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ON

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF

THE AWARD FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS

ADMINISTRATION

(2008-2010)

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:


Miss. Swapna Verma Mr. Uday Prakash Tripathi
School of Management Sciences PGDM 3rd Sem.

SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, LUCKNOW


PREFACE

The theoretical knowledge gained during the pursuance of Post Graduate Diploma in

Management(PGDM) has been complemented by the practical training experience of 60 days at

Xerox India ltd. With the opening up of the Photocopier machines many companies have come up

like Canon,Richo,Sharp and xerox . This has increased the competition among them and also posed a

challenge, which was enjoying a monopoly status. The increased competition gives me an

opportunity to compare the copiers machines.

My study aims “To analyze the market shares of Xerox photocopier in Lucknow”. I have also

made a market survey in order to find out the preference of individuals as to the nature of

Photocopier machines. The survey helped me to derive various other facts about the photocopier in

market.

In today’s lots of photocopier machines available in market, it is difficult to customer for choosing

the machines. Therefore this study is of importance both from the point of view of the customer, as it

compares the salient features of the products offered by the Xerox.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to place sincere thanks to Mr. Shabbir Hasan who is the owner of SHAMS office

Automation and Mr. Ritesh Srivastava who is the sales in charge give kind advice and sincere

guidance in the completion of this project.

The acknowledgement would be incomplete without thanking family and friends, who were of

immense help.

At last, I would like to place deep sense of gratitude to the entire staff of Xerox who gave me time

and were very helpful and cooperative.

Uday Prakash Tripathi

PGDM 3rd sem.

School of Management Sciences

TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter A

• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1-2

• PROBLEM DEFINITION 3-4

• OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH 5-6

• INTRODUTION 7-10

• COMPANY OVERVIEW 11-40

• PRODUCT Of XEROX 41-53

• ENVIRONMENTAL RECORD & TRADEMARK 54-59

Chapter B

• RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 60-66

• DATA ANALYSIS & RESULTS 67-75

• FINDINGS 76-78

• CONCLUSION 79-80

Chapter C

• SUGGESTION and RECOMMENDATION 81-82

• SWOT ANALYSIS 83-87

• CARPORATE LEARNING 88-89

• LIMITATIONS 90-91

• BIBLIOGRAPHY 92-93

• ANNEXURE 94-96
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The research that has been undertake for study was to carry Graduates of Businessman in doing part

of time Job in Insurance company and I made a survey of 100 government and non government

organizations and the area where my survey was complete in Lucknow. And I feed back which I got

from different organizations were quite good enough and it shows a good sign and good image of

Xerox India ltd. In this competitive market where customer and dealer is the king, it is very

important to analyze the customer as well as dealer perception about the product. Companies, by

conducting various market researches, try to improve their products and provide customers better

and more services.

As without putting customers on the top no company can get success. For achieving success every

company should target customers because the market is totally market oriented.

The report is prepared for the partial fulfillment of PGDM programme and as a part of curriculum.

The topic of my project is “To analyze the market shares of Xerox photocopier machine” in

Lucknow.

This exploratory research is being conducted by survey on the people of Lucknow.

The survey was conducted through questionnaires by personally interviewing each respondent on a

number of queries structured in the questionnaire.

The data thus collected through survey was organized in a database, which could be referred for

future endorsements. The data thus collected was then subjected to analysis by a mixture of common

and advanced statistical technique.

The above mentioned survey was conducted on 100 respondents. The respondents were selected

from different parts of Lucknow city.

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The respondents were taken from various sectors viz.: Governments,Privates,Institutions as well as

various customers etc.It is found that still Xerox photocopier machines is the strongest competitor

for the companies like: Richo,Canon,Sharp and Godrej.

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Problem Definition

Problem Definition refers to the problem that will arise during the course of study of this topic in the

months of May and June. Different kinds of problems comes into picture during the course of study

as for example people are not ready to share their view for five minutes due to terrible hot condition

in which the study is to be undertaken. Because of this reason polite and humble person are chosen

carefully so that they can share their view honesty with us. So that the purpose of our study can be

fulfilled with in limited time period of study.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
Research objective is the basic theme on which the survey is conducted and on which the whole

report depends.

The objectives of this survey are:

• To study the market of Xerox photocopier machine in Lucknow.

• To study the growths of Xerox photocopier machine.

• To observe the extent of the market.

• To find out which type of product and schemes is preferred by the

Organization.

• To study the different facilities of photocopier machine(MFD) given by Xerox companies.

• To study the market strategy of Xerox.

• To study the organization structure of Xerox India ltd.

• To study the different product ranges of Xerox.

• To study the, what is the opportunity for Xerox in Indian market.

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Introduction
A photocopier (or copier) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual

images quickly and cheaply. Most current photocopiers use a technology called xerography,a dry

process using heat. (Xerographic office photocopying was introduced by Xerox,in the 1960s, and

over the following 20 years it gradually replaced copies made by Verifax, Photostat,carbon copy

mimography machines,and other duplicating machine.The prevalence of its use is one of the factors

that prevented the development of the paperless office heralded early in the digital revolution.

Photocopying is widely used in business, education, and government. There have been many

predictions that photocopiers will eventually become obsolete as information workers continue to

increase their digital document creation and distribution, and rely less on distributing actual pieces of

paper.

In 1937, Bulgarian physicist Georgi Nadjakov found that, when placed into an electric field and

exposed to light, some dielectrics acquire permanent electric polarization in the exposed areas. That

polarization persists in the dark and is destroyed in light.Chester Carlson, the inventor of

photocopying, was originally a patent attorney, as well as a part-time researcher and inventor. His

job at the patent office in New York required him to make a large number of copies of important

papers. Carlson, who was arthritic, found this to be a painful and tedious process. This motivated

him to conduct experiments with photoconductivity. Carlson used his kitchen for his

"electrophotography" experiments, and, in 1938, he applied for a patent for the process. He made the

first photocopy using a zinc plate covered with sulfur. The words "10-22-38 Astoria" were written

on a microscope slide, which was placed on top of more sulfur and under a bright light. After the

slide was removed, a mirror image of the words remained. Carlson tried to sell his invention to some

companies, but failed because the process was still underdeveloped. At the time, multiple copies

were most commonly made at the point of document origination, using carbon paper or manual

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duplicating machines, and people did not see the need for an electronic machine. Between 1939 and

1944, Carlson was turned down by over 20 companies, including IBM and General Electric—neither

of which believed there was a significant market for copiers.In 1944, the Battelle Memorial Institute,

a non-profit organization in Columbus, Ohio, contracted with Carlson to refine his new process.

Over the next five years, the institute conducted experiments to improve the process of

electrophotography. In 1947, Haloid Corporation (a small New York-based manufacturer and seller

of photographic paper) approached Battelle to obtain a license to develop and market a copying

machine based on this technology.Haloid felt that the word "electrophotography" was too

complicated and did not have good recall value. After consulting a professor of classical language at

Ohio State University, Haloid and Carlson changed the name of the process to "Xerography," which

was derived from Greek words that meant "dry writing." Haloid called the new copier machines

"Xerox Machines" and, in 1948, the word "Xerox" was trademarked. Haloid eventually changed its

name to Xerox Corporation.In 1949, Xerox Corporation introduced the first xerographic copier

called the Model A. Xerox became so successful that, in North America, photocopying came to be

popularly known as "xeroxing." Xerox has actively fought to prevent "Xerox" from becoming a

genericized trademark. While the word "Xerox" has appeared in some dictionaries as a synonym for

photocopying, Xerox Corporation typically requests that such entries be modified, and that people

not use the term "Xerox" in this way. Some languages include hybrid terms, such as the widely used

Polish term kserokopia ("xerocopy"), even though relatively few photocopiers are of the Xerox

brand.In the early 1950s, Radio Corporation of America (RCA) introduced a variation on the process

called Electrofax, whereby images are formed directly on specially coated paper and rendered with

a toner dispersed in a liquid.During the 1960s and through the 1980s, Savin Corporation developed

and sold a line of liquid-toner copiers that implemented a technology based on patents held by the

company.

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Prior to the widespread adoption of xerographic copiers, photo-direct copies produced by machines

such as Kodak's Verifax were used. A primary obstacle associated with the pre-xerographic copying

technologies was the high cost of supplies: a Verifax print required supplies costing USD $0.15 in

1969, while a Xerox print could be made for USD $0.03 including paper and labor. At that time,

Thermofax photocopying machines in librariescould make letter-sized copies for USD $0.25 or more

(at a time when the minimum wage for a US worker was USD $1.65).

There are many brnads of photocopier machines available in market, but Xerox is leadinf brand in

photocopier market.

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Company Overview

Address:

800LongRidgeRoad

Stamford,Connecticut06904

U.S.A.

Telephone: (203) 968-3000

Toll Free: 800-828-6396

Fax: (203) 968-4312

http://www.xerox.com

Statistics:

Public Company

Incorporated: 1906 as The Haloid Company

Employees: 91,400

Sales: $18.17 billion (1997)

Revenue: US$17.2 billion(2007)

Stock Exchanges: New York Midwest Boston Cincinnati Pacific Philadelphia London Basel Berne

Geneva Lausanne Zürich.

TickerSymbol: XRX

C.E.O. - Anne M.Mulcahy

SICs: 3577 Computer Peripheral Equipment, Not Elsewhere Classified; 3579 Office Machines, Not

Elsewhere Classified; 5044 Office Equipment; 7374 Computer Processing & Data Preparation
Services; 7375 Information Retrieval Services; 7379 Computer Related Services, Not Elsewhere

Classified.

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Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX; name pronounced /ˈziːrɒks/) is a global document management

company which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction

systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and

supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (moved from Stamford, Connecticut in

October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based in and around Rochester, New

York, the area in which the company was founded.

History

The Xerox 914 was the first one-piece plain paper photocopier, and sold in the thousands.Xerox was

founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York as "The Haloid Company", which originally manufactured

photographic paper and equipment. The company subsequently changed its name to "Haloid Xerox"

in 1958 and then simply "Xerox" in 1961. The company came to prominence in 1959 with the

introduction of the Xerox 914, the first plain paper photocopier using the process of xerography

developed by Chester Carlson. The 914 was so popular that by the end of 1961, Xerox had almost

$60 million in revenue. By 1965, revenues leaped to over $500 million. Before releasing the 914,

Xerox had also introduced the first xerographic printer, the "Copyflo" in 1955.

The company expanded substantially throughout the 1960s, making millionaires of some
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long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and

development phase of the product. In 1960, the "Wilson Center for Research and Technology" was

opened in Webster, New York, a research facility for xerography. Then in 1961, the company

changed its name to "Xerox Corporation". Xerox common stock (XRX) was listed on the New York

Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990.

In 1963, Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, bringing Carlson's

vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk into a reality. Ten years later in 1973, a color

copier followed.

In 1969, Xerox acquired Scientific Data Systems [SDS], and produced the Sigma line of 32-bit

mainframe computers in the 1960s and 1970s.

The laser printer was invented in 1969 by Xerox researcher Gary Starkweather by modifying a

Xerox copier. This development resulted in the first commercially available laser printer, the Xerox

9700, being launched in 1977. Laser printing eventually became a multi billion dollar business for

Xerox. Archie McCardell was named president of the company in 1971. During his tenure, Xerox

introduced its first color copier. During McCardell's reign at Xerox, the company announced record

revenues, earnings and profits in 1973, 1974, and 1975. John Carrol became a backer, later spreading

the company throughout North America.


Following these years of record profits, in 1975 Xerox resolved an anti-trust suit with the Federal

Trade Commission (FTC), which at the time was under the direction of Frederic M. Scherer. The

Xerox consent decree resulted in the forced licensing of the

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company’sentire patent portfolio, mainly to Japanese competitors. This action

marked the start of an activist approach to managing competition by the FTC and U.S. Department

of Justice (DOJ). It resulted in the forced licensing of tens of thousands of patent from some of

America's leading companies, including IBM, AT&T, DuPont, Bausch & Lomb, and Eastman

Kodak. Within four years of the consent decree, Xerox's share of the U.S. copier market dropped

from nearly 100% to less than 14%. Between 1950 and 1980 Japanese companies consummated

more than 35,000 foreign licensing agreements, mostly with U.S. companies, for free or low-cost

licenses made possible by the FTC and DOJ.

In 1970, under company president Charles Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox PARC

(Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) research facility. The facility developed many modern

computing technologies such as the mouse and the graphical user interface (GUI). From these

inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a modern

workstation or personal computer. This machine can be considered the first true personal computer,

given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a

QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself

could not see the sales potential of it. In 1979, several Apple Computer employees, including Steve

Jobs, visited Xerox PARC, interested in seeing their developments. Jobs and the others saw the

commercial potential of the GUI and mouse, and redirected development of the Apple Lisa to
incorporate these technologies. In 1980, Steven Jobs invited several key PARC's researchers to join

his company in order that they would be able to fully develop and implement their ideas.

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The Xerox Alto workstation was developed at Xerox PARC. Xerox later released a similar system to

the Alto, the Xerox Star in 1981 as a workstation. It was the first commercial system to incorporate

various technologies that today have become commonplace in personal computers, including a bit-

mapped display, a window-based GUI, mouse, Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-

mail. The Xerox Star, despite its technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price,

costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office would have cost $100,000.In the mid

1980s, Apple considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple instead bought

rights to the Alto GUI and adapted it into to a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the

business and education markets. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, and was the first

personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse amongst the public.The company was revived
in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line.

Development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range

essentially high-end laser printers with attached scanners which were able to be attached to computer

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networks again gave,Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. Xerox worked to

turn its product into a service, providing a complete "document service" to companies including

supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company

introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company" above its main logo and introduced a

red "digital X". The "digital X" symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and

digital worlds.

In 2000, Xerox acquired Tektronix color printing and imaging division in Wilsonville, Oregon, for

US$925 million. This led to the current Xerox Phaser line of products as well as Xerox solid ink

printing technology.

In September 2004, Xerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox 914. More than 200,000

units were made around the world between 1959 and 1976, the year production of the 914 was

stopped. Today, the 914 is part of American history as an artifact in the Smithsonian Institution.

Xerox's turnaround was largely led by Anne M. Mulcahy, who was appointed president in May

2000, CEO in August 2001 and chairman in January 2002.[8] Mulcahy launched an aggressive

turnaround plan that returned Xerox to full-year profitability by the end of 2002, along with

decreasing debt, increasing cash, and continuing to invest in research and development. In

November, 2006 Xerox completed the Acquisition of XMPie Press Release. In October 2008, Xerox
Canada Ltd. was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which

was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.

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On May 21, 2009 it was announced that Ursula Burns would succeed Anne Mulcahy as CEO of

Xerox as of July 1st, 2009 and hence would become the first African American to head a company

the size of Xerox.

The Corporate Milestones

1983
• Joint Venture agreement signed with Rank Xerox.

• September 2: Modi Xerox incorporated.

• November 11: Rampur Plant foundation stone laid.

1984

• The maiden Public issue oversubscribed.

• Major Branch Offices established in 22 cities across the country.

1985

• February 13: The first 1045 copier rolls off the assembly line.

• May 1: Commercial production begins.

• December 20: 1000th Copier manufactured.

• Modi Xerox sets up the largest dedicated service network in the country – 140

service engineers.

1986
• The new 1025 copier helps grow the market.

• Fully integrated manufacturing facilities operational.

• Photoreceptor Unit and toner-developer plant - first of its kind in India

Commissioned.

• Leadership Through Quality formally adopted by Modi Xerox.

• Dayawati Modi Academy, Rampur begins first academic session.

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• Record export order for 1065 & 1075 copiers bagged.

• 10,000th machine rolls out of Rampur.

• The 1025 copier becomes the largest selling copier in India.

• Copier volumes cross 800 million.

1988

• Customer Satisfaction Benchmarking initiated.

• Employee training of 4.9 man-days per employee reaches International

benchmarks.

1989

• Market share touches 40%.

• Over 3,000 mid-volume copiers exported to U.K.

• 1038 upper mid-volume copier launched.

• Principles of Quality cascaded throughout Modi Xerox.

1990

• Value-engineered 1025 ST launched, the only copier of its kind in Xerox

• Entry into the low-volume segment with the 5012 copier

• Overall Customer Satisfaction rating of 90% achieved

• 'Teamwork 90', the first Quality event, showcases 36 Quality Projects


1991

• Export of parts and components to Xerox plants initiated

• 2.2 million accident-free hours at Rampur, amongst the best in the Xerox world

• Modi Xerox wins National HRD Award

• Korea Xerox adopted as Benchmarking Partner.

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1992

• Modi Xerox becomes The Document Company with its entry into the laser printer

and fax markets

• ISO 9002 Certification attained

• Modi Xerox evolves - Laser Printers, fax machines and Quality Office Supplies

launched

• Over 25,000 photoreceptors and 450,000 toner bottles exported to Xerox

customers in Europe and USA

1993

• Modi Xerox completes 'First 10 Years'

• First time Business Excellence Certification achieved

• New products, New technologies introduced: Colour with Xerox MajestiK digital

colour copier and printer series, Heavy duty Xerox 1040, Xerox 5331, 2515

Engineer Plan Printers

• Entry into low volume copier market with the Modi Xerox 5212 value engineered

by Rampur

• 50,000th machine rolls out of Rampur

• Repro market share crosses 50% mark


• Suppliers' Total Quality Strategy initiated.

1994

• Plain paper fax and inkjet printer technologies introduced.

• Rampur wins 1993 Xerox Significant Safety achievement Award & National safety

Award.

• First ever patent for Selenium Waste Disposal field.

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• Xerox quality services launched.

• Xerox software development commences.

1995

• New corporate identity, ‘The Document Company Modi Xerox’ , and digitised ‘X’

cut-in.

• Product MIF crosses the 100000 mark.

• Colour offering expended; new Work Group rises, high- ended Xerox Printing

systems introduced.

• Complete Waste –Free Factory Status : 100% Reuse & Recycling of waste by

Rampur.

• 2 out of five Xerox Earth Award Won.

1996

• Tie up with Rank Xerox Technical Centre to boost service operations

• British Safety Award received for the fifth time

• Benchmark 2.97 composite defects per hundred machines, normalised for 1000

drawings

• 3 Xerox Earth Awards won - a benchmark performance

• Industry No.1 in Overall Customer Satisfaction. Rated No.1 on After Sales Service
by A&M and Marg Survey. 95% Satisfaction rating on Key Accounts achieved

• Over 55% copier market share achieved

• 20 new products launched, from low-end copiers to high-end Printing Systems

• Single Integrated Customer Data Base introduced & through VSATs link the

CBUs were linked with National Warehouses, Rampur plant and Xerox

• First Xerox Document Center opens in Delhi

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1997

• India identified as key Emerging Market for Xerox

• ISO 14001 Certification attained for complete Environment Management System

• June 26 - 100,000th Copier rolls out from Rampur plant.

• 3.8 million Accident free man-hours logged as on 30th September 1997.

• Suppliers’ Total Quality Certification for 43 Suppliers. 20 ISO certified

• New Digital, Networked products launched - Xerox DocuColor 40, the world’s

Fastest digital color production system and Xerox DocuTech 135 digital

publishing system

• Xerox awards won: Global Accounts Marketing Pioneer Award, Xerox Channels

Group Award, Contract Penetration and Cost of Rental Programs identified as

Best Practices by Xerox Emerging Markets Customer Operations (EMCO)

• First Modi Xerox Supplier, M/s Indal Electronics, certified as Xerox worldwide

Supplier

• 4 Xerox Earth Awards won

• 90% CSS employees part of SMWG work way - 74 teams across 50 locations

• QuickJit, a patented Xerox process launched.

• CMM Level 3 Certification for software development from Carnegie Melon’s


Software Engineering Institute, USA Exciting digital products launched -

Docuprint N40, Xerox 8830 DDS Engineering Plan Printer

1998

• Digital transition initiated – DigIT Certification launched. 50% people trained in

digital technology

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• Value Added Partner Program initiated Second Xerox Document Center set up in

Bangalore

• Customer Service Support part of Eureka, Xerox worldwide Service Support

database

• Highest ever 4.7 million accident free hours clocked at Rampur

• 7 Xerox Earth Awards won and 3 Honourable Mentions

• Benchmark 97% Toner yield across Xerox

• Supplies Manufacturing Operations achieves ‘Zero Deficiency Level’ certification

from Xerox

• First time direct exports to SAARC; Fax Rolls to South East Asia and

photoreceptors to Xerox Shanghai

• Y2K compliance on all products manufactured at Rampur

• Open Learning Centre established at Rampur

1999

• Integral part of Xerox Developing Markets Operations (DMO)

• Business Restructuring successfully concluded

• Xerox Management Model & the Managing For Results (MFR) process

revitalized
• New Convenience Copier series engineered and launched by Rampur. 55%

National Integration achieved

• Channels Premier Club for Extended Sales Promotion Agents

• ISO 14001 Surveillance Audit successfully concluded

• Outsourcing Servicing Agents (OSA) activity successfully initiated

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• Export Excellence Award won. First ever copier export to Iraq under UN Oil for

Food Program

• Benchmark Asset Recovery in the Xerox world for fifth consecutive year

• DMO Assessment rates XMC No. 1 in Digital & Network Knowledge. No. 2 in

Color.

• XMC rated industry No. 1 in Customer Satisfaction for 5th consecutive year

• New Document Solutions cut in for Telecom, Graphics Arts, Education, Banking

& Finance and Manufacturing

2000

• Merger of Modi Xerox Limited & Modi Xerox Financial Services into Xerox

Modicorp Limited (XMC) concluded

• Tektronix Colour Printing & Imaging Division (CPID) in India integrates with

Xerox Modicorp's Channels Business

• 7th Employee Day celebrated. Company Merit Awards instituted

• Knowledge Sharing at work initiative announced

• Open Door Policy launched

• Modi Xerox wins 1999 Golden Peacock innovative Product/Service Award from

World Congress on Total Quality


• Teleweb enabled business intensified

• omes The Document Company – enters laser printer, fax and supplies markets.

• ISO 9002 Certification attained.

A record of 25,000 photoreceptors & 2,50,000 toner bottles were exported to Xerox.

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What Xerox Promises

• The Document Company Xerox Modicorp in India demonstrates its leadership

in

market position.

• Wide array of high-end production & printing systems; engineering plan

printers,

colour, digital & networked products.

• Document solutions for telecom, banking & finance, graphic arts, education,

manufacturing & government.

• Industry No. 1 in overall Customer Satisfaction and service. Nationwide

distribution & reach.

• Widespread coverage and strong dealer network for plug & play products and

supplies.

• Benchmark Manufacturing & Supply Chain operations.

• The First in industry to achieve ISO 9002 for Manufacturing and Marketing /

Customer Service Support.

• It also endeavored to be among the first 10 companies in India to obtain ISO


14001 for complete environment management systems World class facility for

manufacture of copiers, consumables and parts.

• It is also amongst the top 10 networked companies in India and has been

adjudged

the most successful joint venture of the decade.

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Vision and Mission

OUR VISION

Xerox India Ltd, the Document Management Company, will be the leader in the document market

in India , helping improve our customer work processes, positively impacting productivity and Costs

while digitally empowering them to transform their work.

In other words:

‘ Helping people find better ways to do great work’

OUR MISSION:

Our strategic intent is to help people find better ways to do great work—by constantly leading in document

technologies, products and services that improve our customer’s work processes and business results.
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We are…
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142 on the Fortune 500 List

Business Groups

• Xerox Office

• Production Services

• Xerox Global Services

• The Group: $25 Billion in Sales

• Xerox Corporation: $16 Billion

• FUJI XEROX Ltd: $9 Billion

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Operations Groups

 United States and Canada

 Europe (Western Europe)

 Developing Market Operations

† Latin America

† Eastern Europe

† Russia / CIS

† India

† Middle East and Africa


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Xerox India Limited ((XIL)
Overview

Incorporated in 1983, Xerox India Limited (XML) is a part of Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX), the

US$15.7 billion, Fortune 500 global document management company. Over the past 20 years, Xerox

Indiahas shaped the Document Management industry in India by ushering in the world's best

documentprocessing products and bringing innovative value-added concepts to cater to customer

needs. XeroxIndia has successfully transitioned three major movements in India since its inception,

from copying toprinting, black and white to colour and stand-alone analog to digital, networked

products.

Xerox India's Strategic Intent

“To become the leader in the document market in India by helping improve the customer

workprocesses, positively impacting productivity and costs while digitally empowering them

totransform their work. In other words 'helping people find better ways to do great work.”

Xerox India Limited, erstwhile Modi Xerox was the outcome of one man's vision to usher white-

collarproductivity in India. In the 1960s and 1970s Dr Bhupendra Kumar Modi, erstwhile founder

Chairmanand President, Modi Xerox experienced first hand the power of xerography and discovered

the simple joyof copying reference study material at the touch of a button.

Through a tie up with Rank Xerox, a member of the worldwide Xerox family in UK, Dr Modi

founded Modi Xerox, a joint venture partnership and brought to Indian offices a new level of

productivity and efficiency in business management.

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The Xerox India Limited story can be divided into the following phases:

o The Start-up years (1983 - 86)

o The Take-off Phase (1986 - 89)

o Maturing of the Partnership (1989 - 91)

o Evolution into The Document Company (1991 - 95)

o Gearing up for Globalization & Knowledge Growth (1995 - 99)

o 2000 & Beyond : Leading the Digital Document Revolution

Through its three business groups - Production Systems Group (PSG), New Office Group,

Consulting/Outsourcing business group - XIL caters to its three primary markets of high-end

production environments, networked offices (small to large) and document management services.

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New Office Group

The New Office Group of Xerox caters to the requirements of large and mid-sized and small

enterprises, providing them with analog copiers, digital copiers, copiers-printers, advanced

multifunction devices, color copiers-printers and engineering copiers. These offerings are marketed

through "Two-Tier” distribution model. Xerox reaches out to its customers through its network of

three national distributors (Ingram, eSys and Redington) and two regional distributors (Micromax

and Ansatta). The company has network of 1500 channel partners that are supported by a team of

qualified and trained indirect sales personnel.

Production Systems Group

The Xerox Production Systems Group caters to three main production environments - Publishing,

Transaction Printing, and Enterprise-wide Printing through its multiple product categories. The

group also offers total document solutions and services that can scan, view, manage and produce

documents as wells a variety of pre-press and post press workflow options to fully meet customer

demands. The group markets its product portfolio through both direct and indirect model.

Xerox Global Services

Xerox Global Services brings device and document management services to the marketplace. It

enables Xerox to be a fully integrated document solutions company by providing a total end-to-end

solution.

Xerox Global Services helps clients reduce costs and create value by making smarter connections

between people processes and technology.

33
Contribution of Office Groups:

It sells office products and contributes over 70% of the company’s revenue in India.

Revenue from India in the financial year of 2004-05 has been Rs.500crores

We have set the target of Rs.800crores by the end of 2008.

As of now we have around 620 channel partners and over 1000 resellers.

Recognitions achieved:

 First in industry to achieve ISO 9002 for both Manufacturing and Customer Service

Support.

 Among first 10 companies in India to obtain ISO 14001 for complete environment

management systems.

 National HRD Award

 Quality training programs and Best Practices imbibed and shared within Xerox (Egypt and

SaudiXerox) as well as lead management bodies in India.

 Export Achievement Awards 1996-97 & 1997-98.

 1999 Golden Peacock Award for Value Engineering new Modi Xerox 5216 copier variant.

34
OPPORTUNITY

India Market – The Facts

Market Available for you……..

1. Mono Laser Printers – 6 Lakh Printers

2. Color Laser MFD’s – 40 Thousand Printers

3. Mono MFD’s A3 – 45 Thousand Units

4. Mono MFD’s A4 – 1 Laks 20 Thousand Units

5. 500 Cr. consumables Opportunity

6. 2000 Cr. Paper Opportunity

7. Rs.4500 CR. Software Industry

35

The Document Company Xerox


streamlined structure
There are four regional directors in the marketing wing to over see operations.

These are

North, South, East and West. Our study furthered on the operations from the

north which

is headed by Graham Wing.

ISO stands for Industrial Solution organization which covers the major/key

accounts of

Xerox. GMO stands for General Marketing Organization which entails channel

trade

partners. Channel activities cover sales through dealer/ channel networks.


36

The North operations cover the state of Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh with 14

towns as

major business focus. The operations are a three tier system with the second

line at the

operational level reporting to the respective regional director stationed at New

Delhi.

Regional Channel Structure

The categorization of the cities is based on A, B and C classification.


A: Usually 3-4 channel partners averaging turnover from 60-75 lacks per annum

B: Usually 2-3 channel partners averaging turnover from 40-60 lacks per annum

C: Usually 1-2 channel partners averaging turnover less than equal to 40 lacks

per annum

37

Marketing Strategy
Steps of Sale – SPANCO

Sales approach should be SPANCO which could be further elaborated into Suspect, Prospect, Approach,

Negotiate, Close the Call and finally get the Order. The various steps are explained below:

1- Suspect- Fact Finding Mission Record all contacts

2- Prospect- Validation and Classification – H/W/C. Time Table preparation, Initiating Next Steps

3- Approach-- Contacting the M.A.N. Submission of the Proposal

4- Negotiation- Demonstration. Submission of fresh proposal

5- Closing- Collecting the order

6- Order- Processing the order, Delivery, Installation and KOT. Collection

Suspect:

The sales cycle starts from a suspect. The suspect is a new door. To be sure that the new door has a suspect

behind it, the salesman must go and see for himself. To convert the suspect into a prospect, the sales man

requires information. The information can only be gained with the eyes and so the sales man must go and

look. Most of the salesman’s information will however come from asking questions of the people he meets

when he calls on the suspect.

Prospect:

The suspect is identified as a M.A.N. and qualifies as a prospect. The business of a prospect will need the

services and solutions offered by Xerox. We need to make the prospect recognize these needs and educate

him on the same.


Approach:

The prospect is approached at this stage of SPANCO sales process. The approach is done through a business

appointment that is convenient to the prospect. Even the prospect is open for a Demo of the product through

which his need can be met. At the end of this step a proposal of business is submitted to the identified

prospect which includes the primary quotation.

38

Negotiation:

Negotiation is your opportunity to demonstrate your commitment (and your company's) to long term

relationships to maximize value for both parties (for those who sell to businesses, value is ultimately

synonymous with profit). Negotiation in sales can be a formal event, at a specific time and on a

specific date, or it can be an ongoing theme at different points of the sales process.

Negotiation is beyond price. Negotiation includes the entire value proposition. As a sales

Professional you're seeking mutually beneficial relationships with prospects and customers which

means you're going to seek a true win/win solution. Practiced and applied, negotiation skills can

increase the level of trust and credibility you and your company have with your prospects and

customers.

Closing:

Closing is defined as obtaining the customer commitment.

The Art of Closing:

1. Closing stage of a skillfully run and executed sales process.

2. Natural culmination of everything in sale that has proceeded it.

3. Successful closing depends on a sales person’s ability to effectively investigate customer needs

and demonstrate the machine capability and ability to effectively seek and obtain customer

commitment.

The Closing Process

1. Summarize the benefits the customer accepted during the call.


2. Formulate an action point requiring customer commitment.

39

Example-

Customer: This machine is perfect to our requirement.

Salesperson: We have agreed that the machine we have offered offers excellent copy quality and correctly fits

into your budget. Let’s go and complete the paper work right now.

Order:

This is the final step of SPANCO sales process. In this stage the order is processed within the turn around

time assured by the company. The delivery is made during this stipulated time period and the machine is

installed at the customer site for productivity. The Order stage is followed by the collection as per the

agreement made during the negotiation stage.


40

41
Product of Xerox
Office product of Xerox
Color Multifunction
A complete line of office color laser multifunction printers that copy, print, scan, and fax all in one.

(A) Phaser 6128MFP

Print, copy, scan, fax, email


Best for small, frequent jobs in a small work team or personal environment
Color: up to 12 ppm
Black: up to 16 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 251 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 251 sheets

(B) Phaser 6115MFP

Print, copy, scan, fax


Best for small, frequent print jobs in a workgroup or personal environment
Color: up to 5 ppm
Black: up to 20 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 200 sheets

42

(C) Phaser 8860MFP


Print, copy, scan, fax
Color output for the price of black-and-white
Cartridge-free solid ink technology
Black: up to 30 ppm
Color: up to 30 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 625 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 1,675 sheets

(D) Phaser 6180MFP

Print, copy, scan, fax


Best for small, frequent print jobs
Workgroup: Up to 10 users
Color: up to 20 ppm
Black: up to 31 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 400 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 950 sheets

43

(E) WorkCentre 6400


New! Trade-up Rebate!
Print, Copy, Scan, Fax, Email
Best for everyday office use in small to medium workgroups
Color: up to 32 ppm
Black: up to 37 ppm

(F) WorkCentre 7425/7428/7435

New!
Print, copy with optional scan, fax, email
Best for everyday jobs in color or black and white
Color: up to 20 / 28 / 35 ppm
Black: up to 25 / 28 / 35 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 5,140 sheets

44

(G) WorkCentre 7232/7242


Print, copy with optional scan, fax, email
Best for black-and-white jobs with color when you need it
Color: up to 10 ppm
Black: up to 32 / 40 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 4,720 sheets

(H) WorkCentre 7328/7335/7345/7346

Print, Copy with optional Scan, Fax, Email


Best for black-and-white jobs with color when you need it
Color: up to 26 / 31 / 35 / 40 ppm
Black: up to 28 / 35 / 45 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 3,140 sheets

45

(I) ColorQube 9201/9202/9203


New!
Print, copy, scan, email and optional fax
Choose flexible pricing plans to pay less for color pages
Cartridge-free solid ink technology
Best for high-volume color usage
Print and copy up to 50 ppm (with flexible print speeds from 38 to 85 ppm) on ColorQube 9203
Standard paper capacity: 3,300 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 7,300 sheets

(J) WorkCentre 7655/7665/7675

Copy with optional Print, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for high-volume jobs of any size with great color when you need it
Color: up to 40 / 50 ppm
Black: up to 55 / 65 / 75 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 5,260 sheets

46
Black and White Multifunction
Black-and-white multifunction printers that output at speeds up to 30 pages per minute.

(A) WorkCentre PE120/PE120i

Copy, Print, Scan, Fax


Best for small jobs in a personal use or small workgroup environment
50 Sheet Automatic Document Feeder
Maximum paper capacity: 550 sheets

(B) WorkCentre 4118

Copy, Print, Scan, Fax


Best for small jobs in a workgroup or small office environment
Speed: up to 18 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 1,200 sheets

47
(C) WorkCentre M20/M20i

Copy, print, fax, scan, email


Best for small copying, printing, faxing and scanning jobs
50 page duplex automatic document feeder
Speed: up to 22 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 1,200 sheets

(D) Phaser 3300MFP

Print, Copy, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for everyday use on small work teams (2-10 users)
50-sheet Automatic Document Feeder
Speed: up to 30 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 300 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 550 sheets

48
(E) WorkCentre 3210/3220

New!
Print, Copy, Scan, Fax (and Email on WorkCentre 3220)
Best for personal use or small workteams (1-5 users)
50-sheet Automatic Document Feeder
Speed: up to 24 / 30 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 250 sheets

(F) WorkCentre 5222

Copier or Printer/Copier with optional scan and fax


Best for everyday usage for small- and medium-size jobs
Speed: up to 22 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 1,100 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 3,100 sheets

49
(G) WorkCentre 5225

Copier or Printer/Copier with optional scan and fax


Best for everyday usage for small- and medium-size jobs
Speed: up to 25 ppm

(H) WorkCentre 5030/5050

Copy, with optional Print, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for everyday usage for small- and medium-size jobs
Speed: up to 30 / 50 ppm

50
Advanced Multifunction
High-performance multifunction printers with advanced scan, fax, security, and accounting solutions

(A) WorkCentre 7655/7665/7675

Copy with optional Print, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for high-volume jobs of any size with great color when you need it
Color: up to 40 / 50 ppm
Black: up to 55 / 65 / 75 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 5,260 sheets

(B) WorkCentre 5665/5675/5687

Print, Copy, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for heavy office use or in-house production
Speed: up to 65 / 75 / 87 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 4,700 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 8,700 sheets

51
(C) WorkCentre 5632/5638

Print, Copy, Scan, Fax, Email


Best for frequent usage for small to medium jobs
Speed: up to 32 / 38 ppm
Standard paper capacity: 1,100 sheets
Maximum paper capacity: 8,700 sheets

(D) WorkCentre 7232/7242

Print, copy with optional scan, fax, email


Best for black-and-white jobs with color when you need it
Color: up to 10 ppm
Black: up to 32 / 40 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 4,720 sheets

52
(E) WorkCentre 4150

Print, Copy, Email, Fax, Scan


Best for heavy usage of small to medium jobs
Speed: up to 45 ppm

(F) WorkCentre 7328/7335/7345/7346

Print, Copy with optional Scan, Fax, Email


Best for black-and-white jobs with color when you need it
Color: up to 26 / 31 / 35 / 40 ppm
Black: up to 28 / 35 / 45 ppm
Maximum paper capacity: 3,140 sheets
54

Environmental Record:
U.S. office workers print an average of 10,000 pages per year. However, developing and designing

printers consumes thousands of reams of paper a day. This is not usually seen by the general public

but needs to be disclosed nonetheless. According to Xerox, around 40 percent of the pages printed

out by people are only viewed once before being thrown away. Xerox is making attempts at reducing

that number with “erasable paper.” This new type of paper is embedded with chemicals that are

sensitive to light. When different wavelengths of light touch its surface, the paper darkens, and this

in turn gives the “printed text or image” look. The images stay on the paper for between 16 and 24

hours before dissolving, and this allows the paper to be used again in the future.

The average American emits 9.44 tons of carbon dioxide a year. To help offices realize their

environmental impact, Xerox released the “sustainability calculator” in late March 2008. The

calculator has been created as a method to measure “the environmental benefits so we can use that in

our reports and marketing materials” says Patty Calkins, who is the vice president of environment,

health, and safety at Xerox, as well as to optimize the office equipment. Since the 1990’s, Xerox,

has been an innovator in the domain of the eco-friendly or the green corporation. Its mission

statement on the environment states “At Xerox, sustainability is our way of doing business. We

strive to maintain the highest standards to preserve our environment and protect and enhance the

health and safety of our employees and communities.” In fact, Xerox has managed to create

environmentally friendly products that are also save millions of dollars per year. In 1993, Xerox

created a product stewardship program that began by reprocessing still functioning parts from old

office

55
equipment into new parts. This is called the ‘end-of-life take-back program.’ In 1990, Xerox

introduced its waste-free packaging system where it created two different extendable boxes that

would be used to transport and take back equipment and would then be reprocessed after its life

cycle. In 2006, Xerox introduced the re-usable or erasable paper, its biggest innovation yet.Xerox

created a product stewardship program in 1993 whose keystone program was the ‘end-of-life

equipment take-back’ program. This program was first developed in Europe. Whenever possible,

Xerox would take back machines that it had previously sold to companies and reprocessing them

into new parts. Previously, companies would specify that new items must be created from 100% new

virgin materials. However, Xerox found that equipment that was not useful anymore still had parts

that were still functioning. The process was as follows: Xerox would “Carefully dismantle

equipment down to the base-unit level and then inspect and clean it in the base-unit-preparation

stage. Thorough analysis determines each component’s remaining life. The company reprocesses re-

usable components and test them to ensure that they meet Xerox’s standards and puts them back into

the same assembly lines as virgin parts.” The company would then test the product thoroughly in an

environment that resembles its final location. In 1997, Xerox reprocessed 3.8 million parts from

160,000 pieces of equipment. This process has been emulated over the years by a number of

corporations.Environmental benefits from this process include “an end-of-use collection process for

customers, reduction of waste to landfills, the avoidance of raw material purchases and the

associated use of energy, and the ability to produce environmentally sound equipment.” As well,

parts reprocessing process is labor intensive and Xerox hired 400 additional staff. In addition, net

savings totaled over 80$ million in Europe since disposal costs were transformed into revenue. To

combat consumer hesitancy in procuring items that are not made from 100% virgin materials, Xerox

offered 3 year guarantee on these products made from recycled materials, the same as its completely

new materials. “Xerox’s approach was to build customer confidence. For example, Xerox Europe

56
always maintained its focus on total customer satisfaction by combining environmental

responsibility with stringent control over manufacturing processes. It offered a total three-year

satisfaction guarantee on equipment containing reprocessed parts to demonstrate its confidence in its

products, the same as that given on new equipment.” Finally, Xerox, stopped distinguishing its

products as new or built from manufactured parts and promised to have all new products created

with both 100% new and manufactured or reprocessed parts.A second eco-friendly innovation was

the waste-free packaging program created in 1990. Xerox created two standard returnable boxes, one

steel and one wood, that replace its 25 different disposable packaging boxes. These new, reusable

boxes can be reused up to 25 times but were manufactured to last 10 cycles and can be extended to

suit past, present and future products. At the end of their life cycle, Xerox will fix the wooden boxes

and will reprocess the steel boxes. These totes “reduce disposal costs, increase operational

productivity and reduce inventory.” In addition, using re-usable packaging reduces the cost to the

consumer by 15$ and its estimated annual savings in Europe were approximately 3.5 million $. The

program has been widely popular.Xerox most current eco-friendly innovation is its creation of an

erasable form of paper for copiers. The product has yet to be released for commercial use but Xerox

believes that it may do so in the next few years. Brinda Dalal, an anthropologist at the Xerox Palo

Alto Research Center estimates that, “Of the 1,200 pages the average office worker prints per month,

44.5 percent are for daily use — assignments, drafts or e-mail. In her research, scouring the waste

produced by office workers, she found that 21 percent of black-and-white copier documents were

returned to the recycling bin on the same day they were produced.” That is why Xerox began

developing a new technology that would allow paper to become re-usable. The new system produces

documents on special yellow paper; the ink has no toner and is a purple tint. The ink then disappears

within 16 hours and the process can be hastened by heating the paper. Currently, individual pieces of

paper can be printed on up to 50 times but this number is only limited by the paper; if Xerox could

57
create a type of paper that does not lose quality over time, then a paper could then be reprinted on

indefinitely. “Xerox has not yet decided whether it will commercialize its technology, … but the

goal is to create a system where the specially coated paper costs between two and three times

standard copier paper, making the total cost of the system substantially less than conventional paper

when paper is reused repeatedly.” The biggest challenge to this new technology will be to find a

market. It is very promising and would reduce the amount of deforestation occurring in all the

world’s forests by reducing the amount of paper being consumed.

Xerox continues to be an innovator in the areas of reducing waste and reducing the consummation of

paper worldwide. It has also been a leader in allowing other companies to follow its lead in a shift to

“green consumerism.” The erasable paper is by far its greatest achievement, one that will surely

catch on in the future due greater demands from consumers to reduce waste and reduce deforestation

by reducing the amount of paper consumed worldwide.

58
Trademark:

The word "xerox" is commonly used as a synonym for "photocopy" (both as a noun and a verb) in

many areas; for example,"I xeroxed the document and placed it on your desk." or "Please make a

xeroxed copy of the articles and hand them out a week before the exam". Though both are common,

the company does not condone such uses of its trademark, and is particularly concerned about the

ongoing use of Xerox as a verb as this places the trademark in danger of being declared a generic

word by the courts. The company is engaged in an ongoing advertising and media campaign to

convince the public that Xerox should not be used as a verb.

To this end, the company has written to publications that have used Xerox as a verb, and has also

purchased print advertisements declaring that "you cannot 'xerox' a document, but you can copy it on

a Xerox Brand copying machine". Xerox Corporation continues to protect its trademark diligently in

most if not all trademark categories. Despite their efforts, many dictionaries continue to mention the

use of "xerox" as a verb, including the Oxford English Dictionary.In India, Parle Agro's "Kaccha

Mango Bite" candy ran a tagline claiming "Kacche Aam Ka Xerox" which means "Xerox of the raw

mango". The tag was later modified to "Kacche Aam Ki Copy", which means "Copy of the Raw

Mango."

In 2008, Xerox changed its logo to a red sphere with a white X with three grey stripes. The change is

meant to reflect less on the photo copying duties Xerox has carried out and instead to refocus on

document management and solutions across the world for companies.

59
60
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is used to search answers of the research questions. An attempt has been

made to describe the nature of the people of Lucknow city by the study of the samples.

Methodology in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. The advanced learner’s

dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or

enquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. Some people

consider research as a movement, movements from known to unknown. It is actually a voyage of

discovery. We all posses the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confront us, we

wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the

unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all the knowledge and the method, which man

employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a

science of studying how research is done scientifically.

Learning more about the consumer and about marketing is the heart of the research methodology.

The research methodology has many dimensions and research methods to constitute a part of the

research methodology.

61
RESEARCH PROCESS

Problem Formulation

Research Design

Sample Design

Data Collection Technique

Field Work

Analysis and Interpretation and Research Report

62
In the planning of the project and survey, the entire schedule of work was divided
into 13 steps which are as follows-

1. Defining the objectives

2. Defining the population

3. Frame the sample units

4. Data collection

5. Questionnaire

6. Methods of collecting data

7. Non-respondent classification

8. Selection of proper sample size

9. Organizing the field work

10. Execution of the project

11. Summery and analysis

12. Information gathered for the further survey

13. Preparation of the report

Let us understand all the above 13 steps in detail:

1. DEFINING THE OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to find out the dealer perception of
fresher and walked out dealer from Xerox photocopier machines. This survey is conducted to
depict the behavior of the dealer in making investment, especially in insurance.

2. DEFINING THE POPULATION: Population refers to the total items about which the
information is desired. Here in this project I have considered finite population that is we are
taking one single individual as single unit which is fixed the 100 questionnaires, each
separately by the single individual.
63
3. FRAME THE SAMPELING UNITS: The elementary units or the group

of such units may form the basis of sampling process, which are called as sampling units. A

list containing all such sampling frames consists of a list of items from which the sample is to

be drawn. It is often impossible to draw a sample directly from the population. In case of this

project I simply located the different areas of Lucknow and conducted a survey by taking the

information in the form of questionnaire.

4. DATA COLLECTION: There are several ways of collecting the data which differ

considerably in context of money, cost, time and other resources. In this project the data

which was required gave details about the behavior of dealer who make investments in Paint

Industry and Construction Industry, etc.

5. QUESTIONNAIRE: To develop an effective questionnaire following points should be kept

in mind:

a. Keep in view the problem to be studied.

b. Questions should be appropriate and simple and must be constructed with a view to

their forming a logical part of a well thought out tabulation plan.

c. Proper sequencing of questions.

d. Should be examined properly and if error found, should be removed.

6. METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA: Normally there are 2 methods of collecting the

data:

64
• Primary data

• Secondary data

In this project we require data which is necessary to obtain the secondary data. We have

collected the information by directly communicating with the respondents through

questionnaires.

7. NON-RESPONDENT CLASSIFICATION: It is very necessary to classify the respondents

from the sample who didn’t give proper reply while conducting the research. The reason for

doing this is that it may create a systematic

8. SELECTION OF PROPER SAMPLE SIZE: A sample design is a definite plan for

obtaining a result from the given population. In this project the sample size is of 100.

9. ORGANISING THE FIELD WORK: Fieldwork is done in this project individually with

no biasness. The field work comprises of filling of questionnaire by different sector

individuals.

10. EXECUTION OF THE PROJECT: Proper execution of the projects important. Steps

should be taken to ensure that the survey is under statistical control so that the collected

information is in accordance with the pre-defined standard of accuracy.

65
11. SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF DATA: Once the data is collected the next task is to

analyze it. The raw data should be classified into some purposeful usable categories. For

example: tabulation, coding, etc. Analysis work, after tabulation, is generally based on the

computation of various percentages, coefficients, etc. by applying various well defined

statistical formulae. Here in this report it is found that the investment pattern of people in

private insurance companies is not satisfactory.

12. PREPARATION OF THE REPORT: Final report is prepared according to the work done.

Following points must be kept in mind in this regard:

 The layout

 Report should be concise and simple.

 Proper graphs and charts must be used for the explanation.

 Limitations in the report should be clearly mention

66
67
Data Analysis and Interpretation

Q1: Which brand of photocopier machine you use?

Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)


Canon 25
Ricoh 15
Sharp 20
Xerox 40

Respondent (No.)

Canon
18%

Canon

Xerox Ricoh Ricoh


52% 15% Sharp
Xerox

Sharp
15%

Interpretation:
During market analysis we find that mostly organization use the Xerox photocopier

Machine in Lucknow. Its indicate that the percentage of Xerox photocopier machine

In Lucknow high than other copier machine.

68
Q2: Does brand name influence your purchasing behaviour while installing the photocopier
Machines?

Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)


Yes 80
No 20

Respondent (No.)

20, 20%

Yes
No

80, 80%

Interpretation:
During market analysis mostly peoples who work in organization said that brand
name influence the purchasing behaviour while installing the photocopier

machines.

69

Q3: How printing cost influence your installation decision?


Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)
Disagree 25
No answer 15
Agree 60

Respondent (No.)

Disagree, 25,
25%
Disagree
No answer
Agree, 60,
No answer, Agree
60%
15, 15%

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in office ,we analyze that 60% of people said that

Printing cost influence installation decision and 25% peoples are disagree , 15%

People was not gave the answer.

70

Q4: Does power consumption of machines is a considerable factor while choosing a machine?
Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)
Yes 85
No 15

Respondent (No.)

Respondent
(No.), No,
15%

Yes
No

Respondent
(No.), Yes,
85%

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in office ,we analyze that 85% of people said that

Power consumption influence installation decision and 15% peoples are disagree.

71

Q5: The speed of a machine (ppm-paper per minute) is considerable factor while choosing a
Machine?

Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)


Disagree 28
No answer 15
Agree 57

Respondent (No.)

Disagree
28%
Disagree
Agree No answer
57% Agree
No answer
15%

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in organization ,we analyze that 57% of people said

that speed of a machine (ppm-paper per minute) is considerable factor while choosing

a machine and 28% peoples are disagree, 15% people was not gave the answer.

72

Q6: Does other feature like MFD(multi function device) play a significant role when you purchasing

photocopier machine?
Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)
Disagree 35
No answer 15
Agree 50

Respondent (No.)

Agree, 50
50
45
40
Disagree, 35
35
30
25 Respondent (No.)
20 No answer,
15 15
10
5
0
Disagree No answer Agree

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in organization ,we analyze that 50% of people

said that MFD play a significant role when you purchasing copier machine and

35% people disagree and 15%was not gave the answer.

73

Q7: Does print quality is considerable factor while choosing a machine?

Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)


Disagree 15
No answer 10
Agree 75

Respondent (No.)

Disagree
15%

No answer
10% Disagree
No answer
Agree
Agree
75%

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in organization ,we analyze that 75% people said

that print quality is considerable factor while choosing a machine ,15% was disagree

and 10% was not given answer.

74

Q8: Does price factor affect the buying behaviours?

Satisfaction level Respondent (No.)


Disagree 20
No answer 10
Agree 70
Respondent (No.)

Disagree
20%

Disagree
No answer
No answer
10%
Agree
Agree
70%

Interpretation:
By market analysis of copier used in organization ,we analyze that 70% people said

that price factor affect the buying behaviours and 20% people was disagree, 10%

was not give the answer.

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Findings

The aim of the research was to find out the “To analyze the market share of Xerox Photocopier

machine in Lucknow”. All the due efforts were made to find out the appropriate and confide

results. Following are the various findings of the research:


 Mostly organization and institution said that brand name play a important role when we

purchase sing the machine.

 After analysis we finding that the printing cost of photocopier machine play a important role.

Mostly organizations are satisfied with Xerox, because the printing cost is low in comparison

to other photocopier machine.

 After data analysis we finding that power consumption of Xerox is better than other

photocopier machine.

 During data analysis we finding that page print per minute is considerable factor while

chosen the machine Mostly people of organization said that the page print per minute is

better than the other photocopier machines.

 After data analysis we finds that mostly people satisfied with MFD(multi functional devices)

of Xerox photocopier machine.

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 Print quality of Xerox photocopier machines is better. Mostly people satisfied with this

statement.

 During data analysis we find that the mostly people said that, the price of Xerox photocopier

is higher than other photocopier machines


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CONCLUSION

As it has been discussed, Today Xerography Industry has a very high growth potaional in market.

Post liberalization, the industry; institution has been growing at a rapid pace in terms of its assets

under management.

The study aimed at finding out the market shares of Xerox photocopier machine. It was found that

mostly organization prefer the Xerox photocopier machine, because the services, facilities of
MFD,power saving, print quality is better than other photocopier company machines.On the behalf

of this study the market of photocopier machine in India is bright.

The project analysis of the Lucknow market is shown very clear picture that today Xerox is the

market leader of the Lucknow market for better market creditability in comparison to other

photocopier company.

So if Xerox want to shown their strong presence in Lucknow market. They should have better

creditability system, better services, best financial transaction, high margin growth. These are some

factor which help to Xerox in making leader of the Lucknow market.

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Suggestion and Recommendation

On the basis of survey done by me following are the some of points that could be suggested to the

dealer of the company so as to increase the sales of products.

 On time delivery of the products is the important area that is to focused on.
 Brand name of Xerox is very well known in Photocopier market and it is associated with

quality thus this has to be maintained in all spheres of the selling and marketing.

 Another suggestion would be that Xerox should also encourage direct selling a part of from

depending fully on dealers.

 There could be some changes in the products of Xerox according to consumer needs and

purchasing power of consumer.

 There may be improvement in the after sales services of the Xerox photocopier.

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SWOT ANALYSIS

Xerox considers itself the global leader in the document management business, stating they offer the

widest array of products, services and solutions in the industry. Since the early 1990s. Xerox has

reinvented itself from a predominantly black-and-white, light-lens copier company into a digital,

color and document solutions company.


Xerox Mission Statement says, “Our strategic intent is to help people find better ways to do

great work -- by constantly leading in document technologies, products and services that

improve our customers' work processes and business results”.

Xerox states that since the creation of their company they have operated under the guidance of six

core values. These are the belief that:

• They succeed through satisfied customers;

• They value and empower employees;

• They deliver quality and excellence in all they do;

• They provide superior return to their shareholders;

• They use technology to deliver market leadership;

• They behave responsibly as a corporate citizen.

Strengths:

• The greatest strength that Xerox had in the market place was the recognition of its brand

name. The Xerox Company designed and developed the original technology for the first

office copiers in 1959.

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• Xerox supplied an entire range of copiers catering to all markets, from low volume users

making fewer than 5,000 copies per month at a purchase cost below $4000, to high volume

markets with copiers costing over $60,000. They were the only company to provide a

comprehensive line of copying devices.


• Complementarily, the clients of Xerox ranged from individuals to Fortune 500 companies, a

demonstration of Xerox’s scalability and ability to adapt to client specific requirements.

• Xerox’s dedication to measurably increasing customer satisfaction and offering new

strategies to both management and operations were heavily marketed and the public was

aware of these strengths.

• The company declared customer satisfaction to be its highest corporate priority having

identified it as the means through which they would regain and maintain their market

dominance.

Weaknesses:

• Xerox also suffered a number of weaknesses within the company and within the industry.

Although Xerox enjoyed a well-established brand name, their ability to diversify was limited

because of the market’s perception that Xerox created only copiers.

• As stated above, in the 1980’s, competitors were able to sell their products close to the price

at which Xerox was producing similar units. Consequently, Xerox suffered eroded market

share (greater than 60%) as they faced cost issues.

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• Following the revisions within Xerox, weakness still existed related to how the company

measured and assessed its position regarding customer satisfaction.

• Xerox measured customer satisfaction via four methods:

1. Periodic customer surveys;


2. Post-installation surveys;

3. Focused surveys following the installation of new product lines;

4. Benchmarking against their competitor;

Xerox performed most poorly in the general market, where it received the greatest deviation

from its targeted customer satisfaction rate. Finally, one of Xerox’s strengths, its seniority in

the industry, also had a downside. Xerox had an “install base” of customers that were

operating with older equipment that was more likely to breakdown and require more costly

service.

Opportunities:

• In the early 1990’s Xerox faced several opportunities. The technology in the copying field

was advancing. Digital copying was expected to surpass the traditional light/lens technology

and the emerging color copying technology represented another prospect for Xerox. Multi-

modality machines combining copying, faxing, scanning and printing i offered a potential for

expanding the market and providing customers with “more bang for their buck.” Xerox

addressed many of these issues when it “refocused” its document-processing line,

complimenting its original copying business.

• The greatest opportunity Xerox faced at this time was the potential to

market itself as it achieved the lofty goals it had defined. The successful

increases in

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customer satisfaction and perceived satisfaction, formally recognized by the prestigious awards

Xerox won, provided a very powerful advertising and sales tool.


Threats:
• Xerox also dealt with threats from its rivals in the industry. There were twenty-three

companies in the copier market, all vying for market share. Many of these other firms were

hungry for business and produced very targeted products for niche markets, placing the large,

bureaucratic, monolithic Xerox with its broad product range at a disadvantage.

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Corporate Learning
To be a part of Xerox was the best opportunity for me to have:

 A practical exposure of corporate world.

 Independently handling of clients.

 Came to known the problem of clients.

 Learn the technical procedures and analysis of various research system, such as marketing

research and equity research.

 Learnt the corporate culture.

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LIMITATIONS
In the research conducted all the due efforts are made with full effort and diligence but still their

might be some error due to the following reasons:

• Human behavior is too complex to determine. So the information disclosed by them may not

be very accurate.

• This research is conducted on a very small sample size, so it might be possible that the

information given by such respondents may not match with the reply of the whole public of

Lucknow.

• There was a time constraint while conducting the report.

• It might be possible that the answers given by the respondents are full of biasness.

• Some of the respondents were not willing to reply the questions.

• As the questionnaire is in English language, some respondents found it difficult to understand

it, even many refused.

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Bibliography
Websites:

www.xerox.com

Docutalk April 2002

www.xeroxmodicorp.com

Books:

C.R.Kothari- Research Methodology

K.Paneersalem- Research Methodology

Philip Kotler- Marketing

Magazines:

Business Week

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Annexure

Format of Questionnaire
Name:

Age:

Gender: (a) Male (b) Female

Organization:

(a) Public sector (b) Private sector

(c) Institutions (d) Other sector

Contact No:

Location:

Q1: Which brand of photocopier machine you use?

(a) Xerox (b) Canon

(c) Richo (d) Sharp

Q2: Does brand name influence your purchasing behaviour while installing

Photocopier machine?

(a) Yes (b) No

Q3:How printing cost influence your installation decision?

Low 2 3 4 High

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Q4: Does power consumption of machine is a considerable factor while choosing a

machine?
Negligible Significant

Q5: The speed of machine (paper per minute) is considerable factor while choosing a machine.

SD D N A SA

Q6: Does other factor (MFD) are significant in purchasing decision.

SD D N A SA

Q7: Does print quality is considerable factor?

SD D N A SA

Q8: Does price factor affect the buying behaviours?

SD D N A SA

Q9: Your comment about Xerox machine.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………...

.......................................................................................................................................

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