Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

1.

Linux
:

Linux
Linux

1.1
Linux
, , .
( Open Source 1)
,
. ,
, Open Source:
1.
.
2. ,
.
3. .
4.
.
1983
,
open source GNU (GNUs Not Unix).
(Free Software
Foundation), ,
, , GNU.
GNU , (,
, , ..), .
, .
, open source,
GPL (General Public License)
2. GPL
, ( ) ,
,

.
1991
GNU/Linux. , Linux
, GNU.
, GNU/Linux
. GNU/Linux
, GNU Linux
. GNU/Linux Debian GNU/Linux,
Red Hat, Fedora, Ubuntu, Gentoo, Slackware. , Red
Hat Linux, .

1
2

Open Source http://www.opensource.org


GPL : http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_General_Public_License

1.2. Linux
.
, GNU/Linux,
, :


,
,
,
..

-
,
.


,
. 3 Linux,
.
(, , ..).
Linux
. .


,
, .


,
,
. .


, , ,
, .
Linux,
:

, Debian GNU/Linux DEB:



.

, Red Hat Linux RPM:


, , Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
. , ,
,
( , ,

(vanilla kernel) .
http://www.kernel.org/. ,
( ), http://git.kernel.org/.
3

..), , RHN 4,
, .
, Slackware Linux.
Slackware Slackware KISS (Keep It Simple,
Stupid, Keep It Short and Simple ,
).
,
.

, Gentoo Linux.
Gentoo
. Portage
FreeBSD
,
. ,
,

.
Linux Linux.
Linux .
,
, ,
, .
Linux

, Intel x86, AMD64, SPARC, IBM PowerPC, IA64, PA-RISC
. Linux,
, .

Linux :


,
.


Linux.


Linux
TCP/IP (POSIX, LSB
).


Linux C,
,


Linux
.

RHN https://www.redhat.com/f/pdf/rhn/rhn101698_0705.pdf


Linux

.
().

1.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6


Red Hat Linux : Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Fedora Project. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
GPL
. Fedora Project Open
Source ,
. ,

, Fedora Linux. ,
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
, , GFS, Red Hat
GPL.

, CentOS
(Community Enterprise Operating System). GPL
Red Hat, CentOS
Red Hat ,
Red Hat Enterprise Linux .
Red Hat Enterprise Linux : (Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Server) (Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop).
,
:
1.1. Linux

(CFS 5)

, ,
,
.

- ,
.

Linux (tick 6)
,
,

,
(HPC)
.
(ALPM)

CFS :
http://www.linuxjournal.com/magazine/completely-fair-scheduler?page=0,0
6 Linux tickless : http://lwn.net/Articles/549580/
5

,
-.

64- 7 4096 , 64
, 4 . 32000
,
.

EXT4 ,

, ,
.
XFS
,
High-End. GFS2

2-16 .
LVM,
,
(VSAN), FCoE
LUKS.


.

,
- ( ).

Corosync
-.
KVM.


(, , , .)
(cgroups 8), ,

.

IPv6
, RFC. UDP
,
VoIP. L2
(802.11p), Ethernet
FCoE (802.11Qaz).

,
.
(LRO/GRO)
.

(
).

:
http://www.redhat.com/resourcelibrary/articles/articles-red-hat-enterprise-linux-6-technology-capabilities-and-limits
8 : https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/enUS/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Resource_Management_Guide/ch01.html
7

SELinux
(),
.
OpenScap 9,
NIST.
IPSec Cisco.
sVirt 10 SELinux
,
.
(SSSD)
Active Directory, OpenLDAP
Red Hat Directory Server.

KVM,
Linux Windows,
.
(SR-IOV)

samba Active Directory,


,
Active Directory.
OpenChange
Exchange MAPI.

Linux
.

x86:

: Intel x86

: 1

: 1 ( ) 8 ( )

(major) , , Red Hat


Enterprise Linux 6,
(minor), Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2.
,
. , Red Hat
(Errata Advisories),
(Red Hat Bug Fix Advisories RHBAs),
(Red Hat Security Advisories RHSAs)
(Red Hat Enhancement Advisories RHEAs).
Red Hat Network (RHN),
.
, .
Linux
RHN:

https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Network_Satellite/5.5/html/User_Guide/chapRed_Hat_Network_Satellite-User_Guide-OpenSCAP.html
10 https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Enterprise_Linux/6/html/Security-Enhanced_Linux/chapSecurity-Enhanced_Linux-sVirt.html
9

1. RHN, Red Hat


(Hosted ). Linux
RHN.
2. - RHN Proxy Server11 (
Proxy). RHN Proxy Server
Linux.

Linux.
3. RHN Satellite Server ( Satellite),
.
. Proxy ,
,
Linux.
Proxy Satellite
-,
Satellite,
Linux.

1. RHN

RHN proxy :
https://access.redhat.com/site/documentation/en-US/Red_Hat_Network_Satellite/5.4/html/Proxy_Installation_Guide/sectProxy_Installation_Guide-Introduction-PROXY.html

11

,
Linux, Red Hat (Red Hat
Enterprise Linux Add-Ons),
. 4 :
1.
(High Availability)
, (Load
Balancer),
(Resilient Storage),
Linux
2.
XFS (Scalable File system),
16
,
(High Performance Network)
.
3.
(Smart Management),
,
Linux .
4.


3 4 .

Оценить