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BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

03.00.16 -

2003

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. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
Lepidoptera,
Diptera, Coleoptera.
, .
80-
Bt ssp.kurstaki. ,
Bt
ssp.kurstaki . ,
[Martin, Travers, 1989; Kaelin et al.,
1994]. Bt
5-,
.
,
[Hofte, Whiteley, 1989; Gill et al., 1992;
Rukmini et al., 2000].
Bt : , , ,
, , ,
,
[ ., 1979; ., 1991; Burgeron,
de Barjac, 1967; Edlund et al., 1976; Smirnoff, Valero, 1977; Luthy, 1980; Favret,
Yousten, 1989; Lovgren et al., 1990; Zhang et al., 1993; Donovan et al., 2001].

.
Bt ssp.kurstaki, ,
5-,
. ,
Bt
,
.
.
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp.kurstaki no

, ,
.
.
1.
Bt ssp. kurstaki.

at,?%00$

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2. -

-,
,
Bt ssp.kurstaki.
3.
, 5-
( Choristoneura
occidentalis (L'epidoptera: Tortricidae)).
4. ' - Bt,
, Bt,
.
.
Bt ssp.kurstaki 6
' (). ,
,
:
(6-,
, , )
(, , ).
, ,
,' ( Bt ssp.kurstaki,
-1, R), Bt
ssp.kurstaki -73 .
. Bt
ssp.kurstaki Bt
.
, ,

Choristoneura occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae),
100 - 500 .
Bt,
, ,
.
.
IV
(, , 1992);
(, , 1993);
-


(, , 1994);
(, , 1994); XIII
(, , 1995);
" "
(, , 1995); "
" (, , 1998);

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XI (.-, 1998);
- , . -
.. " -
- " ( ,
, 2002), (, 1994),
(, 2002).
-....-, ;, ;. .-.-
- 18 .
,
. 142
; , 3 , ,
. 13 16 .
244 , 191 .
Bt,
.
, :
1. Bt ssp.kwstaki -
- .
.,-..,
2. Bt
ssp.kurstaki, .

200 Bt,
; 67 , 43
Bt,
() . ,
12 Bt ssp.kurstaki 96 ,
HD-1 HD-73 Bt ssp.kurstaki
() (Great Lakes Forestry Center, Canada).
-
,
6 28 .
[van Frankenhuyzenetal., 1997].
Bt ,

, ,
- .

100 . , '
, , ' ^
, V = III2 "'/' 6 ( "), , ; - , . / - ~
Bt
[de Barjac, Frachon, 1990].

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-'
-' [Rosenberg . et al., 1980].
[Kekessy,
Piquet, 1970].

Ludox HS-40 [Zhu et al., 1989].
,
0,05% NaOH (pH 12).
24
28. , ,
0,2 CAPS (pH
10,5). Syringe.

Bt ssp.kurstaki
[Donovan et al., 2001].

7,5% PAGE-SDS; - 12 % ,
, - 15 % [Laemmli,
1970]. 0,1% R-250.
Bio-Rad. Vip3A
(89 kDa)

, R-250.
Bt
2-3 :
Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae),
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), Galleria
mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Pyrausta sticticalis L.
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera:
Orgyidae), - (4- ) Choristoneura
occidentalis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).
. occidentalis
, [van
Frankenhuyzen et al., 1997].
50% (LD50) 50%
(LK50) 3-
.
PO-LO-PC [Rassell et al., 1977].
,
Bt ssp.kwstaki ,
. occidentalis
().

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'.
1. B.thuringiensis
67 Bt, 43 ,
, ,
,
Orthoptera (Grillus bimaculatus), Diptera (Aedes
aegypti), Lepidoptera (Galleriae mellonella).
,
, ,
, ,
.
Bt, .
2. Bt ssp.kurstaki
1978 .
,
-1 -73 [Krywienczyk et al 1978].
Bt ssp.kurstaki 12
,
.
, ,
- , ,
, -
.
2.1. - Bt ssp.kurstaki
:

,
; -
, ;
1 .
(. 1, , ).
,
- 5, ( -1) -17, 8 ( -73), ,
-73
-1 .
Bt ssp.kurstaki
, -1
130 68 . -73

130 , -73
.
,

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2.2. - Bt ssp.kurstahi
- Bt
ssp.kurstahi , .
, , , ,
;
; ,
;
. , !7, . 17
.
|?-.
, ,
. ,
-1 ,
. ,
-73, -1
,
.
'' . Bt ssp.kurstaki

() .

-73.
. .
17 -1 - .

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. 2.
Bt ssp.kurstaki: 1- 5; 2- 4; 3 -
273; 4 - 1; '..'.5 - 532.
- ->:.-,,
Bt ssp.kurstaki
(.2). ( 48
) 273, 1, 532
. . , 5..
' .
4 ^'
.
,
(120 %),
,
[ ., 1994].
2.3. Bt ssp.kurstaki
, Bt
[Favret, Yousten, 1989 ].
, ,

, [Jack et al., 1995].


Bt ssp.kurstaki
, -73
. -1
. 532, - 73,

.
1 17 -1
; -73. 5
,
.

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10

2.4. Bt ssp.kurstaki
, ,
Bt ssp.galleriae Bt ssp.israelensis
[ ., 1973; ., 1995].

() Bt ssp.kurstaki
.
6 .
3 ,,,,,.

. 3. Bt ssp.kurstaki.
: - R; - "; - ; - ; -; -ml.
2.4.1. Bt ssp.kurstaki
96 Bt ssp.kurstaki ,
, m, ml
, , ..
-73. m -
. , m -
( )

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11

. .
, m 1 . ,.;.
X R -1 ; .
. ,
R ,
.

, ,
.
1. R, X,
, ,
, m, ml.
X, . ml
.
,
.
.
1. ' Bt
ssp.kurstaki

-1
-

34

-1

17

4-

-73

17

-73

17

+
.

-73
ml
: "-" - ; "+" - ; "+"

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12

X.

X R , m, ml, M.
2.4.2. - Bt
ssp.kurstaki

. ,
.
-
,
, R,
.
X. 50 %
' .
" '
.
Bacillus 4
[Hachisuka et
al., 1984].
, , , . ,
R.
2.5. Bt ssp.kurstaki
Bt ssp.kurstaki
Aedes aegypti: -1 ,
.
.
, .
,
50%- -, Bt
ssp.kurstaki 7 15 -
. 1
-.
3. Bt ssp.kurstaki
, -, *
Bt, ,
[, 1987; ., 1990; Dalhammar, Steiner ,
1984; Favret, Yousten, 1989]. 1959 . ,

[Heimpel, Angus, 1959].

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13

(20 ng/) -1 (HD-1,


17, 5) 20% . ,
. ,
.
10 .
, , HD-73
( -73) 1
.
3.1. -
LD5o 100 ,
, (.2).
4. ( ssp.kurstaki

,
- ,
6-, .

HD-1

170
17 . HD-1 3.24
1.2-10.6 1.89
HD-1
17
1.31
1.61
0.6-2.8
17
5
1.84
2.37
1.8-3.2
5
1 6.61 2.9-28.8 1.80
1
HDHD-73
1.18 0.6-2.5
1.55
73
: "-" -

LD50 95%
- ..,.

568
3.78
1.94
2.33
5.66
0.64

1.6-15.5
1.4-2.7
1.8-3.0
2.8-15.4
0.3-1.2

95%

LD50

2. ,
Choristoneura occidentals. . -.
..:
..

1.65
1.40
2.07
1.14
1.80

4.1. Bt ssp.kurstaki
,
, , ,
, ,
. - 1

(0,5-4,5)103 ,1,

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14


. ,
,
.
4.2. Bt,
4.2.1. Bt ssp.kurstaki
,
, ,
Vip3A (-89-90 ) (. 3).
4.2.2. Choristoneura occidentalis
, ,
-73 ,
, 20% ,
, .
-73, 1
. . 3,
; .
,
. identalis.
3. , Bt ssp.kurstaki

.,
,
.. 90
mg/m]

3.304
+ +
+
-1
0.747
HD-1
0.906
- +
0.469
+
-1
R
PIT
0.504
+ ..
+
R
0.500

-1
1.356
+ +
-1
X
0.402
5
+
+ 0.959
0.598
HD-73 -73

+ -73
2.243
0.652
273
m
2.139
+ -73
0.685
4
CryR
0.511
+ +
1
1.055
: "-" - ; "+" - ;
".."
HD-1 -1 60%
,
.

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15

-1 ( ) (
17? 5) .
-1

Vip (.3). Vip
HD-1 17 (3,8 /),
HD-1 2 ,
17 (68% 31,7%).

(. 3).

HD-1 .
5. -
Bt ssp.kurstaki
1987 - 1990 .. Bac.cereus
- Bac.thuringiensis 760 (, ,
), , -
, 200 Bt.
Bt,

.
,
50 %
kurstaki. ,
Bt
ssp.kurstaki .
Bt ssp.kurstaki " -
(.4). ,
-1
R. - 1 ,
4. Bt ssp.kurstaki
-

... j .

28/28

| 11/17
14/22
.

4/5

3/8

~
-1 ' - ! -73
100
10
12
88
22,5
77.5
20
|80
50
50

%
R
100
12
10,5
20
37,5

X
0
0
12
0
12,5

0
0
38,5
60
20

m
0
88
39
20
30

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16

, .
- 73 (.4).
[Kaelin et al., 1994]
,
15 .
Bt ssp.kurstaki
- 73, , (
Bt ssp.kurstaki
- 73),
- ,
,
.
. - 73
,
- 1. -73

. . .
.
Bt
ssp.kurstaki , R (
) ( - ).
- 1 R ;
X - 1 ,
( ), (.4).
3 , . - 73,
, . ,
(.2.4.1.) ,
. ,
,
, .
,
. , , ,
Bt . ,
Bt ssp.hirstaki - 73
X R - 1 6-
,
, - 1 , X,
.
, ,

Bt
ssp.kurstaki

.
Bt ssp.kurstaki 1,
- 73.

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17

6.
,
Bt ssp.kurstaki
Bt ssp.israelensis, ssp.sotto;
Bt ssp.galleriae, ssp.thnringiensis; Btssp.entomocidus.


SDS-PAGE.
.
. , 67 15
15 .
,
, ,
.
. - ,

.
, . ,
, .

.
, , ,
- ,
, , ,
.
Bt SDS-PAGE


.

,
.

1. Bt ssp.kurstaki - . 6
: R, X, , , , ml.
( ) ( ,

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18

, , , ,
) Bt ssp.birstaki.
2.
, Choristoneura occidentalis
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). ,
: , "
, .

,
Bt ssp.kurstaki.
3. Bt ssp.kurstaki
,
Bt
ssp.kurstaki
- Choristoneura
occidentalis
100-500 .
4. Bt
ssp.kurstaki . , R
( 0);
- ( > 50%).
5. -

Bt ,
Bt ssp.kurstaki -73 ,
.
,

.
6. , SDS-PAGE
Bacillus thuringiensis,
,
.
,
1. .. Bacillus
thuringiensis subsp.kurstaki / .., .., ..,
.. // . . IV
. , 20-24 , 1992. - .2223.
2.
..

Bacillus
thuringiensis
subsp.
kurstaki
/
.., ..// .-.80.
. .. Bacillus thuringiensis
subspecies kurstaki I .., .., .., ..

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19

// . . . ,
26-27 , 1993. - .71.
4. ..
/ .-, . //


). , 24-26 , 1994. - ,
1994.-.202-204.
5. .. Bacillus cereusBacillus thuringiensis / .., .. // . .
. , 17-19 ,
1994.-.19.
6.Kalmikova G.V. Bacillus thuringiensis novosibirsk (serovar H24a24c), a new
subspecies from the West Siberian Plain / L.I.Burtseva, V.A.Burlak, G.V.Kalmikova,
H. de Barjac, M.-M. Lecadet // J. Invert. Pathol. - 1995. - V.66. -P.92-93.
7. .. Bacillus thuringiensis
subspecies kurstaki I . ., .., .. // .
- 1995. - . 64. - 4. - .461-468.
8.Kalmikova G.V. Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki as a microbial
biocontrol agent / L.I.Burtzeva, G.VJCalmikova // European Journal of Plant
Pathology. - Abstracts, 1 International Plant Protection Congress, The Hague The Netherlands, 2-7 July, 1995. -N.583.
9.Kalmikova G.V. Bacteriocinogeny and hydrophobicity of Bacillus thuringiensis
morphovariants as protective factors in nature / G.V.Kalmikova, L.I.Burtzeva //TbitN.584.
lO.Kalmikova G.V. Ecologically safe methods for plant protection / N.I.Ermakova,
G.V.Kalmikova, L.I.Burtzeva // Book of Abstracts, International conference "
Fundamental and applied problems of environmental protection". Tomsk, September
12-16,1995.-P.171.
. .. -
Bacillus thuringiensis I J3., .. // ...
. ,
1997.-.52-59.
12. . .
Bacillus thuringiensis/ .., .., ..,
.. // "
". , 1998. .172-174.
1 . ..
Bacillus thuringiensis / ., .., ..,
.. // ..." ".
.
, 1998. - .54-55.

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20

14. .. Loxostega
sticticalis L.(Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) Bacillus
thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki I! . - .176-177.
15. .. Bacillus
thuringiensis
13/ .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.. // . - 1999. - .35. - 6. - .751-755.
16. .. . / ..,
.., . . // : ( . ..) - .: , 200L . 189-245.
17. . . Bacillus thuringiensis I ..,
. ., .. , .. // , 100-

..

"

- ". ,
11-13 , 2002. - .47-48.
18. ..
Bacillus thuringiensis / ..,
.., .., .., ..// . - .59-61.

/f

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. 1
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. ..
630090, , . , S

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