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. ..

( )

.. , ..

2010-39

2010


..
. .. ,
630090, ,
..
. .. ,
630090, ,


. , , , . .
DichMod (
),
GALA-3.0 GALA-2.0, [1]. .
91 20092010.

Nonsymmetric spectral problem


E.A.Biberdorf
Sobolev Institute of Mathematics
630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
N.I. Popova
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Abstract
In the paper a nonsymmetric spectral problem is considered. The
methods, algorithms, estimations for a performance criterion of
dichotomy, one-dimensional spectral portraits of matrices are described.
The eld of applying the spectral matrix dichotomy is dierent technical
applications.
The new module of programs DichMod fulls the dichotomy of a matrix
bundle spectrum by a circle and an imaginary axis. This module enters
into the new version GALA-3.0 of the program package GALA2.0 (Guaranteed Accuracy in Linear Algebra) described by authors in
the monograph [1]. The numerical examples are given. The paper is
connected with the participation of authors in Project 91 SB RAS
2009-2010.

c . ..


, . . ,
.

, , , , , [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15].
. .

DichMod. .
GALA-3.0 (
GALA-3.0 20615904 9.9.2010) GALA-2.0 ( GALA-2.0 2007614804 21.11.2007),
[1]. .
14.740.11.0350 (20102012), 91-2009
,
. , ( 2.1.1/4591;
2.1.1, 2.1, 2;
2009-10 . ).

.
. C 7

289
2064
336
128
80
32
16
1152
30
1312
512
288
128
32

29 2000
756
384 1008
224
48

512
128
640
0
640
512
128
C =
(1)

1053

2256
504
384
756
800
208

287
16
1712 128 1968
30 2032
2176 287 1565 512 541 1152 289
.
.
C:
1 (C)
2,3 (C)
4,5 (C)
6,7 (C)

=
=
=
=

6.624,
4.065 4.381i,
1.472 5.449i,
5.906 2.371i.

0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0

P =
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0

P (P 1 = P T )

0 0
0 0

1 0

0 1

0 0

0 0
0 0

D F :
D = P 1 CP,

F = P 1 DP = P 1 (P 1 CP )P.

, D F C . D F
C .
D F
. D F
6

C,
:
D:
1 (D)
2,3 (D)
4,5 (D)
6,7 (D)

=
=
=
=

6.005,
3.651 3.784i,
1.331 4.699i,
5.322 2.014i.

F :
1 (F )
2,3 (F )
4,5 (F )
6,7 (F )

=
=
=
=

8.095,
4.984 5.709i,
1.825 7.052i,
7.207 3.090i.

, C, D, F
. , C
C = L1 RL

1
0

L=
0
0

1
0

L
0
1
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1

1 2048 256 128


64
32
16
0
2
1024
512
256
128
32

0
0
4 512 1024 256
64

0
0
0
0
512
512
128
R=

0
0
0
0
4 1024 256

0
0
0
0
2 2048
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

C R, , .
7

C:
1 (C)
2,3 (C)
4,5 (C)
6,7 (C)

=
=
=
=

0,
1,
2,
4.

C, D, F C : ?. , ,
, .
.
.
.
-.
-.
1 N N - A ( (A),
N N - ( A), ,
A + (det[I (A + )] = 0).
- , min (A I) . -
. ,
f () = min (A I)
- A. .

kk

0 1/2
0

1/2 0 1/2

.
.
,

.
1/2 0
(2)
Sk =

.
.
. . 1/2
..

0
1/2 0

k- . . 1 (. ) S10 .
[2, 2] [2, 2].
8

. 1. min (S10 I) (2) () (3)


().

. 2. C(lg min (C I) )
R(lg min (R I) ); [10, 10] [10, 10].
min (S10 I).
,
[1].
(.
. 1 )

0
0 b2

b2 0
b3

.
.
.
..
..
..
(3)

bM1 0 bM
0
bM
0
9


bn+1 = n/ (2n 1)(2n + 1) (1 n M 1).
.
C,
, (. . 2). , [10, 10]
[10, 10] - C R = 1010 .
- .
. C R ,
. ,
, .
.
,
. [1] , A j (A) A (
)
|j (A) j (A + A)| A.
,
.

,
, , .
, ,
[7]. ,
.

10

- ( ) , -.

3.1


(,
, , . .). :
1) , A ( );
2) A, A ;
3) A,
,
.

3.2

A.
l. :
,
A?
, R() = (I A)1 , , A.
,
.
(4)
max (I A)1  =

, A
. , A.
m (A)
= max (I A)1 

A
11

(5)

( ).
(I (A + ))1  <
,  A
, m (A) < 1. ,
- A. , m (A)
A .

, ( ) .
, (A) = H (A),
H (A) =

A2
l

(I A) F (I A)1 |d|,

F

A2
(I A) (I A)1 |d|.
(6)
H (A) =
l

, ,
A. ,
, , , H (A) = . , , ,
.
. ( = rei = ei )

2
1
(ei I A) (ei I A)1 d.
Hr (A) =
2i 0
, , ,
, l

2
H (A) = A
(I A) (I A)1 |d|.

12

3.3

H (A) m (A).
1 A, (5) (6)
:
l m2 (A)
H (A) m2 (A),
l
m (A)
1+
A


H (A)2 l2
H (A)l
+
H (A) m (A)
+ H (A).
2A
4A2

(7)

(8)

. [7].

3.4

A A A . .
1 m (A) ,
A B
A B A,

m (A) < 1.

(9)


(I A)1 (I B)1 

m2 (A)
.
A(1 m (A))

. [7].
1 (9)
A B A,

m (A) <

1
,
2


(I A)1 (I B)1 
13

2m2 (A)
.
A

(10)

2 A B (9),

I (I B)1 (I A)

3.5

m (A)
.
1 m (A)

(11)



. H (A)
A.
2 (9).


1
(A) = 1
H
(I A) (I A)1 |d| =
H (A),
l
A2

1
(B) = 1
H
(I B) (I B)1 |d| =
H (B).
l
B2

(A) H
(B)
H

m (A)
1 m (A)


2+

m (A)
1 m (A))

(A).
H

(12)

3 A B (9),
H (A), H (B) (6)
H (A) H (B) ( + 2 + 2)H (A),

(13)

m (A)
.
1 m (A)

4 (9)
A B A,

m (A) <

1
,
2

H (A) H (B) (6m (A) + 8)H (A).


. ,
.
14

P , N - ,
, P 2 = P . N N .
P () x y = P x, P y = P 2 x = y. x x = y + z, P y = y, P z = 0. , y = P x,
z = x P x = (I P )x. I P
(I P )2 = I 2P + P 2 = I 2P + P = I P . P x y = P x z = (I P )x.
N - c y = P x x P x. N1
N2 (N = N1 + N2 ) , - T1 T2 N N1 N N2 ,
:



1
.
.
IN1 0
P = T1 .. T2
,
T1 .. T2
0
0



1
..
..
0 0
I P = T1 . T2
.
(14)
T1 . T2
0 IN2
, N1 = trP , N2 = tr (I P ).
A N1
N2 , N1 N2 .
A,
. A, .
T1 T2 , A, :



1
.
.
A1 0
A = T1 .. T2
,
(15)
T1 .. T2
0
A2
( A1 , A2
)


A1 0
P AP = T
T 1 ,
0
0
15


(I P )A(I P ) = T

0 0
0 A2

T 1 .

P I P A ,
P 2 = P,

P A = AP.

, P , [5]

1
(I A)1 d.
P =
2i
, P A, ,
. N1 = trP , A, , ,
.
P :





..
1 0
1 0

P =U
(16)
V = U1 . U2
V ,
0
0
0
0
1 U1 N1 N1 N N1 .
I P :





..
2 0
2 0

I P =W
(17)
Q = W1 . W2
Q .
0
0
0
0
2 W1 N2 N2 N N2 .

.
T = (U .. W ),
1

- A (15).
. A B

B A A,


1
(I A)1 d,
P (A) =
2i

P (B) =
16

1
2i

(I B)1 d

[8]
P (A) P (B) =



 1

m2 (A)
l
1
1


= 
,
[(I A) (I B) ]d
2i
2A 1 m (A)


|d|.

l =

,
m2 (A)

l
 1.
2A

, A
m (A).

.
.
AX XB = C,
X M N -, A, B M M , N N , C M N -.
3 A B , C. ( ,
).
.
XA + A X + C = 0

(18)

, X, C
A, A N N .

17

, (18) C , A A . , j (A) A
Re j (A) < 0, j = 1, . . . , N . .
4 A C = C
, X (18),

etA CetA dt

X=
0

.
etA , ,

et (I A)1 d,
(19)
etA =

,
A.
t (etA
t, A)
etA = IN +

k

t
k=1

k!

Ak .

(20)

.
5
X = X C = C > 0, A
(18), A
j (A) Re < 2C 11X < 0.
.
(21)
X A XA = C,
X, A, C N N -, .
18

6 N N - A
|j (A)| < 1, C (21) X

X = C + A CA + (A )2 CA2 + + (A )N 1 CAN 1 .

(22)

,
A I ( ). .
A B ,
, A B .

det(AB) = 0.
, B .
A B , .
A B





Il 0
0
S,
(23)
S,
B=T
A=T
0 M
0 Im
S T l l m m , 1 , . . . , l , 1 , . . . , m M .
A B




Il 0
0 0
S
S,
I P = S 1
P = S 1
0 Im
0 0

A B.




0 0
Il 0
1
I Q=T
T ,
T 1
Q=T
0 Im
0 0
.
,
19


.

P =

1
2

(B ei A)1 Bd ,

I P =

1
2

(I ei A)1 Ad .

T , S (23).
P I P ,
T , S (23).






.
.
l 0
m 0
I P = V2 .. W2
P = V1 .. W1
U1 ,
U2
0
0
0
0
(24)


..
S = V . V . , S 1

T
A(I P ) + BP = T S,



Il 0
S,
BP = T
0 0

(25)


A(I P ) = T

Im
0

0
0


S.


. N N - AB
, . . det(A B) = 0
, || = 1.
H

2
1
(A ei B)1 (ACA + BCB )(A ei B)1 d .
(26)
H=
2 0
= ||H||, AB
.
20

,
, , ,

2
1
1
(B ei A)1 Bd , I P =
(B ei A)1 Ad .
P =
2 0
2 0
.. [3], H P ,

( C)
B HB A HA = A [P CP (I P ) C(I P )] A+
+B [P CP (I P ) C(I P )] B,

P H = HP,
P 2 = P, P (A + B)1 B = (A + B)1 BP,

C = C > 0.
H = H > 0,

(27)

.. .
, .
(27) :
1) H ,
;
2) N1 = trP N2 = N N1 ,
;
3) (16) (17),
.

1
1
r, , : A, B.
r
r

, . .
21

, .
P H (H =
)
(
A)
( ). ,
(
), . [4, 6, 7]. [9, 2]
.
7 A B
, .
.
2 Gk ,

AGk BGk+1 = 0, < k 1, +0 k < +,


G+0 G0 = I,
(28)

k ,
Gk  0
.
, , ,


 |j|
0

S
S j +0,

0
0 

Gj =
0
0

S j 0.
S 1
0 M |j|

P = G+0 ,

I P = G0 ,

22

(29)

8
H = G+0 CG+0 + G0 CG0 + 2

Gj CGj .

(30)

|j|=1

9

Gj  C 1  Hj ,

C 1  H 1
.
C 1  H + 1

5 C = I, H

H 1
=
,
H + 1
1/
A B.
(. [8].)

.
A B . :
1) , A B (. .
= H);
2) A B,
, 5;
3) (29) A B, ,
.
23

9.1

,
Gk (29), (30).
(28)

(k)
(k)

2k + 1 < j 1, +0 j < 2k 1,
AGj BGj+1 = 0,
(k)
(k)
(31)
G+0 G0 = I,

(k)
(k)
AG2k BG2k +1 = 0.
: (28)
Gj |j| > 2k .
Gj  0, j .
(k)
(k)
, G2k G2k +1 .
. Gj  0,
j ,
, k .
(k)
Gj Gj ,
"" Gj , ""
(. 4).
(J)
Gj Gj .
(k)

10 Gj Gj (28) (31), A B , .
(k)

Gj Gj 

max

2k +1j2k




G((2k+1 +1)i+|j|)  .

(32)

i=1

8, 9, 10 ,
max

J+1jJ


(k)
Gj Gj  2 C 1 H

J+1
,
1 2J+1

J = 2k .

(33)

(k)
Gj :
(k+1)

(k)

Yj
= Gj ,
+0 j 2k ;
(k+1)
(k)
Y2k +j = G2k +j , 1 j 2k .
24

. 3. .

. 4. .
, "" (k)
Gj .


(k+1)
(k+1)
BYj+1 = 0, 0 j 2k+1 1;
AYj
(34)
(k+1)
(k)
Y0
Y2k+1 = I.
(34).
QR- (. [1])
, P , I P ,
A B ,
|| = 1.

25

9.2

(34) . , ,
.
.
A0 = A,

B0 = B,

(34), (k+1)

Yj
j, j + 1, j + 2
(k+1)

A0 Yj

(k+1)

B0 Yj+1
(k+1)
(k+1)
A0 Yj+1 B0 Yj+2
(k+1)

Yj+1

(k+1)
Yj

= 0,
=0

(35)

j j + 2:
(k+1)

A1 Yj

(k+1)

B1 Yj+2

= 0.

(34)

(k+1)
(k+1)
A1 Y2j
B1 Y2j+2 = 0, 0 j 2k 1,
(k+1)
(k+1)
Y0
Y2k+1 = I,

(36)

.
, , ,
, .
, (35) ,
, , .
, . l-
(k+1)

(k+1)

Al1 Y2l1 j Bl1 Y2l1 (j+1)


(k+1)
Al1 Y2l1 (j+1)

= 0,

(k+1)
Bl1 Y2l1 (j+2)
(k+1)

=0

Y2l1 (j+1) ,

(k+1)

Al Y2l j

(k+1)

Bl Y2l (j+1) = 0
26

(k+1)

Al Y2l j

(k+1)

Y0

(k+1)

Bl Y2l (j+1) = 0, 0 j 2kl+1 1,


(k+1)

Y2k+1 = I,

, k- .
k- :

(k+1)
(k+1)
Bk Y2k+1 = 0,
Ak Y0
(37)
(k+1)
(k+1)
Y2k+1 = I.
Y0
.

9.3

QR- ( , . [1]). .
.

(A0 , B0 ), (A1 , B1 ), . . . (Ak , Bk ). - (35)

(k+1)




Yj
A0 B0
0
0
(k+1)
.
Yj+1 =
0
A0 B0
0
(k+1)
Yj+2

(k+1)
(k+1)
Yj
Yj+1
(k+1)
(k+1)
=
.
Yj+1
Yj
(k+1)
(k+1)
Yj+2
Yj+2



0
A0 B0
=
0
A0 B0
27

B0
A0

A0
0

0
B0


.




B0 A0
0
F0 =
,
A0
0 B0

(k+1)


Yj+1
0

F0 Yj(k+1) =
.
0
(k+1)
Yj+2
QR- F0

1
F1 A
F0 = Q0 R0 ,
R0 =
0 A1

(k+1)

A1 Yj

(k+1)

B1 Yj+2

1
B
B1


,

= 0.

(k+1)
Y2k (j+1)




Bk Ak
0
(k+1)

Fk Y2k j
, Fk =
=
Ak
0
0
(k+1)
Y2k (j+2)
QR- Fk :

k+1
Fk+1 A
Rk =
Fk = Qk Rk ,
0
Ak+1

k+1
B
Bk+1

0
Bk


.


.


(k+1)

Ak+1 Y0

9.4

(k+1)

Bk+1 Y2k+1 = 0.


(k)

(k+1)

Gj , Yj
, (30), H






2k
(k)
(k)
(k)
(k)
(k)
(k)
H (k+1) = G+0 CG+0 + G0 CG0 + 2 j=2k +1 Gj
CGj =







2k+1 1
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
Yj
Y0
CY0
+ Y2k+1
CY2k+1 + 2 j=1
CYj
.
(38)
, (k)
Gj .
28

11 AB , (k)
, Gj Gj
(28) (31) ,
k

H H (k)  C 1  H KH 2 +1 ,

= H, () = ( + 1)( 1),




k

1+
4
2 +1
1
KH () =
.
1+2
+
1 1 2k+1 +1
2
1 2k+1 +1

(39)

, H (k+1) , .

9.5


H (k+1)

,
H (k+1) .
A0 = A, B0 = B . k , B
k (Ak , Bk ) Fk , A
QR-




k B
k
0
Bk1 Ak1
Fk A
= Qk
.
(40)
Ak1
0
Bk1
0 Ak Bk


(k+1)
(k+1)
Bk Y2k+1 = 0,
Ak Y0
(k+1)
(k+1)
Y2k+1 = I,
Y0


(k+1)
k Y (k+1) B
k Y (k+1)
,
Y2k
= Fk1 A
k+1
0
2
(k+1)

X (k+1) = Y0

(k+1)

Y2k

(k+1)

Z (k+1) = Y2k

(41)

(k+1)

Y2k+1 .

( C = I).
12 H (k+1)
(1)

(1)

H (1) = (Y0 ) Y0

(1)

(1)

+ 2(Y1 ) Y1

(1)

(1)

+ (Y2 ) Y2 .

k




H (k+1) = X (k+1) H (k) X (k+1) + Z (k+1) H (k) Z (k+1) .
29

,
H

(k+1)

2k+1




1  (k+1)  (k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
= Y0
Y0
+ Y2k+1
Y2k+1 +2
Yj
=
Yj
j=1

k
2
1 





(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
= Y0
Y0
+ Y2k
Y2k
+2
Yj
+
Yj

j=1
2k+1




1  (k+1)  (k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
Yj
+ Y2k
Y2k
+ Y2k+1
Y2k+1 + 2
Yj
.
j=2k +1

(34)

(k+1)
(k+1)
AYj
BYj+1 = 0,
(k+1)
(k)
Y0
Y2k+1 = I

0 j 2k+1 1,



(k+1)
(k+1)
AYj
BYj+1 = 0, 0 j 2k 1,
(k+1)
(k+1)
Y0
Y2k
= X (k+1)


(k+1)

(k+1)

AYj
BYj+1 = 0, 2k j 2k+1 1,
(k+1)
(k+1)
Y2k
Y2k+1 = Z (k+1) .

,

(k)
(k)
AYj BYj+1 = 0, 0 j 2k 1,
(k)
(k)
Y0 Y2k = I,
(k)

Yj

, . ,
(k+1)

Yj
(k+1)
Y2k +j

(k)
Yj Z (k+1)

(k)

= Yj

X (k+1) 0 j 2k

=
2k j 2k+1 .





H (k+1) = X (k+1) H (k) X (k+1) + Z (k+1) H (k) Z (k+1) .
, .
30

9.6

: A0 B0 , max , .
.
H (0) = 0, k = 0.
A0 , B0 F0


B0 A0
0
F0 =
.
A0
0 B0
QR- F0 (, [1]


1 B
1
F1 A
F0 = Q0 R0 ,
R0 =
.
0 A1 B1



A1
I

B1
I



X1
Z1


=

0
I


.

H (1) = X1 X1 + 2Y1 Y1 + Z1 Z1 .

k = 1.
.
H (k1) H (k)  > H (k)  < max , :
Ak , Bk Fk


Bk Ak
0
Fk =
.
Ak
0 Bk
QR- Fk

Fk = Qk Rk ,

Rk =
31

Fk+1
0

k+1
A
Ak+1

k+1
B
Bk+1


.

Ak+1
I

Bk+1
I



Xk+1
Zk+1


=

0
I


.



1
k+1 Xk+1 B
k+1 Zk+1 ,
A
Yk+1 = Fk+1
Uk+1 = Yk+1 Xk+1 ,
Vk+1 = Zk+1 Yk+1 ,
H

(k+1)

= Uk+1
H (k) Uk+1 + Vk+1
H (k) Vk+1 .

k = k + 1.
.
.

H = H (k+1) ,

P = Xk+1 ,

= H .

.
( ) resP resH.
2
P ,
resP = P

P (IP ) (IP )]A


resH = B H BA H AA [P

B [P
P (I P ) (I P )]B.

P H resP < resH < ,


.
.
dist
, C 5,


1
1 ,
,
dist =
=
1/ 1.
+ 1
32

P .

N2 = N N1 ,
N1 = trP ,

.
(24) (25),(23) .
:
P errorP = resP/(1
2resP );
= H 
A0 B0 ;
dist ;
N1 , N2 ( );
.

10

.
A . :
1) ,
A;
2)
A, A
;
3) A,
,
.

10.1

A, (42) A
.
33

13 () A
P A = AP , P = P 2 ,
, C
A X + XA + P CP (I P ) C(I P ) = 0,

XP = P X

(42)

X,


1
X=
(itI A) C(itI A)1 dt.
2
, ,
Re = a, , A
A aI.

10.2

N N - A
. ,
A .

= A =
A

1
A,
2A

1
.
2A

B = eA .

n k

A

eA =
,
k!
k=0

= 1/2
( A
).
B .
P A, A, 34

, B, , :
P A = AP, P B = BP, P 2 = P




A+ 0
I 0
A=T
P =T
T 1 .
T 1 ,
0 0
0
A

 A


B+ 0
e + 0
B = e A = T
T 1 = T
T 1 .
0
B
0
e A

d
dt G(t) = AG(t),
G(+0) G(0) = I,

G(t) const

 A

e + 0

T 1
T
0
0


G(t) =
0 0

T 1
T
0 e A

t>0
t < 0.

C = C > 0

D=
esA CesA ds,
0

X=

G (t)DG(t)dt

( ) (27), (42):

X B XB = P DP (I P ) D(I P ),
P 2 = P, P B = BP, X = X > 0, XP = P X

XA + A X + P CP (I P ) C(I P ) = 0,
P 2 = P, P A = AP, X = X > 0, XP = P X
, A B
. H (H = X) P ,
, :
35

1) = H , A
;
2) = H , A
:
ln
< 0,
Re


Re

ln
> 0,

H 1
,
H + 1

dist


 ln 

.
dist = 

3) A, ,
,
P .

11

.
A B
a, b . :
1) ,
A B (. . =
H).
2)
A B, , .

36

11.1

A B


Re
a

2
+

Im
b

2
=1

ab
a+b
B
0
A

2 B

2
A =
a b , B =
a + b .
sign(a b)A
0
B
B
2
2
, a > b a2 b2 = 1.
:



(11)
(12)
AGj1 BGj = 0,
Gj
Gj
G+0 G0 = I2N ,
,
Gj =
.
(21)
(22)

Gj
Gj
G(t) 0, t ,
P ,
A B, ,
(11)

(22)

P = G0 + G0 .

11.2

2
1
(A (a cos + ib sin )B) K(A (a cos + ib sin )B)1 d
H=
2 0

2
1
H=
(A ei B) K(A ei B)1 d,
2 0

K = A A + B B,

K = A A + B B,
37


1
H H K K1 H
K K1 

min =

H
H H K K1 H = max .
K 1  K

, ,
H = (max + min )/2.
[2].

12
12.1

. , C (1) 7.5 (
), , (I A)1  > 1/A.
. ,
, ,

1
P =
(I A)1 d,
2
, ,
. I P ,
A .
,
. ,
, .

H = (I A) (I A)1 |d|,

38

H 
A .
= H r ( = rei ) a
(
= a + it)
(. ).
r a = H
, ,
( ). , ,
.
. ,
A , , Re = a.
= Ha (A) (., , . 8).
Ha (A) . a,
, , A,
Re = a, . , P = Pa
a
. a1 a2
, = Ha (A) , Pa2 Pa1
A, ,
. , P1 , . . . , Pk .


.
i 0
Pi = (Vi .. Wi )
Ui .
0
0
V1 , . . . , Vk ,
A - :

0
A1

A2
.
.
.
.
.
.

A = (V1 .. V2 .. . . . .. Vk )
(V1 .. V2 .. . . . .. Vk )1 .
.
..

0
Ak
Ai ,
39

, .

. , , A .
, , , .
, . , , , ( ) ,
[8].

12.2

.

A r, . . (A, r) = (r1 A).
CircDich DichMod GALA3.0 ( GALA-2.0, [1]).
1. A 9 9-

30 14 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0 25 10 0 0 0
0
0
0

0 0 20 5 0 0
0
0
0

0 0 0 15 3 0
0
0
0

0
0
0
A=
0 0 0 0 2 1

0 0 0 0 0 1/8 1/10
0
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1/12 1/100
0

0 0 0 0 0 0
0
1/16 1/100
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0
1/20
9 .
40

. Hr (A)
r
, ,
.
. (A, r) = (r1 A)
. 5 6. . 5 (A, r) = Hr (A) .

. 5. log10 [( 1r A)] r.
. 6. .
2. A 8 8-

20 14 0 0 0 0
0
0
0 20 10 0 0 0
0
0

0 0 20 3 0 0
0
0

0 0 0 15 1 0
0
0

A=
0
0
0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 8 2
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 8 4
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 8
(A, r) = (r1 A) . 7.
41

. 6. log10 [( 1r A)] r.

. 7. log10 [( 1r A)] r.

42

3. Aq 9 9-

6 q 0 0 0 0
0
0
0
0 5 q 0 0 0
0
0
0

0 0 4 q 0 0
0
0
0

0 0 0 3 q
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
A=
0 0 0 0 2 0

0 0 0 0 0 1/2 q
0
0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1/3 q
0

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1/4 q
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0 1/5
r,q = (r1 Aq ) q r 1.
1

r = 0.75
r=1
r = 1.25

q = 1.0 103
r,q = 2.85
r,q = 2.43
r,q = 2.64

q = 0.5
r,q = 13.98
r,q = 4.53
r,q = 3.53

q = 4.0
r,q = 7.18 105
r,q = 4.51 104
r,q = 7.79 103

q = 15.0
r,q = 1.95 109
r,q = 1.19 108
r,q = 1.99 107

A ,
a, . . (A, a) = (A aI).
LinDich DichMod GALA3.0.
4. C 4 4-

15 1/3 1/2 1/6


0
10 1/2 1/4
.
C =
(43)
0
0
10 1/5
0
0
0
15
, . ,
,
.
.
. ,
(C) = H(C) = 7, 106 . , 43


P .
errorP = resP/(1
2resP ) = 1.19 1015 P 2 = P .

1.0 10+00 4.1 1017 2.0 1002 5.5 1003


3.8 1016 1.0 10+00 2.5 1002 9.8 1003

P =
6.4 1017 2.4 1016 5.4 1016 1.6 1017 .
2.8 1017 5.4 1018 1.7 1016 5.6 1016
. dist = 7.23.
5. A 8 8-

20 14 0
0 0 0
0
0
0 19 10 0 0 0
0
0

0 0 20 3 0 0
0
0

0 0 0 15 1 0
0
0

A=
0 0 1
0
0
0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 2 2
0

0 0 0
0 0 0 8
4
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 12
8 , .
, ,
.
, a.
. a -12 25. (A, a) = (A aI)
. 8.
(A, a) = Ha (A) a. ( ) ,
, . . a .
6. B 9 9-

S 0 0
B = 0 S 0 ,
0 0 S
44

. 8. log10 [(A, a)] a.


3 3-

d b 0
S = b d b ,
0 b d
B
= 2.2 1013 .
d = 10.0, b = 10.0 B 9

1 = 4.14214, 4 = 10.0000, 7 = 24.1421,


2 = 4.14214, 5 = 10.0000, 8 = 24.1421,
3 = 4.14214, 6 = 10.0000, 9 = 24.1421,
error = 5.773 1015 EigValTDSymMatrix GALA-3.0. .
. d = 10.0,
b = 10.0 a -5 25. (B, a) =
(B aI) . 9, (B, a) = Ha (B) a.
45

. 9. log10 [(B, a)] a.

. 10. log10 [(A, a, b)] a.


46

7.

4 1/3 1/2
0 5 1/2

A=
0 0
10
0 0
0

1/6
1/4
.
1/5
15

. . 10,
(A, a, b) = Ha (A) a ( a2 b2 = 1). a 0.0
16.5 0.5. .
, a
1 = 4.0, 2 = 5.0, 3 = 10.0, 4 = 15.0,
(A, a, b) = Ha (A) .


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, 2006.
[2] . .
. : , 2008.
[3] ..
. . . . -, 1989, . 15, . 12-92.
[4] .., . . . . . ., 1988, . 29, 5, .59-70.
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[6] . . . . .
., 1986, . 27, 5, .24-37.
[7] . . . , , 1997.
[8] . .
, , 2002.
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Hill,1995. http://www.cs.unc.edu/ geom/geom.html.
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algebraic curves i: simple intersections. ACM Transactions on Graphics,
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[13] Manocha D., Demmel J. Algorithms for interesting parametric and
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48