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What is plagiarism?

(And why you should


care!)

Definition:
Plagiarism is the act of presenting the
words, ideas, images, sounds, or the
creative expression of others as your
own.

How serious is the problem?


A study of almost 4,500 students at 25 schools,
suggests cheating is . . . a significant problem in
high school - 74% of the respondents admitted
to one or more instances of serious test cheating
and 72% admitted to serious cheating on
written assignments. Over half of the
students admitted they have engaged in
some level of plagiarism on written
assignments using the Internet.
Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers
University
Source: CIA Research. Center for Academic Integrity, Duke
University, 2003
<http://academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp>.

Students. If:

you have included


the words and
ideas of others in
your work that you
neglected to cite,
you have had help
you wouldnt want
your teacher to
know about,

Two types of plagiarism:

Intentional

Copying a friends work


Buying or borrowing
papers
Cutting and pasting
blocks of text from
electronic sources
without documenting
Media
borrowingwithout
documentation
Web publishing without
permissions of creators

Unintentional

Careless paraphrasing
Poor documentation
Quoting excessively
Failure to use your own
voice

Rationale for academic integrity


(as if it were necessary!)

When you copy you cheat


Is your academic
yourself. You limit your own
reputation valuable
learning.
to you?
The consequences are not worth
the risks!
It is only right to give credit to
authors whose ideas you use
Citing gives authority to the
information you present
Citing makes it possible for your
readers to locate your source
Education is not an us vs. them
game! Its about learning to
learn!
Cheating is unethical behavior

Real life consequences:

Damaged the reputation of two prominent


historians, Stephen Ambrose and Doris Kearns
Goodwin,
Kearns left television position and stepped down
as Pulitzer Prize judge for lifting 50 passages
for her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the
Kennedys (Lewis)
Senator Joseph Biden dropped his 1987 campaign
for the Democratic presidential nomination. (Sabato)
Copied in law school and borrowed from
campaign speeches of Robert Kennedy
Probe of plagiarism at UVA--45 students dismissed,
3 graduate degrees revoked

Consequences (contd)

New York Times senior reporter Jayson


Blair forced to resign after being accused
of plagiarism and fraud.
The newspaper said at least 36 of the 73
articles he had written had problems with
accuracy, calling the deception a "low
point" in the newspaper's history.

New York Times Exposes Fraud of Own Reporter. ABC


News Online. 12 May, 2003.
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/newshour_index.html

Possible school consequences:

0 on the
assignment
Parent notification
Referral to
administrators
Suspension or
dismissal from
school activities-sports and
extracurricular
Note on student
record

Is this important?

What if:

Your architect cheated his way through math


class. Will your new home be safe?
Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam
to study. Will the contract she wrote for you
stand up in court?
The accountant who does your taxes hired
someone to write his papers and paid a standin to take his major tests? Does he know
enough to complete your tax forms properly?
(Lathrop and Foss 87)

Is this important?

What if:

Your doctor cheated his way through surgical


techniques class. Would he remove your
appendix or spleen? How much would it
matter?
Your lawyer paid for a copy of the bar exam
to study. Will the contract she wrote for you
stand up in court?
The accountant who does your taxes hired
someone to write his papers and paid a standin to take his major tests? Does he know
enough to complete your tax forms properly?

(Lathrop and Foss 87)

Do I have
to cite
everything?

Examples of common knowledge

John Adams was our second president


The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on
December 7, 1941
If you see a fact in three or more
sources, and you are fairly certain your
readers already know this information, it
is likely to be common knowledge.
But when in doubt, cite!

No need to document when:

You are discussing your own experiences,


observations, or reactions
Compiling the results of original research,
from science experiments, etc.
You are using common knowledge

What You Need to Know About


Plagiarism

What exactly is plagiarism?

From Webster's Third New International


Dictionary:
Plagiarize - \'pla-je-,riz also j - -\ vb -rized; rizing vt [plagiary] : to steal and pass off (the
ideas or words of another) as one's own : use
(a created production) without crediting the
source vi: to commit literary theft: present as
new and original an idea or product derived
from an existing source.

In the real world, this means..

Using another person's words without giving


them credit.
Using another persons ideas without giving
them credit.
Using another persons research, results,
diagrams, or images without giving them credit.

Research and Writing Assignment


Time limit
Five to ten sources required

Bibliography

Actions that might be seen as


plagiarism
Deliberate
Plagiarism

Maybe
Accidental
Plagiarism

Buying, stealing, or borrowing


a paper
Copying from another source
without citing
Building on someone elses
ideas without citation
Using the source too closely
when paraphrasing

Identifying Plagiarism
Is this plagiarism?

Original Source:
If the existence of a signing ape was
unsettling for linguists, it was also startling
news for animal behaviorists (Davis 26).

Students Paper:
The existence of a signing ape was
unsettling for linguists, and was also
startling news for animal behaviorists.

Verdict: Plagiarism
The student should have used quotation marks
around the words that he copied directly from the
original source. Also, there is no parenthetical
reference with the page number of the source
statement.

Identifying plagiarism
Is this plagiarism?

Original Source:
If the existence of a signing ape was
unsettling for linguists, it was also startling
news for animal behaviorists (Davis 26).

Students Paper:
The existence of a signing ape unsettled linguists
and startled animal behaviorists (Davis, 26).

Verdict: Plagiarism
Even though the writer has cited the source, the
writers words are not his own. Look at how
closely the phrase "unsettled linguists and
startled animal behaviorists" resembles the
wording of the source.

Identifying Plagiarism
Is this plagiarism?

Original Source:
If the existence of a signing ape was
unsettling for linguists, it was also startling
news for animal behaviorists (Davis 26).

Students Paper:
If the presence of a sign-language-using chimp
was disturbing for scientists studying language,
it was also surprising to scientists studying
animal behavior (Davis, 26).

Verdict: Still Plagiarism


Even though the writer has substituted synonyms
and cited the source, the writer is plagiarizing
because the source's sentence structure
is unchanged. It is obvious that the writer could
not have written his sentence without a copy of
the source directly in front of him.

Identifying plagiarism
Is this plagiarism?

Original Source:
If the existence of a signing ape was
unsettling for linguists, it was also startling
news for animal behaviorists (Davis 26).

Students Paper:
According to Flora Davis, linguists and animal
behaviorists were unprepared for the news that a
chimp could communicate with its trainers through
sign language (Davis, 26).

Verdict: Not Plagiarism


The student has cited the source, and
appropriately paraphrased the original source
into his own words.

Strategies to avoid plagiarism


Practice good research methods
Know how to quote

Know how to cite


Know when something is common
knowledge
Know how to paraphrase

Practice good research methods

Be careful about paraphrasing while


taking notes
Be sure to keep track of each source you
use
Indicate in your notes which ideas are
taken from sources (S) and which are
your own insights (ME)
Record all of the relevant documentation
information in your notes

Know how to quote

Mention the name of the quoted


person in your text
Put quotation marks around the text
you are quoting
Use brackets ([ ]) and ellipses ( )
Use block quotes when necessary
Quote sparingly

Cite your sources

Why should you cite your sources?


Citations show you have done research
As a courtesy to your reader
Your arguments become stronger when
you can back them up
Ensures others receive fair credit for
their work

Know how to cite


In-text:

A substance can usually be


converted to a different
state by adding or removing
energy from a system (Voet
1990).

Bibliography: Voet D. 1990. Biochemistry.


New York: J Wiley. 1223p.

Citing Internet Sources

Material on the Internet is not


free. It still needs to be cited.
Dont avoid citing Internet sources
and articles from electronic
databases just because you dont
know how.

Know when to cite

Always give a citation for quoted words or


phrases.

Always give a citation after paraphrased


sentences.

Always give a citation for specific


statistics, percentages, and numbers
given in your text.

You dont need to cite facts or ideas that


are common knowledge.

Is it common knowledge?
Facts that can be found in numerous places
and are likely to be known by a lot of
people do not need to be cited.
Consider your audience when deciding
whether a fact is common knowledge.
Example of common knowledge:
John F. Kennedy was elected President
of the United States in 1960.

Know how to paraphrase

Paraphrasing means putting an idea


into your own words.
Dont just rearrange the sentences
or replace a few words.
Be able to summarize the original
source without having it in front of
you.

Effective paraphrasing

Introduce your source at the point you


begin paraphrasing the ideas of the other
writer.
Cite your source in parentheses where
you finish paraphrasing the source and
resume presenting your own ideas.

Effective paraphrasing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Read the original passage until you understand its


meaning
Set the book aside.
Write your paraphrase on note cards or a sheet of
paper.
Compare your paraphrase with the original to make
sure that the essential information is preserved.
Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or
phrase you have borrowed exactly from the source
Document your sources (include page numbers) on
your note cards so you can easily cite later.

Why should you care about


plagiarism?

CBUs Plagiarism Policy:


A faculty member will take disciplinary
action when plagiarism is discerned.
Disciplinary action may take the form of a
warning or the assigning of a failing grade
for the assignment, examination, or
entire course. The faculty member may
recommend to the Vice President for
Academic Affairs that the student be
expelled from class.

Why should you care about


plagiarism?

Plagiarism ruins reputations, and could


harm your career.

Legal aspects of plagiarism

Copyright law
Trademark and unfair competition laws
Fraud

Possible consequences

Having an academic degree rescinded, or


professional status revoked
Loss of reputation

In most cases involving a student or professor, the court has


upheld punishment imposed by the college.

Cyber-cheating in the digital age

Plagiarism before the Internet era: books,


journals, fraternity test files, etc.
In the present day: far easier to cheat,
but its also growing easier to detect

Cyber-cheating in the digital age

Technology has made it easier to track


down and identify cases of plagiarism
you wont get away with it.

TurnItIn.com

Methods of detecting plagiarism

More accurate search engines


Full-text journal articles in library
databases
Commercial plagiarism-detection services
aimed at teachers
As always, the professor may well
recognize the source.

Some telltale signs

It doesnt sound like the students writing.


It was printed from a web browser and still has a header/footer
on it.
The free essay has a tagline at the end that the student forgot to
remove.
Page numbers dont make sense; fonts switch around; material
is off-topic or seems patched together
References to charts, graphs, accompanying material that isnt
there
References to material not owned by the library
Dead links
All citations are to old material or historical events referred to
in the present tense
Students cant identify citations, provide copies of the cited
material, or answer questions about it

Self-plagiarization

Students
Professionals

CONCLUSION

Inadvertent plagiarism is as bad as the


intentional kind.
If you plan ahead and use good research skills,
you wont have to run to the library at the last
minute, make up citations, surf the web for all
your research, falsify your data..
Learn from your past mistakes.
Realize that an act of plagiarism might cost you
your reputation, your degree, or your
professional career.

Some slides are courtesy of Springfield School


District, Oreland, Pa.

http://www.sdst.org/shs/library/powerpoint/
plagiarism.ppt