoE proprietary tags
therefore it is recommended to follow TR-101 standard.
The EPON OLT is DHCP Option 82 compliant with MII standards. For DHCP and
PPPoE Option 82 supports customer ID format for the Remote ID sub-option and
physical line ID format for the Circuit ID sub-option, in compliance with the
definition of EPON specification v. 2.1 and CCSA Technical requirements for
access network subscriber access loop (port) identification in broadband access
networks.
Serial number inclusion of Option 82 is supported by the EPON OLT. You can
specify the type of system identifier added to the header of a DHCP Option 82
message or PPPoE: system, MAC address, or logical ID.
The EPON system supports rogue ONU discovery and closure which means
automatic identification of faults or error conditions using alarms and statistics can
be used to inform operators of any problems or to have automatic action taken to
disable a rogue ONU and avoid any disruption in the PON.
Configuration and retrieval of RSSI thresholds and alarms on optical modules for
specific EPON uplink ports on the LT, NT, and NTIO boards is supported and allows
the operator to report the operating conditions of the optics module on the ONU and
on the PON.
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) is supported for SFPs and XFPs on
EPON interfaces that have an embedded OTDR capability which allows
measurements to be obtained without the requirement for external equipment and
without the requirement of an operator on-site.

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The EPON ONU supports the loopback detection in the same Ethernet port or
different Ethernet ports. The EPON OLT allows you to enable or disable the function
per Ethernet port. When a loopback is detected on the ONU side, the ONU will
trigger an alarm and send it to the OLT. The OLT reports the alarm messages to the
EMS. The alarm will be cleared by the ONU when the loopback issue is resolved.
The OLT can b configured to enable or disable the action of shutting down the port
where the loopback exists. Depending on the configuration, the ONU or the OLT will
shutdown the port.
The EPON OLT supports on-board controller (OBC) defense on 1G, 10G EPON LT
cards and the NT card in the upstream direction only. Operators can specify the
threshold value for each ONU. The following three control level rate limits are
supported:

PON
LLID
VP
Note The VP control level is currently not supported.

Two types of rate limits exist in each control level. Each protocol type for each
control level and the summation of all protocol types have an independent rate limit
threshold value. All alarms are independent with two alarms supported for each level
rate limit. A total of six threshold values can be set for the following:

PON + protocol
PON + summation of all protocols
LLID + protocol
LLID + summation of all protocols
VP + protocol
VP + summation of all protocols

The OBC defense features can monitor packets for the following protocols:

ARP
DHCP
PPPoE
IGMP
ND
DHCPv6
ICMPv6
MLD
cfm

In the Alcatel-Lucent EPON network architecture, the EPON OLT function consists
of the ISAM NT and the EPON functional LT.

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10 EPON Network Architecture

EPON

All services and traffic are transported between the OLT and an ONU over the
EPON. The EPON brings optical fiber cabling and signals to the subscriber. The
optical fiber network connecting the EPON OLT and the EPON ONU is a passive
optical network (PON) with no active or powered elements.
The EPON employs a point-to-multipoint topology. A single strand of fiber extends
from the OLT at the central office to a passive optical splitter. The PON supports up
to 64 splits or ONU.
The EPON network uses the following wavelengths of light between the P-OLT and
the ONUs across the EPON:

1310 nm transmit in the upstream


1490 nm receive in the downstream
10G EPON

All services and traffic are transported between the OLT and an ONU over the 10G
EPON. The 10G EPON brings optical fiber cabling and signals to the subscriber. The
optical fiber network connecting the EPON OLT and the EPON ONU is a passive
optical network (PON) with no active or powered elements.
The 10G EPON employs a point-to-multipoint topology. A single strand of fiber
extends from the OLT at the central office to a passive optical splitter. The PON
supports up to 128 ONUs on a PON.
A Neighbor Discovery (ND) proxy is supported on the NT board.
IPv6 anti-spoofing is supported for 10G EPON providing the capability of
anti-spoofing towards any received IPv6 traffic from the subscriber side based on
DHCPv6 snooping.
The 10G EPON network uses the following wavelengths of light between the P-OLT
and the ONUs across the EPON:

1310 nm burst transmit in the 1 Gb/s upstream


1490 nm a continuous receive in the 1 Gb/s downstream
1270 nm a burst transmit in the 10 Gb/s upstream
1577 nm continuous receive in the 10 Gb/s downstream

In the CATV service, 1550 nm wavelength is used.


Figure 10-2 shows the wavelength and spectral width of the 10G EPON system.

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Figure 10-2 Wavelength and Spectral Width of the 10G EPON system
10G upstream
1270 +- 10nm

10G downstream
1577 -2/+3nm
1G upstream
1310 +- 50nm

1260
1280

Narrow
1310 nm
laser

1G downstream
1490 +- 10nm

1360

1480
1500

RF video

1550
1575
1600
1560
1580

Wavelength, nm

EPON ONU

The optical network unit is a conversion device that is located at the subscriber
premises as distributed end-points of the optical distribution network. The ONU
performs an EPON-to-subscriber and a subscriber-to-EPON interface function to
support the distribution of network services and traffic from the OLT to the
subscribers, and the transmission of subscriber traffic to the OLT.
The EPON ONU implements the EPON protocol and adapts EPON Protocol Data
Units to subscriber service interfaces.
See chapter ISAM Support for the EPON ONU for more information about the
EPON ONU.
The EPON ONU supports PB encapsulation mode in the upstream and downstream
directions, and PB transport mode in the upstream and downstream directions.
When the EPON LT card is set to DPoE mode, the card supports TPID translation
and functionality. Operators can configure one ONU using the following TPID
values:

0x8100
0x88a8
0x9100
0x9200

The configured values used for DPoE OAM support are dependent on the type of
service and hardware being used. See Customer Release Notes for DPoE limitations.
See your Alcatel-Lucent representative for more information.
The EPON OLT enables the following behavior:
1

In the upstream direction, the LT card will translate the ONU TPID to 0x8100
and send the traffic to the NT card with TPID 0x8100. The IHub can translate
the TPID 0x8100 to the network TPID and send the traffic to the network side.
The network TPID will be the port default TPID that is configured on the
network port or the service level TPID that is configured on the V-VPLS.

In the downstream direction, the IHUB translates the network TPID to 0x8100.
The LT translates TPID 0x8100 to the ONU TPID that is configured on the ONU
side.

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Standards
The EPON and 10G EPON networks are developed based on the following
standards:

IEEE 802.3ah-2004 (Amendment: Media access control parameters, physical

layers and management parameters for subscriber access networks)


IEEE 802.3-2005 (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access
method and physical layer specifications)
EPON access device technical specification of CTC R2.1
ITU-T G.652 and G.657(Characteristics of a single-mode optical fibre and cable)
CCSA EPON regulation amendment for PX20+, PR20, PRX20, PR30, and
PRX30 sublayer requirement
YD/T 1475-2006 access technical requirements - EPON
EPON physical ID format for LDRA Option 18 and Option 37 specification of
CTC R3.0 technical requirements for Broadband access network: subscriber
access loop (port) identification
IEEE 802.3av-2009 (Co-existence and simultaneous operation of 1 Gb/s and 10
Gb/s and physical layer specifications
IEEE 802.3av-2009 (PMD, RS, PCS, PMA, and MPCP Sub-Layer Requirements
CTC EPON Specification V2.1/V3.0

The IEEE 802.3ah series of standards define how traffic is packetized and
transported over the EPON. As per the IEEE 802.3ah protocol, each EPON optical
fiber connection from the P-OLT supports:

line rates of 1.25 Gb/s upstream


line rates of 1.25 Gb/s downstream
The IEEE 802.3av series of standards define how traffic is packetized and
transported over the EPON, 10G EPON, or both. As per the IEEE 802.3av protocol,
each EPON optical fiber connection from the P-OLT supports:

symmetric operation with line rates of 10 Gb/s upstream and downstream


support for TDM and WDM with line rates of 1/1, and 10/10 Gb/s
upstream/downstream coexistence

asymmetric operation with line rates of 1 Gb/s upstream, and 10 Gb/s


downstream

support for TDM and WDM with line rates of 1/1 and 10/1 Gb/s
upstream/downstream coexistence

The 10G EPON OLT supports the coexistence of 10G EPON and 1G EPON ONUs
on the same PON. In the downstream direction, the OLT transmits both 10 Gb/s and
1Gb/s signals in a WDM manner. In the upstream direction, the OLT receives both
10Gb/s and 1Gb/s signals in a TDMA manner. See Figure 10-3.
In the case where the ONU uses a DFB laser in the upstream direction and the actual
variance from the center wavelength of 1310nm is 8 nm then the card can support
an external WDM implementation. The upstream 1G EPON receiver would be on
another card. This allows sharing a fiber with 10G and 1G EPON without having to
reprovision the existing 1G EPON customers to a new port or having the 1G
customers effect the bandwidth available in the upstream of the 10G services.

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10 EPON Network Architecture


Figure 10-3 Coexistence of 10/10G EPON, 10/1G EPON, and 1G EPON ONUs
Downstream
10 Gb/s, 1577 nm
1 Gb/s, 1490 nm

10G-10G
ONU

RF Video, 1555 nm
10G-1G
ONU

OLT
Upstream
1 Gb/s, 1310nm

10.3

1 Gb/s, 1310nm

10 Gb/s, 1270nm

1G-1G
ONU

EPON implementation of ISAM


ISAM provides the core processing, switching, and control functions. The ISAM
shelves with their NT card and the EPON LT card comprise the conceptual OLT
system from an EPON network point of view.

In the upstream direction, ISAM interacts with the Ethernet switch and voice
gateway using the NT cards.
In the downstream direction, ISAM distributes network traffic to the subscribers
via the LT cards that terminate to the ONUs.
The Alcatel-Lucent ONU products are edge devices that use EPON technology to
extend a fiber optic cable from an OLT shelf to a subscriber residence, including
single-family residences, multi-dwelling units, such as apartment buildings, small
office or medium business offices or home office applications. See chapter ISAM
Support for the EPON ONU for more information about the EPON ONU.

EPON physical layer


Ethernet for subscriber access networks combine a minimal set of extensions to the
IEEE 802.3 Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC control sublayers with a family
of physical layers.
The physical layers include optical fiber and voice-grade copper cable Physical
Medium Dependent (PMDs) sublayers not only for point-to-point (P2P) connections
in subscriber access networks, but also for a point-to-multi-point (P2MP) network
topology with passive optical splitters.
To support P2MP topology, IEEE 802.3ah extensions to the MAC control sublayers
and reconciliation sublayers as well as to optical fiber PMDs. In addition, a
mechanism for network operations, administration, and maintenance is included to
facilitate network operations and troubleshooting.
The hierarchy of the Ethernet PHY layer is as follows:

Data Link Layer (layer 2)


PHY Layer (layer 1)

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10 EPON Network Architecture

where the Data Link Layer (layer 2) consists of:

LLC (Logical Link Control sublayer)


MAC (Media Access Control sublayer)
RS (Reconciliation Sublayer). This sublayer processes PHY Local/Remote Fault
messages and handles DDR conversion

and the PHY Layer (layer 1) consists of:

PCS (Physical Coding Sublayer). This sublayer performs auto-negotiation and


coding such as 8b/10b encoding for EPON and 64b/66b encoding for 10G EPON.
PMA (Physical Medium Attachment Sublayer). This sublayer performs PMA
framing, octet synchronization/detection, and x7 + x6 + 1
scrambling/de-scrambling.
PMD (Physical Medium Dependent sublayer). This sublayer consists of a
transceiver for the physical medium.
Figure 10-4 shows the reference model for the P2MP topology over EPON.
Figure 10-4 Reference model for P2MP topology over EPON
OSI
REFERENCE
MODEL
LAYERS

LAN
CSMA/CD
LAYERS

LAN
CSMA/CD
LAYERS

HIGER LAYERS
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK

LLC-LOGICAL LINK CONTROL OR


OTHER MAC CLIENT

OAM (OPTIONAL)

OAM (OPTIONAL)

MPMC-MULTI-POINT MAC CONTROL

MPMC-MULTI-POINT MAC CONTROL

MAC-MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL

MAC-MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL

RECONCILIATION

DATA LINK
PHYSICAL

HIGER LAYERS

LLC-LOGICAL LINK CONTROL OR


OTHER MAC CLIENT

RECONCILIATION
OLT

ONU(s)
GMI

GMI
PCS
PMA

PCS
PMA

PHY

PMD

PHY

PMD

MDI

MDI
PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORK MEDIUM

GMII
MDI
OAM
OLT

= GIGABIT MEDIA INDEPENDENT INTERFACE


= MEDIUM DEPENDENT INTERFACE
= OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION, AND MAINTENANCE
= OPTICAL LINE TERMINAL

ONU = OPTICALNETWORK UNIT


PCS = PHYSICAL CODING SUBLAYER
PHY = PHYSICAL LAYER DEVICE
PMA = PHYSICAL MEDIUM ATTACHMENT
PMD = PHYSICAL MEDIUM DEPENDENT
21767

Figure 10-5 shows the reference model for the P2MP topology over 10G/10G EPON.
10-10

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10 EPON Network Architecture


Figure 10-5 Architecture model for P2MP topology over 10G/10G EPON
OSI REFERENCE
MODEL LAYERS

LAN DSMACO LAYERS

Higher Layers
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
DATA LINK
PHYSICAL

MAC CLIENT
MAC CLIENT
OAM (optional)
OAM (optional)
MULTIPOINT MAC CONTROL
(MPCP) (Clause 77)
MAC MEDIA
MAC MEDIA
ACCESS CONTROL
ACCESS CONTROL
RECONSILIATION (Clause 75)

OLT

XGMII

PHY

POS (Clause 76)


FEC (Clause 76)
PMA (Clause 76)
PR-type PMD (clause 75)
MDII
Fiber

OSI REFERENCE
MODEL LAYERS

LAN DSMACO LAYERS

Optical
distributor
comments

PON
medium
Fiber

Fiber

Higher Layers
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
DATA LINK
PHYSICAL

MAC CLIENT
OAM (optional)
MULTIPOINT MAC CONTROL
(MPCP) (Clause 77)
MAC MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL
RECONSILIATION (Clause 76)

ONU

XGMII

PHY

POS (Clause 76)


FEC (Clause 76)
PMA (Clause 76)
PR-type PMD (clause 75)
MDII

XGMII =
MDI =
OAM =
OLT =
ONU =

10 GIGABIT MEDIA INDEPENDANT INTERFACE


MEDIA INDEPENDANT INTERFACE
OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION & MAINTENANCE
OPTICAL TERMINAL
OPTICAL NETWORK UNIT

PCS =
PHY =
PMA =
PMD =

PHYSICAL CODING SUBLAYER


PHYSICAL LAYER DEVICE
PHYSICAL MEDIUM ATTACHMENT
PHYSICAL MEDIUM DEPENDENT
23417

Figure 10-6 shows the reference model for the P2MP topology over 10G/1G EPON

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10 EPON Network Architecture


Figure 10-6 Architecture model for P2MP topology over 10G/1G EPON
OSI REFERENCE
MODEL LAYERS

LAN DSMACO LAYERS

Higher Layers
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
DATA LINK
PHYSICAL

MAC CLIENT
MAC CLIENT
OAM (optional)
OAM (optional)
MULTIPOINT MAC CONTROL
(MPCP) (Clause 77)
MAC MEDIA
MAC MEDIA
ACCESS CONTROL
ACCESS CONTROL
RECONSILIATION (Clause 75)

OLT

XGMII

PHY

GMII

POS (Clause 76)


FEC (Clause 76)
PMA (Clause 76)
PR-type PMD (clause 75)
MDII
Fiber

OSI REFERENCE
MODEL LAYERS

LAN DSMACO LAYERS

Optical
distributor
comments

PON
medium
Fiber

Fiber

Higher Layers
APPLICATION
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
DATA LINK
PHYSICAL

MAC CLIENT
OAM (optional)
MULTIPOINT MAC CONTROL
(MPCP) (Clause 77)
MAC MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL
RECONSILIATION (Clause 76)
XGMII

PHY

ONU
GMII

POS (Clause 76)


FEC (Clause 76)
PMA (Clause 76)
PR-type PMD (clause 75)
MDII

GMII

XGMII =
GMII =
MDI =
OAM =
OLT =

10 GIGABIT MEDIA INDEPENDANT INTERFACE


GIGABIT MEDIA INDEPENDANT INTERFACE
MEDIA INDEPENDANT INTERFACE
OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION & MAINTENANCE
OPTICAL TERMINAL

ONU =
PCS =
PHY =
PMA =
PMD =

OPTICAL NETWORK UNIT


PHYSICAL CODING LAYER
PHYSICAL LAYER DEVICE
PHYSICAL MEDIUM ATTACHMENT
PHYSICAL MEDIUM DEPENDENT
23417

Physical medium dependent (PMD)


PMD Sublayer for EPON

The EPON PMD sublayer consists of the 1000Base-PX20+ transceiver for the
physical medium, and is compliant with the IEEE 802.3-2005 1000Base-PX20 and
CCSA EPON regulation amendment for 1000Base-PX20+ sublayer requirement.
In addition to 1000Base-PX20 PMD, the 1000Base-PX20+ also provides P2MP
1000BASE connection over PON up to 20 km with a typical split ratio of 1:32, or
10 km with 1:64 split ratio. The objective of 1000Base-PX20+ is to provides P2MP
1000Base service over a single-mode fiber with BER better than or equal to 10-12 at
PHY service interface.
Table 10-1 defines the 1000BASE-PX20 PMD.
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Table 10-1 1000BASE-PX20+ PMD definition
Description

1000Base-PX20+-U

Fiber type

1000Base-PX20+_
D

B1.1, B1.3 SMF

Number of fiber
Nominal transmit wavelength
Direction

Unit

1310

1490

nm

Upstream

Downstream

Minimum range

.5 m to 20 km

Optical power budget

30

29.5

dB

Maximum channel insertion loss

28

dB

Minimum channel insertion loss

10

dB

A 1000Base-PX20+ link uses a 1000Base-PX20+-U PDM at one end and a


1000Base-PX20+-D PMD at the other. However a 1000Base-PX20+-D PMD is
interoperable with a 1000Base-PX20-U PMD to support upgrade possibilities of
1:32 to 1:64 split ratio. A 1000Base-PX20+ link does allow 1000Base-PX20+-D
PMD to interoperate with 1000Base-PX10-U PMD to increase the maximum access
range from 10 km to 20 km.
PMD sublayer for 10G EPON

A 1000Base-PX30/1000Base-PRX30 link is used to support upgrade possibilities of


1:32 to 1:128 split ratio. A 1000Base-PX30/1000Base-PRX30 link allows
interoperability to increase the maximum access range from 10 km to 20 km.
Table 10-2 describes the illustrative channel insertion loss and penalties for PR10,
PR20 and PR30 (symmetric-rate, 10 Gb/s power budget classes).
Table 10-2 Channel insertion loss and penalties for PR10, PR20, and PR30
Description

PR10

PR20

US

DS

Fiber type

PR30

US

DS

US

DS

IEC 60793-2 B1.1, B1.3 SMF


ITU-T G.652, G.657 SMF

Measurement wavelength for fiber

1270 nm

Nominal distance
Available power budget

1577 nm

1270 nm

10 km
23 dB

1577 nm

1270 nm

20 km
21.5 dB

27 dB

1577 nm

20 km

25.5 dB

32 dB

30.5 dB

Channel insertion loss (max)

20 dB

24 dB

29 dB

Channel insertion loss (min)

5 dB

10 dB

15 dB

Allocation for penalties

3 dB

2.5 dB

3 dB

Optical return loss of ODN (min)

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1.5 dB

3 dB

1.5 dB

20 dB

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10 EPON Network Architecture

Table 10-3 describes the illustrative channel insertion loss and penalties for PRX10,
PRX20, and PRX30 (asymmetric-rate, 10 Gb/s downstream, 1 Gb/s upstream power
budget classes).
Table 10-3 Channel insertion loss and penalties for PRX10, PRX20, and PRX30
Description

PRX10

PRX20

US

DS

Fiber type

PRX30

US

DS

US

DS

IEC 60793-2 B1.1, B1.3 SMF


ITU-T G.652, G.657 SMF

Measurement wavelength for fiber

1310 nm

Nominal distance

1577 nm

1310 nm

10 km

Available power budget

23 dB

1577 nm

1310 nm

20 km
21.5 dB

26 dB

1577 nm

20 km

25.5 dB

30.4 dB

30.5 dB

Channel insertion loss (max)

20 dB

24 dB

29 dB

Channel insertion loss (min)

5 dB

10 dB

15 dB

Allocation for penalties

3 dB

2.5 dB

Optical return loss of ODN (min)

2 dB

1.5 dB

1.4 dB

1.5 dB

20 dB

Physical medium attachment, physical coding, and reconciliation


sublayers
The PMA, PCS, and RS sub-layers in ISAM are compliant with Clause 65 of IEEE
802.3-2005 for EPON and IEEE802.3av for 10G EPON.

The PMA sublayer performs PMA framing, octet synchronization/detection, and


x7 + x6 + 1 scrambling/de-scrambling.
The PCS sublayer helps to define the physical layer specifications, such as speed
and duplex modes, for networking protocols like Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
and 10-GE. It performs auto-negotiation and coding such as 8b/10b encoding.
The RS sublayer processes PHY local/remote fault messages and handles DDR
conversion.
The transmit function of the extended RS replaces some of the octets of the preamble,
as transmitted by the MAC.

Multipoint MAC control protocol


The EPON network allows only one ONU to transmit in the upstream direction at a
time. The MPCP located at the OLT times the transmissions of multiple ONUs.
MPCP reports traffic congestions, which optimizes the allocation of bandwidth
across the PON.
The MPCP comprises the following processing functions:

discovery processing
This function manages the discovery process of an ONU and compensates for
round trip time.

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report processing
This function manages the generation and collection of report messages through
which bandwidth requests are sent upstream from the ONU to the OLT.
gate processing
This function manages the generation and collection of gate messages, through
which multiplexing of multiple transmitters is achieved.
In the discovery phase, each registered ONU is designated a unique LLID. The OLT
supports 64 LLIDs for each PON interface over EPON. For 10G EPON, the OLT
supports 128 LLIDs for each PON interface.

Dynamic bandwidth allocation


Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) is the process by which an ONU requests
upstream bandwidth and whereby the OLT re-assigns bandwidth accordingly to
improve upstream bandwidth utilization and to guarantee service equality.
To process the bandwidth requests from the ONUs, ISAM monitors the queue status
of all LLIDs and reassigns upstream bandwidth accordingly.
ISAM supports the following bandwidth types:

fixed bandwidth. The upstream bandwidth is reserved for the ONU so that the
OLT always sends a constant grant to the ONU even without an upstream request.
This bandwidth is not included in DBA scheduling.
assured bandwidth. The OLT sends the corresponding grant according to the
MPCP report message from the ONU. If the upstream request is less than the
grant assigned by the OLT, the surplus bandwidth can be used by other ONUs
through DBA.
best-effort bandwidth. The ONU can use the surplus bandwidth on the PON if
there are no bandwidth requests from services that have higher priority.
ISAM EPON supports a minimum DBA bandwidth granularity of 64 kb/s and 5%
DBA precision.

Forward error correction


Forward error correction (FEC) corrects transmission errors on the PON by inserting
redundant information into the bit stream to recover errors.
The ISAM transport layer between the ONU and the OLT uses a block-based FEC
to transmit the data in an encoded format. The encoding introduces redundancy that
allows the decoder to detect and correct the transmission errors. For example, for
input BER of 10-4, the BER at the FEC decoder's output may drop to 10-15. By using
the FEC technique, data transmission with low error rates can be achieved, and
retransmissions are avoided.
FEC results in an increased link budget. Therefore, higher bit rate and a longer
distance from the ISAM to the ONUs can be supported. Alternatively, a higher
number of splits per single PON tree can be achieved over an equivalent distance.

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10 EPON Network Architecture

ISAM uses Reed-Solomon FEC to correct transmission errors on the PON.


Reed-Solomon FEC is a block-based code that inserts bits at the end of a data block
of a specific size to create a code word. Using the extra bits, the FEC decoder
processes the data stream, discovers errors, corrects error, and recovers the original
data. Reed-Solomon code is specified in CMTT recommendation CCIR 723.
When a system uses a block-based FEC, the original data is preserved. Therefore, by
ignoring the parity bits, the original data can be processed, even if the other side does
not support FEC. However, block-based FEC error correction is not efficient for very
high BER levels (for example, for 10-3 BER, a decoding error will be generated).
In ISAM over EPON, FEC can be enabled or disabled in the downstream direction
on a per-PON basis, or in the upstream direction on a per-ONU basis.
For 10G EPON, FEC can be enabled forcibly in both the upstream and downstream
directions of 10/10 Gb/s data rate per PON, and in the downstream direction of 10/1
Gb/s data rate per PON. The FEC function of the P-OLT is configurable for upstream
of 10/1 Gb/s data rate per PON.

OTDR functionality
Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) is used to detect faults and
degradations on optical links. OTDR-capable EPON SFPs for 1G only can be
deployed in the ISAM. The configuration of the OTDR function in the ISAM and the
analysis of the OTDR measurements are done by the 5530 Network Analyzer Fiber.
The PON port on the LT card can support an SFP with an integrated OTDR function.
The OTDR function provides a means to continuously monitor an optical path to
measure the length of the fiber, and the physical location of any fiber breaks or
degradations.
The operator can enable, on a per-PON basis, a background process on the LT card
to collect the OTDR data from the SFP. Raw measurements are collected every 225 s
and up to a maximum of two-hours worth of data per enabled PON. After the
two-hour period expires, the background process overwrites the raw measurements
from the first hour.
Using an EMS or SNMP interface, an operator can retrieve the following OTDR data
for analysis and troubleshooting purposes:

raw measurements for current or previous hour


summed measurements for up to 25 previous hours
calibration measurements
Security
ISAM supports the following security features:

Triple churning
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

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10 EPON Network Architecture

Authentication
Other security features to avoid unlawful attacks and interceptions
Note DPoE supports AES in Cipher Feed Back (CFB) mode, and
CTC supports triple churning.

Triple churning

The ISAM uses broadcasting mode in the downstream. To ensure security of data
from the OLT to the ONU, the ISAM EPON supports the triple churning function
that is defined in the China Telcom EPON equipment technical requirement
specifications.
In general, the OLT requests a churning key (new_key_request) from the ONU, and
the ONU responds with a 3-byte churning key (new_churning_key) for 1G EPON
and 9-byte churning key for 10 G EPON that the OLT uses to generate a scramble
key. The OLT then uses the scramble key to scramble all frames, including OAM
frames, before sending to the ONU.
The triple churning can be enabled or disabled on a per-LLID basis, and each LLID
can have its own churning key.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

The ISAM supports AES security features for DPoE links for operation and
maintenance. Specifications are compliant with IEEE 802.1 ae and provides
protection of all frames from malicious attacks at an EPON link in both the upstream
and downstream directions.
The EPON OLT and ONU provide link security for up to 64 ONUs using a 128 bits
Galois/Counter Mode Advanced Encryption Standard (GCM-AES) authenticated
encryption to provide user data confidentiality, frame data integrity, and data origin
authenticity to subscribers at a maximum 2 Gbps for the EPON system using
Counter-AES (CTR-AES).

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10 EPON Network Architecture

Authentication

ISAM only allows ONUs that pass authentication to access the EPON network.
ISAM supports three ONU authentication modes as specified in the CTC EPON
equipment technical requirements specifications R2.1. The PON can be configured
for one of the following authentication modes:

physical ID (MAC-based) authentication. Only ONUs with a physical identifier


that passes authentication as per IEEE 802.3-2005 can register at the PON. This
authentication is performed during the ONU discovery phase. In EPON
deployments, the physical identifier is the MAC address of the ONU.
Logical ID authentication. Only ONUs with a logical identifier that passes
authentication can register at the PON. In release 4.2.30, the logical ID can either
be the ONU ID, a password, or the combination of ONU ID and password. It is
recommended that the latter be implemented through extended OAM.
This authentication is performed after the ONU discovery phase. When the
authentication fails, the OLT will un-register the ONU even though the ONU has
passed the discovery phase.
mix-based authentication. In this mode, the ISAM authenticates the ONU based
on the physical ID or the logical ID. If the physical ID authentication fails, ISAM
then checks the logical ID before registering the ONU. This mode is applicable
for legacy deployments where the authentication mode migrated from physical to
logical.
Note To avoid registration storms due to authentication failures,
ISAM requires that an ONU waits at least 60 s before attempting to
re-register.

Other security features

In addition to authentication, ISAM also provides the following security features to


avoid unlawful attacks and interceptions:

filtering
anti-spoofing
CPU overloading protection
ONU ID method
ISAM allows for configuration of the ONU ID method that can be used at both the
system and ONT levels for planning and security purposes. The ONT level ONU ID
method takes higher priority than the system level ONU ID method. The operator can
configure whether the OLT will provide the MAC address or the LOGICAL ID as
the ONU ID in DHCP option 82 or PPPoE relay tag. DHCP option82 is compliant
with the MII standard.
When the MAC address is used for ONU authentication, the service configuration is
retained to simplify and improve the process of ONU replacement.

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ONU ranging
Ranging is the process by which the propagation delay between the OLT and the
ONU is measured. The OLT performs the round trip delay computation using the
timestamp in the MPCP messages from the ONU.
The OLT and the ONU have 32-bit counters that increment every 16 ns. These
counters provide a local time stamp. When either device transmits an MPCPDU, it
records its counter value into the timestamp field. To set the timestamp value, the
time of transmission of the first octet of the MPCPDU frame from the MAC control
to the MAC is used as the reference time.
When the ONU receives MPCPDUs, the ONU sets its counter according to the value
in the timestamp field in the received MPCPDU. When the OLT receives
MPCPDUs, the OLT uses the received timestamp value to calculate or verify a
Round Trip Time (RTT) between the OLT and the ONU. The RTT is equal to the
difference between the time value and the value in the timestamp field. The MAC
client then uses the calculated RTT for ranging.

ONU discovery and activation


Discovery is the process by which offline or newly-connected ONUs are provided
access to the PON. The OLT drives the process. On a periodic basis, the OLT makes
available Discovery Time Windows. At these times, the offline ONUs can make
themselves known to the OLT.
The OLT broadcasts a discovery gate message to advertise a discovery period. The
message includes the starting time and length of the discovery window. After the
ONU receives this message, offline ONUs wait until the period begins to send a
Register Request message to the OLT.
Discovery windows are the only times when multiple ONUs can simultaneously
access the PON. Therefore, transmission overlaps may occur. To minimize
overlapping transmissions, online ONUs temporarily stop transmitting to the PON,
and offline ONUs wait a random period of time that is less than the length of the
discovery time window before sending their Register Request message.
After the OLT receives a valid Register Request message from an ONU, the
following events occur.
1

The OLT registers the ONU, assigns a port identifier (LLID) to the ONU, and
relates the MAC address of the ONU to the LLID.

The OLT sends the LLID and the required synchronization time to the ONU.

The OLT echoes the maximum number of pending grants.

The OLT schedules the ONU to the PON.

The OLT sends a standard gate message to the ONU.

The ONU acknowledges the registration by sending a Register ACK.

The discovery process is complete when the OLT receives the Register ACK from
the ONU. The ONU is registered and the OLT and the ONU can exchange normal
messages.

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10-19

10 EPON Network Architecture

The OLT monitors report messages that are received from online ONUs for
transmission requests. In return, the OLT sends gate messages to the ONUs to report
their allocated DBA grants. To maintain the watchdog timer at the ONU, the OLT
periodically generates DBA grants when empty gate messages are sent.

Operations, administration, and maintenance


The ISAM supports the following OAM functions for DPoE, TK, and CTC service
modes:

standard OAM functions specified in clause 57 of IEEE802.3-2005


the managed object class, and attribute and action in clause 30 of
IEEE802.3-2005

extended DPoE OAM functions compliant with DPoE Specification OAM V1.0,
section 9.3 to support the following:

ACL
CCL
enable/disable port - MAC enable status
S1 Interface port auto-negotiation
ONU bridging aging time
optical monitoring
OAM frame rate
UNI statistics counter
ONU bridge mode
dynamic MAC table, dynamic learning mode, and MAC learning MAX allowed
dying gasp
LOS alarm
C-VLAN TPID
S-VLAN TPID

extended TK OAM functions compliant with DPoE Specification OAM V1.0,


section 9.3 to support the following:

10-20

ACL
CCL
S1 Interface port auto-negotiation
ONU bridging aging time
optical monitoring
OAM frame rate
UNI statistics counter
multicast mode
fast leave
ONU bridge mode
dynamic MAC table, dynamic learning mode, and MAC learning MAX allowed
dying gasp
LOS alarm

November 2013

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10 EPON Network Architecture

extended OAM functions compliant with CTC requirements to manage remote


EPON ONU. The extended OAM includes the following functions:

extended OAM discovery and capability notification


ONU basic information and ability notification
FEC configuration
triple churning mechanism
DBA configuration
subscriber port management
VLAN management
multicast configuration
QoS management, such as traffic classification and remarking
ONU reset and software upgrade
ONU authentication based on logical identifier or MAC address
ONU alarm
rogue ONU discovery and closure
embedded OTDR functionality
RSSI support on SFPs for EPON port
voice service configuration
option to configure ONU ID method at both system and ONT level
DHCP option 82 compliant with MII standard
Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay Agent (LDRA) compliant including option 18 and
option 37
China NBI support
ONU configuration data preservation
option to configure ONU Ethernet port mode and speed
forwarding of IPv6 UC/MC traffic in the iBridge VLAN at the data plane
improved process to retain ONU service configuration for ONU replacement
CTC V2.1/V3.0 for 10G EPON requirements
proprietary OAM support for downstream queueing and scheduling per SFU
BCMP protocol support
Ethernet port loopback detection

ISAM supports a maximum of 2000 bytes of standard and extended OAM PDU.
Typically, ISAM manages the SFU/SBU through OAM. However, ISAM uses a
hybrid way to manage the MDU/MTU because neither standard nor extended OAM
are sufficient to configure complex services, such as voice services on the ONU with
VoIP functionality.
As per WT-142 recommendation, the 802.3ah OAM and extended OAM support the
configuration and management of PON and ONU interfaces, for which they were
designed. Other management protocols, such as SNMP or TR-069, complement
OAM in layer 3 and above to support the configuration and management of
subscriber services.
Note The operator can configure the system to use the same
management VLAN for the OLT and for the ONU.

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3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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November 2013

10-21

10 EPON Network Architecture

Performance monitoring and troubleshooting


The ISAM provides tools for the operator to measure and monitor the performance
of the EPON system, and to troubleshoot problems. The tools include:

Performance counters
Reports
Alarms
The EPON OLT provides NBI support for monitoring the following optics:

configurable upper and lower alarm thresholds


raised alarm for upper or lower threshold crossings
cleared alarm option if either the upper or lower clearing threshold is crossed
Performance counters

ISAM provides on-demand counters to monitor EPON layer traffic and performance
on the OLT and the ONU sides, and the traffic on the UNI in 15-min or 1-day
intervals. These counters enable service providers to:

set a baseline for performance


get a high-level view of the activity at a specific point in the network
detect problems when they occur
diagnose the cause of problems
plan for development and growth

DPoE statistics and counters are compliant with OAM V1.0 specifications and
supported on an ONU PON MAC and UNI port level. Counters on the logical link
and queue level are not supported.
Table 10-4 describes the performance counters by performance monitoring type.
Types include:

OLTPON monitoring type


ONTPON monitoring type
ONTENET monitoring type
Table 10-4 PM counters
Performance
monitoring
counter

Location

Direction

Description

Transmit

A count of octets

OLTPON monitoring type


OCTS

Near end

Receive
FRAME

Near end

Transmit

A count of frames

Receive
(1 of 5)

10-22

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10 EPON Network Architecture

Performance
monitoring
counter

Location

FSTSEG

Near end

Direction

Description

Transmit

A count of 64 octet frames

Receive
SECSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 65 to 127 octet frames

Receive
THIRDSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 128 to 255 octet frames

Receive
FORTHSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 256 to 511 octet frames

Receive
FIFTHSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 511 to 1023 octet frames

Receive
SIXSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 1024 to 1518 octet frames

Receive
LASTSEG

Near end

Transmit

A count of 1519 or more octet frames

Receive
UCFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of unicast frames

Receive
MCFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of multicast frames

Receive
BRDFRAME

Near end

Transmit

A count of broadcast frames

Receive
DRPDFRMS

Near end

Transmit

A count of dropped frames

Receive
ERRFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of error frames

Receive
CRCERR

Near end

Transmit

A count of CRC error frames

Receive
UNDFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of underrun frames

Receive
OVRFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of overrun frames

Receive
DROPEVENTR

Near end

Transmit

A count of dropped events

Receive
FRAGMENTS

Near end

Transmit

A count of fragments

Receive
JABBERFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of jabber frames

Receive
STATUSCHANGE

Near end

Transmit

A count of status changes

Receive
ONTPON monitoring type
(2 of 5)

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3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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November 2013

10-23

10 EPON Network Architecture

Performance
monitoring
counter

Location

Direction

Description

OCTS

Far end

Transmit

A count of octets

Receive
FRAME

Far end

Transmit

A count of frames

Receive
FSTSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 64 octet frames

Receive
SECSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 65 to 127 octet frames

Receive
THIRDSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 128 to 255 octet frames

Receive
FORTHSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 256 to 511 octet frames

Receive
FIFTHSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 511 to 1023 octet frames

Receive
SIXSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 1024 to 1518 octet frames

Receive
LASTSEG

Far end

Transmit

A count of 1519+ octet frames

Receive
UCFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of unicast frames

Receive
MCFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of multicast frames

Receive
BRDFRAME

Near end

Transmit

A count of broadcast frames

Receive
DRPDFRMS

Near end

Transmit

A count of dropped frames

Receive
ERRFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of error frames

Receive
CRCERR

Near end

Transmit

A count of CRC error frames

Receive
UNDFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of underrun frames

Receive
OVRFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of overrun frames

Receive
DROPEVENTR

Near end

Transmit

A count of dropped events

Receive
FRAGMENTS

Near end

Transmit

A count of fragments

Receive
JABBERFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of jabber frames

Receive
(3 of 5)

10-24

November 2013

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

10 EPON Network Architecture

Performance
monitoring
counter

Location

Direction

Description

STATUSCHANGE

Near end

Transmit

A count of status changes

Receive
ONTENET monitoring type
OCTS

N/A

Transmit

A count of octets

Receive
FRAME

N/A

Transmit

A count of frames

Receive
FSTSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 64 octet frames

Receive
SECSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 65 to 127 octet frames

Receive
THIRDSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 128 to 255 octet frames

Receive
FORTHSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 256 to 511 octet frames

Receive
FIFTHSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 511 to 1023 octet frames

Receive
SIXSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 1024 to 1518 octet frames

Receive
LASTSEG

N/A

Transmit

A count of 1519+ octet frames

Receive
BRDFRAME

N/A

Transmit

A count of broadcast frames

Receive
CRCERR

N/A

Transmit

A count of CRC error frames

Receive
PAUSEFRAME

N/A

Transmit

A count of pause frames

Receive
UCFRAMES

NA

Transmit

A count of unicast frames

Receive
MCFRAMES

NA

Transmit

A count of multicast frames

Receive
DRPFRMS

NA

Transmit

A count of dropped frames

Receive
ERRFRAMES

NA

Transmit

A count of error frames

Receive
UNDFRAMES

NA

Transmit

A count of underrun frames.

Receive
OVRFRAMES

NA

Transmit

A count of overrun frames.

Receive
(4 of 5)

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

10-25

10 EPON Network Architecture

Performance
monitoring
counter

Location

Direction

Description

STATUSCHANGE

NA

Transmit

A count of status change

Receive
DROPEVENTR

Near end

Transmit

A count of dropped events

Receive
FRAGMENTS

Near end

Transmit

A count of fragments

Receive
JABBERFRAMES

Near end

Transmit

A count of jabber frames

Receive
(5 of 5)

Reports

ISAM provides reporting facilities for the operator to monitor and diagnose the
optical link. The operator can report optical measurements between the P-OLT and
a specific ONU, or between the P-OLT and all ONUs under a specific PON.

The reporting facility allows the operator to view the following OLT and ONU
optical signal levels:

ONU receive optical signal level at 1490 nm


ONU transmit optical signal level at 1310 nm
OLT receive optical signal level at 1310 nm
OLT transmit optical signal level at 1490 nm

The RSSI capabilities of the optics module allow the operator to report the
following operating conditions of the optics module on the ONU and on the PON:

laser bias current


supply voltage
operating temperature
Rx and Tx power levels

For each operating condition, operators can configure and retrieve four RSSI
thresholds for warnings and alarms on optic modules for EPON uplink ports on
the LT, NT, and NTIO boards for monitoring and troubleshooting purposes. The
related alarms and warnings are triggered or cleared according to the real-time
status of optical modules on PON ports. The following thresholds are supported:

alarm high
alarm low
warning high
warning low

Table 10-5 describes the RSSI profile support on SFPs / XFPs per board type.

10-26

November 2013

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10 EPON Network Architecture


Table 10-5 RSSI thresholds for supported SFPs / XFPs per board type
Board Type

Mnemonic

8-port EPON LT

FPLT-A

Supported SFPs/XFPs

Limit of Thresholds per


RSSI Profile

EPON PX20+

20

EPON PX20+ OTDR


4-port 10G EPON LT
NT / NTIO

FPXT-A

PRX30 /PR30 XFP

32
28

FANT-F

GE-BX10-D

FNIO-B

1000Base-T

NANT-A

10GE-R

ECNT-A

1000Base - PX20-U

ECNT-C

Thresholds, alarms, and warnings can be configured and monitored to retrieve


information in each profile, for example, one threshold profile can be associated with
a specific EPON uplink port on the LT, NT and NTIO boards.
Improved alarm reporting is supported when optic fiber interruptions occur. When
the EPON ramose fiber interruption occurs, the alarm REPORTTIMEOUT will be
displayed. When the EPON trunk fiber interruption occurs, the alarm EPONLOS
will be displayed.
Alarms

ISAM supports configurable high and low threshold values for certain ONU alarm
conditions at a specific PON interface or ONU interface on the PON. An alarm is
raised if the condition exceeds the specified threshold value in a time period. Not all
alarm conditions have TCA support.
Table 10-6 identifies TCA-supported ONU alarm conditions by interface location.
Locations include:

PON interface
ONU interface
OLT interface
Table 10-6 TCA-supported ONU alarm conditions
Alarm

Description

PON interface
RXPWLO

Receive optical signal too low alarm

RXPWHI

Receive optical signal too high alarm

TXPWHIALM

Transmit optical power too high

TXPWLOALM

Transmit optical power too low

TXBIASHIALM

Transmit bias too high

TXBIASLOALM

Transmit bias too low

(1 of 3)

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3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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10-27

10 EPON Network Architecture

Alarm

Description

VOLHIALM

Voltage too high

VOLLOALM

Voltage too low

TEMPEHIALM

Temperature too high

TEMPLOALM

Temperature too low

TXPWHIWARN

Transmit optical power too high

TXBIASHIWARN

Transmit bias too high

TXBIASLOWARN

Transmit bias too low

VOLHIWARN

Voltage too high

VOLLOWARN

Voltage too low

TEMPEHIWARN

Temperature too high

TEMPELOWWARN

Temperature too low

EXTTXPWHIALM

XFP transmit optical power too high

EXTTXPWLOALM

XFP transmit optical power too low

EXTTXBIASHIALM

XFP transmit bias too high

EXTTXBIASLOALM

XFP transmit bias too low

EXTTXPWHIWARN

XFP transmit optical power too high

EXTTXPWLOWARN

XFP transmit optical power too low

EXTTXBIASHIWARN

XFP transmit bias too high

EXTTXBIASLOWARN

XFP transmit bias too low

ONU interface
TEMPLOW

Temperature too low alarm

TEMPHIGH

Temperature too high alarm

TEMPELOWARN

Temperature too low warning alarm

TEMPEHIWARN

Temperature too high warning alarm

VOLLO

Voltage too low alarm

VOLHI

Voltage too high alarm

VOLLOWARN

Voltage too low warning

VOLHIWARN

Voltage too high warning

TXBIASLO

Transmit bias too low alarm

TXBIASHI

Transmit bias too high alarm

TXBIASLOWARN

Transmit bias too low warning

TXBIASHIWARN

Transmit bias too high warning

TXPWLO

Transmit optical signal too low alarm

TXPWHI

Transmit optical signal too high alarm

TXPWLOWARN

Transmit optical signal too low warning

TXPWHIWARN

Transmit optical signal too high warning

RXPWLO

Receive optical signal too low alarm

(2 of 3)

10-28

November 2013

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10 EPON Network Architecture

Alarm

Description

RXPWHI

Receive optical signal too high alarm

RXPWLOWARN

Receive optical signal too low warning

RXPWHIWARN

Receive optical signal too high warning

OLT interface
OLTRXPWLO

Receive power from ONU at OLT side too high

OLTRXPWHI

Receive power from ONUT at OLT side too low

OLTRXPWLOWARN

Receive power low warning at OLT PON side

OLTRXPWHIWARN

Receive power high warning at OLT PON side

(3 of 3)

10.4

EPON system capacity


Table 10-7 lists the capacity of the 7360 ISAM FX EPON system.
Table 10-7 7360 ISAM FX EPON system capacity
Item

Capacity

Maximum number of ONUs per PON

64

Maximum number of ONUs per EPON LT card

512

Maximum number of ONUs per system

8192

Maximum number of LLIDs per ONU

Maximum number of UNIs per PON

512

Maximum number of UNIs per LT card

4096

Maximum number of UNIs per system

26214

Table 10-8 lists the capacity of the 7360 ISAM FX 10G EPON system.
Table 10-8 7360 ISAM FX 10G EPON system capacity
Item

Capacity

Maximum number of ONUs per PON

128

Maximum number of ONUs per EPON LT card

512

Maximum number of ONUs per system

8192

Maximum number of LLIDs per ONU

Maximum number of UNIs per PON

1024

Maximum number of UNIs per LT card

4096

Maximum number of UNIs per system

26214

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November 2013

10-29

10 EPON Network Architecture

10-30

November 2013

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

11.1 Overview
11.2 EPON ONU

11-2
11-2

11.3 Supported features and services


11.4 Security

11-5

11-8

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11-1

11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

11.1

Overview
The EPON ONU is a media converter that works with the OLT to form a seamless
fiber access network that is capable of delivering high quality voice, video, and data
services to single-family subscribers, multi-dwelling residential subscribers, and
business subscribers. Figure 11-1 shows the EPON ONU in an EPON network
topology.
Figure 11-1 EPON network topology

PC

EPON ONU
Video Server

STB

TV
PC

EMAN

LAN

EMS

Splitter
OLT

STB

RGW
xPON
ONU

PSTN

Phone
Voice Gateway

Wireless access

Mobile
device

This chapter describes the support that ISAM provides to the EPON ONU.
Note The terminology as defined in Rec. ITU-T G.984.1
(03/2008) is adopted in this chapter. The ONU (Optical Network
Unit) is the generic term denoting a device that terminates any one of
the distributed (leaf) endpoints of an Optical Distribution Network,
implements a PON protocol, and adapts PON PDUs to subscriber
service interfaces. In some cONUexts, an ONU implies a
multiple-subscriber device. The ONU (Optical Network Termination)
is a single subscriber device and is a special case of an ONU.

11.2

EPON ONU
The EPON ONU is an edge device that uses EPON technology to extend a fiber optic
cable from an EPON-OLT shelf at a central office to a subscriber residence,
including single-family residences, multi-dwelling units (MDUs), such as apartment
buildings and small office or home office applications. The ONU terminates the
EPON physical and transmission convergence layer and provides the specific service
interworking function that is required at the subscriber residence.

11-2

November 2013

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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

The EPON ONU products provide the following functions and services:

network demarcation for all services


voice interworking function from the analog POTS lines to the VoIP/Ethernet
layers

CES encapsulation of DS1/E1 using the MEF-8 packetization format for


transport across the layer 2 Ethernet PON
mux and demux functions to the PON
optical-to-electrical conversion
All Alcatel-Lucent ONUs were developed using the following EPON IEEE
standards:

IEEE 802.3-2005 Clause 60 (PMD)


IEEE 802.3-2005 Clause 64.(MAC cONUrol)
IEEE 802.3-2005 Clause 65 (RS layer)
IEEE802.3-2005 Clause 57 (OAM)
IEEE802.3av-2009 (10G EPON)
YD/T 1475-2006 (OAM)
China Telecom EPON equipment technical requirement specification V2.1/V3.0

Alcatel-Lucent provides a wide variety of ONU equipment including business units,


indoor units, outdoor units, and modular and service plug-in units.

EPON ONU product series


ONUs are available in various models. They can be used interchangeably on the
EPON network so that network providers can mix ONU models to meet the needs of
the subscribers to deliver services to single-family residences, multi-dwelling units,
such as apartment buildings, and small office or home office applications.
The product series of ONUs include the following:

indoor ONU
The indoor ONU terminates services at the subscriber premises, and is suitable
for subscribers living in a single-family residence. The indoor ONU can be
mounted to an interior wall, or installed on a desktop. The indoor ONU can
provide voice, data, and IP video services.
outdoor ONU
The outdoor ONU terminates services at the subscriber premises and is suitable
for single residences and small office home office (SOHO) applications. The
single residence and SOHO outdoor ONUs have environmentally hardened
enclosures that you can install outside the subscriber premises.
MDU
The multi-dwelling unit is suitable for multi-dwelling unit applications. The
MDU supports ADLS2/ADLS2+/VDSL2 and Ethernet interfaces, which
terminate at the customer premises.
business ONU
Business ONUs are suitable for small business applications. The business ONU
provides voice, data, IP video, and optionally RF video services to subscribers,
and support CES DS1 or E1 connections at the business premises.
Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02
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November 2013

11-3

11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

EPON ONU product identification


Table 11-1 identifies the EPON ONU product series.
Table 11-1 EPON ONU product series identification
Series

Product

SFU

Indoor ONUs

EONU

Outdoor ONUs
Business ONUs

MDU

Modular ONUs

In a product series, each ONU model can be further identified by a mnemonic


designation that defines the characteristics of the particular model, such as the voice,
data, and video interfaces.
Figure 11-2 shows an example of a mnemonic designation for an outdoor ONU.
Figure 11-2 EPON ONU mnemonic designation example
EONU16160-E

EONU

16

16

E
Product vendor code
Number of E1 ports

Number of POTS ports


Number of FE ports
EPON ONU
21768

Table 11-2 describes the general EPON ONU mnemonic designation.


Table 11-2 General EPON ONU mnemonic designation
Position in mnemonic

Description

Beginning characters

Series that the product belongs to

First pair of digits

Number of FE interfaces

Second pair of digits

Number of POTS interfaces

Fifth digit

Number of E1 interfaces

Character after the dash

Product ODM vendor code. The codes are:

11-4

November 2013

space, A, or B for T&W


C or D for Zyxel
E or F for Dare
H or I for Alpha

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

EPON ONU features


The ONUs support the following EPON features:

For 1G EPON systems:


efficient IP/Ethernet service traffic transport
1 Gb/s line rate downstream and 1 Gb/s line rate upstream
PX20 optics with 28 dB optical link loss
PX20+ optics with 32 dB optical link loss
PX30 optics
integrated diplexer for ONUs supporting POTS and data
1310 nm wavelength upstream
1490 nm wavelength downstream
single-mode fiber and use 2x5 SFF SC/APC optical port
PON reach capacity of 20 km
configuration data preservation
option to configure ONU Ethernet port mode and speed
FEC functions
Rogue ONU discovery and closure
proprietary OAM support for downstream queueing and scheduling
Ethernet port loopback detection
DPoE link OAM support
For 10G EPON system:
support of efficient IP/Ethernet service traffic transport
10Gb/s line rate downstream and 10Gb/s line rate upstream
10Gb/s line rate downstream and 1Gb/s line rate upstream
PRX30 optics for 10G/1G EPON
PR30 optics for 10G/10G EPON
integrated diplexer for ONUs supporting POTS and data
1270 nm wavelength upstream
1577 nm wavelength downstream,
single mode fiber and use 2x5 SFF SC/APC optical port
PON reach capacity of 20 km
configuration data preservation
option to configure Ethernet port mode and speed
FEC functions for 10G EPON
rogue ONU discovery and closure

11.3

Supported features and services


This section describes the following features and services that are supported for the
EPON ONU:

xDSL
Wi-Fi
POTS
Ethernet
Forward Error Correction

Rogue ONU Discovery and Closure


Proprietary OAM support for
downstream queuing and
scheduling
Ethernet port loopback detection

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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

xDSL
See chapter 7, xDSL features, for information about the supported xDSL features.

Wi-Fi
The EPON ONU supports the following Wi-Fi certification standards from the
IEEE: 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n.

POTS
The EPON ONU supports the voice interworking function from the analog POTS
lines to VoIP/Ethernet.
The ONU is based on a business chipset and a switch that provides layer 2 switching
with filtering functions. In the upstream direction, the ONU assigns traffic to the
LLID. In the downstream direction, the ONU performs layer 2 bridging.

The POTS analog interfaces are part of the ONU on the subscriber side.
The VoIP signaling and bearer channels are terminated on the ONU on the OLT
side.
ISAM supports different modes of operation for VoIP services on the EPON ONU.
These modes of operation include:

SIP
H.248 softswitch (Megaco)
SIP

SIP protocol complies with the IETF RFC 3261 and China Telecom SIP network
gateway cONUrol protocol specification.
SIP service configuration

Table 11-3 describes the possible sources of configuration information for SIP,
which is different for the POTS service with the GPON ONU.
In the case of the EPON ONU, the CT defines ways to configure VoIP services that
support signaling protocols, such as H.248 softswitch and SIP.
Table 11-3 Sources of SIP configuration data
Source

Description

IEEE 802.3 OAM and CT extended OAM

Extended OAM is used to:

conduct service and protocol provisioning


configure the overall VoIP service and individual
POTS lines from the OLT
provide a limited set of provisioning options for
SIP

(1 of 2)

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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

Source

Description

TR-069

ACS uses TR-069 for remote management of the


EPON ONU. OAM allows for the remote management
of layer 2 and lower functions of ONU, and the
configuration of the management IP address and of
the FTP IP address. The configuration profile is
downloaded using TR-069.

(2 of 2)

Ethernet
The Ethernet interfaces on the ONU support the following primary features:

Ethernet port compliance with IEEE 802.3


IEEE 802.3av compliance for 10G EPON
IEEE 802.1Q, 802.1x port-based authentication, and 802.1p (QoS classification
per Ethernet port)
layer 3 DSCP to 802.1p mapping to allow layer 3 CoS over the layer 2 network
full or half duplex operations
auto-negotiation or manual setting by an operator
See Chapter Layer 2 forwarding for the supported Ethernet L2 forwarding
features.
See Chapter ISAM Support for the GPON ONU for more information.

Forward Error Correction


The EPON ONU supports the following FEC functions for the 10G EPON system:

configurable upstream and downstream for 1G ONU


configurable upstream for 10G/1G ONU
always enabled for 10G/10G ONU
Rogue ONU Discovery and Closure
The EPON system will automatically identify faults or error conditions using alarms
and statistics to inform operators of any problems or by using automatic action to
disable a rogue ONU to avoid disruption in the PON. Conditions on one ONU may
affect other ONUs using the same PON and cause disruption, so the system can help
operators troubleshoot and manage rogue ONUs.
The following faults or error conditions are automatically identified by the EPON
system:

PON unusable due to ONU laser light stuck in ON position


ONU de-registers due to duplicate ONU serial numbers which prevents correct
ranging
ONU misinterprets the bandwidth map
ONU transmits the incorrect time slot allocation
ONU fails to transmit to correct time slot allocation

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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

ONU transmits incorrect signal timing which can disrupt other ONUs
ONU transmits signals too low or too high which can cause bit rate errors or
ranging failure

Proprietary OAM support for downstream queuing and


scheduling
Hierarchical downstream scheduling and rate limiting is supported for downstream
traffic management per ONU LLID and per service. For 1G EPON configurations,
implementation is on the ONU side where OLT provisioning using Alcatel-Lucent
proprietary OAM specifications can interoperate with the ONU. For 10G EPON
configurations, implementation is on the OLT side, with no dependencies or
interoperation with the ONU is required.

Ethernet port loopback detection


The EPON ONU supports the loopback detection in the same Ethernet port or
different Ethernet ports, The EPON OLT allows you to enable or disable the function
per Ethernet port. When a loopback is detected on the ONU side, the ONU will
trigger an alarm and send it to the OLT. The OLT reports the alarm messages to the
EMS. The alarm will be cleared by the ONU when the loopback issue is resolved.
The OLT can be configured to enable or disable the action of shutting down the port
where the loopback exists. Depending on the configuration, the ONU or the OLT will
shutdown the port.

11.4

Security
To ensure security at the network and ONU level, the EPON ONU supports the
following security mechanisms:

Triple churning
ONU authentication at the PON
See also chapter EPON Network Architecture, for more information about triple
churning and authentication of the EPON ONU,

Triple churning
The ISAM uses broadcasting mode in the downstream, which can allow hostile users
to intercept other user messages. To improve the protection of the data from the OLT
to the ONU, ISAM supports triple churning in the downstream as defined in the
China Telecom EPON equipment technical requirement specifications.
In general, the OLT requests a churning key (new_key_request) from the ONU, and
the ONU responds with a 3-byte churning key (new_churning_key) for 1G EPON
and a 9-byte churning key for 10G EPON that the OLT uses to generate a scramble
key to scramble all data and OAM frames before sending these frames to the ONU.
Triple churning can be enabled or disabled on a per-LLID basis, and each LLID can
have its own churning key.
The procedures to change and synchronize the churning key use the OAMPDU mode
based on the organization-specific Extension.
11-8

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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

ONU ID method
ISAM allows for configuration of the ONU ID method that can be used at both the
system and ONU levels for planning and security purposes. The ONT level ONU ID
method takes higher priority than the system level ONU ID method. The operator can
configure whether the OLT will provide the MAC address or the LOGICAL ID as
the ONU ID in DHCP option 82 or PPPoE relay tag.
When the MAC address is used for ONU authentication, the service configuration is
retained to simplify and improve the process of ONU replacement.

ONU authentication on the PON


The following authentication modes are supported for the EPON ONU.

physical ID (MAC-based) authentication. In EPON deployments, the physical ID


refers to the MAC address of the ONU. This authentication mode requires that the
OLT has the ability to verify the MAC address of the ONU as per IEEE
802.3-2005.
logical ID authentication. In release 2.4.30, the logical ID can either be the ONU
ID, a password, or the combination of ONU ID and password. It is recommended
that the latter be implemented through extended OAM as proposed by China
Telecom.
mixed-based authentication. This mode allows the OLT to authenticate an ONU
using the physical ID or the logical ID. If the physical ID authentication fails, the
OLT then checks the logical ID. This mode creates two additional ways to
authenticate an ONU: MAC address plus ONU ID and MAC address plus
password.
Table 11-4 lists the possible identifiers for each authentication mode.
Table 11-4 Authentication modes
Authentication mode

MAC address

Logical iD
ONU ID

Physical ID mode

Password

Logical ID mode

Mixed mode

Regardless of the authentication mode of the corresponding PON, the operator must
specify either the physical identifier or the logical identifier of the ONU when
configuring the ONU. The system ensures the uniqueness of the identifier on the
PON based on the authentication mode of the PON. The password does not need to
be unique if used in combination with a MAC address or ONU ID. However, the
password must be unique if authentication is based on a password alone.
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11 ISAM Support for the EPON ONU

The operator can change the authentication mode of a PON interface if the ONU
MAC address is not statically provisioned. However, all ONU MAC addresses under
the modified PON interface will be removed and all ONUs under the PON interface
will deregister.
Note Conflicting passwords may occur if the authentication mode
is changed from ONU ID plus password to password only. If a
conflict is detected, the system will reject the request to change the
authentication mode of the PON.

In the logical ID authentication mode, the operator does not need to preprovision an
EPON ONU with its logical ID. However, because of a limitation with the EPON
MAC chipset, the operator must preprovision an EPON ONU with its MAC address
so that the MPCP process can be completed. If an unknown ONU MAC address is
discovered, the MAC address is added to the white list of acceptable EPON MAC
addresses. In this case, the MPCP process is completed when the ONU tries to
reregister. However, the logical ID authentication starts regardless of whether the
ONU MAC address is preprovisioned. If the authentication is successful, the SLA is
enabled immediately and services start running. If the authentication fails, the ONU
MAC address is removed from the white list.
In logical ID authentication mode, the ONU can be authenticated either locally on
the OLT or remotely at a centralized RADIUS server.
Note Release 4.2.30 of the EPON system does not support
centralized remote authentication through a RADIUS server.

11-10

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

12.1 Introduction

12-3

12.2 Overall network topology

12-3

12.3 Access network L2/L3 topologies

12-8

12.4 Product Definition and Dimensioning


12.5 Traffic types and forwarding

12-14

12.6 Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies


12.7 Protocol stacks

12-13

12-44

12-75

12.8 Voice service and MPLS Pseudo-wire


12.9 Management interface

12-84

12.10 Permanent data storage


12.11 Management model

12-84

12-87

12-88

12.12 Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload


Protection
12-96
12.13 Quality of Service

12-110

12.14 DNS interworking

12-110

12.15 BITS Support

12-112

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12-1

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

12.16 Narrowband Line Testing

12-112

12.17 Termination local loop unbundling


12.18 Alarm Treatment

12-113

12.19 Lawful Intercept

12-115

12.20 ISAM Voice migration

12-2

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

12.1

Introduction
A specific use of the ISAM is to provide classic telephony services to subscribers
being connected with classic POTS/ISDN BRI lines, and to convert the
corresponding signals to VoIP signaling/data packets. An ISAM supporting the
integrated voice service is called ISAM Voice.
The integrated voice service provides POTS or ISDN BRI service to subscribers over
copper pairs together or without xDSL service.
The voice information is converted to VoIP in the ISAM Voice access node and
forwarded to/from the service provider's Ethernet/IP network over optical fibers
along with the HSI and IPTV services carried by the access node.
VoIP networks are subject to standardization. Within standardization there are two
different approaches for the signaling:

A set of standards driven by ITU-T, centered around ITU-T document H.248. In


a nutshell: a network based on this standard uses RTP for the voice and Megaco
for the signaling.
A set of standards driven by IETF SIP. In a nutshell: a network based on this
standard uses RTP for the voice and SIP for the signaling.
VoIP SIP is supported by TISPAN compliant mode and non-IMS compliant
mode.
ISAM Voice supports both signaling methods and can be deployed in the
corresponding network topologies. However, ISAM Voice does not support both
methods to run concurrently in the same access node.

12.2

Overall network topology


This section describes the overall network topology for:

Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a Next Generation Voice Network (NGVN).


SIP ISAM Voice situated in a TISPAN-compliant NGN-IMS network.
Megaco ISAM Voice in a NGVN network
Megaco ISAM Voice supports Narrowband (NB) services and provides the
connection to the NGVN for legacy Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN)
users via Voice over IP (VoIP). It plays the role of Media Gateway (MG), also called
Access Media Gateway (AG).

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-1 Megaco ISAM Voice situated in a NGVN network
Subtending
ISAM Voice

Softswitch

MGC

PSTN
RTP

TGW

ASP

P
O
T
S

Central Office
ISAM Voice

Servers

I
S
D
N
POTS /
ISDN

IP Network
H.248 / SIGTRAN
.

L2 Aggregation
Network

IP
edge

BAS

M
G

P
O
T
S

POTS/
ISDN

Remote
ISAM Voice

P
O
T
S

P
O
T
S

I
S
D
N

I
S
D
N

POTS/
ISDN

POTS/
ISDN

Remote
ISAM Voice

Megaco ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, including
Plain Old Telephone Services (POTS) and Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) BRI, to the NGVN.
Megaco ISAM Voice supports centralized configurations, where the NB user
interfaces and MG are integrated in the same node, and distributed configurations,
where the MG is located in a hub node and the NB user interfaces in remote nodes.
The remote nodes can be subtended by the ISAM Voice acting as an MG, or located
within the layer 2 aggregation or IP network.
A voice cluster is the aggregation of one Voice server pair, residing in the hub node,
together with its voice associated ISAM nodes, that is, together with the ISAM nodes
that contain Voice Line Termination (LT) boards that are managed by that particular
Voice server pair. A voice cluster can support a maximum of 5K subscribers. These
subscribers may be scattered over a maximum of 32 ISAM nodes and a maximum of
104 Voice LT boards.
A hub node may contain up to 8 Voice server pairs. In other words a hub node may
host up to 8 different Voice Clusters.
The hub ISAM Voice, combined with the subtending/remote ISAM Voice, provides
the view of a unique centralized MG. In subtending or remote configurations, the
connection to the hub is via Fast or Gigabit Ethernet (optical or electrical). The Trunk
MG links the NGVN with a legacy PSTN network.
The Softswitch is responsible for call control and charging, and communicates with
the Media Gateways (Megaco ISAM Voice) via the Media Gateway Control
(Megaco) protocol H.248.
SIGTRAN is used for ISDN BRI users, that is, Q921 is terminated in ISAM Voice
and SIGTRAN is implemented to transfer Q931 messages between ISAM Voice and
ASP.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

SIP ISAM Voice in a TISPAN-compliant NGN-IMS network


SIP ISAM Voice is a ETSI TISPAN PES compliant VGW.
The ALU IMS PES Solution is a PSTN Emulation IMS subsystem specifically
tailored to allow TDM equipment replacement, while keeping legacy terminals
unchanged. It is based on TISPAN IMS-PES functional Architecture and provides

Access for legacy POTS-line towards an IMS network through Access gateways
A PSTN Service emulation in the IMS domain
Interconnection with PSTN networks
Interconnection with peer IP networks

The SIP based ISAM Voice gateway (VGW)

Terminates the z-interface (z Reference point)


Directly connects to the IMS-core (P_CSCF)
Associates POTS lines with an IMS user identity
REGISTERS each user at the IMS-core.
Media conversion Voice-band => RTP packets
Interacts with the AS based on the tightly coupled model
Figure 12-2 The TISPAN IMS-PES functional architecture

Application Servers

Ut
Ut

Network
Attachment
Subsystem
e2

Sh

UPSF

Charging
Functions
Rf/Ro

Dh

ISC/Ma
Cx

Dx

Iw

SLF

Ib

P3

IWF

IMS-based PES

e2

AGCF

Mx

M
w
Mw

I/S-CSCF

BGCF

MGCF

Ie

SGF

PSTN/ISDN

Gq'

Gq'

Mg

MRFC

Gq'
Mp

Mn

Resource and Admission Control Subsystem

Other IP Networks

P-CSCF

Ic

Mk

Mj

Mx

Gm

IBCF

Mx
Mi

Mr

Mw

Ut

Rf/Ro

PSTN/ISDN Emulation logic

P1

SIP/Gm

Rf/Ro

Other types of service logic

VGW
MRFP

MG

T-MGF

IP Transport (Access and Core)

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I-BGF

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12-5

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-3 The Alcatel-Lucent TISPAN IMS-PES Solution
5020 MGC - 8
5020 MGC - 12
5020MGC - 10

5420 CTS

ISUP

SS7
MGCF

PSTN

5450 ISC

Feature
Server

SIP

Session Control

8650 SDM

HSS

SIP

MGW

H.248

7510 MGW
7515 MGW
7520 MGW

IP Network

Voice

7302
ISAM

VGW

7342
ISAM
OLT

SIP

7302/
7330
ISAM

IP Access

3rd party
VGW

7330
ISAM
FTTN

TDM Access

SIP

SIP

SIP
ONT

ONT
RG

RG

Figure 12-4 The SIP based Voice Network Architecture


DHCP
Se r ve r

Mgmt
Pla tfo r m

PSTN

DN S
Se r ve r

SG F/ T-MG F
S_CSCF

AS

MG CF

ISAM Voice

I_CSCF

P_CSCF

P
O
T
S

RTP

P U
O A
T
S
POTS

ISAM Voice

HSS

SIP

MRF

x- CSCF/ BG CF

IMS
Co r e

SBC

ER

IP
N e two r k
Vo ice
G a te wa y

P
O
T
S

P U
O A
T
S
POTS

L2 Ag g r e g a tio n
N e two r k

IBCF/ IBGF

ISAM Voice

ER

O th e r IP
Networks

Se rve rs

BAS

P
O
T
S

ISAM Voice

P
O
T
S

P U
O
T A
S
POTS

P
O U
T A
S
POTS

ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, the Plain Old
Telephone Services (POTS), to the NGN/IMS.
12-6

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Each of the nodes connected to the layer 2 aggregation or IP network has the SIP UA
locally integrated on the Voice LT. The local instance of the SIP UA serves all NB
user interfaces connected to a Voice LT.
The Call Session Control Function (CSCF) establishes, monitors, supports and
releases multimedia sessions and manages the user's service interactions. The CSCF
can act as Proxy CSCF (P-CSCF), Serving CSCF (S-CSCF) or Interrogating CSCF
(I-CSCF):

The P-CSCF is the first contact point for the ISAM Voice within the IM
subsystem (IMS).
The S-CSCF fulfils the role of registrar and handles the session states in the
network.
The I-CSCF is mainly the contact point within an operator's network for all IMS
connections destined to a subscriber of that network operator, or a roaming
subscriber currently located within that network operator's service area.
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is a master user database that supports the IMS
network entities that handle calls. It contains the subscription-related information
(user profiles), performs authentication and authorization of the user, and can
provide information about the user's physical location.
Interconnection with legacy PSTN networks is guaranteed at the signaling level via
the Signaling Gateway Function (SGF) (transport) and the Media Gateway Control
Function (MGCF) (call/service control). Interconnection at the media level is
provided by the Trunk Media Gateway Function (T-MGF).
Interconnection with other IP-based service subsystems (including other IMS
subsystems) is performed via the Intermediate Breakout Control function (IBCF) at
the signaling level and the Interconnection-Border Gateway Function (I-BGF) at the
media level.
Very often, to support lawful intercept, Voice traffic is switched along the Legal
Intercept gateway.

SIP ISAM Voice in a non-IMS-compliant network


SIP ISAM Voice supports the Narrowband (NB) services and provides the
connection to an IMS-like New Generation Network (NGN) for legacy PSTN users
via Voice over IP (VoIP).
ISAM Voice plays the role as Voice Gateway (VGW) and can interface with voice
feature servers acting as back-to-back SIP Servers via the SIP protocol.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-5 SIP ISAM Voice in a non-IMS-compliant network
Management
Platform

DHCP server

ISAM
Voice

DHCP

SNMP/
CLI/TL1

P
O
T
S

IP

POTS

SIP
RTP / RTCP
Media
Gateway

SIP
server

ISAM Voice connects legacy Narrow Band (NB) user interfaces, the Plain Old
Telephone Services (POTS), to a non-IMS compliant network.
Each of the nodes connected to the IP network has the SIP UA locally integrated on
the Voice LT. The local instance of the SIP User Agent (UA) serves all NB user
interfaces connected to a Voice LT.
The role of the SIP ISAM Voice is twofold:

Access Gateway.
Access Gateway Controller (maintains AG states, manages AG features,
implements SIP UA).

12.3

Access network L2/L3 topologies


Megaco ISAM Voice
ISAM Voice access nodes being part of a Voice cluster may be connected by layer
2, layer 3 or even a mixture of a layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3
aggregation network.
Different Voice clusters may be connected by layer 2, layer 3 or even a mixture of a
layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3 aggregation network.
The supported ISAM Voice Cluster topologies are shown in Figure 12-6,
Figure 12-7, Figure 12-8, Figure 12-9, Figure 12-10 and Figure 12-11.

12-8

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-6 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology A

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2

xVPS
pair 8

Main shelf

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT shelf 2
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair2

Voice LT shelf 8
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 8

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Figure 12-7 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology B

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2

xVPS
pair 3

Main shelf

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT shelf 2
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT shelf 3
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 3

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Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

12-9

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-8 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology C

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2

xVPS
pair 3

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 10

Voice LTs belongs to voice cluster


supervised by xVPS pair 1

Main shelf

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice LT shelf 1
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT shelf 2
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT shelf 3
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Figure 12-9 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology D

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2
Main shelf

12-10

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

November 2013

xVPS
pair 3

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 10

Voice LTs belong to different voice clusters


supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3

Voice LT shelf 1
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 1

Voice LT shelf 2
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 2

Voice LT shelf 3
Belongs to voice cluster
supervised by xVPS pair 3

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

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Figure 12-10 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology E

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2

xVPS
pair 8

Main shelf

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 1

Voice LTs in
shelf 1 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 1

Voice LTs in
shelf 2 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT N

Voice
LT N+1

Voice
LT M

Voice
LT M+1

Voice LTs in
shelf 1 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 2

Voice LTs in
shelf 2 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 1

Voice LT shelf 8 (multiple)

Voice
LT 2

Belongs to voice cluster


supervised by xVPS pair 8

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Figure 12-11 Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Cluster topology F

xVPS
pair 1

xVPS
pair 2

xVPS
pair 3

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 1

Voice LTs in
shelf 1 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 1

Voice LTs in
shelf 2 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 2

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT 10

Voice LTs belong to different voice clusters


supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3

Main shelf

Voice
LT 1

Voice
LT 2

Voice
LT N

Voice
LT N+1

Voice
LT M

Voice
LT M+1

Voice LTs in
shelf 1 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 3

Voice LTs in
shelf 2 belong to voice
cluster supervised by
xVPS pair 3

Voice LT shelf 3
Belongs to different voice clusters
supervised by xVPS pair 1, 2 or 3

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

Voice
LT 16

SIP ISAM Voice


ISAM Voice access nodes may be connected by layer 2, layer 3 or even a mixture of
a layer 2 aggregation network and a layer 3 aggregation network.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The ISAM Voice access node can behave as a router.


Figure 12-12 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 2 Aggregation
Network

Iv

Iv
Iv
L2

L3
Aggrega tion
Network

Iv

Aggrega tion
Network

Iv
Iv = ISAM Voice

Iv

Iv

Figure 12-13 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 3 Aggregation


Network

Iv

Iv
Iv
L3

Iv

Aggrega tion
Network

Iv
IV= ISAM Voice

12-12

November 2013

Iv

IV

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-14 ISAM Voice access nodes connected to a layer 2/layer 3 Aggregation
Network

Iv

Iv
Iv
L2

L3

Iv

Aggrega tion
Network

Aggrega tion
Network

Iv
Iv = ISAM Voice

12.4

Iv

Iv

Product Definition and Dimensioning


Megaco
The H.248 (Megaco) signaling based integrated voice service is supported for the
following products:

7302 ISAM:
POTS and ISDN BRI services supported.
Maximum 18 Voice LT slot positions (with single NT).
7330 ISAM FTTN:
POTS and ISDN BRI services supported.
Maximum 10 Voice LT slot positions (with single NT).
7356 ISAM FTTB SB-REM:
Only POTS service supported.
Maximum 2 Voice LT slot positions.
SIP
The SIP-signaling-based integrated voice services are supported in:

7302 ISAM:
POTS service supported.
Maximum 18 Voice LT slot positions (with single NT).
7330 ISAM FTTN:
POTS service supported.
Maximum 10 Voice LT slot positions (with single NT).

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

7356 ISAM FTTB SB-REM:


POTS service supported.
Maximum 2 Voice LT slot positions.
Voice LT can be planned for both the master (72-lines LT board only) and the
non-master (48- and 72-lines LT board) slot position.

IMS
In an IMS network topology, the SIP signaling POTS service and the H.248
(Megaco) signaling based ISDN BRI service can be mixed in the same 7302 / 7330
ISAM shelf.

In an IMS network topology, H.248 ISDN-BRI subscribers register to their Media

12.5

Gateway Controller and are managed by the local Media Gateway (Voice Server)
while SIP POTS subscribers register to their registrar and are managed by the
local SIP User Agent.
Any VLAN topology for this mixed SIP/H.248 voice services is allowed, on the
condition that not more than 2 VLANS (Public or Private) of type Voice-VLAN
are configured per shelf.
The mixed SIP signaling POTS and H.248 (Megaco) signaling based ISDN BRI
service is supported for both, the switched as well as the routed voice model.
H.248 clustering is supported (Hub/Subtending/Remote ISAM Voice node).
Integrated Narrow band Line Test is supported for SIP signaling POTS
terminations (full NBLT set) and H.248 ISDN BRI terminations (limited NBLT
set).
MTA is supported for both SIP signaling POTS and H.248 ISDN BRI
terminations.
Basic call service and Supplementary services are supported for both SIP
signaling POTS and H.248 ISDN BRI.

Traffic types and forwarding


Traffic Types
Megaco ISAM Voice

Four traffic types can be distinguished:

Management traffic (SNMP, CLI, TL1 (alarm display only)) exchanged between
the OSS platform and the Network termination (NT) and Voice server.

Signaling traffic (Megaco, SIGTRAN) exchanged between the Media Gateway


Controller (MGC)/Application Server Process (ASP) and the Voice server.
Internal signaling traffic (XLES) exchanged between the Voice server and its
underlying Voice LT boards hosted in either the hub, subtending or remote access
nodes.
Voice data traffic (RTP, RTCP, Voice Band data).
Management traffic is exchanged in the external communication VLAN and as such
kept separate from the other traffic types. This is done for security reasons.
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Voice data traffic and internal signaling traffic always share the same VLAN.
External signaling traffic may be exchanged in a dedicated signaling VLAN or may
even share the same VLAN as the Voice data and Internal signaling traffic. The latter
situation occurs when IP address/IP subnet optimization is preferred above signaling
and voice data traffic isolation.
SIP ISAM Voice

Three traffic types can be distinguished:

Management traffic (SNMP, CLI, TL1 (alarm display only)) exchanged between
the external management platform and the Network termination (NT).

Signaling traffic (SIP) exchanged between the SIP Server and the SIP User Agent
residing at the Voice LT.
Voice data traffic (RTP, RTCP, Voice Band data).
Management traffic is exchanged in the external communication VLAN and as such
kept separate from the other traffic types. This is done for security reasons.
External signaling traffic may be exchanged in a dedicated signaling VLAN or may
even share the same VLAN as the Voice data signaling traffic. The latter situation
occurs when IP address/IP subnet optimization is preferred above signaling and
voice data traffic isolation.

Traffic forwarding
The internal forwarding is frame based and done at either layer 2 (Ethernet), layer 3
(IP) or layer 4 (UDP/TCP) obeying the information carried in the frames.
The applied forwarding methods may be different for upstream and downstream
traffic forwarding.
For layer 2 forwarding, see chapter Layer 2 forwarding. For layer 3 forwarding,
see chapter IP routing.
The basic concept of layer 4 forwarding is explained in the following section.
Conceptual models

Figure 12-15 shows the MEGACO ISAM Voice switched model.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-15 Megaco ISAM Voice: switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF
IP address voice

Voice LT

Voice VLAN

Signaling VLAN

IP address
XLES

Voice
server

NT

IP address
signalling

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice server


The network RTP/RTCP (XLES) VLAN terminates at the voice LT board/Voice

server
The source/destination IP address for H.248 signaling traffic is configured at the
Voice server
The source/destination IP address for XLES traffic is configured at the Voice
server
The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the IHub
and is shared by all the Voice LT boards
The IHub performs L4 forwarding for RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic destined to the
voice LT board
The IHub performs L2 forwarding for upstream/downstream signaling traffic
The IHub performs L3 forwarding for upstream RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic.

Figure 12-16 shows the MEGACO ISAM Voice routed model.


Figure 12-16 Megaco ISAM Voice: routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT

IP address
Voice

Internal
Voice
VLAN

IP address
User 1

IP address
network 1
IP address
network 2

Network
VLAN 1

Network
VLAN 2

IP address
XLES

Voice
server
IP address
signalling

Internal
signaling
VLAN

NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying H.248 signaling and
RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic at the network side than at the user side (VLAN) of the
VRF.

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The internal VLAN that carries RTP/RTCP/XLES traffic performs L4 forwarding in


downstream direction.
At the IHub:

VRF user side: a numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal voice
VLAN for the following reasons:

This IP interface is used as the destination IP address for RTP/RTCP/XLES packets

addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the Voice subnet is advertised (as
host subnet) to the upstream network.
The IHub is considered as the first next hop for the RTP/XLES packets sent in the
upstream direction by the xVPS

VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal


signaling VLAN. The IHub is seen as the first next hop for the H.248 signaling
traffic that originates from the Media Gateway running at the xVPS board.
The signaling subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network.
Network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network-side
signaling VLAN.
Network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network-side
TP/RTCP/XLES VLAN.
In the upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen
as the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table, and this for all the voice
service related traffic (H.248 signaling, XLES, RTP and RTCP).
In the downstream direction, voice-service-related traffic (H.248 signaling, XLES,
RTP and RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The IHub must
perform the further L3 forwarding to:

the appropriate internal VLAN


and to the destined xVPS
and to the destined voice LT board (by L4 forwarding)
From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM
Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
Figure 12-17 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture) switched model.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-17 SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture): switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice
v-VPLS

Voice LT

IP address voice

Signaling
v-VPLS

IP address
signalling

Network
v-VPLS 1
/VLAN 1
Network
v-VPLS 2
/VLAN 2

NT

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the voice LT board


The network RTP/RTCP VLAN terminates at the voice LT board
The source/destination IP address for SIP signaling traffic is configured at the
IHub. It is shared by all the voice LT boards

The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the


IHub. It is shared by all the voice LT boards
The IHub performs L4 forwarding for SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic destined
to the voice LT board
The IHub performs L3 forwarding for upstream SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-18 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture) routed model.
Figure 12-18 SIP ISAM Voice (centralized architecture): routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

Voice LT

Internal
Voice
v-VPLS

IP address
Voice
IP address
signaling

Internal
signaling
v-VPLS

IP address
network 1
IP address
network 2

Network
v-VPLS 1
/VLAN 1

Network
v-VPLS 2
/VLAN 2

NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying SIP signaling and
RTP/RTCP traffic at the network and the user side (VLAN) of the VRF.
Both internal VLANs perform L4 forwarding in downstream direction.

12-18

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

At the IHub:

IHub VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal
voice VLAN. This IP address is used as destination IP address for RTP/RTCP
packets addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the Voice subnet is
advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network.
IHub VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal
signaling VLAN. This IP address is used as destination IP address for SIP
signaling packets addressed to the voice LT board. For this purpose, the signaling
subnet is advertised (as host subnet) to the upstream network.
IHub VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the
network voice VLAN.
IHub VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the
network signaling VLAN.
In the upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen
as the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table. And this for all the
voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP).
In the downstream direction, voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and
RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The IHub must perform the
further L3 forwarding to the appropriate internal VLAN and to the destined voice LT
board (by L4 forwarding)
From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM
Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
Figure 12-19 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture) switched model.
Figure 12-19 SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture): switched model
Main ISAM Voice
Network
v-VPLS 1
/VLAN 1

Fast path VRF


IP address
voice
IP address
signalling

Voice
v-VPLS

Network
v-VPLS 2
/VLAN 2

Signaling
v-VPLS

Voice LT
NT

The network signaling VLAN terminates at the voice LT board


The network RTP/RTCP VLAN terminates at the voice LT board
The source/destination IP address for SIP signaling traffic is configured at the
voice LT board. Each voice LT board owns a different signaling IP address.

The source/destination IP address for RTP/RTCP traffic is configured at the voice


LT board. Each voice LT board owns a different RTP/RTCP IP address.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The IHub performs L2 forwarding for SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic destined


to the voice LT board

The IHub performs L2 forwarding for upstream SIP signaling/RTP/RTCP traffic.


Figure 12-20 shows the SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture) routed model.
Figure 12-20 SIP ISAM Voice (distributed architecture): routed model
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF
IP address
Voice

IP address
signaling

Internal
Voice
v-VPLS

IP address
user 1
IP address
user 2

Internal
signaling
v-VPLS

IP address
network 1
IP address
network 2

Network
v-VPLS 1
/VLAN 1

Network
v-VPLS 2
/VLAN 2

Voice LT
NT

The conceptual architecture shows different VLANs carrying SIP signaling and
RTP/RTCP traffic at the network and the user side (VLAN) of the VRF.
At the IHub:

VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal voice
VLAN.
Note The IP address configured at the voice LT board is used as

destination IP address for RTP/RTCP packets addressed to the voice


LT board. For this purpose, the Voice subnet is advertised (as host
subnet) to the upstream network.

VRF user side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the internal


signaling VLAN.
Note The IP address configured at the voice LT board is used as

destination IP address for SIP signaling packets addressed to the voice


LT board. For this purpose, the signaling subnet is advertised (as host
subnet) to the upstream network.

VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network


voice VLAN.

VRF network side: A numbered IP interface is configured on top of the network


signaling VLAN.
The IHub will be considered as the first next hop for the SIP signaling and for the
RTP/RTCP traffic that originates from the voice LT board. For this reason, a
numbered IP interface is configured on both the internal signaling VLAN and the
internal RTP/RTCP VLAN at the VRF user side.
In upstream direction, the selection of the network interface/VLAN will happen as
the result of the IP DA look-up in the L3 forwarding table. And this for all voice
service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and RTCP).
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

In downstream direction, voice service related traffic (SIP signaling, RTP and
RTCP) may be received at any network interface/VLAN. The IHub must perform the
further L3 forwarding to the appropriate internal VLAN and to the destined voice LT
board.
From a downstream forwarding perspective, seen from the edge router, the ISAM
Voice access node is configured as the next-hop.
Figure 12-21 shows the MEGACO/SIP ISAM voice subtended topology for the
switched model.
Figure 12-21 MEGACO/SIP ISAM Voice - Subtended topology: Switched mode
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF

NT

Subtending ISAM
Fast path VRF

NT

Figure 12-22 shows the MEGACO/SIP ISAM voice subtended topology for the
routed model.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-22 Megaco/SIP ISAM Voice - Subtended topology: Routed mode
Main ISAM Voice
Fast path VRF
IP address
User 1
IP address
User 2

NT

IP address
sub 1

IP address
network 1
IP address
network 2

IP address
sub 2

Main ISAM Voice


Fast path VRF

NT

The subtending ISAM Voice access node remains configured as a switching device.
Only the main ISAM Voice access node fulfills the routing service.
The conceptual traffic forwarding models depicted above for the IHub based system
without Remote Expansion Module also apply to the IHub based system with
Remote Expansion Module. (The physical position of the voice LT board, locally
connected in the host access node or remotely connected by means of a REM, is
transparent to the operational behavior of the VoIP service)

Megaco ISAM Voice Service:


Remote Expansion Module may host 1 or 2 voice LT boards: Voice LT board can
be planned for both the master (72-line LT board only) and the non-Master
(48-line and 72-line LT board) slot position.
Remote Expansion Module cannot host the Voice Server.

SIP ISAM Voice Service:


Remote Expansion Module may host 1 or 2 voice LT boards: Voice LT board can
be planned for both the master (72-line LT board only) and the non-Master
(48-line and 72-line LT board) slot position.
Layer 4 forwarding

The layer 4 forwarding applies to downstream traffic only and is installed at the IHub
on a per-VLAN basis. This forwarding method uses the contents of the destination
port field in the transport protocol header of the packet to forward a packet to a voice
LT board.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The layer 4 forwarding property is installed in case the following conditions are
fulfilled:
1

The number of VLAN to be created depends on the operating mode of the IHub
NT:

IHub NT as switching device:


A single VLAN is created including the ASAM ports and the Network ports.

IHub NT as routing device:


One user VLAN and one or multiple network VLAN are created. The user VLAN
includes the ASAM ports. The network VLAN includes the network ports.

A VPRN service, identified by the VFR ID, is created (for both cases, the IHub
NT behaving as switching device and the IHub NT behaving as routing device).

An IP interface and an IP address are created as part of the VPRN service.

The IP interface is bound to the (user) VLAN.

The VLAN has at least one Voice LT board connected.

The layer 4 forwarding capability is installed on a per-port basis. Planning or


unplanning a voice LT board results in adding/removing the layer 4 forwarding
capability to/from the VLAN for the corresponding ASAM port.
Each voice LT board gets assigned a fixed transport protocol port range. The IHub
port that connects the voice LT board inherits this port range mapping.
The transport protocol port range for free usage (IANA), that is, 49153 - 65535, is
divided in 32 equal portions and the lower part of each portion is mapped to the
different IHub ports. The mapping of the transport protocol portions to the IHub
ports is fixed and the same in every ISAM Voice access node.
Upon the receipt of a downstream packet within a layer 4 forwarding capable VLAN
and with the destination IP address bound to this VLAN, the destination port value
of the transport protocol header included in the packet is compared against all
defined transport protocol ranges. When a match is found, the corresponding IHub
port mapping is looked up and the packet is forwarded to the voice LT board that
connects to this IHub port.
As described, the layer 4 forwarding uses the combination {VRF-ID + destination IP
address + destination Transport Protocol port} to decide about the further
downstream forwarding of an IP packet.
Layer 4 forwarding is applied to both signaling and voice data traffic.
Layer 4 forwarding supports packet fragmentation at IP layer because, unlike Voice
traffic, SIP signaling traffic may be fragmented at the IP layer.
The described algorithm is schematically shown in Figure 12-23.

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12-23

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-23 Layer 4 forwarding approach
IHub

Match
(VRF ID +
own
IP address)?

Ingress

(Transport Prot port range1, port a1 )


(Transport Prot port range2, port a2 )

(Transport Prot port rangeN, port an )

Layer 4 forwarding

Egress

Layer 3 IP table
Layer 2 VLAN/MAC table

Layer 2/layer 3 forwarding

User-to-user communication

The integrated voice service requires that user-to-user communication is enabled for
RTP and XLES traffic (Megaco based integrated voice service only).
There are no specific VLAN types defined neither for the voice, nor for the non-voice
services.
The system autonomously decides whether a VLAN is intended to be used by the
voice service by checking the board type associated with the ASAM port(s) being a
member of the VLAN. As such, a voice service IP address is each IP address which
is configured on top of a VLAN (/= OAM) which has at least one voice LT board
type as port member.
The configuration of an IP interface on top of a VLAN (at the IHub side) which has
at least one voice LT board as port member, autonomously enables the L4
forwarding behaviour in downstream direction at the ASAM port(s).
User-to-user needs to be explicitly enabled.
Megaco ISAM Voice as switching device

Signaling traffic
Signaling traffic originates and terminates at the Voice server.
In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP the next hop IP address and
forwards the IP packet appropriately. The local IHub and any potential intermediate
IHub perform layer 2 forwarding.
In the downstream direction: The local IHub and any potential intermediate IHub
perform layer 2 forwarding.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-24 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched: Signaling forwarding
L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node
NT board

Main node
NT board

L2 forwarding

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

XLES traffic
XLES traffic originates at the Voice server or at the Voice LT board and terminates
respectively at the Voice LT board or the Voice server.

XLES traffic originating at the Voice server and destined to the Voice LT board
(see Figure 12-25):
The destined Voice LT board is connected either to the local access node, to an
access node subtending to the local access node, or to an access node connected
via a layer 2 aggregation network with the local access node.
The destination (IHub) IP address of the packet can directly be reached in the
local subnet: the Voice server performs ARP for the destination (IHub) IP address
and forwards the IP packet to this (IHub) IP address.
The destined Voice LT board is reachable via a layer 3 aggregation network. The
Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination (IHub) IP address of
the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.
The (destined) IHub that connects the destined Voice LT performs layer 4
forwarding.
Any potential intermediate IHub in between the Voice Server and the destined
IHub performs layer 2 forwarding.

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12-25

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board and destined to the Voice server
(see Figure 12-26):
The Voice LT board forwards the XLES packet to the local IHub.

The access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice server are
the same or

The access node of the Voice LT board subtends to the access node of the Voice
server or

The access node of the Voice LT board is connected via a layer 2 aggregation
network with the access node of the Voice server

The local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet can directly
be reached via the local subnet. The local IHub performs ARP for the destination
IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network: The local
IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet,
performs ARP the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The IHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding.
Any potential intermediate IHub in between the Voice LT's local IHub and the
Voice Server L2 forwarding.
Figure 12-25 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched: XLES packet originating at the Voice
server
L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node
NT board

Main node
NT board

L2 forwarding

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

12-26

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-26 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched: XLES packet originating at the Voice
LT board
L3 forwarding

Main node

Remote node
NT board

NT board

L2 forwarding

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

Voice traffic
Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board and is destined to a voice termination
point either at the same Voice LT board, another Voice LT board in the same Voice
cluster or outside the voice cluster.
In some cases the voice traffic is sent along the Voice server (to support some
supplementary services or an optimized IP addressing scheme).
Voice traffic is relayed to the IHub prior to the forwarding to the destined voice
termination point. This relay is either done by the Voice LT board (voice traffic that
may not pass the Voice server) or the Voice server (voice traffic that must pass the
voice server).
A. Voice traffic not passing the Voice server:

Voice traffic destined to an external termination point:


The voice LT board forwards the voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the voice traffic destination IP
address.

The local IHub performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.

Any potential intermediate IHub between the local IHub and the next hop performs
layer 2 forwarding.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point at the same Voice LT board in
the local access node:

The voice LT board forwards the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the voice traffic is identical
to the own Voice IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.

The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board from which the
voice traffic originated.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-27

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point residing at a different Voice LT


board in the local access node:

The voice LT board forwards the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the voice traffic is identical

to the own Voice IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.
The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the
destined voice termination point is connected.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination point residing at a Voice LT in


another access node of the voice cluster:

The voice LT forwards the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
One of the following takes place:
1. The destined Voice termination point is reachable via a layer 3 aggregation
network:
The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of the voice
traffic. The local IHub performs ARP the next hop IP address and forwards the voice
traffic appropriately.

2. The destined Voice termination point reachable via a layer 2 aggregation


network:
The local IHub detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable via the
local subnet. The local IHub performs ARP the destination IP address and forwards
the voice traffic appropriately.
Any potential intermediate IHub between the local IHub and the destined IHub
performs layer 2 forwarding.
The IHub that connects the destined voice termination point (Voice LT board)
performs layer 4 forwarding.

B. Voice traffic passing the Voice server:

Voice traffic destined to the Voice server:


The voice LT forwards the upstream voice packet to the local IHub.
If the destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network:

12-28

The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the Voice server, performs ARP for
the next-hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately.
If the destined Voice Server is reachable via layer 2 aggregation network (in case
the access node of the Voice LT board is either equal to the access node of the Voice
server, or to an access node that subtends to the access node of the Voice server or
to an access node connected via a layer 2 aggregation network with the access node
of the Voice server):
the local IHub detects that the Voice server is reachable within the local subnet. The
local IHub performs ARP for the IP address of the Voice server and forwards the IP
packet appropriately
The IHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding.
Any potential intermediate IHub between the local IHub and the IHub that connects
the Voice server performs layer 2 forwarding.

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination point connected
to a Voice LT board in the same access node:

The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the packet along the local

IHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of external
packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept).
The Voice server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable via the
local subnet and forwards the voice traffic to the IP address of the local IHub.
The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board that connects the
Voice termination point.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination point connected
to a Voice LT board in another access node of the voice cluster:

The destined Voice Termination point is reachable via layer 3 aggregation network.

The Voice server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,
performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic
appropriately.
The destined Voice Termination point is reachable via layer 2 aggregation network
(in case the Voice Termination point is connected to an access node subtending to
the local access node or an access node connected via a layer 2 aggregation network
with the local access node):
The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the
local IHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of
external packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept).
The Voice Server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable via the
local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the voice
traffic appropriately.
The IHub that connects the Voice termination point (Voice LT board) performs
layer 4 forwarding.
Any potential intermediate IHub between the Voice server and the IHub connecting
the destined voice termination performs layer 2 forwarding.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination point outside the
voice cluster:

The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,

performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic
appropriately.
Any potential intermediate IHub in between the Voice server and the next hop
performs layer 2 forwarding.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-29

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-27 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched: Voice packet originating at the Voice
LT board
L4 forwarding

Main node

Remote node
NT board

Signaling
IP address Voice

NT board

L2 forwarding

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

L4 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

Figure 12-28 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched: Voice packet originating at the Voice
server
L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node
NT board

Main node
NT board

L2 forwarding

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

L2 forwarding

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

L2 forwarding

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

OAM traffic
The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the
public OAM IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server.
Voice OAM traffic is distinguishable by a Voice specific SNMP community
string/context identifier from non-Voice OAM traffic and in addition distinguishable
through the same SNMP community string/context identifier amongst the Voice
server pairs (maximum 8) that may be hosted in the same ISAM access node.
Internally, the voice-specific OAM traffic is relayed to the Voice server.
Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the
ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer.

12-30

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Any potential intermediate IHub performs layer 2 forwarding and this in both
directions.
Refer also to chapter Management.
Megaco ISAM Voice as routing device

The following routing topologies are supported:

Single ISAM-V access node topology:


in this topology, only the main shelf is present. The main shelf behaves as a
routing device.
Subtending ISAM-V access node topology:
in this topology, the main shelf and one or more subtending shelves are present.
Only the main shelf behaves as routing device. The subtending shelves behave as
switching device.
Summarized: An ISAM-V access node that is directly connected to the upstream
voice network can be configured as a routing device. An ISAM-V access node that
is not directly connected to the upstream voice network must be configured as
switching device.
Security considerations
The IHUB has the capability of defining different VRFs for narrowband and
Broadband traffic. As a result, for access nodes that are deployed in mixed mode
(that is, meaning that narrowband and broadband services are concurrently deployed
by the same access node) shall assign different VRFs to narrowband and broadband
services to guarantee that data is kept secret against unwanted, unintended and
malicious listeners.
Signaling traffic
Signaling traffic originates and terminates at the Voice server.
In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and
forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The local IHub is configured as the next hop for signaling packets originating at the
Voice server.
The local IHub performs layer 3 forwarding in upstream and downstream direction.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-31

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-29 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: signaling forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node

Main node
NT board

L3 forwarding

NT board

Voice LT
board

Signaling
IP address Voice

IHub signaling
user IP
address

IHub network
IP address
IHub network
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Voice LT
board

Signaling

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

XLES traffic
XLES traffic originates at the Voice server or at the Voice LT board and terminates
respectively at the Voice LT board or the Voice server.

XLES traffic originating at the Voice server and destined to the Voice LT board:
The destined Voice LT board is connected:

to the local access node, or


to an access node subtending to the local access node, or
to an access node connected via a L3 aggregation network with the local access
node.

In the upstream direction, the Voice server determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address /
destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The local IHub is configured as the next hop for the XLES packets originating at
the Voice server (in case the destined voice LT board connects to the local access
node, the local IHub IP address is equal to the destination IP address).
The (destined) IHub that connects the destined Voice LT board performs layer 3
followed by layer 4 forwarding.

12-32

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board and destined to the Voice server:
The Voice LT board relays the XLES packet to the local IHub.
The access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice Server
are the same: the local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet
can directly be reached via the local subnet. The local IHub performs ARP for the
destination IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The access node of the Voice LT board subtends to the access node of the Voice
Server: The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address
of the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP
packet appropriately.
The access node of the Voice LT Board is connected via a layer 3 aggregation
network with the access node of the Voice server: The local IHub determines the
IP next hop for the destination IP address of the packet, performs ARP for the next
hop IP address and forwards the IP packet appropriately.
The IHub that connects the Voice server performs layer 3 forwarding.
Figure 12-30 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: XLES packet originating at the Voice
Server
L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node
NT board
IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

Main node
NT board

L3 forwarding

IHub network
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Signaling
IP address Voice

IHub signaling
user IP
address

L3 forwarding

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Remote node

L4 forwarding

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding
ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-33

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-31 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: XLES packet forwarding at the Voice
LT board.
L3 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node

Main node
NT board

L3 forwarding

NT board
IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

Signaling
IP address Voice

IHub signaling
user IP
address
IHub network
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

Voice traffic
Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board and is destined to a voice termination
at the same Voice LT board, a voice termination at another Voice LT board in the
Voice cluster or a voice termination outside the voice cluster.
In some cases the voice traffic must be sent along the Voice server (to support some
supplementary services or an optimized IP addressing scheme).
In all cases, voice traffic is relayed to the IHub prior to the forwarding to the destined
voice termination. This relay is either done by the Voice LT board (voice traffic that
does not pass the Voice server) or the Voice server (voice traffic that passes the voice
server).
A) Voice traffic not passing the Voice server.

Voice traffic destined to a termination outside the voice cluster:


The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the voice traffic destination.
The local IHub performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to the same Voice LT


board in the local access node:

The Voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination of the voice traffic equals the local Voice

12-34

IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.


The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board from which the
voice traffic originated.

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to a different Voice LT


board in the local access node:

The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination of the voice traffic equals the local Voice

IP address and treats the voice traffic locally.


The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the
destined voice termination is connected.

Voice traffic destined to a voice termination connected to a Voice LT board in


another access node of the voice cluster:

The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic.

The local IHub performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice
traffic appropriately.
The IHub that connects the destined voice termination (Voice LT board) performs
layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding.

B) Voice traffic passing the Voice server.

Voice traffic destined to the Voice server:


The voice LT board relays the upstream voice traffic to the local IHub.
The local IHub determines the IP next hop for the Voice server, performs ARP for
the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately.

In case the access node of the Voice LT board and the access node of the Voice
Server are the same, the local IHub performs ARP for the Voice server IP address
and forwards the IP packet appropriately.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination connected to a


Voice LT board in the same access node:

The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the

local IHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of
external packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept).
The Voice server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable within
the local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the IP
packet appropriately.
The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board that connects the
Voice termination point.

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination connected to a


Voice LT board in another access node of the voice cluster:

The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,

performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic
appropriately.
The Voice termination is connected to an access node subtending to the local access
node:
The Voice server invokes the NAPT facility and forwards the voice traffic along the
local IHub to itself (this is a basic forwarding condition to allow the support of
external packet forwarding serving Lawful Intercept).
The Voice Server detects that the destination of the voice traffic is reachable within
the local subnet, performs ARP for the destination IP address and forwards the voice
traffic appropriately.
The IHub that connects the Voice termination (Voice LT board) performs layer 4
forwarding.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-35

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Voice traffic relayed by the Voice server to a voice termination outside the voice
cluster:

The Voice Server determines the IP next hop for the destination of the voice traffic,
performs ARP the next hop IP address and forwards the voice traffic appropriately.
Figure 12-32 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: Voice packet originating at the LT
board
L4 forwarding
L3 forwarding

Remote node

Main node
NT board

L3 forwarding

NT board
IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

Signaling
IP address Voice

IHub signaling
user IP
address
IHub network
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

L3
aggregation
network

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board
IHub Voice
user IP
address

IHub
subtended
IP address

Remote node

L3 forwarding

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

L3 forwarding

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

Figure 12-33 Megaco ISAM Voice - Routed: Voice packet originating at the Voice
server
L4 forwarding

Main node

Remote node
NT board
IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3 forwarding

IHub network
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Signaling
IP address Voice

IHub signaling
user IP
address

L3 forwarding

L3
aggregation
network

Voice LT
board
IHub Voice
user IP
address

IHub
subtended
IP address

Remote node

server
XLES
IP address

L3 forwarding

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

IHub network
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
user IP
address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

OAM traffic

12-36

November 2013

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the
public OAM IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server.
Voice OAM traffic is distinguishable by a Voice specific SNMP community
string/context identifier from non-Voice OAM traffic and in addition distinguishable
through the same SNMP community string /context identifier amongst the Voice
server pairs (maximum eight) that may be hosted in the same ISAM access node.
Internally, the voice specific OAM traffic is relayed to the Voice server.
Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the
ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer.
Refer also to chapter Management.
SIP ISAM Voice as switching device

Signaling traffic
Signaling traffic originates at the Voice LT board.

Centralized SIP architecture = single IP address:


In upstream direction: the Voice LT board forwards the signaling packet to the local

IHub. The Local IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of
the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.
In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local IHub
performs layer 3 forwarding followed by layer 4 forwarding to the destined Voice
LT board.

Figure 12-34 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched - Centralized: Signaling packet


originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the IHub
L3 forwarding

Remote node
NT board

Main node
NT board

L2 forwarding

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub signaling
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board

L3 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS
MRF

IMS
Core

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

November 2013

12-37

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-35 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched - Centralized: Signaling packet destined
to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 4 forwarding at the IHub
Main node

L4 forwarding

Remote node
NT board

NT board

L2 forwarding

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

IHub signaling
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

IHub signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board
L4 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS

IMS
Core

MRF

Distributed SIP architecture = Multiple IP address:


In the upstream direction: the Voice LT board determines the IP next hop for the

destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately. Any
potential intermediate IHub performs layer 2 forwarding.
In the downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local IHub
performs layer 2 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.

Figure 12-36 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched - Distributed: Signaling packet


originating at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the Voice LT
L3 forwarding

Remote node
Voice LT
board

NT board

Main node
NT board

L2 forwarding

Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node
Voice LT
board

Subtending node

NT board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

Voice
IP address

L3 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

L2 forwarding

IP
HSS
MRF

12-38

November 2013

IMS
Core

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-37 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched - Distributed: Signaling packet destined
to the Voice LT/Downstream layer 2 forwarding at the IHub
Main node

Main node
Voice LT
board

NT board

Signaling
IP address

Signaling
IP address
Voice
IP address

Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Main node
Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L2 forwarding

Subtending node

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board

NT board

Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

Voice
IP address

L2 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS
MRF

IMS
Core

Voice traffic
Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board.
For both the centralized as well as the distributed architecture, the forwarding of the
voice traffic in upstream as well as in downstream direction is identical as shown
above for the signaling traffic.

Voice traffic exchanged between a local and a remote voice termination:


The forwarding behavior is identical to signaling traffic.

Voice traffic exchanged between two voice terminations connected to the same
voice LT board:
The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address received from the
IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along
a voice gateway.
Should the IMS core have decided that the voice traffic may be switched
internally in the access node then this voice traffic will be switched either
internally on the Voice LT board or along the local IHub depending on the Voice
LT board type being planned.
Voice traffic exchanged between two voice terminations connected to different
voice LT boards in the same access node:
The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address received from the
IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to be forwarded along
a voice gateway.
Anyhow, switching voice traffic between Voice Terminations, connected to the same
Voice LT board, along the local IHub is only possible in the centralized SIP
architecture, not in the distributed SIP architecture.

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12-39

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Centralized SIP architecture:

The voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address and treats the packet locally.

The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the
destined voice termination point is connected (that is, the Voice LT board from
which the voice packet originated).
Summarized, the SIP ISAM Voice forwards the voice traffic in accordance with the
destination IP address dictated by the SIP signaling and the Voice LT board type.
The external Packet Forwarding facility serving Lawful Intercept is not supported,
neither for the Distributed, nor for the Centralized SIP architecture.
OAM traffic
The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the
management IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server.
Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the
ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer.
Any potential intermediate IHub performs layer 2 forwarding and this in both
directions.
Refer also to chapter Management.
SIP ISAM Voice as routing device

Security considerations
The IHub can define different VRFs for narrowband and broadband traffic. As a
result, for access nodes that are deployed in mixed mode, meaning that narrowband
and broadband services are concurrently deployed by the same access node, different
VRFs must be assigned to narrowband services and to broadband services to
guarantee that data is kept secret against unwanted, unintended and malicious
listeners.
Signaling traffic
Signaling traffic originates at the Voice LT board.

Centralized SIP architecture = single IP address:


In upstream direction: the Voice LT board forwards the signaling packet to the local

12-40

IHub. The Local IHub determines the IP next hop for the destination IP address of
the packet, performs ARP for the next hop IP address and forwards the IP packet
appropriately.
In downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local IHub
performs layer 3 forwarding followed by layer 4 forwarding to the destined Voice
LT board.

November 2013

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-38 SIP ISAM Voice - Routed - Centralized: Signaling packet originating
at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the IHub
L3 forwarding

Remote node

Main node

L3 forwarding
IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board

NT board

IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

NT board

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

L3
aggregation
network

IHub
subtending
IP address

Remote node

IHub user
Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

Subtending node

NT board
IHub user
Signaling
IP address

NT board

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub dignaling
IP address

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

IHub user
Voice
IP address

L3 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS

IMS
Core

MRF

Figure 12-39 SIP ISAM Voice - Routed - Centralized: Signaling packet destined to
the Voice LT/Downstream layer 4 forwarding at the IHub
L3 forwarding

Remote node

Main node

L3 forwarding
IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board

NT board

IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

L3
aggregation
network

IHub
subtending
IP address

Remote node

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board
IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

NT board

NT board

IHub user
Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

Subtending node
NT board

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub dignaling
IP address
IHub Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

L4 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS
MRF

IMS
Core

Distributed SIP architecture = Multiple IP address:


In the upstream direction: the Voice LT board determines the IP next hop for the
destination IP address of the packet and forwards the IP packet appropriately.

In the downstream direction: upon the receipt of a signaling packet, the local IHub
performs layer 3 forwarding to the destined Voice LT board.

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November 2013

12-41

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-40 SIP ISAM Voice - Routed - Distributed: Signaling packet originating
at the Voice LT/Upstream layer 3 forwarding at the Voice LT
L3 forwarding

Main node

Main node

L3 forwarding

Voice LT
board

NT board

Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

IHub user
Voice
IP address

NT board

Signaling
IP address

Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

L3
aggregation
network

Voice
IP address

IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub
subtending
IP address

Mainnode
Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Subtending node

NT board
IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

NT board

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

IHub user
Voice
IP address

L3 forwarding

S-CSCF
I-CSCF

L2 forwarding

AS

IP
HSS

IMS
Core

MRF

Figure 12-41 SIP ISAM Voice - Routed - Distributed: Signaling packet destined to
the Voice LT/Downstream layer 2 forwarding at the IHub
L3 forwarding

Main node

Main node

L3 forwarding

Voice LT
board
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

NT board

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

IHub user
Signaling
IP address
IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

Signaling
IP address

NT board
IHub user
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address
IHub user
Voice
IP address

IHub user
Signaling
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

L3
aggregation
network

IHub
subtending
IP address

Main node
Voice LT
board

NT board

IHub user
Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

Subtending node
NT board

IHub netw.
Signaling
IP address

Voice LT
board
Signaling
IP address

Voice
IP address

IHub netw.
Voice
IP address

S-CSCF

L2 forwarding

I-CSCF
AS

IP
HSS
MRF

IMS
Core

Voice traffic
Voice traffic originates at the Voice LT board.

12-42

November 2013

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
System Description for FD 100/320Gbps NT and FX NT

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

For both the centralized as the distributed architecture, the forwarding of the voice
traffic in upstream as well as in downstream direction is identical as shown above for
the signaling traffic:

Voice traffic exchanged between a local and a remote voice termination: The
forwarding behavior is identical to signaling traffic.

Voice traffic exchanged between two voice termination connected to the same
voice LT board: The forwarding behavior depends on the destination IP address
received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice traffic might be forced to
be forwarded along a voice gateway.
Should the IMS core have decided that the voice traffic may be switched
internally in the access node then this voice traffic will be switched either
internally on the Voice LT board or along the local IHub depending on the Voice
LT board type being planned.
Voice traffic exchanged between two voice terminations connected to different
voice LT boards in the same access node: The forwarding behavior depends on
the destination IP address received from the IMS core, for example, all the voice
traffic might be forced to be forwarded along a voice gateway.
Switching voice traffic between Voice Terminations, connected to the same Voice
LT board along the local IHub is only possible in the Centralized SIP architecture,
not in the Distributed SIP architecture.
Centralized SIP architecture:

The Voice LT board forwards the voice packet to the local IHub.
The local IHub detects that the destination IP address of the packet is identical to
the own Voice IP address and treats the packet locally.

The local IHub performs layer 4 forwarding to the Voice LT board to which the
destined voice termination point is connected (that is, the Voice LT board from
which the voice packet originated).
Summarized, the SIP ISAM Voice forwards the voice traffic in accordance with the
destination IP address dictated by the SIP signaling and the Voice LT board type.
The External Packet Forwarding facility serving Lawful Intercept is not supported,
neither for the Distributed, nor for the Centralized SIP architecture.
OAM traffic
The management platform of the customer forwards the Voice OAM traffic to the
management IP address of the ISAM access node hosting the Voice server.
Voice OAM responses generated by the Voice server are internally passed to the
ISAM SNMP agent that forwards them to the management platform of the customer.
Refer also to chapter Management.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


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November 2013

12-43

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

12.6

Layer 2/layer 3 addressing topologies


Megaco ISAM Voice as switching device
Three addressing topologies are supported for Megaco ISAM Voice:

Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology


IP subnet reduction topology
IP subnet and IP address reduction topology
The following is common to all three topologies:

Equipment and platform management entity is hosted at the NT


Integrated voice service Management entity is hosted at the Voice server
Media gateway is hosted at the Voice server
External communication VLAN carries the external management traffic
Public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT
External communication VLAN: see chapter Management
Public OAM IP address: see chapter Management

Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology

The following applies for the basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology:

A distinct VLAN is configured for signaling and Voice/XLES traffic.


The public Voice IP interface is configured at the IHub.
The public signaling IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
The public XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3
forwarding at the Voice server and layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board: Voice/XLES packet


internally relayed from the Voice LT to the IHub and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding:


Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server is layer 2 forwarded

at the IHub.
Voice/XLES traffic destined to the voice LT is layer 4 forwarded from the IHub to
the Voice LT.

Signaling VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server and the network port(s).
The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice server and carries the Megaco and
SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call Server)/ ASP
(Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

12-44

November 2013

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Voice/XLES VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server, the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, subtending port(s), and
network port(s).
The VLAN terminates at both the Voice server and the Voice LT and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-42


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-43
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-44
Figure 12-42 Switching - Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - HUB ISAM
Voice
MG
In te r n a l O AM VLAN
Vo ice Se r ve r 1

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

MG
IACM
Vo ice Se r ve r N

SIG N ALIN G VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

VO ICE VLAN
Public O AM IP Address
Public Signa ling IP Address
Public Voice / XLES IP Address
Priva te O AM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address

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Vo ice LT M

November 2013

12-45

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-43 Switching - Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - Subtending
ISAM Voice

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

VO ICE VLAN

Public O AM IP Address
Vo ice LT M

Public Voice IP Address

Figure 12-44 Switching - Basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology - Remote ISAM
Voice

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

VO ICE VLAN

Public O AM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address

Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme
looks as follows:

Public signaling IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable
Public Voice IP address:
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable
Public XLES IP address:
Residing at the Voice server.
Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.

12-46

November 2013

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

IP subnet reduction topology

This model intends to reduce the number of IP subnets (that is, the total amount of
reserved IP addresses), required for the voice service.

A single, shared VLAN is configured for signaling and Voice/XLES traffic.


The public Voice IP interface is configured at the IHub.
A single, shared signaling/XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3
forwarding at the Voice server and layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT: Voice/XLES packet internally


relayed from Voice LT to IHub and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding:


Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server is layer 2 forwarded

at the IHub.
Voice/XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT is layer 4 forwarded from the IHub to
the Voice LT.

Shared signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server, the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT, Subtending port(s) and the
network port(s).
The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server and the Voice LT and carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call

Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice)


RTP traffic exchanged between end users
RTCP traffic
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction is shown in
the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-45.


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-46.
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-47.

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November 2013

12-47

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-45 Switching - IP subnet reduction topology - HUB ISAM Voice
MG
In te r n a l O AM VLAN
Vo ice Se r ve r 1

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

MG
IACM
Vo ice Se r ve r N

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Public O AM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address
Public shared Signaling/Voice/XLES IP Address
Priva te O AM IP Address

Vo ice LT M

Figure 12-46 Switching - IP subnet reduction topology - Subtending ISAM Voice


Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Public Voice IP Address
Vo ice LT M

Figure 12-47 Switching - IP subnet reduction topology - Remote ISAM Voice

Ext e r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM

Shared SIG N ALIN G/VOICE VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Pub lic OAM IP Ad d re ss


Pub lic Vo ice IP Ad d re ss
Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme
looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/XLES IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.

12-48

November 2013

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Edition 03 Released 3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Public Voice IP address:


Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable.
IP subnet and IP address reduction

This model further reduces the total amount of public IP addresses, required for the
integrated voice service.
Note For topologies that contain remote ISAM Voice access
nodes, 2 options are possible:

Case A: the remote ISAM Voice is associated with the public


signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN. In this case a public voice IP
interface is configured at the IHub of the remote ISAM Voice
access node.
Case B: the remote ISAM Voice is associated with the private
Voice/XLES VLAN. In this case a private voice IP interface is
configured at the IHub of the remote ISAM Voice access node.

A single, shared public VLAN is used for (case A) signaling/Voice/XLES or

(case B) signaling/Voice traffic.


A single, shared private VLAN is used for Voice/XLES traffic.
A shared public (case A) signaling/Voice/XLES or (case B) signaling/Voice IP
interface is configured at the Voice server.
A private voice IP interface is configured at the IHub.
A private XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
Upstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling and Voice/XLES
traffic:

Signaling traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice
server and layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3 forwarding at the Voice
server and layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the remote ISAM Voice (Figure 12-50 - CASE
A): Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from the Voice LT to the IHub and layer
3 forwarding at the IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling and Voice/XLES


traffic:

Signaling traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.
Voice/XLES traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 2 forwarding at the IHub.
Voice/XLES destined to the Voice LT in Remote ISAM-V (Figure 12-50 - CASE
A): layer 4 forwarding from the IHub to the Voice LT.

Upstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN:


Voice/XLES traffic:
Voice/XLES packet internally relayed from Voice LT to the IHub and layer 3
forwarding at the IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN:


Voice/XLES traffic:
layer 4 forwarding from the xHub to the Voice LT.

Alcatel-Lucent 7302 ISAM | 7330 ISAM FTTN | 7360 ISAM FX R4.6.02


3HH-11651-BAAA-TQZZA Edition 03 Released
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November 2013

12-49

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Case A: Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server in the Hub ISAM Voice, the ASAM port(s) connecting the voice LT
boards in the remote ISAM Voice, and the network port(s).
The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server and at the Voice LT in the
Remote ISAM Voice nodes. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic originated from or destined to end users connected to a remote ISAM
Voice node.

RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the hub node or subtending node.

RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the hub or Subtending node
and destined to an external end user.

RTCP traffic
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT hosted in the remote ISAM Voice node.

Case B: Shared public signaling/Voice VLAN:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server in the Hub ISAM Voice and the network port(s).
The shared VLAN terminates at the Voice server. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).

RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the Hub node, Subtending node or Remote node.

RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the Hub, Subtending or
Remote node and destined to an external end user.

RTCP traffic.
Private Voice VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server, the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT and the subtending port(s).
The private Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice server and the Voice LT and the
IHub of the Hub, the Subtending (Case B) and/or Remote ISAM Voice node. It
carries:

RTP traffic originated or destined to end users connected to the hub and subtending
and/ or remote ISAM Voice nodes.

RTCP traffic.
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT residing in the Hub, the Subtending (Case B) and/or
the Remote ISAM Voice node.

The basic layer 2/layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction and IP
address reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-48.


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-49.
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-50.
12-50

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-48 Switching - IP subnet and IP address reduction topology - HUB ISAM
Voice
MG
In te r n a l O AM VLAN
Vo ice Se r ve r 1

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

MG
IACM
Vo ice Se r ve r N

Private VOICE/XLES VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Shared SIGNALING/VO ICE VLAN


Public O AM IP Address
Private Voice IP Address
Public shared Signaling/Voice / XLES IP Address
Priva te O AM IP Address
Private XLES IP Address

Vo ice LT M

Figure 12-49 Switching - IP subnet an IP address reduction topology - Subtending


ISAM Voice
Vo ice LT M
Public O AM IP Address
Private Voice IP Address
NT
IHub

Vo ice LT 1

Private VOICE/XLES VLAN


IACM

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

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12-51

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-50 Switching - IP subnet and IP address reduction topology - Remote
ISAM Voice
CASE A

Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM
Vo ice server N

Shared SIGNALLING/VO ICE VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Public Voice IP Address
Vo ice LT M

CASE B
Exte r n a l O AM VLAN

IACM
Vo ice server N

Shared SIGNALLING/VO ICE VLAN

Vo ice LT 1

IHub
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Public Voice IP Address
Vo ice LT M

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme
looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.
Public Voice IP address (for remote ISAM Voice node):
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable.
Private Voice IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node and subtending ISAM Voice
node):

Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.


Residing at the IHub.
Configurable.
Private XLES IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node):
Residing at the Voice server.
Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.

12-52

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Megaco ISAM Voice as routing device


Three addressing topologies are supported for Megaco ISAM Voice as routing
device:

Basic layer 3 addressing topology


IP subnet reduction topology
IP subnet and IP address reduction topology
The following is common to all three topologies:

Equipment and platform management entity is hosted at the NT


Integrated Voice service Management entity is hosted at the Voice server
Media gateway is hosted at the Voice server
External communication VLAN carries the external management traffic (see
chapter Management)
Public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT (see chapter Management)
Basic layer 3 addressing topology

The following applies for the basic layer 3 addressing topology:

Distinct user side VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice/XLES traffic are

configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.


Distinct network side VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice/XLES traffic are
configured at the network side of the fast path VRF.
A distinct user side subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged with
the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
The public Voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
at the IHub.
The public signaling IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
The public XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
A user side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side signaling
VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.
A network-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of both the
network-side signaling VLAN and the network-side Voice/XLES VLAN at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
A user-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side subtending
VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3
forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT board: the Voice/XLES

packet is internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the IHub and layer 3
forwarding at the IHub.
Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the subtending interface: layer 3
forwarding at the IHub.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Downstream packet forwarding:


Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 3 forwarded at
the IHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer
4 forwarded from the IHub to the Voice LT board.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the subtending interface: layer 3
forwarded at the IHub.

Signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server(s).
The signaling VLAN terminates at the IHub/Voice server and carries the Megaco
and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call Server)/ ASP
(Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).
Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server and the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT board.
The VLAN terminates at the IHub and both, the Voice server and the Voice LT
board and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board).

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The VLAN terminates at the IHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the
subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users


RTCP traffic
XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT
board(s)

The basic layer 3 addressing topology is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-51


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-52
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-53

12-54

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-51 Routing - Basic layer 3 addressing topology - HUB ISAM Voice
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

SIGNALING VLAN
Network VLAN

Voice Server N

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1

Network VLAN
NT

Subtending
VLAN
Public OAM IP address
Public Signaling IP address
Public Voice /XLES IP address
Private OAM IP address

Voice LT M

VOICE VLAN

Public Voice IP address


Network IP address
User IP address
Subtending IP address

Figure 12-52 Routing - Basic layer 3 addressing topology - Subtending ISAM Voice

External OAM VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1
NT

Subtending VLAN

Public OAM IP address


Public Voice IP address

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Voice LT M

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-53 Routing - Basic layer 3 addressing topology - Remote ISAM Voice

External OAM VLAN

Fast-path VRF

Network VLAN

Voice LT 1
NT

VOICE VLAN
Public OAM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address
Network IP address

Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme looks then as follows:

Public signaling IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable
Public Voice IP address:
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast

path VRF.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable

Public XLES IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.
Signaling path:
User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub)
Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (IHub)

Voice / XLES path:


Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (IHub)
User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
(IHub) for the subtending link.
IP subnet reduction topology

This model intends to reduce the number of IP subnets (that is, the total amount of
reserved IP addresses), required for the integrated voice service.

The same user-side VLAN is shared by signaling and Voice/XLES traffic and
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
The same network-side VLAN is shared by signaling and Voice/XLES traffic and
configured at the network side of the fast path VRF.
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The public Voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
at the IHub.

A shared public signaling/XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.


A distinct user-side subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged with
the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.

A network-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the network side


signaling/ Voice/XLES VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF.
A user-side next hop IP interface is configured on top of the user-side subtending
VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Voice server: layer 3
forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the Voice LT: Voice/XLES packet internally


relayed from Voice LT board to IHub and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice/XLES traffic originating at the subtending interface: layer 3 forwarding at the


IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding:


Signaling traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice server: layer 3 forwarded at
the IHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer
4 forwarded from the IHub to the Voice LT board.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the subtending interface: layer 3
forwarded at the IHub.

Shared signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server and the ISAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The shared VLAN terminates at the IHub/Voice server and the Voice LT board
and carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call
Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice)

RTP traffic exchanged between end users


RTCP traffic
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT.

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The VLAN terminates at the IHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the
subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users


RTCP traffic
XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT
board(s)

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The basic layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction is shown in the
following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-54.


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-55.
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-56.
Figure 12-54 Routing - IP subnet reduction topology - HUB ISAM Voice
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

Shared SIGNALING
/VOICE VLAN

Voice Server N

Fast-path VRF

Network VLAN

Voice LT 1
NT

Subtending
VLAN
Public OAM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address
Public shared Signaling/Voice/XLES
IP Address

Private OAM IP Address


Network IP address
Subtending IP address

Voice LT M

Figure 12-55 Routing - IP subnet reduction topology - Subtending ISAM Voice


External OAM VLAN

VOICE VLAN
Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Public Voice IP Address
Voice LT M

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-56 Routing - IP subnet reduction topology - Remote ISAM Voice
External OAM VLAN

Network VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1
NT

VOICE VLAN
Public OAM IP Address
Public Voice IP Address
Network IP address

Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/XLES IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.
Public Voice IP address:
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node at the user side of the fast path VRF
at the IHub.

Residing at the IHub.


Configurable.
Signaling/Voice path:
Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (IHub

User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub)
for the subtending link.
IP subnet and IP address reduction topology

This model further reduces the total amount of public IP addresses, required for the
integrated voice service.

A single public VLAN shared by signaling/Voice/XLES is configured at the user


side of the fast path VRF

A private VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic is configured at the user side of the fast

path VRF (Applies to the HUB and subtending ISAM Voice only)
A network-side VLAN shared by signaling/Voice/XLES is configured at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
A single public IP interface shared by signaling/Voice/XLES IP interface is
configured at the Voice server.
A private voice IP interface is configured at the user side of the fast path VRF at
the IHub.
A private XLES IP interface is configured at the Voice server.
A distinct user side private subtending VLAN for Voice/XLES traffic exchanged
with the subtending ISAM Voice is configured at the user side of the fast path
VRF.
A network-side next-hop IP interface is configured on top of the network side
signaling/ Voice/XLES VLAN at the network side of the fast path VRF.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

A user-side next-hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side


signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.

A user-side next-hop IP interface is configured on top of the user side subtending


VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling/Voice/XLES traffic:

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic + Voice traffic originating at the Voice server:
layer 3 forwarding at the Voice server and layer 3 forwarding at the IHub.

Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the Remote ISAM Voice: Voice/XLES
packet is internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the IHub and layer 3
forwarding at the IHub.

Downstream packet forwarding in shared VLAN for signaling/Voice/XLES


traffic

Signaling traffic and XLES traffic + Voice traffic destined to the Voice server: layer

3 forwarding at the IHub.


Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the Voice LT board (Remote ISAM
Voice): layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding from the IHub to the Voice LT board.

Upstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN (HUB / Subtending


ISAM Voice only):
Voice traffic and XLES traffic originating at the voice LT board: Voice/XLES
packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to the IHub and layer 3
forwarding at the IHub.
Downstream packet forwarding in the private Voice VLAN (HUB / Subtending
ISAM Voice only):
Voice traffic and XLES traffic destined to the voice LT: layer 3 followed by layer
4 forwarding from the IHub to the Voice LT board.
Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server in the Hub ISAM Voice and the ASAM port(s) connecting the voice LT
boards in the remote ISAM Voice.
The shared VLAN terminates at the IHub / Voice server and at the Voice LT
board in the Remote ISAM Voice nodes. It carries:

Megaco and SIGTRAN signaling traffic exchanged between the MGC (Call

12-60

Server)/ ASP (Application Server Process) and the MG (ISAM Voice).


RTP traffic originated from or destined to end users connected to a remote ISAM
Voice node.
RTP traffic originated from an external end user and destined to an end user
connected to the hub node or subtending node.
RTP traffic originated from an end user connected to the hub or Subtending node
and destined to an external end user.
RTCP traffic.
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board hosted in the remote ISAM Voice node.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Private Voice VLAN:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice
server and the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The private Voice VLAN terminates at the IHub, Voice server and the Voice LT.
It carries:

RTP traffic originated or destined to end users connected to the Hub, Subtending
(Case B:) and/or Remote ISAM Voice nodes.

RTCP traffic.
XLES traffic (internal signaling, control and management) exchanged between the
Voice server and the Voice LT board residing in the Hub, the Subtending (Case B)
and/or the Remote ISAM Voice node.

Subtending Voice/XLES VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The VLAN terminates at the IHub and the Voice LT board(s) connecting to the
subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users


RTCP traffic
XLES traffic exchanged between the Voice server and the subtending Voice LT(s)
The basic layer 3 addressing topology with IP subnet reduction and IP address
reduction is shown in the following figures:

For a hub ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-57.


For a subtending ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-58.
For a remote ISAM Voice, see Figure 12-59.
Figure 12-57 Routing - IP subnet and IP address reduction topology - HUB ISAM
Voice
MG
Internal OAM VLAN
Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN

Voice Server 1

External OAM VLAN

MG

Private VOICE VLAN


Network VLAN

Voice Server N

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1

NT

Subtending
VLAN
Public OAM IP Address
Private Voice IP Address
Public shared Signaling/XLES IP Address
Private OAM IP Address

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Voice LT M

Private XLES IP Address


Network IP address
User IP address
Subtending IP address

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-58 Routing - IP subnet an IP address reduction topology - Subtending
ISAM Voice
External OAM VLAN

Private VOICE VLAN


Fast-path VRF

Voice LT 1
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Private Voice IP Address
Voice LT M

Figure 12-59 Routing - IP subnet and IP address reduction topology - Remote


ISAM Voice
External OAM VLAN
Shared SIGNALLING
/VOICE VLAN
Voice server N

Network VLAN

Fast-path VRF
Voice LT 1
NT

Public OAM IP Address


Public Voice IP Address
Network IP address
Voice LT M

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/Voice/XLES IP address:


Residing at the Voice server.
Single IP address shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.
Public Voice IP address (for remote ISAM Voice node):
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast

path VRF.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable.

Private Voice IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node and subtending ISAM Voice
node):

Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node configured at the user side of the fast

path VRF.
Residing at the IHub.
Configurable.

Private XLES IP address (for hub ISAM Voice node):


Residing at the Voice server.
Shared by a redundant pair of Voice servers.
Configurable.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Public Signaling / Voice path:


Network-side next hop IP address configured at the network side of the fast path
VRF (HUB and Remote IHub).
User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
(HUB IHub).
User-side next hop IP address configured at the user side of the fast path VRF
(IHub) for the subtending link.

SIP ISAM Voice as switching device


The following addressing topologies are supported:

Distributed IP address architecture - shared signaling/Voice IP interface


Distributed IP address architecture - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface
Centralized IP address architecture - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface
Centralized IP address architecture - shared signaling/Voice IP interface

The following is common to all four addressing topologies:

Equipment, platform and integrated voice service management entity is hosted at


the NT.

A SIP UA instance is hosted at each Voice LT board.


The external communication VLAN carries the external management traffic (see
chapter Management).

The public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT (see


chapter Management).
Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP interface

A single VLAN shared by signaling and Voice traffic is configured at the IHub.
A single source/destination IP interface shared by signaling and Voice traffic is
configured at the voice LT
Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT.


Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side.
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.
Shared signaling/Voice VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT,
the network port(s) and the subtending port(s).
The shared signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Figure 12-60 shows the addressing topology for this model.


Figure 12-60 Distributed IP address topology - Switching - Shared signaling/voice
IP interface
SIP UA

Voice LT 1

OAM VLAN

SIP UA

Voice LT K

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN

SIP UA

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT L

NT

SIP UA

OAM IP Address
Shared signaling/Voice IP Address
Voice LT X
Subtending
node

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then
looks as follows:

signaling/Voice IP interface:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.
Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface

Distinct VLANs for signaling and Voice traffic are configured at the IHub.
Distinct IP interfaces for signaling and Voice traffic are configured at the Voice
LT.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT.


Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/voice packet from subtending to network side
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.
Signaling VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT,
the network port(s) and the subtending port(s).
The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the SIP signaling
traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent (ISAM Voice).
Voice VLAN:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT,
the network port(s) and the subtending port(s)
The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the RTP traffic
exchanged between end users and RTCP traffic.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Figure 12-61 shows the addressing topology for this model.


Figure 12-61 Distributed IP address topology - Switching - Distinct
signaling/voice IP interface
SIP UA

External OAM VLAN

Voice LT 1

SIP UA

SIGNALING VLAN
Voice LT K

Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

Voice LT L

VOICE VLAN
NT

SIP UA

Public OAM IP Address


Public Signaling IP Address
Public Voice IP Address

Voice LT X
Subtending
node

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then
looks as follows:

Signaling IP interface:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.
Voice IP address:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.
Centralized IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface

Distinct VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the
IHub
Distinct IP interfaces for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at
the IHub
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the IHub
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the IHub to the Voice LT board.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Signaling VLAN:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN/ V_VPLS are the ASAM port(s) connecting the
Voice LT, the network port(s) and the subtending port(s).
The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the SIP
signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent
(ISAM Voice).
Voice VLAN:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT,
the network port(s) and the subtending port(s).
The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT board and carries the RTP traffic
exchanged between end users and RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-62 shows the addressing topology for this model.
Figure 12-62 Centralized IP address topology - Switching - Distinct
signaling/voice IP interface
SIP UA

Voice LT 1

External OAM VLAN


SIP UA

Voice LT K

SIGNALING VLAN

SIP UA

Fast-path VRF

Voice LT L

VOICE VLAN

SIP UA
NT

Voice LT X

Public OAM IP Address


Public Signaling IP Address
Public Voice IP Address

Subtending
node

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then
looks as follows:

Signaling IP address:
Configurable at the IHub.
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP interface per ISAM Voice access node.
Voice IP interface:
Configurable at the IHub.
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Centralized IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP interface

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the IHub
A single IP interface shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured
at the IHub
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet internally relayed from the Voice LT board to the IHub
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the IHub to the Voice LT board.
Layer 2 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side
Shared signaling/Voice VLAN:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT,
the network port(s) and the subtending port(s)
The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries the SIP
signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent
(ISAM Voice) together with the RTP traffic exchanged between end users and the
RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-63 shows the addressing topology for this model.
Figure 12-63 Centralized IP address topology - Switching - Shared signaling/voice
IP interface
SIP UA

Voice LT 1

External OAM VLAN

SIP UA

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE VLAN


Voice LT K

Fast-path VRF

SIP UA

NT

Voice LT L

OAM IP Address
Shared Signaling/Voice IP Address

SIP UA

Subtending
node

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Voice LT X

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Relying on the former layer 2 forwarding scheme, the layer 3 IP address scheme then
looks as follows:

Shared public signaling/Voice IP interface:


Configurable at the IHub.
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP interface per ISAM Voice access node.
SIP ISAM Voice as routing device
The following addressing topologies are supported:

Distributed IP address architecture - shared signaling/Voice IP interface


Distributed IP address architecture - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface
Centralized IP address architecture - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface
Centralized IP address architecture - shared signaling/Voice IP interface

The following is common to all four addressing models:

Equipment, platform and integrated voice service management entity is hosted at

the NT.
A SIP UA instance is hosted at each Voice LT board.
The external communication VLAN carries the external management traffic (see
chapter Management).
The public OAM IP interface is configured at the NT (see
chapter Management).
Different VLANs at the network side and at the user side of the fast path VRF.

Distributed IP address topology - shared signaling/Voice IP interface

A single VLAN shared by signaling and Voice traffic is configured at the user

side of the fast path VRF.


A single VLAN shared by signaling and voice traffic is configured at the network
side of the fast path VRF.
A single IP interface shared by signaling/voice traffic is configured at the Voice
LT.
A single subtending VLAN shared by signaling and Voice traffic is configured at
the user side of the fast path VRF
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the
user side of the fast path VRF
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending VLAN at the user
side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT.


Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Downstream packet forwarding:


Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/voice packet from network to subtending side.
Signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.
Subtending signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The user side subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s)
connected to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-64 shows the routing model.
Figure 12-64 Distributed IP address (routing) - shared signaling/voice IP
interface
SIP UA

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE user v-VPLS

Vo ice LT 1

Exte r n a l O AM v-VPLS
SIP UA
IACM
Vo ice LT K

SIP UA

Vo ice LT L

IHub
NT

Network v-VPLS
SIP UA
Public O AM IP Address
Shared Signaling/Voice IP Address at user v-VPLS
Network IP Address at network v-VPLS
User IP address
Subtending IP address

Vo ice LT X
subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling/Voice IP interface:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

User side signaling/voice VLAN: Next hop IP interface configured at the user
side of the fast path VRF (IHub)

Network side signaling/voice VLAN: Next hop IP interface configured at the


network side of the fast path VRF (IHub)
User side subtending signaling/voice VLAN: Next hop IP interface configured at
the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub)
Distributed IP address topology - distinct signaling/Voice IP interface

Distinct VLANs for signaling and Voice traffic are configured at the user side of

the fast path VRF.


Distinct VLANs for signaling and voice traffic are configured at the network side
of the fast path VRF.
Distinct IP interfaces are configured at the Voice LT.
Distinct subtending VLANs for signaling and Voice traffic are configured at the
user side of the fast path VRF
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of signaling VLAN at the user side
of the fast path VRF
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of voice VLAN at the user side of
the fast path VRF
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling VLAN at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the voice VLAN at the network
side of the fast path VRF.
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending signaling VLAN
at the user side of the fast path VRF.
A Next Hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending voice VLAN at
the user side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the Voice LT.


Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/voice packet from subtending to network side.
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side
Signaling VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The signaling VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:


Configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Subtending VLAN for signaling and Voice at the user side of the fast path VRF:
Configurable.
Ports associated with these VLANs are the subtending port(s).
The subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected
to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end users.


RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-65 shows the routing model.
Figure 12-65 Distributed IP address topology - Routing - Distinct signaling/voice
IP interface
SIGNALING user v-VPLS

SIP UA

VO ICE user v-VPLS


Vo ice LT 1

Exte r n a l O AM v-VPLS
SIP UA
IACM
Vo ice LT K

SIP UA

Network v-VPLS

Vo ice LT L

IHu b
NT

SIP UA

Public O AM IP Address
Signaling IP Address at user v-VPLS
Voice IP Address at user v-VPLS
Public Voice IP Address at network v-VPLS
User IP address
Subtending IP address

Vo ice LT X

subtending node

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling IP interface:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.
Public Voice IP interface:
Configurable at the Voice LT.
Multiple IP interfaces per ISAM Voice access node.
User side signaling and user side voice VLAN: Next hop IP interface configured
at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub).
Network side signaling and network side voice VLAN: Next hop IP interface
configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (IHub).
User side subtending signaling and user side subtending voice VLAN: Next hop
IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub).

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Centralized IP address topology- distinct signaling/Voice IP interface

Distinct VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the

user side of the fast path VRF.


Distinct VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are configured at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
Distinct IP interfaces are configured at the user side of the VRF at the IHub.
Distinct subtending VLANs for signaling traffic and for Voice traffic are
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling VLAN at the network
side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the voice VLAN at the network
side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending signaling VLAN
at the user side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending voice VLAN at the
user side of the fast path VRF.
Upstream packet forwarding:

Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT board to IHub


Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side.
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the IHub to
the Voice LT board.

Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.


User-side signaling VLAN of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The user-side signaling VLAN terminates at the voice LT and carries the SIP
signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP User Agent
(ISAM Voice).
User-side voice VLAN of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The Voice VLAN terminates at the voice LT and carries:

RTP traffic exchanged between end users


RTCP traffic.
User-side subtending VLANs for signaling and Voice of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected
to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM

Voice)
RTP traffic exchanged between end users
RTCP traffic.

Figure 12-66 shows the routing model.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-66 Centralized IP address topology - Routing - Distinct signaling/voice
IP interface
SIP UA

Vo ice LT 1

Exte r n a l O AM v-VPLS
SIP UA
IACM
Vo ice LT K

SIGNALING user v-VPLS

SIP UA

Network v-VPLS

Vo ice LT L

IHu b
NT

VO ICE user v-VPLS

Public O AM IP Address
Public Signaling IP Address at user v-VPLS
Public Voice IP Address at user v-VPLS

SIP UA

Vo ice LT X

Public Voice IP Address at network v-VPLS

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling IP address:
Configurable at the IHub (user side fast path VRF).
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Voice IP address:
Configurable at the IHub (user side fast path VRF).
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP address per ISAM Voice access node.
Network-side signaling VLAN and network-side Voice VLAN: next-hop IP
interface configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (IHub).

User-side subtending signaling VLAN and user-side subtending voice VLAN:


next-hop IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub).
Centralized IP address topology- shared signaling/Voice IP interface

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at


the user side of the fast path VRF.

A single VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is configured at

the network side of the fast path VRF.


A single IP interface is configured at the user side of the VRF at the IHub.
A single subtending VLAN shared by signaling traffic and by Voice traffic is
configured at the user side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the signaling/voice VLAN at the
network side of the fast path VRF.
A next hop IP interface is configured on top of the subtending VLAN at the user
side of the fast path VRF.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Upstream packet forwarding:


Signaling/Voice packet is internally relayed from Voice LT to IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet at the IHub.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from subtending to network side.
Downstream packet forwarding:
Layer 3 followed by layer 4 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from the IHub to
the Voice LT board.
Layer 3 forwarding of signaling/Voice packet from network to subtending side.

Signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:

The VLAN is configurable.


Ports associated with this VLAN are the ASAM port(s) connecting the Voice LT.
The signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users.


RTCP traffic.
Subtending signaling/Voice VLAN at the user side of the fast path VRF:
The VLAN is configurable.
Ports associated with this VLAN are the subtending port(s).
The subtending signaling/Voice VLAN terminates at the Voice LT(s) connected
to the subtending ISAM Voice and carries:

SIP signaling traffic exchanged between the SIP server and the SIP UA (ISAM
Voice).

RTP traffic exchanged between end-users.


RTCP traffic.
Figure 12-67 shows the routing model.
Figure 12-67 Centralized IP address topology - Routing - Shared signaling/voice
IP interface
SIP UA

Vo ice LT 1

Exte r n a l O AM v-VPLS
SIP UA
IACM
Vo ice LT K

Shared SIGNALING/VOICE user v-VPLS

SIP UA

Vo ice LT L

IHub
NT

Network v-VPLS
SIP UA

Public O AM IP Address
Public Signaling/Voice IP Address at user v-VPLS

Vo ice LT X

Public IP Address at network v-VPLS

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The layer 3 IP address scheme then looks as follows:

Signaling IP interface:
Configurable at the IHub (user side fast path VRF).
Shared by a redundant pair of IHubs.
Single IP interface per ISAM Voice access node.
Network-side VLAN sharing signaling traffic and voice traffic: next-hop IP
interface configured at the network side of the fast path VRF (IHub).
User-side subtending VLAN sharing signaling traffic and voice traffic: next-hop
IP interface configured at the user side of the fast path VRF (IHub).

12.7

Protocol stacks
Megaco ISAM Voice Signaling Protocol Stack (Switching /
Routing
Both POTS and ISDN BRI lines are supported.
H.248 and SIGTRAN signaling packets are exchanged between the MG (Voice
server) and the MGC (Call Server). The XLES proprietary protocol is used to
exchange internal signaling packets between the Voice server and the Voice LT
boards residing in the hub, subtending or remote ISAM Voice access nodes.
H.248 and XLES signaling packets are encapsulated with UDP, IP and layer 2
frames. SIGTRAN signaling packets are encapsulated with SCTP, IP and layer 2
frames. The layer 2 frames are formatted according to Ethernet II format (that is,
using the type field) and VLAN 802.1Q tagged including priority setting according
to IEEE 802.1p.
H.248, SIGTRAN and XLES signaling packets include configured DSCP and .1P
values.
Figure 12-68 shows the H.248 signaling protocol stack for a POTS termination
connected directly to the hub ISAM Voice. The Z interface is terminated at the Voice
LT. User events like hook off, hook on and so on are converted into XLES/LAPV5
packets which are sent to the Voice server. The Voice server in turn converts the
internal proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into Megaco messages sent to the MGC.
Figure 12-68 POTS signaling protocol stack - HUB ISAM Voice - Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

H.248

H.248

Z Itf

Termination

UDP
IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

Voice Server

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IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

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L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-69 POTS signaling protocol stack - HUB ISAM Voice - Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

H.248

H.248

UDP

Termination

Voice Server

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Z Itf

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

For POTS terminations connected to a remote or subtending ISAM Voice, the Z


interface is terminated at the Voice LT residing at the remote or subtending ISAM
Voice. Information transfer between the remote or subtending ISAM Voice and the
hub ISAM Voice happens through the proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol that is
terminated at the Voice server. The Voice server in turn converts the internal
proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into Megaco messages sent to the MGC.
Figure 12-70 POTS signaling protocol stack - Subtending ISAM Voice - Switching
model
Subtending ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

H.248

H.248

Z Itf

Termination

UDP
IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

IHub

Voice Server

IHub

EMAN

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-71 POTS signaling protocol stack Subtending ISAM Voice - Routing
model
Subtending ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

H.248

H.248

UDP
IP

Z Itf

Termination

12-76

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

UDP
IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

IHub

Voice Server

IHub

EMAN

Z Itf

Voice LT

November 2013

IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-72 POTS signaling protocol stack - Remote ISAM Voice - Switching
model
Remote ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q
802.3

H.248

H.248

802.1Q
Z Itf

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

Z Itf
802.3

Termination

802.1Q

UDP

Voice LT

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IHub

Voice Server

L3

IP

IP

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-73 POTS signaling protocol stack - Remote ISAM Voice - Routing model
Remote ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

H.248

H.248

UDP

Z Itf

Termination

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IHub

EMAN

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

UDP
IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IHub

Voice Server

L3

IP

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

For ISDN BRI terminations, the Voice server behaves as the signaling Gateway
(SG). It communicates with the ASP through the SIGTRAN protocol. The D-channel
layer 2 protocol (Q.921) is terminated at the Voice LT. The D-channel layer 3
protocol (Q.931) is fully transparent to the Voice server. Q.931 is encapsulated with
SIGTRAN and fully transparently forwarded to the ASP.
The ISAM Voice still acts as the MG for the call control in calls involving
B-channels.
Figure 12-74 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - HUB ISAM Voice - Switching
model
Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IUA
Q921

I410

Termination

Q921

I410

Voice LT

Voice Server

IUA

SCTP
IP

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IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

November 2013

L3

IP
802.1Q
802.3

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-75 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - HUB ISAM Voice - Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IUA
Q921

Q921

I410

I410

Termination

IUA

SCTP

Voice Server

Voice LT

L3

IP

IP

IP
802.1Q

Generic
PHY

802.3

Edge Router

MGC

For ISDN BRI Terminations connected to a remote or subtending ISAM Voice, the
D-channel layer 2 protocol (Q.921) is terminated at the Voice LT residing at the
remote or subtending ISAM Voice. Information transfer between the remote or
subtending ISAM Voice and the hub ISAM Voice happens through the proprietary
XLES/LAPV5 protocol that is terminated at the Voice server. The Voice server in
turn converts the internal proprietary XLES/LAPV5 protocol into SIGTRAN
messages sent to the ASP.
Figure 12-76 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - Subtending ISAM Voice Switching model
Subtending ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q921

I410

Termination

Q931

Q921

I410

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

IUA

IUA

L3
IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

IHub

Voice Server

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

SCTP
IP

IP

802.1Q

Generic
PHY

802.3

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-77 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - Subtending ISAM Voice - Routing
model
Subtending ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q921

Q931

Q921

XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP
IP

I410

Termination

12-78

I410

IUA

IUA

L3

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

IHub

Voice Server

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

November 2013

IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

SCTP
IP
802.1Q
802.3

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-78 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - Remote ISAM Voice - Switching
model
Remote ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

UDP

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

IUA

IUA
Q921

I410

Termination

Q921

I410

L3
IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IHub

Voice Server

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

SCTP
IP

IP

802.1Q

Generic
PHY

802.3

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-79 ISDN BRI signaling protocol stack - Remote ISAM Voice - Routing
model
Remote ISAM Voice

Hub ISAM Voice

Q931

Q931
XLES

XLES

LapV5

LapV5

IUA

IUA
Q921

Q921

UDP

I410

I410

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

Termination

Voice LT

802.3

IHub

802.1Q
802.3

EMAN

UDP

SCTP

IP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

Voice Server

L3

802.3

IHub

IP
802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

EMAN

IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

SCTP
IP
802.1Q
802.3

MGC

SIP ISAM Voice Signaling Protocol Stack (Switching / Routing)


Only POTS lines are supported.
SIP signaling packets are exchanged between the Voice gateway and the SIP server.
All signaling packets are encapsulated with UDP, IP and layer 2 frames. The layer 2
frames are formatted according to Ethernet II format (that is, using the type field) and
VLAN 802.1Q tagged including priority setting according to IEEE 802.1p.
SIP signaling packets will include configured DSCP and .1P values.
Figure 12-80, Figure 12-81, Figure 12-82, Figure 12-83, Figure 12-84, and
Figure 12-85 show the SIP signaling protocol stack for a POTS termination. The Z
interface is terminated at the Voice LT. User events like hook off, hook on, and so
on are converted into SIP messages sent to the SIP server.

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12-79

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-80 POTS signaling protocol stack - Distributed Architecture - Switching
model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP

UDP

IP

Z Itf

Termination

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 12-81 POTS signaling protocol stack - Distributed Architecture - Routing


model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP

Z Itf

Termination

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-82 POTS signaling protocol stack - Centralized Architecture - Upstream


- Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP

Z Itf

Termination

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-83 POTS signaling protocol stack - Centralized Architecture - Upstream


- Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP

Z Itf

Termination

12-80

November 2013

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-84 POTS signaling protocol stack - Centralized Architecture Downstream - Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

SIP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

UDP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

Termination

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Z Itf

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-85 POTS signaling protocol stack - Centralized Architecture Downstream - Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

SIP

Z Itf

Termination

SIP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

UDP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Voice LT

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

Voice protocol stack


Voice traffic, using RTP providing the information needed to restore the original
digital voice stream, is encapsulated in UDP/IP. The same encapsulation method is
applied to RTCP, the control protocol associated to RTP.
The encapsulated voice traffic (RTP/RTCP) includes a configurable DSCP and .1P
bit value. As a result the voice packets can use separate queues in the layer 2/layer 3
network to minimize delay and jitter.
Figure 12-86 MEGACO POTS Voice protocol stack - Upstream - Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

Z Itf

Termination

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

Z Itf

Voice LT

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IP

L3

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

November 2013

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

12-81

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-87 MEGACO Voice protocol stack - Upstream - Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

Termination

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Z Itf

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-88 MEGACO POTS Voice protocol stack - Downstream - Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

Termination

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Z Itf

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-89 MEGACO Voice protocol stack - Downstream - Routing model


Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

Z Itf

Termination

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

UDP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

Z Itf

IHub

Voice LT

EMAN

L3

IP

IP

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

TGW

Figure 12-90 SIP POTS Voice protocol stack - Distributed Architecture - Switching
model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP
802.1Q
Z Itf

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

802.1Q

Z Itf
802.3

Termination

12-82

IP

November 2013

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-91 SIP POTS Voice protocol stack - Distributed Architecture - Routing
model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

Termination

IHub

EMAN

Voice LT

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Z Itf

Z Itf

L3

IP

IP

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-92 SIP POTS Voice protocol stack - Centralized Architecture - Upstream
- Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

Z Itf

Termination

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-93 SIP Voice protocol stack - Centralized Architecture - Upstream Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

Z Itf

Termination

RTP

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

IHub

EMAN

IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IP

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

MGC

Figure 12-94 SIP Voice protocol stack - Centralized Architecture - Downstream Switching model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP

Z Itf

Termination

RTP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

UDP
IP

Z Itf

Voice LT

IHub

EMAN

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IP
Generic
PHY

Edge Router

November 2013

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

12-83

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-95 SIP Voice protocol stack - Centralised Architecture - Downstream Routing model
Hub ISAM Voice

RTP
UDP

Z Itf

Termination

12.8

RTP
UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.1Q

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

802.3

Z Itf

Voice LT

IHub

IP

IP

EMAN

Generic
PHY

Edge Router

L3

IP
Generic
PHY

MGC

Voice service and MPLS Pseudo-wire


See chapter MPLS for more information.

12.9

Management interface
MEGACO ISAM Voice
The provisioning of the Megaco ISAM Voice service parameters is done via the a
CLI / SNMP(MIB) interface together with a CDE profile to be downloaded from a
file server.
Configuration by means of DHCP is not supported.
CLI / SNMP Interface

The SNMPV3 agent hosted at the Voice Server serves as the management interface
for the integrated VoIP service. However, neither CLI nor SNMP commands can
directly be addressed to the Voice Server.
In general, the Integrated VoIP service cannot be managed via TL1. Although, as an
exception, VoIP service alarms can be retrieved via TL1.
All CLI or SNMP commands to manage the integrated VoIP service are addressed
to the public OAM IP address of the access node and are subsequently relayed to the
correct Voice Server by means of the voice server context name present in the
management command.
A Voice server context name is mapped to a private IP address, out of the range
127.0.0.11 to 127.0.0.26. The private IP address is assigned to a Voice Server. This
IP address to Voice Server mapping is fixed and based on the physical slot position
of the Voice Server.
SNMP commands, carrying a voice server context name, are addressed to the NT
SNMP agent which in turn relays the command to the destined Voice Server.
CLI commands, carrying a voice server identifier, are addressed to the NT CLI
agent, where it becomes translated into the appropriate SNMP command and
forwarded to the NT SNMP agent The NT SNMP agent in turn relays the SNMP
command to the destined Voice Server.
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Batch configuration CLI command support for subscriber management

A subscriber is a logical entity managed by the MG that sources and/or sinks media
and/or control streams. Subscriber have unique identities, called TerminationIDs
assigned by the MG at the time of their creation. The ISAM Voice allows to make
use of 3 different formats for the TerminationID:

The FLAT termination ID:


Typical Format: 'prefix<tidXXXXX>'
The LEGACY HIERARCHICAL termination ID:
Typical format: Prefix/Dslam_Id/rack/shelf/slot/port(/channel
The IMPROVED HIERARCHICAL termination ID:
Typical format: Prefix/Dslam_Id/rackXXXXX/shelfXXXXX/slotXXXXX/
portXXXXX/channel
In case the customer decides to make use of the FLAT termination ID format, then
such termination id is to be configured for each of the terminations.
The FLAT termination ID can be provisioned in two different ways:

By initiating a single create command per termination and provisioning the


value for the Flat Termination ID.
By initiating a batch create command for a series of terminations (typically
within the limits of a voice LT board). In this case, the operator doesn't provision
a value for the Flat termination ID parameter. The system autonomously creates
the terminations for a voice LT board and assigns autonomously the value of the
Flat Termination ID, starting from 1 or previously successfully completed
create command. and increment it by 1 for every subsequent termination being
created.
If the customer decides to make use of the HIERARCHICAL termination ID format,
then the desired pattern is to be configured once and the system will autonomously
create the appropriate hierarchical termination id for each of the terminations.
It must be noted, that in this case also the flat termination ID is to be configured for
each of the terminations as this is still internally used by ISAM Voice.

SIP ISAM Voice


The provisioning of the SIP ISAM Voice service parameters is done via the a CLI /
SNMP(MIB) interface together with the SIP Service Profile and CDE profile to be
downloaded from a file server and optionally DHCP.
CLI / SNMP Interface

The Integrated VoIP Service Management interface is fully supported by the SNMP
and CLI agents that reside at the NT.
All CLI or SNMP commands to manage the integrated VoIP service are addressed
to the public OAM IP address of the access node.
The integrated VoIP service cannot be managed by means of TL1. Although, as an
exception, VoIP service alarms can be retrieved via TL1.

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12-85

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

DHCP

The SIP Distributed model allows part of the configuration data to be retrieved
through a DHCP request. Following DHCP options are supported:
Table 12-1 Supported DHCP options
Option

Name

Subnet-Mask

Router

Domain Name Server

50

DHCP Requested Address

51

DHCP Lease Time

53

DHCP Message Type

55

DHCP Parameter Request List

57

DHCP Maximum Message Size

58

DHCP Renewal Time

59

DHCP Rebinding Time

60

DHCP Class Identifier

61

DHCP Client Identifier

81

Client FQDN

82

Client ID(1)

90

Authentication

120

SIP Servers

124

Vendor-Identifying Vendor Class

Note
(1)

The insertion of Option 82 by the DHCP client at the voice LT board can be enabled/disabled through
configuration.
Only the sub-option Remote-ID is supported.
The content of the Remote-ID is configurable. The default value equals the Physical LT Board-ID
i.e. rack/shelf/slot.

DHCP is not supported for the SIP centralized model.

CDE Profile
Besides the usual management interface to configure the network and end user
associated database parameters for the integrated voice service, ISAM Voice makes
use of additional configuration input under the format of a downloadable file.
Allowing the integrated voice service to become fully operational requires the
presence of the CDE profile at the Voice server (Megaco ISAM Voice only) and the
Voice LT (both Megaco and SIP ISAM Voice).

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The content of CDE profile is customer dependent. A CDE profile is produced


off-line at the factory. The content is collected by means of a questionnaire, filled in
by the customer. The content is considered to be of static nature and concerns mainly
the physical subscriber line, the Z-interface, the tone pattern, the protocols that run
at the end user side and LT board HW characteristics.
There is a dedicated CDE profile for the POTS Voice LT, the ISDN BRI Voice LT
and the Voice server. The latter 2 profiles do only apply to the Megaco ISAM Voice).
The CDE profile for the POTS Voice LT is voice topology independent meaning that
the same CDE profile can be used in either a Megaco or a SIP environment.
The CDE profiles for the POTS/ISDN BRI Voice LT and Voice server are included
in a CDE.tar file. This file must be downloaded and activated in the individual ISAM
Voice access nodes (SIP ISAM Voice). For the Megaco ISAM Voice, that is, the hub
node, the subtending nodes and the remote nodes.
The CDE.tar file is delivered to the customer together with the SW package and all
other associated files that are required to install an ISAM Voice in the access
network.
The system itself takes care that a CDE profile is downloaded to the Voice server
(Megaco ISAM Voice only) and /or Voice LT.
The system supports CDE profile upgrade. They are as well an integral part of the
offline database migration during software upgrade.

SIP Service Profile


SIP ISAM Voice has introduced the concept of Service profile to achieve a
maximum on flexibility for (1) IOT w/ multiple Application Servers, including the
flexibility of a new IOT during a Maintenance phase of a ISAM release and (2) on
re-using application SW; as such, application SW shall be data driven, based on the
selected options out of the SIP service profile.
The SERVICE profile applies to the POTS SIP Voice LT only and is provisional and
downloadable via the CDE profile framework.
The content of the SERVICE profile is customer dependent. A SERVICE profile is
produced off-line at the factory. The content is collected from the voice service
requirements defined by the customer.
The SERVICE profile is appended to the CDE profile in the CDE profile file. As
such it is downloaded together with the CDE profile in the individual ISAM Voice
access nodes, that is, the hub node and the subtending nodes.

12.10

Permanent data storage


Megaco ISAM Voice
The VoIP service provisioned data is archived by the VoIP database(s) stored on the
system disk of the NT. The system maintains a separate voice database for each of
the Voice Servers. Up to eight VoIP database(s) may be present on the system disk
of the NT.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The voice database is managed by the integrated voice service management entity
hosted at the Voice Server. At regular time, each Voice Server uploads its voice
database to the system disk.

SIP ISAM Voice


The VoIP provisioned data is archived by the VoIP database stored on the system
disk of the NT. The VoIP database is managed by integrated voice service
management entity hosted at the NT board.

12.11

Management model
Megaco ISAM Voice
Figure 12-96 shows the Megaco ISAM Voice conceptual management model.

12-88

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-96 Megaco ISAM Voice Conceptual Management Model
H.248 Protocol and Network Management Model

Read-only
Read-Write

Equipment
Board

Base Class
File Input

1..24

0..32

0..72

1
0..5000

H.248
Termination
1

1
1

Voice
Server

XLES
1

1
0..1

0..1
1..N

Equipment
Node

POTS
Line
0..72
1
POTS
LT Board

0..1

1
1..N

ISDN
Line

Media
Gateway

0..24

0..1

ISDN
LT Board

Signaling
Gateway

1..2

Line Id Syntax
Profile

Voice
LT Board
1

ISDN
CDE Profile

POTS
CDE Profile

LT Board

Voice Server
CDE Profile

NT Board

CDE Profile

VoIP NarrowBand Line Test Management Model


Line Test
Parameters

1..1024

Voice Server

Session
1

1
1

1..72

Available
Session

Line Identity
1
1..N
Session
Report

VoIP Database Model


Voice Server

VoIP Database
1

The classes SYSTEM, NT, LT Board and Voice Server reflect the
Access Node, the Network Termination, the Line Termination and Voice server
hardware being involved in the integrated voice service. These classes are not
further elaborated in subsequent sections.
The class Voice LT Board is an instantiation of the class LT Board. This class
is not further elaborated in subsequent sections.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The classes POTS LT Board and ISDN LT Board are instantiations of the
class Voice LT Board. This class is not further elaborated in subsequent
sections.
The classes POTS Line and ISDN Line are instantiations of the class H.248
Termination. The class H.248 Termination is elaborated in subsequent
sections.
The classes POTS CDE Profile, ISDN CDE Profile and Voice Server CDE
are instantiations of the class CDE Profile. The class POTS CDE Profile is
elaborated in subsequent sections.
H.248 Protocol and Network Management Model.

This management model offers the capability to provision the Voice Cluster, the
Media and Signaling gateway as well as the network related H.248 protocol
parameters.
A Voice Cluster is the aggregation of the ISAM Voice network elements controlled
by a single Voice Server (pair). The entire Voice Cluster is provisioned by means of
the following 2 classes:

The class EquipmentNode includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the ISAM Voice access nodes that belong to the voice cluster.

The class EquipmentBoard includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the Voice LT boards that belong to each of the access nodes in the
voice cluster.
The class Media Gateway includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the H.248 protocol, L2 and L3 network connection and the network
redundancy parameters as well as the quality of service characteristics for the
signaling as well as the voice stream.
The class H.248 Termination includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the individual POTS or ISDN termination characteristics.
The class XLES includes the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning of
the internal Voice cluster signaling characteristics.
The class Signaling Gateway includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the L3/L4 and network redundancy characteristics of the Assignment
Source Point (ASP).
The Class Line Id Syntax Profile includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the POTS and / or ISDN termination ID format.
The classes POTS CDE Profile, ISDN CDE Profile and Voice Server CDE
Profile include the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning of the
physical subscriber line, the Z-interface, the tone pattern, the protocols that run at the
end user side and LT board hardware characteristics.
VoIP Database Model

The class VoIP Database includes the attributes and methods that allow managing
the SIP Voice Database.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

VoIP Narrowband Line Test Management Model

The class Available Session includes the attributes and methods to schedule a new
narrowband line test session.
The class Session includes the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning
of the narrowband line test session characteristics.
The class Line Identity includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the subscriber lines involved in the narrowband line test session.
The class Line Test Parameters includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the parameters to be considered in the course of a narrowband line
test session.
The class Session Report includes the attributes and methods that allow retrieving
the results of the completed narrowband line test session.

SIP ISAM Voice


The following figures show the SIP ISAM Voice conceptual management models.
Figure 12-97 SIP ISAM Voice - Statistics and Counters Management Model

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12-91

12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-98 SIP Protocol and Network Management model
VSP

Dial Plan
1

0..N

1
1..256

SIP
Termination
0..1

1
Digit Map

POTS
Line

SIP Timers

SIP Server

1..N
1..N

NAPTR
Resource Record

1..N

SRV
Resource Record

1..N

A
Resource Record

DNS Server
0..6

Session Timer
0..1
Line Id Syntax
Profile

User Agent
Access Point

1
POTS
LT Board

MIB
Readiness
ONLY
1

0..1
LT
Board

1..18

Transport
Protocols

Voice
LT Board

1..2
1

User Agent
Registration

Network
Redundancy

NT

MIB
Readiness
ONLY

DHCP
Authentication

Figure 12-99 VoIP services management model

VSP
1

0..N

SIP
Termination
0..1

1
POTS
Line
N
1
POTS CDE
Profile

1
1

CDE
Profile

SIP
Service Profile

1..N

1..N

POTS
LT Board

Voice
LT Board

LT
Board

NT

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-100 VoIP Narrowband Line Test model and VoIP database model

VoIP NarrowBand Line Test Model

Line Test
Parameters

1..1024

Session

NT

1..16

1..16

1..72

Available
Session

Line Identity
1

1..N
Session
Report

VoIP Database Model

NT

VoIP Database
1

The classes SYSTEM, NT, LT Board reflect the Access Node, the

Network Termination, and the Line Termination hardware being involved in the
integrated voice service. These classes are not further elaborated in subsequent
sections.
The class Voice LT Board is an instantiation of the class LT Board. This class
is not further elaborated in subsequent sections.
The class POTS LT Board is an instantiation of the class Voice LT Board.
This class is not further elaborated in subsequent sections.
The class POTS Line is an instantiation of the class SIP Termination. The
class SIP Termination is elaborated in subsequent sections.
The class POTS CDE Profile is an instantiation of the class CDE Profile. The
class POTS CDE Profile is elaborated in subsequent sections.

Statistics and Counters Management Model

This management model offers the capability to provision the TCA thresholds as
well as to retrieve the SIP termination availability, the SIP termination voice and
board resource occupancy statistics and counters.
The class TCA Threshold includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the threshold crossing alarms on a per SIP termination.
The class Per-Line Stats Current 15 min includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-line measured values during the current 15-minutes interval.
The class Per-Line Stats History 15 min includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-line measured values for the past 96 15-min intervals.
The class Per-Line Stats Current 1 day includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-line measured values during the current 1-day interval.
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The class Per-Line Stats History 1 day includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-line measured values for the past three 1-day intervals.
The class Per-Board Stats Current 15 min includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-board measured values during the current 15-minutes
interval.
The class Per-Board Stats History 15 min includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-board measured values for the past 96 15-min intervals.
The class Per-Board Stats Current 1 day includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-board measured values during the current 1-day interval.
The class Per-Board Stats History 1 day includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-board measured values for the past 3 1-day intervals.
The class Per-Call Stats History 15 min includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the per-call measured values for the past 96 15-minutes intervals.
The class CPU Load includes the attributes and methods that allow retrieving the
CPU occupancy during the past 180 s time period at the Line termination / Network
termination board.
The class Memory Resource Occupation includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the actual dynamic memory resource allocation at the Line
termination / Network termination board.
The class Subscriber Line Availability: includes the attributes and methods that
allow retrieving the actual service state of the subscriber lines.
The class Per-Line Performance Monitoring Info includes the attributes and
methods that allow retrieving the validity of the measured data during the several
intervals.
The class Per-Board Performance Monitoring Info includes the attributes and
methods that allow retrieving the validity of the measured data during the several
intervals.
The class Stats Configuration includes the attributes and methods that allow to:

enable/disable performance monitoring overall


identify an incoming call / outgoing call during performance monitoring.
SIP Protocol and Network Management Model

This management model offers the capability to provision the access gateway as well
as the network related SIP protocol parameters.
The class VSP includes the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning of
the Voice Service Provider properties.
The class SIP Timers includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the SIP protocol timers.
The class Dial Plan includes the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning
of the dial plan that applies to the network of the Voice Service Provider.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The class Digit Map includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the Digit Map that applies to the network of the Voice Service
Provider.
The class SIP Server includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the (list of) SIP server(s) being installed in the network of the Voice
Service Provider.
The class DNS Server includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the (list of) DNS server(s) being installed in the network of the Voice
Service Provider.
The class Session Timer includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the Session Timer extension of the SIP protocol.
The class Line Id Syntax Profile includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the POTS termination ID format.
The class Transport Protocols includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the transport protocols the SIP User Agent must listen to for
incoming SIP requests.
The class Registration includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the SIP Register Method behavior in the network of the Voice
Service Provider.
The class Network Redundancy includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the Voice Service Provider's network redundancy characteristics
together with the expected SIP User Agent redundancy behavior.
The classes User Agent and User Agent Access Point includes the attributes and
methods that allow the provisioning of the L2 and L3 network connection together
with the quality of service characteristics for the signaling as well as the voice
stream.
The class Termination includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the individual SIP termination characteristics.
VoIP Services Management Model

This management model offers the capability to provision the physical subscriber
line interface, the Z-interface, the tone pattern, the Basic call and Supplementary
Services related parameters. The provisioning of these parameters happens by means
of a couple of profiles being downloaded by the access node. The customer cannot
manually update these profiles.
The class SIP Service Profile includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the Basic call and Supplementary service characteristics.
The class POTS CDE Profile includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the physical subscriber line, the Z-interface, the tone pattern, the
protocols that run at the end-user side and LT board hardware characteristics.
VoIP Database Model

The class VoIP Database includes the attributes and methods that allow managing
the SIP Voice Database.
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

VoIP Narrowband Line Test Management Model

The class Available Session includes the attributes and methods to schedule a new
narrowband line test session.
The class Session includes the attributes and methods that allow the provisioning
of the narrowband line test session characteristics.
The class Line Identity includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the subscriber lines involved in the narrowband line test session.
The class Line Test Parameters includes the attributes and methods that allow the
provisioning of the parameters to be considered in the course of a narrowband line
test session.
The class Session Report includes the attributes and methods that allow retrieving
the results of the completed narrowband line test session.

12.12

Reliability, Equipment / Connectivity / Overload


Protection
Equipment Protection
NT redundancy

For further details about NT redundancy, see chapter Failure protection and
redundancy provisions in ISAM.
Megaco ISAM Voice: Voice Server redundancy

The Voice server may be installed as a 1+1 Redundancy pair. Both Voice servers of
a 1+1 redundancy pair must be equipped in neighboring slot positions.
One Voice server is active while the other runs in standby mode. In case the active
Voice server encounters a hardware or a software problem, the standby Voice server
takes over and becomes the active Voice server for the integrated voice service.
Upon switchover, the recovery time is less than 7 s for call signaling and less than 3
s for voice traffic.
Stable calls are not lost during the switchover. Non-stable calls, that is, calls in the
set-up phase may be lost due to a Voice server switchover. This applies to both,
POTS and ISDN BRI calls.

Connectivity Protection
Besides the support of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
(RSTP) or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) and Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP) on the network links of the ISAM Voice node, some additional,
more voice specific connectivity protection concepts are introduced.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Megaco ISAM Voice: Geo-Redundancy

GEO-Redundancy implies the provisioning of a primary, secondary and optionally


tertiary Softswitch / Application Server Process (ASP) with each of these
Softswitches / Application Server Process being provisioned with a different IP
address, and allowing, in case of a failure of the primary control association, to make
a switch-over to the secondary or tertiary Softswitch / ASP preserving of stable calls.
It is to be noted that the possibility to preserve stable calls during a switch-over
depends on the capabilities supported by the Softswitch.
The system autonomously notifies the operator about control association changes via
SYSLOG notifications.
A SYSLOG notification is sent upon:

The control association being lost due to:


Timer expiry
Heartbeat expiry
The control association being administratively locked by the operator.
The control association being disconnected due to a handoff, forced, graceful
service change method initiated by MG / MGC or disconnect service change
method initiated by the MG.
The control association being established with the MGC
A failure of the current control association may be detected as described hereafter:

Upon no reply received on a transaction request initiated by the Voice server:


Megaco ISAM Voice allows to provision the maximum number of retries per
transaction together with the retry mode. The latter being either the fixed retry
interval mode or the increasing retry interval mode. In the latter case, the retry
interval doubles for each subsequent retry.
Through the support of the Inactivity Timer package:
The purpose of this package event is to allow the MG to detect periods of silence
of messaging from the MGC. Once the period of silence exceeds a threshold, the
MG assumes a control connection failure with that MGC.

Active Heartbeat mode:

The MG checks the connectivity with the MGC at regular time interval by means of
the notify package. The following modes are supported:
- Configured heartbeat interval: The interval by which the notify packages are
initiated by the MG is provisioned.
- Learnt heartbeat interval: The interval by which the notify packages are initiated
by the MG is learnt from the Inactivity Timer package notification of the MGC.
The system decides upon a failure of the current control association from the
moment 7 subsequent notify packages were not replied by the MGC.
A Notify package is sent on the condition that no other Megaco message is
received from the MGC within the learnt/configured heartbeat interval.
Passive Heartbeat mode:
The MGC checks the connectivity with the MG at regular time interval by means of
the audit package. The following modes are supported:
- Configured heartbeat interval: The interval by which the audit packages are
initiated by the MGC is provisioned.
- Learnt heartbeat interval: The interval by which the audit packages are initiated
by the MGC is dynamically learnt by the MG. The MG awaits 3 consecutive audit
packages from the MGC to calculate the heartbeat interval.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The system decides upon a failure of the current control association from the
moment 8 subsequent heartbeat intervals have passed without receiving neither an
audit nor a regular Megaco package from the MGC.
Megaco ISAM Voice: Network Local-Redundancy

Network Local-Redundancy implies the provisioning, at ISAM Voice side, of:

either a single Softswitch and a single Application Server Process (ASP). At the
network side, both instances of the Softswitch together with both instances of the
ASP share the same IP address; see Figure 12-101.
or a single Softswitch and two ASP instances.
At the network side, both instances of the Softswitch share the same IP address
while each instance of the ASP owns a different IP address which is different
form the IP address shared by the Softswitch instances; see Figure 12-102.
Figure 12-101 Single Softswitch and single ASP
MGC1
Active

ISAM Voice

so

s
la

cia

tro

8
.24

IP address of MGI
IP address of SGI

tio

MG/SG
co

tion
ssocia

H
ol a
contr
SCTP

IP@_1

ASP1
Active
IP@_1

H.248
contr
ol ass
SC
ociati
TP
on
co
ntr
ol
as
so
cia
tio
n

MGC2
Standby
IP@_1

ASP2
Standby
IP@_1

Figure 12-102 Single Softswitch and two ASPs


MGC1
Active

ISAM Voice
on

MG/SG

oc

nt

rol

8
.24

IP address of MGI
IP address of SGI

co

s
as

i
iat

tion
ssocia

H
ol a
contr
SCTP

H.248
contr
ol ass
SC
ociati
TP
on
co
ntr
ol
as
so
cia
tio
n

IP@_1

ASP1
Active
IP@_2

MGC2
Standby
IP@_1

ASP2
Standby
IP@_3

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

A Softswitch switch-over is fully transparent to the MG, however it cannot be


guaranteed that the same applies to the ASP switch-over. In the latter case, usually
the following scenario is followed:

Upon ASP/SCTP switch-over, the new active SCTP instance initiates an SCTP
INIT to the MG.

Upon the receipt of such SCTP-INIT, the MG starts the recovery timer T(r), does

not remove any termination context and starts queuing Q.931 messages for
terminations involved in a stable ISDN call (Q.931 messages from terminations
involved in calls that have not reached the stable phase are NOT queued).
In compliancy to RFC4233, the recovery timer T(r) can be configured to a value
in the range 1 - 5 s in the ISAM Voice CDE profile
The MG is able to buffer Q.931 messages for up to 564 stable ISDN calls with the
restriction that only the most recent Q.931 data message is queued.
Upon the receipt of ASP active notification, prior to T(r) expiry, all the buffered
Q.931 messages are sent to the active ASP. The MG gradually forwards the
messages to the new active ASP as to avoid ASP overload.
Should the recovery timer expire prior to the receipt of an ASP active notification,
then ISAM Voice turns the signaling gateway status to operational down, drops
the queued Q.931 messages, removes all ISDN termination contexts and sends
Service Change 904 for all ISDN terminations
Note The buffer for queueing SCN messages is not synchronised
to the standby Voice Server.

Megaco ISAM Voice: ESA-Redundancy

An ESA Softswitch is to be understood as an MGC that supports a minimum feature


set, such that the basic and the emergency call can remain supported in situations of
a simultaneous failure of all usual MGCs (primary and secondary). In that respect, it
is assumed that the ESA Softswitch functionality is limited to:

Basic POTS calls (ISDN calls and supplementary services are not supported
during ESA mode activation).

Establishing calls between user ports controlled by the MG(s) that has (have) a
control association with the ESA SoftSwitch.
Emergency call.
Based on the above, ESA-Redundancy requires the provisioning of at least 2 MGCs
with the strict condition that the ESA softswitch must be provisioned as the lowest
priority MGC. The provisioning of both, Primary + ESA softswitch and Primary +
Secondary + ESA Softswitch is allowed.
In case of a failure of the Primary (Primary + ESA) or both simultaneously, Primary
and Secondary (Primary + Secondary + ESA) MGC, ISAM-V will make a
switch-over to the MGC with the lowest priority potentially allowing for the
preservation of stable calls. The possibility to preserve stable calls during a
switch-over depends on the capabilities supported by the MGC.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The ISAM-V, from a perception of being an MG, does not have any notion about the
capabilities of a SoftSwitch being configured as primary, secondary or tertiary MGC.
The ISAM-V treats all configured MGCs equally.
The ISAM-V assumes that:

The ESA SoftSwitch accepts on-hook notifications for calls that were
established in the course of the control association being established between the
MG and the Primary / Secondary MGC but finished in the course of the control
association being established between the MG and the ESA SoftSwitch.
The ESA SoftSwitch is responsible to subtract the contexts for calls that were
established in the course of the control association being established between the
MG and the Primary / Secondary MGC but finished in the course of the control
association being established between the MG and the ESA SoftSwitch.
The ESA SoftSwitch is responsible for the alive monitoring of Primary (and
Secondary) MGC when ESA mode being active.

While the ESA SoftSwitch has an active control relationship with the MG, it will

continuously monitor both the primary and the secondary MGC by repeating to send
a ServiceChange message with method = FailOver SVC Forced.
Should a reply ERROR 403 syntax Error be received from either the Primary or
the Secondary MGC, the ESA SoftSwitch will immediately send a ServiceChange
message with Method = HandOff and [Primary/Secondary MGC] address to the
ISAM Voice MG.
The capability of the ESA Softswitch to poll only one MGC or multiple MGCs does
not have any impact on the ISAM-V in its capacity as MG. This may only influence
the time period after which the usual voice service can be resumed.

Control association failure detection and switch-over from Primary/secondary MGC


to ESA MGC is identical as described for the GEO-Redundancy.
SIP ISAM Voice: SIP Server Redundancy and SIP Server Fail-Over /
Fail-Back

SIP Server Redundancy entails the grouping of individual SIP servers that as a group
can support the ability for a SIP User Agent in the access node to recover and resume
service in spite of a failure of one or multiple of the individual SIP servers.
Figure 12-103 SIP Server redundancy
L2 / L3
Network

Primary Site

I-CSCF

HSS

ISAM-V

Site connection

P-CSCF
1_1

ISAM-V

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S-CSCF

First Hop SIP Server Redundancy

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The ISAM Voice SIP User Agent supports the interworking with a group of first
hop SIP servers that form a SIP server redundancy group and whereby all SIP
servers get assigned a different priority. The SIP server with the highest priority acts
as the primary SIP server, while the rest of the SIP servers act as secondary SIP
servers. A first hop SIP Server is to be understood as the SIP Server being selected
by the SIP User Agent to send the initial REGISTER/INVITE requests. Such SIP
server redundancy group consist of a primary and one or multiple secondary SIP
servers.
A SIP server redundancy group can be provisioned by means of:

A Domain Name whereby the IP address of the individual SIP servers must be
resolved through the Domain Name Service NAPTR, SRV and A resource record
look-up,
A list of Fully Qualified Domain Names whereby the IP address of the individual
SIP servers must then be resolved through the Domain Name Service A resource
record look-up,
A list of IP addresses of the individual SIP Servers.
The SIP User Agent triggers autonomously a SIP server Fail-over upon the failure of
the actually selected first hop SIP server. A failure is to be understood as a situation
where a reply is no longer received for an out-of-dialog SIP request or the receipt of
an unsuccessful response code to an out-of-dialog SIP request. In the course of a SIP
Server Fail-Over, the SIP terminations that are currently registered via the failing SIP
server are moved to another SIP server within the same redundancy group.
The SIP server Fail-over trigger default conditions can be customized by means of
SIP Service Profile provisioning.
Once the failed primary SIP server is back in service, the SIP User Agent triggers
autonomously a SIP server Fail-back. In the course of a SIP server Fail-back, the SIP
terminations that are currently registered via a secondary SIP server are moved to the
primary SIP server within the same redundancy group.
The SIP server fail-back is performed gracefully meaning that the SIP User agent
triggers a fail-back for a SIP termination from the moment it has the on-hook state.
Neither ongoing dialogs nor ongoing transactions are interrupted.
Neither for the SIP server Fail-over nor for the SIP server fail-back ongoing dialogs
and transactions are transferred to the selected fail-over / fail-back SIP server, and
this neither at the signaling plane (SIP) nor at the media plane (RTP).
Foreground Service Health Monitoring

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Foreground Service Health Monitoring helps the SIP User Agent to rapidly detect
whether the currently selected first hop SIP server can still be addressed for new SIP
requests. Foreground Service Health Monitoring makes use of either the SIP
REGISTER or the SIP OPTIONS Method.

In case the SIP register method applies, one termination out of the group of
terminations re-registers with a configurable high frequent interval (typically 90
s) while the rest of the terminations re-register with the usual frequency. The
group of terminations must have the following in common (SIP Termination
Group):

These SIP terminations get the same service route returned upon successful
registration

These SIP terminations addressed the same First Hop SIP server for their initial
registration.

In case the SIP options method applies, the SIP User agent will periodically send
(period typically equals 90 s) a SIP options request to the active SIP first hop
server.
Passive Heartbeat
As opposed to Foreground Service Health Monitoring, the main purpose of the
Passive Heartbeat is to help the SIP first hop server to rapidly detect whether a SIP
user Agent can still be addressed for new SIP requests.
When Passive Heartbeat is enabled, the SIP User Agent must reply to the SIP
OPTIONS request that is periodically sent by the SIP first hop server.
The Passive Heartbeat interval configured at and used by the SIP first hop server can
also provisioned at the access node side.
By watching the regular receipt of a SIP OPTIONS request from the SIP first hop
server, the SIP User Agent is able to detect whether the SIP first hop server is still up
and running.
Note The Passive Heartbeat and Foreground Service Health
Monitoring methods are mutually exclusive.

Background Service Health Monitoring


Background Service Health Monitoring applies to all First Hop SIP Servers being a
fail-over candidate SIP server. The SIP user Agent transmits periodically
(configurable period) an out-of-dialog OPTIONS message to determine the health
status of the fail-over candidate First Hop SIP Server.
Having this information in advance helps to reduce the elapse time to perform
fail-over and subsequently the establishment of new call sessions.
Background Service Health Monitoring makes use of the OPTIONS method.
Fail-Over Hysteresis Threshold
In order to allow the SIP User Agent to distinguish accidental from persistent error
conditions and as such to prevent connection toggling between first hop SIP servers
within a redundancy group, a Fail-over Hysteresis Threshold can be configured.
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A SIP Server Fail-over is triggered from the moment the amount of error conditions
has exceeded the Fail-Over Hysteresis Threshold.
Stable Operation Observation Period
Stable operation observation intends to observe the stability of the SIP server once
this SIP server has resumed service after having failed.
Should an observed SIP server remain uninterrupted in-service from the start till the
expiry of the (configurable) stable operation observation period, then this SIP server
is declared stable and ready to be a fail-over / fail-back candidate SIP server.
The stable-operation observation starts from the moment a failed SIP server has
resumed operation, detected by the SIP User Agent via the background service health
monitoring.
Deliberate Update
For reason of maintenance activities, a SIP server may be temporarily put out of
service. To avoid service interruption, the ISAM-V allows to announce such
upcoming activity by an update of the list of SIP servers being part of a redundancy
group (DNS zone file, SIP server table).
In case such update is recognized by the SIP User Agent and the removed SIP server
is a SIP server via which SIP terminations are registered, then the SIP User Agent
will trigger a Fail-over to the highest priority SIP Server still present in the list.
A Deliberate Update is performed gracefully meaning that the SIP User agent
triggers a fail-over for a SIP termination from the moment it has the on-hook state.
Neither ongoing dialogs nor ongoing transactions are interrupted.
SIP ISAM Voice: GEO Redundancy and GEO Fail-Over / Fail-Back

Geographic redundancy entails the physical distribution of individual SIP servers or


SIP server redundancy groups that can support the ability for a SIP User Agent in the
access node to recover and resume service in spite of a failure or a catastrophe at a
particular physical location.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-104 SIP GEO redundancy
L2 / L3
Network

GEO Primary Site

I-CSCF

HSS

ISAM-V

GEO primary site connection

GEO back-up site connection

P-CSCF
1_1

S-CSCF

GEO Back-up Site


ISAM-V

GEO
redundancy

GEO Back-up Site

I-CSCF

HSS

ISAM-V

GEO primary site connection


P-CSCF
1_1

S-CSCF

GEO back-up site connection

GEO Primary Site


ISAM-V

The ISAM Voice SIP User Agent supports the interworking with a first hop
Geo-redundant SIP server topology.
A Geo-redundant SIP server topology can be provisioned by means of:

The Domain Names of the geo primary and geo back-up site whereby the IP
address of the individual SIP servers of these sites must be resolved through the
Domain Name Service NAPTR, SRV and A resource record look-up,
A list of Fully Qualified Domain Names for both the geo primary and the geo
back-up site whereby the IP address of the individual SIP servers must then be
resolved through the Domain Name Service A resource record look-up,
A list of IP addresses of the individual SIP Servers for both the geo primary and
the geo back-up site.
The SIP User Agent triggers a Geo Fail-Over / Geo Fail-Back upon explicit request
of the operator. See the related documents for detailed information and the detailed
command definitions for initiating such Geo Fail-Over / Geo Fail-back (ISAM
Operations and Maintenance Guide Using CLI).
The ISAM-V supports manually triggered GRACEFUL GEO Fail-over / Fail-Back,
meaning that a SIP termination is individually moved to the GEO Back-Up / Primary
site on the condition that the SIP termination has the call state on-hook. For any
other call state, the system will defer the GEO Fail-Over for this SIP termination till
the call state has become on-hook.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The ISAM-V supports manually triggered FORCED GEO Fail-over / Fail-Back,


meaning that all ongoing dialogs and transactions are immediately aborted and that
all SIP terminations become immediately moved to the GEO Back-up / Primary site
(The system does not await the on-hook call state of the SIP termination to perform
the GEO Fail-over / Fail-Back).
Neither in the graceful, nor in the forced GEO Fail-over / Fail-back, ongoing dialogs
and transactions are transferred, and this neither at the signaling plane (SIP) nor at
the media plane (RTP).
SIP ISAM Voice: ESA Redundancy and ESA Fail-Over / Fail-Back

Emergency StandAlone redundancy is considered to be a restrictive redundancy


mode of the GEO redundancy. The ESA Primary side has an identical SIP server
topology as if it was a Geo Primary side. However, the Back-up side only hosts a
single ESA SIP server that locally maintains the subscriber database, consistent with
the ESA Primary site IMS provisioning, and that supports a minimum call handling
feature set:

The Basic Call Service.


Special lines can be directly connected to Emergency Offices for Emergency Call
The Billing system is not available
Figure 12-105 SIP ESA redundancy
L2 / L3
Network

ESAPrimary Site

I-CSCF

HSS

ISAM-V

ESA Primary
Site connection

P-CSCF
1_1

S-CSCF

First Hop SIP Server Redundancy

ISAM-V

ESA redundancy

ESA Back-up
Site connection

ESA
SIP server

The ISAM-V triggers an autonomous ESA Fail-Over at the moment that the
connectivity with the ESA Primary Site has completely been lost (none of the First
Hop SIP servers at the ESA primary sites are still addressable).
A SIP termination is individually moved to the ESA Back-Up site on the condition
that the SIP termination is not involved in a stable call. For any other call state, the
system will defer the ESA Fail-Over for this SIP termination till the call state has
become on-hook.

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The ISAM-V does not support the DNS location service for the ESA Back-up site.
The ISAM-V triggers an autonomous ESA Fail-Back at the moment that at least one
of the SIP servers located at the ESA Primary Site can again be addressed.
A SIP termination is individually moved to the ESA Primary site on the condition
that the SIP termination has the call state on-hook. For any other call state, the
system will defer the ESA Fail-Back for this SIP termination till the call state has
become on-hook.
The ISAM-V does not transfer neither ongoing dialogs nor ongoing transactions to
the ESA Primary / Back-up site, and this neither at the signaling plane (SIP) nor at
the media plane (RTP).
SIP ISAM Voice: NT switch-over interaction with SIP server Redundancy

The Voice LT board monitors the receipt of the Uplink Switch-over notification from
the NT. Upon the receipt of this signal, meaning that an NT switch-over was
triggered, the LT board starts a 3 minutes restoration-blocked timer. While this
timer is running, the complete Geo and SIP server Fail-over / Fail-back handling
becomes blocked meaning that neither a SIP server Fail-over, nor a SIP server
Fail-back, Geo Fail-Over or Geo Fail-back can be triggered and this neither
autonomously nor manually.
The ISAM-V does not block any out-of-dialog request, any in-dialog request,
foreground health service monitoring, background health service health monitoring,
DNS look-up request during the period that the restoration-blocked timer is
running.

Overload Protection
Megaco ISAM Voice: MG (ISAM Voice Server) Overload Protection

The overload protection, based on software Watchdog monitoring, as supported by


the Voice server aims at guaranteeing self-protection and robustness for the ISAM
Voice.
Software Watchdog Monitoring
The Software Watchdog monitors the system in verifying whether all defined
software tasks become scheduled in a reasonable time frame. Should this not be the
case anymore, the software Watchdog will trigger a software application-defined
call-back function in trying to resolve the actual CPU overload problem. The actions
taken by the several software applications depend on these software application
policies.
The responsibility of the software Watchdog is to detect that there is a problem in the
system, not to resolve the problem. The latter aspect is the responsibility of the
clients that subscribed to the software Watchdog warnings.

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An overload situation is reached when the Voice server runs at 100% of its CPU
capacity. In such a situation, the received Megaco packets get a priority treatment;
Received Line events (off-hook, on-hook, flash-hook, dialed digits) run the risk to
be ignored. This depends on the robustness level being applicable at that moment:

Robustness Level 1: reached when the Voice Server remains running at 100% of
its CPU capacity during the next 40 seconds.

A Megaco ADD command being received from the MGC is replied with error 510
(Insufficient Resources).

Any incoming auditvalue or auditcapability command is discarded (this


includes the heartbeat audit too).

Robustness level 2: reached when the Voice Server runs in Level 1 mode and
remains running at 100% of its CPU capacity during the next 160 seconds.

Any new Megaco command (Add, Modify, Subtract, Move, AuditValue,

AuditCapabilities and ServiceChange) being received from the MGC is discarded


by the Voice server.
Intra voice subsystem polling intervals are enlarged (This also includes the intervals
to establish / maintain the XLES connection with the voice LT boards)
Commands been received from the MGC but not yet replied by the Voice server, are
treated with long timer timeout; no pending will be sent for those transactions.

Robustness level 3: reached when the Voice server runs in Level 2 mode and
remains running at 100% of its CPU capacity during the next 320 seconds.

The Voice server initiates a board reset.


Outgoing Megaco packets as well as outgoing internal signaling (XLES) packets
remain treated as is the case when the Voice server runs in a non-overload situation.
MG Control Overload package
An additional overload mechanism based on CPU load monitoring and in line with
H.248.11 (MG Control Overload Package) is implemented (ocp).
This package protects an MG from processing overload that prevents the timely
execution of Megaco transactions.
The MGC, supporting the MG Control Overload Package, adaptively throttles the
rate with which it sets up calls using the ISAM Voice Server to maximize the
effective throughput of the MG while bounding its response times.
It does this by throttling the rate at which transactions that set-up new calls or that
new call legs are sent to the overloaded MG, so the rate of overload notifications
which the MGC receives from the overloaded MG converges to a suitably low level.
To prevent a toggling between CPU-overload and end-of-CPU-overload, an (End of)
Overload Persistency Time has been introduced.
The Overload Persistency Time is the time period the CPU load of the ISAM Voice
Server must exceed the High-Water-Mark before it can enter the CPU overload state.
Similarly, the End of Overload Persistency Time is the time period the CPU load of
the ISAM Voice Server must be below the Low-Water-Mark before it leaves the
CPU overload state.

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The End of Overload Persistency Time is set larger than the Overload Persistency
time to ensure that the CPU load is for a sufficient long time below the
Low-Water-Mark as not to immediately cause a new CPU overload situation.

CPU load monitoring:


Monitors the overall CPU load of the Voice server by measuring the run time of the
IDLE task.

Informs registered software applications in case of overload detection


Upon being notified of an overload situation, the software application takes action
to reduce the load.

CPU load monitoring parameters (not configurable):

High water (percentage): 95% (5% IDLE task)


Low water (percentage): 93% (7% IDLE task)
Overload persistency (time): 2000 ms
End of overload persistency (time): 3000 ms
Sample interval (time): 1000 ms (each sample period, the CPU load (as a
function of the time given to the idle task) is measured)

Upon the receipt of Overload-condition notification, the Voice server takes the
following actions:

If requested by MGC and after having received and replied to a Megaco ADD

command, report the ocp/mg_overload event (irrespective of the events reporting


settings being configured in the H.248 MIB.
If not requested by the MGC, reports the ocp/mg_overload event if the
MG-Overload event is enabled in the H.248 MIB (after having received and replied
to a Megaco ADD command).
Raise the MG-Overload alarm.

Upon the receipt of Overload-condition-Ended notification, the Voice server


takes the following actions:

Stop the reporting ocp/mg_overload event.


Clear the MG-Overload alarm
SIP ISAM Voice: SIP Overload Handling

Transactions are the main building blocks of the SIP protocol; Each dialog is
composed out of a number of independent message exchanges called transactions.
A SIP transaction consists of a single request and any responses to that request,
which include zero or more provisional responses and a final response.
Limiting the total number of simultaneous active transactions at the LT board level
has proven to be an effective way to safeguard the system. By introducing a
Maximum Transaction Limit (MaxTx), the LT board becomes protected against
consuming all the available system resources when high loads of incoming SIP
traffic need to be processed.
The MaxTx value is an internal system dimensioning parameter set by ALU in
accordance with the engineered capacity of the system. However, if MaxTx Limit is
reached, the system does not simply react by gently rejecting all new, incoming,
out-of-dialog SIP requests by sending a 503 Service Unavailable response
including a Retry-After header.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Instead, the following rules were incorporated as a local prioritization policy when
applying the MaxTx Limit:

Requests for ongoing sessions have priority over requests that setup a new
session.

Response messages are not be targeted by overload protection.


Requests that relieve stress from the system are not targeted by overload
protection mechanisms

Outgoing calls/requests are not subjected to MaxTx


The following incoming SIP requests are considered priority requests:

Session refreshes (in-dialog INVITE requests with Session-Expires header)


in-dialog requests such as BYE, PRACK, UPDATE and INFO
CANCEL requests
out-of-dialog OPTIONS requests (typically used for heartbeat/polling)

Figure 12-106 shows the system behavior.


Figure 12-106 SIP overload handling
Nbr of transactions in use

Zone 3
Total Tx Limit

margin

Zone 2
MaxTx limit

Zone 1

time

Zone 1: Incoming traffic stays below Max Tx Limit: All incoming SIP requests
are accepted
Zone 2: Incoming traffic rises above MaxTx but below Total Tx Limit: All
low-priority SIP requests are rejected with a 503 Service Unavailable response;
High priority requests are still handled
Zone 3: Incoming traffic reaches Total Tx Limit: No more SIP transactions
available in the system; All incoming SIP requests are rejected with a 503 Service
Unavailable response

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12.13

Quality of Service
For VoIP to be a realistic replacement for standard public switched telephone
network (PSTN) telephony services, customers need to receive the same quality of
voice transmission they receive with basic telephone services, meaning consistently
high-quality voice transmissions. Like other real-time applications, VoIP is
extremely sensitive with regard to bandwidth and delay. For VoIP transmissions to
be intelligible to the receiver, voice packets should not be dropped, excessively
delayed, or suffer varying delay (otherwise known as jitter).
VoIP can guarantee high-quality voice transmission only if the voice packets, for
both the signaling and the voice channel, are given priority over other kinds of
network traffic.
For VoIP to be deployed so that users receive an acceptable level of voice quality,
VoIP traffic must be guaranteed certain compensating bandwidth, latency, and jitter
requirements. QOS ensures that VoIP voice packets receive the preferential
treatment they require.
P-bit marking (layer 2) and DSCP marking (layer 3) for signaling and voice
(including fax and modem) traffic are supported.
The p-bit as well as the DSCP values are configurable for signaling and voice traffic

Megaco ISAM Voice


Signaling traffic: The p-bit and DSCP values are configurable at Media Gateway
level.

Voice traffic (including fax and modem): The p-bit and DSCP values are
configurable at Media Gateway and Termination level.

SIP ISAM Voice


Signaling traffic: the p-bit and DSCP values are configurable at SIP UA level.
Voice traffic (including fax and modem): the p-bit and DSCP values are
configurable at SIP UA level.

12.14

DNS interworking
Megaco ISAM Voice
DNS interworking is not supported for Megaco ISAM Voice.

SIP ISAM Voice


The usual Management interface (SNMP, CLI) allows configuring the SIP servers
by manual input or for these values to be retrieved through DNS access.
In the latter case, either the Domain Name or the Fully Qualified Domain Name
(FQDN) must be specified to allow the system to resolve the related IP address by
making use of the Domain Name Service.

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To resolve Domain names and/or Fully Qualified Domain Names, the ISAM Voice
supports the NAPTR, SRV and/or A resource record look-up to recursive Domain
Name Servers.
ISAM Voice supports DNS server redundancy with configurable DNS server
selection mode:

dns_redun_primary:
Multiple DNS servers can be provisioned whereby the DNS Server being
provisioned with the highest priority is addressed as the primary DNS server.
Any new DNS look-up request gets always sent to the highest priority DNS server
irrespective of whether the previous DNS look-up request got replied by the
highest priority DNS server or not.
Should no reply be received from the primary DNS Server, then the DNS look-up
is repeated to the DNS server with the next higher priority in the list. This repeat
cycle may be continued till a reply is received from a particular DNS server in the
list or the end of the list is reached.
Should all Domain Name servers once been queried but without success and the
DNS Maximum Number of Retransmissions parameter has been provisioned with
a value different from zero, then the ISAM Voice shall again retransmit the DNS
look-up to the Name Servers in the list, starting again with the highest priority
DNS server. Should still no reply be received from none of the DNS servers in
the list, then the re-initiation of the DNS look-up over the complete list will be
repeated for as many times as provisioned in the afore mentioned parameter.
Upon the maximum number of Retransmissions been handled, an alarm is raised
notifying the customer that none of the DNS servers do reply.
dns-redun-successful:
Multiple DNS servers can be provisioned, The very first DNS look-up is
addressed to the DNS Server being provisioned with the highest priority.
Any new DNS look-up request gets sent to the DNS server that successfully
replied to the previous DNS look-up request. This DNS server remains addressed
for as long as a reply gets received from this DNS server during the initial
retransmission interval.
However, when no response is received in the initial retransmission interval then
the query is repeated to the DNS server with the next higher priority in the list.
When no response is received after all provisioned DNS servers have been tried,
the above procedure continues for another two retries with an exponentially
increasing time-interval.
If three DNS servers were configured, and the primary DNS server fails, while
the query to the second DNS server gets successfully replied, then the following
DNS query will start from the seconds DNS server. But if now the second DNS
server also fails, the query will be repeated to the third DNS server. The overall
retrying sequence in this loop shall be 2, 3, 1 before giving up.
If all three DNS servers fail after three times retransmission, the next loop query
shall be trying from the primary DNS server and the trying sequence is 1, 2, 3.
To support the Domain Name Service for GEO redundant network topologies, the
ISAM Voice allows to provision a separate list of DNS servers for the Geo Primary
and the Geo Back-up site.
The ISAM Voice caches the retrieved NAPTR, SRV and A resource records for a
period equals
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{MIN {DNS Purge Time; MIN of [NAPTR,SRV,A] TTL values for a particular DN}}
whereby the provisionable DNS Purge Timer allows to limit the TTL value, should
some of the resource records own an excessively long TTL value.
In order to reduce the call set-up elapse time and/or to reduce the burden on the
network, where possible, the DNS Resolver limits the number of DNS queries to a
strict minimum. This is achieved by supporting the additional section in the DNS
server reply.

12.15

BITS Support
An accurate synchronization is mandatory for the voice service, especially for
voice-band-data services and ISDN services. The NT can be connecting by an
external BITS clock or using its integrated BITS module (< 5ppm) to reach a decent
voice quality. The NTs without BITS module (50ppm) are not valid and not
permitted for voice application.

12.16

Narrowband Line Testing


Megaco ISAM Voice
See chapter Line testing features.

SIP ISAM Voice


See chapter Line testing features.

12.17

Termination local loop unbundling


ISAM Voice with Combo practice has been optimized for the combo service
deployment (combined PSTN and xDSL services).
In such a situation it might be possible that subscribers desire to have the xDSL
service provided by a different service provider than the integrated voice service.
This can be achieved through a correct configuration of the Local Loop Unbundling
relay (configurable on a per subscriber basis).
The default setting of the LLU relay is that there is only a straight connection of the
subscriber copper pair to the Voice LT.

Megaco ISAM Voice


Local loop unbundling is supported.

SIP ISAM Voice


Local loop unbundling is supported.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

12.18

Alarm Treatment
Alarm Definition
Megaco Based ISAM Voice

Alarms are defined to warn the customer about:

A loss of the Control Association with the Media Gateway Controller.


A loss of the Control Association with the ASP.
A loss of the XLES connection between the Voice server and voice LT board.
A mismatch between the planned and the actually equipped voice LT board type.
A H.248 subscriber been configured at the ISAM Voice is not known by the
Media Gateway Controller.
The current threshold of the physical POTS port being exceeded.
The temperature threshold of the physical POTS port being exceeded.
A L1 activation failure at an ISDN lines.
The current threshold of the physical ISDN port being exceeded. (One of the 2
wires is grounded).
Line showering.
The Voice Server having lost all persistent data after board reset.
The Voice Server database storage area at the board being occupied for at least
90%.
The Voice Server not being able to activate the most recent downloaded database.
Media gateway overload.
A Voice Database corruption.
An invalid CDE file.
The CDE file being missing.
A CDE file activation failure due to hash key mismatch.

SIP Based ISAM Voice

Alarms are defined to warn the customer about:

The Digit Map that is not usable.


A lack of resources that prohibits the Voice LT board from establishing additional

calls.
The DHCP server that is not reachable.
A SIP first hop server that is not reachable.
The register server that is not reachable.
A SIP subscriber been configured at the ISAM Voice not known by the IMS core
network.
The current threshold of the physical POTS port being exceeded. (One of the 2
wires is grounded).
The temperature threshold of the physical POTS port being exceeded.
A SIP Registration request failure due to a domain name being unresolvable.
A SIP Registration request failure due to an authentication failure.

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A SIP Registration request failure due to a transaction timeout.


A SIP Registration request failure due to a non-successful response.
A SIP Invite request failure due to a domain name being unresolvable.
A SIP Invite request failure due to an authentication failure.
A SIP Invite request failure due to a transaction timeout.
A SIP Invite request failure due to a non-successful response.
A SIP Subscribe request failure due to a non-successful response.
Jitter Buffer Fill Level TCA threshold being exceeded.
A DNS look-up failure.
Not any DNS server being configured.
None of the SIP first hop servers do still reply.
Not any SIP first hop server being configured.
A mismatch between the transport protocol(s) actually supported by ISAM Voice
and the transport protocol(s) to be used to access a SIP first hop.
A Voice Database corruption.
An invalid CDE file.
The CDE file being missing.
A CDE file activation failure due to hash key mismatch.

Subscriber Line Showering


Megaco Based ISAM Voice

In case the amount of on-hook and/or off-hook events for a particular subscriber line
exceeds 20 events / minute, the subscriber line will be put in Line Showering state,
this service change is notified to the Media Gateway Controller and an alarm is
raised.
This means that all subsequent events still occurring on this subscriber line will be
ignored by the system; the subscriber is not able anymore to make outgoing calls nor
is the subscriber able to receive terminating calls.
Also from a narrowband line test perspective, when in showering state, the
subscriber line is observed as being out-of-service.
Once the amount of on-hook and/or off-hook events decreases to less than 10 events
/ minute, the system will put the subscriber line back into normal operation state.
The upper and lower event thresholds are not configurable, neither in the CDE
profile nor in the MIB.
SIP Based ISAM Voice

In case the amount of on-hook and/or off-hook events for a particular subscriber line
exceeds 20 events / minute, the subscriber line will be put in Line Showering state.
No alarm is raised; The system continues to handle the subscriber line being put in
showering state as if it was not put in this state.

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12.19

Lawful Intercept
Overall Lawful Intercept strategy
The global Lawful Intercept (LI) solution complies with the international
standardization definition of ETSI TISPAN WG7 and ES 201 671(ETSI TC LI). LI
is considered to be fully transparent for ISAM Voice access node:

Voice packet replication is assumed to be done by external equipment situated in


the voice network.
The control path is assumed to provide the IP address of the external equipment
as the destination address of the bearer channel.

Megaco ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding (EPF)


In order to support Lawful Intercept, voice traffic exchanged between two voice
termination points must be intercepted by an interception point (CCIF and IRIIF)
prior to receipt at the destination voice termination point.
In the feature described hereafter, the interception point is situated outside the ISAM
Voice access node, further upstream in the voice network of the customer.
Obviously, all voice traffic originating at an ISAM Voice access node and destined
to either a termination point connected to the same ISAM Voice access node, or a
termination point connected to an ISAM Voice access node that subtends to the
originating ISAM Voice, or a termination point connected to a remote ISAM Voice
access node, or a termination point that resides outside the ISAM Voice cluster, must
be brought outside of the originating ISAM Voice access node as to allow this voice
traffic to be tapped to the Lawful Intercept device.
To serve such Lawful intercept topology, Megaco ISAM Voice allows enabling the
External Packet Forwarding facility. In addition, the EPF facility requires the IP
address of the external device to which the voice traffic is to be forwarded as a
configuration input. The external destination device must be directly connected to
the ISAM Voice.
When EPF is enabled, all voice traffic that originates from a voice termination point
A connected to the ISAM Voice and destined to a voice termination point B, either
connected to the same ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that subtends
to the former ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that together with the
former ISAM Voice subtends to the same Hub ISAM Voice, or to an ISAM Voice
connected by means of a layer 2/layer 3 aggregation network with the former ISAM
Voice, is forwarded in upstream direction to the external device as being pointed to
by the configured IP address prior to the downstream forwarding to the destined
voice termination point.
The same forwarding principle as mentioned before, applies when either voice
termination point A or voice termination point B becomes replaced by the Voice
server due to the support of some supplementary services or the support of an
optimized IP addressing scheme.
Local ISAM Voice RTP traffic switching:

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To allow the support of the External Packet Forwarding facility, the RTP traffic will
always be switched along the IHub, even if the two voice terminations among which
the RTP traffic is to be exchanged are connected to the same voice LT board.
Restrictions:
1

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on all equipment practices.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on the HUB, Subtending


and Remote ISAM Voice access nodes.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on VLANS of type


Voice-VLAN and Residential Bridge/v-VPLS.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports L2 aggregated network links


through static L2 aggregation group configuration.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports L2 aggregated network links


through LACP.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports xSTP.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported for POTS only.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported in case the ISAM Voice
Access node connects directly or by means of (an) intermediate ISAM Voice
access node(s) to the external EPF device by means of a L2 switching network.

Supporting (enabling) the External Packet Forwarding facility is mutual


exclusive to the support (configuration) of the private IP addressing topology (IP
Address and IP Subnet reduction topology).

10 The External Packet Forwarding facility shall only be enabled for the VLAN that
carries the RTP traffic (might be a vlan sharing both RTP and signaling traffic).
11 The External EPF device must allow to disable the ICMP Redirect facility.

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Figure 12-107 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched device - External Packet Forwarding
enabled
Main node

Remote node
NT board

NT board

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

L2
aggregation
network

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

ASP

MGC

Voice LT
board

Edge Router serves as


"external device" from
where the voice traffic
is tapped to the LI device

SoftSwitch

Figure 12-108 Megaco ISAM Voice - Switched device - External Packet Forwarding
disabled
Main node

Remote node
NT board

NT board

Signaling
IP address Voice

server
XLES
IP address
Voice LT
board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

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SIP ISAM Voice: External Packet Forwarding (EPF)


In order to support Lawful Intercept, voice traffic exchanged between 2 voice
termination points must be intercepted by an interception point (CCIF and IRIIF)
prior to receipt at the destination voice termination point.
In the feature described hereafter, the interception point is situated outside the ISAM
Voice access node, further upstream in the voice network of the customer.
Obviously, all voice traffic originating at an ISAM Voice access node and destined
to either a termination point connected to the same ISAM Voice access node, or a
termination point connected to an ISAM Voice access node that subtends to the
originating ISAM Voice, or a termination point that resides outside the ISAM Voice,
must be brought outside of the originating ISAM Voice access node to allow this
voice traffic to be tapped to the Lawful Intercept device.
To serve such Lawful intercept topology, SIP ISAM Voice allows enabling the
External Packet Forwarding facility. In addition, the EPF facility requires the IP
address of the external device to which the voice traffic is to be forwarded as a
configuration input. The external destination device must be directly connected to
the ISAM Voice.
When EPF is enabled, all voice traffic that originates from a voice termination point
A connected to the ISAM Voice and destined to a voice termination point B, either
connected to the same ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that subtends
to the former ISAM Voice, or connected to an ISAM Voice that together with the
former ISAM Voice subtends to the same Hub ISAM Voice, is forwarded in
upstream direction to the external device as being pointed to by the configured IP
address prior to the downstream forwarding to the destined voice termination point.
Local ISAM Voice RTP traffic switching:
To allow the support of the External Packet Forwarding facility, the RTP traffic will
always be switched along the IHub, even if the 2 voice terminations among which
the RTP traffic is to be exchanged are connected to the same voice LT board.
This RTP switching model applies to the SIP Centralised Model only.
(SIP Distributed model: when RTP traffic is to be exchanged among 2 voice
terminations connected to the same voice LT board, the RTP traffic is switched
internally at the voice LT board.)
Restrictions:

12-118

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on all equipment practices.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on the HUB, Subtending


and Remote ISAM Voice access nodes.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported on VLANS of type


Voice-VLAN and Residential Bridge/v-VPLS.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports L2 aggregated network links


through static L2 aggregation group configuration.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports L2 aggregated network links


through LACP.

The External Packet Forwarding facility supports xSTP.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported for POTS only.

The External Packet Forwarding facility is supported in case the ISAM Voice
Access node connects directly or by means of (an) intermediate ISAM Voice
access node(s) to the external EPF device by means of a L2 switching network.

Supporting (enabling) the External Packet Forwarding facility is mutual


exclusive to the support (configuration) of the private IP addressing topology (IP
Address & IP Subnet reduction topology).

10 The External Packet Forwarding facility shall only be enabled for the VLAN that
carries the RTP traffic (might be a vlan sharing both RTP and signaling traffic).
11 The External EPF device must allow to disable the ICMP Redirect facility.
Figure 12-109 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched device - External Packet Forwarding
enabled
Main node

Remote node

Voice LT
board

NT board

NT board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

ASP

MGC

Voice LT
board

Edge Router serves as


"external device" from
where the voice traffic
is tapped to the LI device

SoftSwitch

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-110 SIP ISAM Voice - Switched device - External Packet Forwarding
disabled
Main node

Remote node

Voice LT
board

NT board

NT board

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

L2
aggregation
network

Remote node

Subtending node

NT board

Voice LT
board

Voice LT
board

NT board

L3
aggregation
network

IHub Voice
IP address

IHub Voice
IP address

Voice LT
board

ASP

MGC

SoftSwitch

12.20

ISAM Voice migration


Off-line Software Migration
The ISAM Voice uses the ISAM offline migration procedure, that is, the integrated
voice service databases and related CDE profiles are considered to be an integral part
of the ISAM offline database migration (next to the NT and IHub databases). This
implies that at software migration time:

The integrated voice service databases and related CDE profiles are uploaded to
the migration server offline migrated via the Push Button Migration Tool.

The offline migrated integrated voice service database and associated CDE
profiles are downloaded to the ISAM and activated together with the new
software package.
Megaco ISAM Voice off-line software migration

An Upgrade/Migration cluster is the aggregation of all ISAM Voice clusters


served by a hub ISAM Voice node, this hub ISAM Voice node included.
Note The following restriction applies:

All Voice servers equipped in a hub ISAM Voice node are supervised
by one and the same Voice Service Provider.

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

In order for the integrated voice service to work correctly, the same software package
must be downloaded to all ISAM Voice nodes of an ISAM Voice cluster, that is, in
particular with focus on the integrated voice service, the software (maintenance)
release on the voice LT boards must be the same as the software (maintenance)
release on the Voice server and this for the complete ISAM Voice cluster.
The same applies within one ISAM Voice node. Only one software (maintenance)
release can be active at an ISAM Voice node at the same time.
This implies that all Voice server pairs in the hub ISAM Voice node must run the
same software (maintenance) release. As a consequence, for the integrated voice
service to work, all ISAM Voice nodes within the same upgrade/migration cluster
must be on the same software (maintenance) release.
The above rules imply that for both a software upgrade and a software migration, the
upgrade/offline migration procedure for the full upgrade/migration cluster must be
completed in a single maintenance window.
Figure 12-111 Voice upgrade/migration cluster (centralized topology)
Voice Upgrade / Migration Cluster concept in the context of
a Centralised Voice Topology.

Upgrade / Migration Cluster


Main ISAM Voice Node
Voice
Server
Pair 1

Voice
Server
Pair 2

Voice
Server
Pair 3

Voice
Server
Pair 4

Voice
Server
Pair 5

Voice
Server
Pair 6

Voice
Server
Pair 7

LTs
Non-main
node 1a

LTs
Non-main
node 2a

LTs
Non-main
node 3a

LTs
Non-main
node 4a

LTs
Non-main
node 5a

LTs
Non-main
node 6a

LTs
Non-main
node 7a

LTs
Non-main
node 8a

LTs
Non-main
node 1b

LTs
Non-main
node 2b

LTs
Non-main
node 3b

LTs
Non-main
node 4b

LTs
Non-main
node 5b

LTs
Non-main
node 6b

LTs
Non-main
node 7b

LTs
Non-main
node 8b

LTs
Non-main
node 1x

LTs
Non-main
node 2x

LTs
Non-main
node 3x

LTs
Non-main
node 4x

LTs
Non-main
node 5x

LTs
Non-main
node 6x

LTs
Non-main
node 7x

LTs
Non-main
node 8x

Voice
Cluster 1

Voice
Cluster 2

Voice
Cluster 3

Voice
Cluster 4

Voice
Cluster 5

Voice
Cluster 6

Voice
Cluster 7

Voice
Cluster 8

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Voice
Server
Pair 8

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture


Figure 12-112 Voice upgrade/migration cluster (distributed topology)
Voice Upgrade / Migration Cluster concept in the context of
a Distributed Voice Topology.

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 1

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 2

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 3

Main ISAM
Voice Node 1

Main ISAM
Voice Node 2

Main ISAM
Voice Node 3

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 4
Main ISAM
Voice Node 4

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 5
Main ISAM
Voice Node 5

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 6
Main ISAM
Voice Node 6

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 7
Main ISAM
Voice Node 7

Upgrade /
Migration
Cluster 8
Main ISAM
Voice Node 8

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

Voice
Server
Pair

LTs
Non -main
node 1a

LTs
Non -main
node 2a

LTs
Non -main
node 3a

LTs
Non -main
node 4a

LTs
Non -main
node 5a

LTs
Non -main
node 6a

LTs
Non -main
node 7a

LTs
Non -main
node 8a

LTs
Non -main
node 1b

LTs
Non -main
node 2b

LTs
Non -main
node 3b

LTs
Non -main
node 4b

LTs
Non -main
node 5b

LTs
Non -main
node 6b

LTs
Non -main
node 7b

LTs
Non -main
node 8b

LTs
Non -main
node 1x

LTs
Non -main
node 2x

LTs
Non -main
node 3x

LTs
Non -main
node 4x

LTs
Non -main
node 5x

LTs
Non -main
node 6x

LTs
Non -main
node 7x

LTs
Non -main
node 8x

Voice
Cluster 1

Voice
Cluster 2

Voice
Cluster 3

Voice
Cluster 4

Voice
Cluster 5

Voice
Cluster 6

Voice
Cluster 7

Voice
Cluster 8

Megaco ISAM Voice Backwards Compatibility in the Migration Scenario


Under the conditions and constraints as stipulated in the section below, ISAM Voice
indeed strives for backwards compatibility between releases, starting from R4.0v
onwards, in that any next voice release after R4.0v will take backwards compatibility
into account. That is, both the R4.0v maintenance releases and the R4.1v releases
(main and maintenance) will take into account backwards compatibility with R4.0v.
Disclaimer: Alcatel-Lucent, though remaining confident that this might be a rare
case, is not in a position to guarantee backwards compatibility at all time, as, due to
new feature introduction or problem resolution reasons, Alcatel-Lucent can be
forced to break the backwards compatibility in a certain release, even under the
conditions and constraints as stipulated below. In case of such happening, the
customer will be informed by Alcatel-Lucent, clearly specifying the reasons why the
backwards compatibility had to be broken and the related consequences for the
customer. Also, Alcatel-Lucent will recover the backward compatibility on the
earliest successive release possible.
Conditions and restrictions:
Backwards compatibility over ISAM Voice releases is considered:

Between a main release and its maintenance releases (for example, R4.0v and
R4.0.02c), starting from R4.0v onwards
Between 2 releases of 2 consecutive release streams (for example, R4.0.03d and
R4.1.02c), starting from R4.0v onwards
From the xVPS pair to the voice boards, that is, it is assumed the voice boards are
always at a lower or equal release then the xVPS pair, but never at a higher release
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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

This ISAM Voice backwards compatibility has the following restriction:

New services, as part of the newly introduced release, might not work as long as
there is more then one release active in the network.
ISAM Voice backwards compatibility is supported only at following conditions:

At any time there are no more then 2 different releases in the network, being main
or maintenance releases of consecutive release streams
Having 2 releases in the network can last for at most 2 weeks
Failing to do so will not only block any roll-out of new services in the network of
the customer, but will also make it impossible to guarantee tracking and fixing
problems in the voice network
Before an upgrade or migration is started to a next release, all ISAM Voice access
nodes in the network must be at the same release (main or maintenance)
SIP ISAM Voice off-line software migration

Since the scope of the Voice upgrade/migration cluster principle is restricted to a


single ISAM access node, an upgrade/migration of a SIP ISAM Voice access node
follows exactly the upgrade and offline migration procedure for an ISAM access
node.

H.248 to SIP functional Migration


ISAM Voice allows a voice access node / voice cluster being deployed in an H.248
based integrated voice service mode, to migrate to a SIP based integrated voice
service deployment.
The following restrictions apply:

It is not allowed that such a H.248 to SIP functional migration coincides with

either a software upgrade or an off-line software migration or a Switching to


Routing functional migration (see next chapter).
The target migration SIP architecture is the centralized architecture.
A complete voice cluster is functionally migrated in one maintenance window.
Distinct VLANs for signaling and RTP traffic.
The same VLAN is used to carry RTP traffic in H.248 and SIP mode.
The same VLAN is used to carry signaling traffic in H.248 and SIP mode.
The same VLAN is used to carry OAM traffic in H.248 and SIP mode.

The main logical steps to be taken in the H.248 to SIP functional migration are:
1

Configure the SIP voice database

Check the ongoing calls and the emergency calls for graceful shutdown

Lock the H.248 MGI interface

Disconnect the Voice server at L2 from the voice LT boards

(re-)Configure the L2/L3 topology to run in SIP mode

Unplan the voice LT boards (configured with capability profile = H.248-profile)

Replan the voice LT boards with capability profile = SIP-profile

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12 ISAM Voice Network Architecture

Reload the voice LT board with the SIP software package

Perform a SIP voice database NT-LT audit

10 Register the SIP terminations


11 Verify the SIP-based voice service
12 Unplan the Voice server (the Voice server must be kept running till the
verification has proven that the SIP-based voice service behaves correctly)

Switching to Routing functional Migration


ISAM Voice allows a voice access node being deployed in a switched mode, to
migrate to a routed mode.
The switching to routing functional migration applies to an ISAM Voice access node
deployed in SIP mode.
The following restrictions apply:

It is not allowed that such a Switching to Routing functional migration coincides


with either a software upgrade or an off-line software migration.

ISAM Voice does not support the functional migration of a subtending access

node. In other words, the subtending access node remains at all times behaving as
switched devices.
The same Signaling VLAN ID remains used at the IACM part of the ISAM Voice
before and after the migration from switching to routing device.
The same RTP VLAN ID remains used at the IACM part of the ISAM Voice
before and after the migration from switching to routing device.
The same source / destination Signaling IP address remains configured at the
IHub.
The same source / destination RTP IP address remains configured at the IHub.

The main logical steps to be taken in the switching to routing functional migration
are:

12-124

Configure the routing protocol (OSPF / RIP)

Optional: Configure the static routes

(re-)Configure L2/L3 topology to run in route mode.

Reset the NT pair.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Overview

13-2
13-2

13.3 Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network architecture


13.4 DPoE implementation of ISAM

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

13.1

Introduction
This chapter provides a general description of the Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network
architecture used for ISAM in North America.

13.2

Overview
DOCSIS Provisioning of Ethernet Passive Optical Network, named as DPoE, is a set
of Cable Television Laboratory specifications that implement the DOCSIS service
layer interface on existing Ethernet PON (EPON or 10G-EPON) Media Access
Control (MAC) and Physical layer (PHY) standards.
The advantage of DPoE is to preserve and leverage the DOCSIS back-office
investments for MSOs migrating access network technology from Hybrid Fiber
Cable (HFC) to Fiber to the Home (FTTH) or Fiber to the Premises (FTTP).
This feature implements the DOCSIS Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and
Provisioning (OAMP) functionality on existing EPON equipment in order to re-use
existing DOCSIS Operations Support System Infrastructure (OSSI). The EPON
OLT will act like a DOCSIS Cable Modem Termination Systems (CMTS) platform,
while the EPON OLT and EPON ONT will work together like virtual Cable Modem
(vCM).
The DPoE system refers to all the elements that provide the DPoE function with the
operator's network facilities. It includes the EPON OLT function, DOCSIS service
function, forwarding and routing functions, management function, and so on.
In addition to offering the same IP service capabilities as a CMTS, the DPoE system
supports Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) services for the delivery of Ethernet services
for FTTP business customers.
Figure 13-1 shows the DPoE network reference architecture.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture


Figure 13-1 DPoE Network reference architecture
DOCSIS Network
IPv4/v6 CPE

SNMP server

CM
IPv4/v6 CPE

Syslog server
DHCPv4/v6 server

CMTS

TFTP server

IPv4/v6 CPE
CM

SNTP server

IPv4/v6 CPE

OSS Infrastructure

HFC

Customer Premise Network

DPoE Network
DPoE System
SNMP server

DPoE
ONT

vCM

Syslog server
DHCPv4/v6 server

OSS Infrastructure

IPv4/v6 CPE

CMTS

TFTP server
SNTP server

IPv4/v6 CPE

DPoE
ONT

vCM

PON

IPv4/v6 CPE
IPv4/v6 CPE
Customer Premise Network
23659

In comparison with a traditional EPON deployment model, major differentiations for


DPoE are as follows:

Each DPoE ONT shall be assigned a unique IP address and managed as a separate
management element, just like a virtual Cable Modem (vCM) residing on the
EPON OLT, as the DPoE specifications were designed to support an existing
market of ONUs that do not contain an IP stack.
The DPoE ONT relevant configuration is maintained by OSSI instead of the
DPoE system. Once the DPoE ONT completes each registration, the DPoE
system needs to download the configuration profile from an external TFTP server
on behalf of the ONT before provisioning the DPoE system and DPoE ONT
based on the parsing information.
The DPoE system provides management capabilities on behalf of the ONU for all
IP-based management functions. When the DPoE system receives management
requests for a vCM, it converts those requests into the appropriate DPoE OAM
and relays them to the DPoE ONU as needed.

13.3

Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network architecture


The Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network architecture almost matches the reference model
defined in the DPoE architecture specification. The DPoE system role is taken by the
FANT-F and FPLT-A cards on the 7360 FX platform. Only symmetric 1G EPON is
currently supported.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

Figure 13-2 shows the ISAM DPoE network architecture.


Figure 13-2 ISAM DPoE network architecture
DPoE-SP-IPNEv1.0
SSH/Telnet
TACACS*
RADIUS
HTTP
NTP
FTP/SFTP
TFTP
RSH
SNMP

External
eSAFE
SNMP

DOCSIS 3.0 Equivalent IP Service


eSAFE SNMP
eSAFE EVCs

External
eSAFE
EVCs

DPoE Standalone ONU


IEEE 802.1
Switch
WiFi
eDVA
DPoE-SP-OAMv1.0
EPON OAM + EPON
OAM Extensions

DPoE-SP-OSSIv1.0
OSSI
SNMP

eRouter
WiFi
sDVA

DPoE-SP-PHYv1.0
ODN

OSS

DEMARC
ONU

DPoE
System

IP/Transport R
Network
R

DEMARC

R
OLT

R/X
DPoE
Bridge ONU

DEMARC
DEMARC

ONU
DPoE-SP-IPNEv1.0

IEEE 802.1
Switch

Routing
ARP
IS-IS
OSPF
MP-BGP

IEEE 802.3 (EPON)


DPoE-SP-MEFv1.0

FANT-F

FPLT-A

SFU

SFP-ONU

MEF EVCs
23660

As shown in Figure 13-2, the term DPoE standalone ONU refers to the DPoE ONU
that provides the full functionality of all of the DPoE specifications without the need
of an external device. In ISAM DPoE network architecture, it always refers to an
SFU with one or two Ethernet interfaces. The embedded DOCSIS facilities such as
WiFi, eVDA and eRouter, are not currently supported.

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The term DPoE bridge ONU refers to another type of DPoE ONU that does not
implement the full functionality defined in DPoE specification without assistance
from an external device. In general, this type of DPoE ONU must have at least one
subscriber interface that passes traffic transparently without any VLAN
manipulation at all. In ISAM DPoE network architecture, the term DPoE bridge
ONU always refers to the SFP-ONU.
The term DEMARC (Demarcation Device) refers to the device that is owned and
operated by the operator that provides the demarcation (sometimes called the UNI
interface) to the customer. Sometimes this device is referred to as a CPE in DSL or
Broadband Forum. Although the DPoE network does not cover this device, it is
sometimes required by a bridge ONU to provide MEF services.

Standards
The Alcatel-Lucent DPoE network is developed based on the following standards:

Cablelabs DPoE 1.0 specifications:


architecture specification: DPoE-SP-ARCH v1.0-I01-110225
OAM extensions specification: DPoE-SP-OAM v1.0-I05-130328
physical layer specification: DPoE-SP-PHY v1.0-I03-130328
security and certificate specification: DPoE-SP-SEC v1.0-I03-130328
IP network element requirements: DPoE-SP-IPNE v1.0-I05-130328
MAC and upper layer protocols requirements: DPoE-SP-MULPI v1.0-I05-130328
metro ethernet forum specification: DPoE-SP-MEF v1.0-I03-120830
operations and support system interface specification: DPoE-SP-OSSI
v1.0-I04-130328

Data-over-cable service interface 3.0 specifications:


MAC and upper layer protocols interface specification: CM-SP-MULPI
v3.0-I17-111117

layer 2 virtual private networks: CM-SP-L2VPN-I09-100611


operations support system interface specification: CM-SP-OSSI v3.0-I20-121113
CableLabs' DHCP options registry: CL-SP-CANN-DHCP Reg-I09-120809
IEEE 802.3ah-2004 (Amendment: media access control parameters, physical
layers and management parameters for subscriber access networks)

IEEE 802.3-2005 (Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection access
method and physical layer specifications)
IEEE 802.1ad-2005 (Amendment 4: provider bridges, May 2006 standard for
local and metropolitan area networks virtual bridged local area networks)

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

13.4

DPoE implementation of ISAM


As a convergence platform, the 7360 ISAM FX supports mixed deployment for
several kinds of access technologies such as xDSL, Ethernet, Voice, GPON,
traditional 1G EPON, 10G EPON, and now DPoE.
The management model for the DPoE and traditional 1G-EPON is totally different
though they share same 1G EPON line card (FPLT-A). Currently, these two
management models are segregated per slot which means that they are mutually
exclusive for one given FPLT-A card during deployment.
A third management mode for the FPLT-A card currently supports business services
in the MSO market. This mode uses a similar management model as with traditional
1G EPON, but utilizes the DPoE specified OAM requirements instead of those for
traditional 1G EPON to interoperate with existing DPoE ONUs owned by other
vendors.
The management modes for the FPLT-A card are determined during card planning
using different configuration profile names, as follows:

EPON: default mode, managed using the traditional 1G EPON management


model
DPoE: managed using the traditional 1G EPON management model with DPoE
specified OAM
DOCSIS: managed using the DOCSIS management model

Management interface
The Command Line Interface (CLI) is the most popular management interface used
for existing DOCSIS systems. The ISAM DPoE system provides the CLI required to
manage CMTS over a serial port terminal or IP using Telnet or SSH2. Though not
required from the vCM view, the CLI is still mandatory for monitoring the vCM
registration process and working states from a CMTS perspective.
The SNMP protocol is the primary communication protocol for management of
existing DOCSIS services. The ISAM DPoE system not only provides an SNMP
agent to access the DPoE system MIBs, but also provides an SNMP agent to access
the vCM MIBs on behalf of each attached ONU. Each vCM appears as a separate
management entity to external management applications and responds to
management requests using the IP connection, which is established during the DPoE
ONU registration. Unlike the current behavior of ISAM, most of the time the SNMP
access to the vCM is used to query the working status and configuration of the vCM
instead of for provisioning. Provisioning is accomplished using the vCM
configuration file on an external TFTP server. Operators may control the vCM
directly by setting the vCM MIB, for example, such as restarting vCM, setting event
report thresholds, and so on.
As mentioned in the IPNE specification, the DOCSIS specifications do not describe
the configuration of the CMTS, and so then DPoE specifications follow same
principle. The CMTS MIB specified in the DOCSIS and the DPoE specifications are
allowed as well as the vendor proprietary MIB for CMTS provisioning as a
supplementation. The Alcatel-Lucent proprietary MIB is managed by the
Alcatel-Lucent management system (AMS), which is not currently integrated with
the CMTS OSSI of MSOs.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

Figure 13-3 shows the ISAM DPoE management model.


Figure 13-3 ISAM DPoE management model
ALU proprietary MIB

AMS
NOT
integrated
yet
CMTS
OSS

DPoE SYSTEM
CLI
Agent
CMTS

CMTS MIB defined


by DPoE OSSI specification

SNMP
Agent
manage
vCM

vCM

vCM

SNMP Agent

SNMP Agent

SNMP Agent

mapping
CM
OSS

mapping

mapping

vCM MIB defined


by DPoE specification
DPoE ONT
CM
OSS

CM
OSS

DPoE ONT
DPoE ONT
23661

Service model
The ISAM DPoE system supports the following two typical service modes that are
defined in the DPoE specification v1.0:

MEF service mode


IP (HSD) service mode
Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
The ISAM only supports E-line MEF service, which looks like a transparent bit pipe
across a DPoE ONU and ISAM. Just like traditional EPON, a user to user
communication between two MEF UNIs is not allowed in ISAM.
The DPoE specification defines the following two types of encapsulation modes for
MEF service:

802.1ad provider bridging


802.1ah provider backbone bridging (not currently supported)
Figure 13-4 shows the ISAM DPoE MEF forwarding model.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture


Figure 13-4 ISAM DPoE MEF forwarding model
EVC
FANT-F

FPLT-A

DPoE
ONU 1

encapsulation
mode

transport
mode
DPoE
ONU 2

DEMARC

EVC
Legend:
MEF UNI
MEF INNI
23662

In the case of the user interface acting as a MEF UNI (named as 'encapsulation mode'
in DPoE MEF specification), the DPoE ONU encapsulates the customer upstream
frames based on classification with one S-VLAN, which is designated by the vCM
configuration file. In the downstream direction, the DPoE ONU does the opposite
and strips the S-VLAN before forwarding the frames to the customer. Since there is
no ability to encapsulate and de-encapsulate, the user interface on a bridged ONU
will not work as a MEF UNI forever.
In the case of the MEF UNI role taken by DEMARC (named as the 'transport mode'
in the DPoE MEF specification), the DPoE ONU only passes customer frames
transparently without any VLAN operation in both upstream and downstream
directions. Here the user interface on the ONU looks like a MEF INNI.
The encapsulation mode of a user interface is determined by the DOCSIS L2 VPN
TLV in the vCM configuration file. The TLV also guides how to handle L2CP
frames within a given EVC. Once the option to transmit L2CP is enabled, all of the
L2CP frames will be mapped into an EVC just like another frames beside PAUSE,
which will be discarded silently.
The MEF service parameters such as classification criteria, bandwidth allocation,
scheduling mechanism, and so on, are provided in the vCM configuration file. They
are provisioned almost automatically by the DPoE system except for the network
interfaces. Since the TLV is not defined in the DPoE specification to specify which
network interface to forward MEF services to, as in the case of multiple network
interfaces existing in the DPoE system, the operator must specify the correct network
interface.
Figure 13-5 shows the ISAM DPoE MEF service realization.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture


Figure 13-5 ISAM DPoE MEF service realization

FANT-F

FPLT-A
LLID

TC

FANT-F
V-VPLS

provision manually

DPoE ONU

FPLT-A
S-VLAN

SF
SF

TC

DPoE ONU
LLID

TC

provision automatically according to


TLVs in CM configuration file

Legend:
MEF UNI
MEF INNI
23663

In terms of DPoE, each MEF service is classified to a separated service flow (SF) in
each direction. Both service flows are further mapped to a unique LLID over a PON
interface. Currently, the DPoE ONU only supports 8 LLIDs at maximum. This
means that only 8 MEF services are allowed for a bridged ONU even if the
DEMARC is equipped with more than 8 user interfaces.

IP service
The DOCSIS IP services are delivered over the top of virtual Ethernet services.
The Ethernet tags used for an IP(HSD) service can not be exposed to service
customer interfaces. In other words, the encapsulation for IP(HSD) forwarding is
performed in the DPoE ONU after the customer interface is in the ingress direction,
and vice-versa for de-encapsulation. In the general terms of L2 forwarding, the
customer interface provisioned for IP(HSD) works using the untagged mode, it
receives only untagged frames in the upstream direction, and transmits untagged
frames in downstream direction. Since there is no ability to encapsulate and
de-encapsulate, the bridged ONU does not support IP(HSD). Therefore the IP(HSD)
service is only relevant to the standalone ONU in practice.
The IP(HSD) forwarding model uses MEF EVCs from a soft UNI interface which
are connected to the IP router interface (the default router). The IP(HSD) EVCs are
implemented with PB [802.1ad] model, where the service interface is assigned a
unique S-VLAN ID and C-VLAN ID pair by the DPoE system instead of the vCM
configuration file. Each S-VLAN carries a set of C-VLANs with their respective
EVCs and terminates at a forwarding interface that is facing the IP router interface.
In this way, each S-VLAN belongs to only one IP subnet, which is called an IP
serving group (IP-SG), in DPoE terms.
Figure 13-6 shows the ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) forwarding model.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture


Figure 13-6 ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) forwarding model
EVC

DHCP
relay
IP-SG
3

IP-SG
1

IES/
VPRN
DHCP
relay

IP-SG
2

FPLT-A
DPoE ONU 1
S1+C1

untag

DPoE ONU 2
S1+C2

untag

DPoE ONU 3
S2+C1

untag

DPoE ONU 4
S2+C2

untag

Legend:
MEF UNI
MEF INNI
IP Interface
23664

In the DPoE specification, each IP-SG may consist of more than one S-VLAN.
Unlike a MEF service, the S-VLAN for an IP(HSD) service is assigned by the DPoE
system instead of the vCM configuration file. In general, the DPoE system reserves
a list of S-VLANs for each IP-SG, which is bound to one PON, or to more than one
PON interface (or bundle). As the DPoE ONU registration completes, the DPoE
system selects from the S-VLAN list of IP-SGs, from the PON, or the bundle of the
connecting ONU, and then allocates an arbitrary C-VLAN within that S-VLAN. The
DPoE ONU encapsulates in the upstream direction with an S-VLAN and C-VLAN
pair, and removes both of them in downstream direction.
Since there is no ability of inserting an S-VLAN and C-VLAN for some existing
DPoE ONUs, the ISAM DPoE system currently requires this type of ONU to pass
through an untagged IP service over a PON interface in both directions. As a result,
the DPoE system has to insert and remove the S-VLAN and C-VLAN on its own.
This behavior is not compatible with the DPoE specification, and will be corrected
in a future release once the standard DPoE ONU completed.
Figure 13-7 shows the ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) management entities.

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13 DPoE Network Architecture


Figure 13-7 ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) management entities

ISAM does not support


binding IP-SG with PON
directly in order to
simplify provisioning.
Here not fully line up
with DPoE specification
actually

IPSubnet
1
belong to
0..1
1
IP-SG
1
belong to
0..1
BUNDLE
1
include
0..n
PON

has

0..1

include

DHCP relay agent

1..n

S-VLAN
1
include
1..n
C-VLAN

Designed by
operator

Allocated by DPoE
system automatically

23665

Apart from the MEF service, the IP(HSD) service needs more pre-configuration in
the DPoE system. Besides the EVC S-VLAN, it is also the responsibility of operators
to provide information about the IP forwarding interface, routing, DHCP relay agent,
and so on, before a DPoE ONU registration.
Figure 13-8 shows the ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) service realization.
Figure 13-8 ISAM DPoE IP (HSD) service realization

FANT-F

FPLT-A

IES/VPRN

TC

FANT-F

FPLT-A

IES/VPRN
provision manually
Legend:

VPLS

DPoE ONU
LLID

SF
SF

TC

DPoE ONU

S+C-VLAN LLID

TC

Besides S-VLAN and CVLAN, other


parameters required for EVC are
provision automatically according
to TLVs in CM configuration file

MEF UNI
MEF INNI
IP Interface
23666

As the first point of entry of a subscriber to the network and the only point with
physical connectivity, some security features need to be enforced by the DPoE
system. Each IP-SG facing a user interface has a DHCP relay agent with option 82
insertion. Each relay agent listens to the DHCP client messages being broadcast on
the subnet from the CPE behind an IP service interface, and relays them to a
configured DHCP server, which may reside on a different network or subnet from

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13 DPoE Network Architecture

the CPEs. The DPoE system also supports subscriber identification insertion using
the DHCP option 82, not only for security reasons, but also for advanced QoS
reasons. For example, the access loop sync rate and inter-leaving delay is important
information to be reported by the access node. The Broadband Network Gateway
(BNG) will use it to enable policy decisions and advanced QoS functionalities.
Currently, the ISAM router component does not support a SAP on top of an S-VLAN
and C-VLAN pair so that the forwarding interface in FIB will only include a single
VLAN, which will result in incorrect forwarding behavior in the downstream
direction. This is why a residential bridge (VPLS) is introduced to terminate the EVC
of an IP(HSD) service. As a broadcast domain however, the residential bridge may
bring security issues particularly for an ARP request. Therefore, DHCP snooping
and ARP relays are provided by the ISAM DPoE system. DHCP snooping
functionality is provided in order to learn the subscriber's IP address on a particular
user port. The ARP relay transmits the ARP request in the downstream direction to
a particular user port based directly on the snooping table lookup result instead of
broadcasting over a PON. In the upstream direction, the ISAM DPoE will also
provide an IP anti-spoofing feature, but it is not currently supported.
The ISAM DPoE system supports most standard routing protocols for an IP (HSD)
service such as RIP, OSPF, BGP, IS-IS, and so on, which are inherited from the
converged platform.

Multicast service
The ISAM DPoE system does not support multicast service since it is not required
by the DPoE specification v1.0.

ONU initialization
As with a traditional EPON, the ISAM DPoE ONU is not allowed to transmit until it
is discovered, ranged, registered, and granted for access by the DPoE system. The
ISAM DPoE system will not configure a DPoE ONU or enable services until the
authentication and encryption procedures have been completed successfully.
Every time a DPoE ONU is powered on, it is required to go through almost the same
initialization process as specified in the 802.3ah standard for 1G EPON, besides the
authentication method. The ISAM DPoE system uses the X.509 certificate based
authentication functionally, which is equivalent to the DOCSIS specification. The
certificate is transported using EAP-TLS, as defined in [RFC 5216], over the EAPOL
framework defined in [802.1x].
Once the DPoE ONU is authenticated, the DPoE system is to obtain an IP address,
on behalf of the ONU, from an external DHCP server. Upon successful
establishment of IP connectivity, the DPoE system obtains the vCM configuration
file from the external TFTP server. Once the configuration file is validated, the DPoE
system initiates the registration and service provisioning process.

Software management
The ISAM DPoE software management is comprised of the following two parts:

DPoE system
DPoE ONU firmware

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As part of the converged platform, the DPoE system follows same process to manage
its software. The ISAM DPoE system stores two software images in persistent
storage, which does not fully comply with the DPoE specification which requires
storing the active software that is currently running and at least two other versions of
this software. The mechanism to roll-back or move back to the DPoE system
software for the previous version and download new versions for software upgrades
does however fully line up with existing ISAM behavior.
Apart from traditional EPON, the DPoE ONU utilizes a completely different
software upgrade approach, which it inherits from the DOCSIS network. Once the
DPoE ONU firmware name given by the TLV9 in the vCM configuration file (which
is downloaded from the TFTP server during DPoE ONU registration) is different
from the currently active one, the DPoE system will start the ONU firmware upgrade.
The dedicated TLV21 in the vCM configuration file indicates where to fetch the
DPoE ONU firmware. If this information is not provided explicitly in the vCM
configuration file, the DPoE system will download the new firmware from the TFTP
server where the vCM configuration file resides on behalf of the DPoE ONU. Once
the new firmware download is verified and complete, the DPoE system will transfer
it to the corresponding DPoE ONU and then activate it by restarting the ONU.

Configuration management
The ISAM stores the DPoE system related configuration periodically, or by the
explicit control of the operator, and recovers it after a system initialization. Like
traditional EPON, the ISAM DPoE can backup and restore the DPoE system
configuration to or from an Alcatel-Lucent management workstation instead of a
DOCSIS OSSI.
The ISAM does not store the vCM configuration file related data. According to the
responsibility split in the service realization diagrams of the service model section,
those parameters configured by an operator manually still need to be synchronized
into the persistent storage, and restored vice versa.
Unlike a traditional EPON, the DPoE ONU does not support dynamic configuration
change. Even for a minor modification in the vCM configuration file for a DPoE
ONU, it will not take effect in the DPoE system in real time unless the ONU is
restarted by the back office system.
The ISAM DPoE system supports online migration only.

Event management
The ISAM DPoE supports the DPoE relevant events defined in the DOCSIS OSSI
v3.0 specification for trouble-shooting purposes.
Both