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2005


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1 ................................... 10
1.1. ............................................................. 10
1.2. ...................................................................... 13
1.3. .................................................................................................................... 15
1.4. .................................................................................................... 17
1.5. ................................................................................................ 18
1.6. ...................................................................... 19
1.7. .......................................................................................... 21
1.8. ............................................................................................. 23
1.9. .................................................................................................................... 26
2 ................................................ 35
2.1. ........................................................................................................ 35
2.2. ............................................................. 36
2.3. ...................................................... 39
2.4. ................................................................. 41
2.5. ................................................................................................... 42
2.6. ..................................................... 43
2.7. .................................................................................................... 43
2.8. ............................................................................................... 45
2.8.1. ................................................................................................................ 46
2.8.2. .............................................................................................. 48
2.8.3. ................................................................................................... 52
2.8.4. .................................................................................. 54
2.8.5. ............................................................................................................ 55
2.8.6. .......................................................................................................... 56
2.8.7. .......................................................................... 57
2.9. , , ..................................................................................... 58
2.10. ................................................................. 59
3
.............................................................................................................. 63
3.1. ..................................................................... 63
3.2. ............................................... 66
3.3. ........................................................................................ 67
3.4. ................................................................................... 68
3.5. ............................................................ 69
3.6. ................................................................................ 79
3.7. .................................................................... 81

3.8. ..................................................................... 84
3.9. GPS- .................................................................................................... 89
4 ................................. 93
4.1. ...................................................................................................... 93
4.2. ............................................................................... 94
4.3. ...................................................................... 95
4.4. ARC/INFO 7.2.1. ..................................................................... 96
4.5 ARCVIEW GIS 3.1......................................................................... 101
4.6. AUTOCAD MAP 2000........................................................................................................... 103
4.7. AUTODESK MAP R5 ............................................................................................................. 104
4.8. AUTODESK MAPGUIDE R5 ......................................................... 106
4.9. AUTOCAD LAND DEVELOPMENT.......................................................................................... 107
4.10. CREDO ................................................................ 109
4.11. MAPINFO ................................................................................ 109
4.12. GTX ....................................................................................... 111
4.13. - ................................................................................................ 112
................................................................................................................................. 114
............................................................................................................................... 124




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30 13.62 .

.3.12. LANDSAT-7.

MSS , , .3.13. , 70-


- .
(1957) (1961). , , .
TIROS, 1960 .
LANDSAT, 1972
. LANDSAT ERTS-1 (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) . 1999 . Landsat-5, 1984 . Landsat-7, 15 1999 .

73

.3.13. , LANDSAT-7.

MSS LANDSAT 1, 2, 3 . , , ( ) .
3.3 , 12.
920 185 . . . . MSS 6 . 6 80 , , , 8080
.
0 255. () . , . 7581600 ().
SPOT (). SPOT (System Probatoire D`Observation de
la Terre) () 1986 .
SPOT 1, 2, 4 5. SPOT 3
1996 . - .
SPOT 5. , , (High Resolution
Geometric imagers), - 5 ,
2,5 - 10 . , Spot 5
Vegetation 2, 1 .

74

.3.14. SPOT-5.

SPOT SPOT HRV


(High Resolution Visible), ( 20 ,
0.50 0.59, 0.61 0.68, 0.79 0.89 ) ( 10
) . 26 , HRV 117 .
950 . .
SPOT
.

.3.15. (), HRV SPOT-4.

75

ERS ( ). ERS-1 (.3.16) 1991 ., ERS-2 (.3.17) 1995 . 798782


98.54o 100.67 .
AMI (Active Microwave Instrument),
.
(AMI-SAR image mode) , (.3.18), ,
, . , , ,
. ( ) 10.

.3.16. ERS-1.

76

.3.17. ERS-2.

.3.18. , AMI-SAR.
(AMISAR wave mode) . 200-300 , 66 , .
(AMI Scatterometer mode)
. , 500 , . 5050 25 .
RA (Radar
Altimeter) , ,

77

, , ,
. (Ocean
Mode), 2 / 0.5
120 1.62.0 , 10 .

.3.19. .
(Ice Mode) ( 7 ).
, .
ATSR (Along-Track Scanning Radiometer and Microwave Sounder)
. (.3.20) ,
, 0.65; 0.85; 1.27; 1.6; 3.7; 11 12 1 .

78

.3.20. , ATSR.

GOME (Global Monitoring Experiment) (O3) (NO, NO2, BrO, H2O) , ,


.
0.24-0.295; 0.29-0.405; 0.4-0.605 0.59-0.79 . 1024
, 39-41oC . 5 . 120 960 , 4040 40320 .

.3.21. .

PRARE (Precise Range and Rate Equipment)


.
, .
, . 4-8
.

3.6.
.
/ . , :
, . ,
.
. ,
.
, . (, -

79

, ). , , . , ,
.

. ,
, . , , . .
,
, , , , , , , .
, .
, , .
, ( ) . . ,
, , ,
, .
. , .
. ,
, , , ,
.
. , , . , .

. ,
, , . , , .
, , .
- .
, . , , ,
. .
. , , . , ,
, , , .

80

3.7.
,
, .
, .
90 .
180
, .3.22. , .
.
(0, 0)
, -, Y,
-.


()

3 0 N
10 N

10 S

()

.3.22. .

, ,
.
- ,
() ,
.3.23.

81

.3.23. .


. , , . , ,
. , .
, .
, , ,
, .3.24.
. ,
, .3.25.
:
. , .3.25. ,
, .3.26.

82

.3.24. .


( )


( )


( )

.3.25. .

83

.3.26. .

3.8.
GPS,
Global Positioning System . , . , , ( ) .
50 .
. GPS
1969 24 , 6 20.2 55o (.3.27),
, . , .
12 . .

.3.27. GPS .

, :

84

;
- ;
1136 ;
;
12- .
GPS-, , . GPS- ( ),
, .
(, ) GPS :
;
0.1 ;
;
.
.3.28 GPS
.

.3.28. GPS .

, GPS . (
), : ( ), . ( ), . ( ), . ( ), .3.29.

85

.3.29. GPS.

GPS : ,
, .
80- . GPS . GPS,
( GPS ).
GPS , . GPS , , (, , ).
GPS . , , . , , , .3.30. ,
- , . GPS
- ,
.
.3.31 , GPS . , 2003 GPS 16 .

.3.30. GPS .

86

. $

.3.31. GPS .

GPS
Axiom.Logistics. .3.32.
Axiom.Logistics:

;
web- Axiom.Logistics ;
;
;
, ,
Axiom.Logistics;

Axiom.Logistics;
, GPS GSM;
( );
( SMS- +
);
Axiom.Logistics;
web-;
GPS/GSM ;
SMS-
Axiom.Logistics;
(SMS - ).

87

GPS/GSM (,
Benefon Track)

GPS


GSM
SMS

GSM

Web-


//

.3.32. GPS/GSM Axiom.Logistics.

88

3.9. GPS-
GPS-:
, , , , , .
Garmin, Magellan, Cobra.
. GPS-.
GPS- GARMIN GEKO 101
Garmin Geko 101 , (
88.), GPS.
250
.
:
12 2 AAA ;
(Tracklog) 3000 ;
( ) 100 64 ;
150 USD.

GARMIN E-trex Camo


12- GPS- .
. . : 500. : 1
(50 ). :
, , /, , , . : LAT/LON, UTM/UPS, ,
MGRS . : RS232 c
NMEA 0183, RTCM 104 DGPS,
Garmin. .
: 11.2 x 5.1 x 3.0 . : 150 . : 2
. : 22 . :
285 USD.

89

GPS- GARMIN eTrex Legend C


GPS Garmin,
(256 ) 220 x 176 .
. 2- ( 36 ).
24 (
), .
. Garmin eTrex Legend C
USB ,
COM .
, USB
. eTrex (
, ). 425 USD.

GPS- MAGELLAN SporTrak


SporTrak GPS Magellan.
. , (172 .)
(5.8 x 3.6 , 160 x 104 ) .
(
MapSend DataSend) 1 ( ). SporTrak
( ,
). NorthFinder ,
. SporTrak :

90


20 , 500 2000
();
: 2 AA,
- 14 ;
8-
( 300- );
, ;
/, .
261 USD.
GPS- MAGELLAN Meridian Marine GPS
,
(, , ..).
16 ,
(, , ..). GPS Meridian
, Magellan SD ( 8, 16, 32, 64 ),
. Meridian
:
20 , 500 2000 ();
: 2 AA, - 14 ;
, ;
/, ;
( , );
NorthFinder , .
594 USD.
GPS- MAGELLAN Meridian Color
GPS .
.
Meridian Gold. GPS Meridian
, Magellan SD
( 8, 16, 32, 64 ),
.
689 USD.

91

Cobra GPS 100


GPS , .
:
500;
/ 1/50;
( ) 128 x 64 ;
.
160 USD.

Cobra GPS 500


GPS 500 , , 20 . ,
.
:
500;
/ 20/50;
( ) 128 x 64 ;
;
(Tracklog) 2000 .
- 210 USD

92

4

4.1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

:
,


10%
20%

10%

15%
25%

20%

, ,
.4.1.
.4.1. .

. , ,
, . ,
, , .
, . -
, , , , .

, . ,
, .
,
. , -

93

, .
, , ,
, , . , , ,
.
.
, , . ,
, . : , , .
. . , -
. ,
.
. . . ,
.
, .
:
;
;
.
, .
, (
), .
.
,
.

4.2.
, (). () . , .
. , .
,
.. . ,
, ,
. , , .
,

94

. , .
, . , , , .
,
:
, ( ,
, );
, (
2D / 3D), ( / );
;
.
, . ,
. .

4.3.
. .
(program, routine) ,
.
(, software)
, . .
(system software) ,
, .
(application software) .
(GIS software)
, :
(full GIS);
(GIS software tools);
(map viewer);
(map browser);
(desktop mapping);
- (help-desk system).
, ,
:
;
;
;
;
.

95

, , .
:
(Adobe Page Maker, Quark Xpress, Adobe InDesign);
(Statistica);
(MS Access, Oracle, DBase);
(AutoCAD);
(MS Excel);
(Adobe Photoshop).
:
1. , , , ,
, . , (ArcInfo). . , ,
.
2. ,
(MapObjects, GeoConstructor). , , ,
.
3. (Visual C++, Visual Basic, Delphi).
, , .

4.4. ARC/INFO 7.2.1.


ARC/INFO , , . . ARC/INFO ,
.
.

. . 4.2.
ARC/INFO.

96

.4.2. ARC/INFO.

ARC/INFO 7.2. Windows


COGO, GRID, TIN, NETWORK, ARCSCAN, ARCEXPRESS, ARCPRESS, ARCSTORM, ARCFM,
ARCSDE.
ARC/INFO , , (.4.3), , , ,
, , .

97

.4.3. ARC/INFO.

ARC/INFO .
UNIX Windows.
ODE (Open Development Environment) ,
, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Delphi, Power Builder
Windows C, Motif, Tcl/Tk UNIX,
.
ARC/INFO: Windows 2000/XP, 32 Mb RAM (), : NTFS - 365Mb, RAM/FAT - 440 Mb, page files - 100Mb (). Pentium 133, 32Mb , HDD 10-20 Gb, .
ARC/INFO .
.
ARC/INFO
, . ARC/INFO,
7.0, ARCSTORM.
ARCSTORM
, . ARCSTORM ,
,

98

,
ARC/INFO . ARCSTORM , , . . ,
, .
DATABASE INTEGRATOR ARC/INFO
.
, ARC/INFO , ARC/INFO, Oracle, Ingres, Informix, Sybase.
. , SQL .
ARC/INFO , , . ARC/INFO - AML.

,
. , , ARC/INFO
,
, , . , , , .
ARCTOOLS, . 7.0 ARCTOOLS , / , , .
ARC/INFO AML, ,

.
7.0 ARC/INFO , , . , ARC/INFO . ,
, .
7.0 ARCEDIT. :
(), ,
, ,
. ARCEDIT .
ARC/INFO
, :
.
UNIX Windows NT/2000/XP.
SQL.
, Ethernet, TCP/IP, NFS, NCS, SNA.
AML - .
Digital Line Graphs (DLG), Integrated Geographic Encoding and
Referencing (TIGER), Dual Independent Map Encoding (DIME), PostScript, AutoCAD Data Exchange File (DXF) .

99

, , VCGL,
HPGL, HPGL2 .

DATABASE INTEGRATOR.

ARC/INFO COGO
,
, , , - .
ARC/INFO COGO , , , , , . , , .
ARC/INFO COGO :
.
.
.
.
ARC/INFO GRID
ARC/INFO - . GRID
, , .
GRID . GRID
, , , , .
ARC/INFO TIN
, , , , , , .
TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network). TIN TIN. ARC/INFO,
,
, , .
ARC/INFO NETWORK
NETWORK
(, , ),
, . , ,
, ; ( ). :
( ). NETWORK :

100

, , .
ARC/INFO ARCSCAN
ARCSCAN .
, , - , ,
.
ARC/INFO ARCPRESS
, , - , . , -, , ARC/INFO, , ARC/INFO. ARCPRESS , , . () ARCPRESS .
ARC/INFO ARCSDE
ARCSDE . ARCSDE Spatial Database Engine (SDE) () SDE for Coverages shapefile, , ARC/INFO LIBRARIAN ARCSTORM.
ARCSDE ARC/INFO , SDE
. ARCSDE ARCVIEW GIS, MapObjects AutoCAD , ESRI. SDE
/ TCP/IP.

4.5 ARCVIEW GIS 3.1


ARCVIEW GIS , , , , .
, ARCINFO, ESRI. .4.4.
ARCVIEW GIS.

101

.4.4. ARCVIEW GIS.

ESRI ARC/INFO,
ARCVIEW.
ARCVIEW GIS 3.1 , ARC/INFO ARCVIEW. ,
ARCVIEW , ARC/INFO.
ARCVIEW GIS ().
, . ( , , ).
ARCVIEW
, , , , .
(
5 . 800 . 5 . 800 . , , .. ), .
ARCVIEW GIS:


, ,


102




, , , SQL
/



Avenue

4.6. AutoCAD Map 2000


,
AutoCAD. , .4.5.
,
. .

.4.5. AutoCAD Map 2000.

103

AutoCAD Map 2000 2


( 100 ). AutoCAD Map 2000
. . , ,
. AutoCAD Map 2000
.
AutoCAD Map -
. AutoCAD Map
AutoCAD.

4.7. Autodesk MAP R5


Autodesk MAP R5 , , , ,
, , , , . .4.6.
Autodesk MAP R5 - AutoCAD,
, AutoCAD 2000, , . Autodesk MAP AutoCAD.
Autodesk MAP R5 ,
, ,
, .
Autodesk MAP,
Windows- . Autodesk
MAP R5 ,
- Autodesk,
Autodesk MAP Guide Autodesk World.

104

.4.6. Autodesk MAP R5.

Autodesk MAP R5:


()
, ;
, SQL, , , . ( , ) AutoCAD,
, .
,
, ;
.
, .
. , , ;
: "" . ( 700 ,
, );

105

:
, ,
; (
, ), ,
, , ( , ), , , ""
;
ESRI ARC/INFO Coverages,
ESRI ARCVIEW SHP, MapInfo MIF/MID, Microstation DGN, Autodesk MapGuide SDF,
AutoCAD DXF, AutoCAD DWG Autodesk MAP Guide;
AutoCAD MAP R3/R2, AutoCAD R14/ LT 97/2000;
dBase III, Oracle ODBC- (xls, mdb);
BMP, DIB, FLC/FLI, GIF, GP4, JPG, MIL, PCT, PCX, PNG,
RLE, RST, TGA, TIF;
: , ,
, .
: , , ; :
, ;
(, )
.

4.8. Autodesk MapGuide R5


Autodesk MapGuide Intranet/Internet ,
. .4.7.

106

.4.7. Autodesk MapGuide R5.

Autodesk MapGuide HTML, , .


Autodesk MapGuide
, - , , .. Autodesk
MapGuide , :
;
, ;
, ;
.

4.9. AutoCAD Land Development


AutoCAD Land Development Desktop
AutoCAD . .4.8.
, , .
, ,
, , , ,

107

, , , , , . .
Land Development Solutions II
AutoCAD Land Development Desktop Autodesk Survey Autodesk Civil
Design. , - AutoCAD Land Development Desktop,
, , .

.4.8. AutoCAD Land Development.

AutoCAD Land Development Desktop , , , , ,


.
:
, ;
;
, ,
, . ;

108

.
.

4.10. CREDO
CREDO , , , , , , ,
CREDO :
CREDO_DAT - ;
CREDO_DAT_TOPOGRAPH CREDO_DAT;
CREDO_LIN , ,
;
CREDO_TER ;
CREDO_PRO , ;
CREDO_GEO CREDO_GEO ,
- ;
CREDO_MIX
;
CAD_CREDO II-V ( CREDO_LIN);
TRANSFORM ;
;
;
.
: , , , ;
;
ZNAK 4.0 (WINDOWS 95, 98, NT);
CREDO_SR ;
.

4.11. MapInfo

MapInfo :
MapInfo Professional , .4.9;
MapBasic MapInfo Professional;
MapInfo SpatialWare SQL
Server/Informix;
MapInfo MapX ;
MapXtreme
Intranet Internet.

109

, MapInfo Professional
, , , ,
, .

.4.9. MapInfo.

MapInfo:
: AutoCAD (DXF, DWG),
Intergraph/MicroStation Design, ESRI Shape , ARC/INFO Export,
GIF, JPEG, TIFF, PCX, BMP, MrSID, PSD, ECW, BIL ( SPOT) GRID (GRA,
GRD). MapInfo , GPS .
Excel, Access, xBASE, Lotus 1-2-3 , .
MapInfo , Oracle DB2, -

110

ODBC. , Oracle (OCI) .


. SQL, , , , , , , .. . MapInfo
, .
:
. , , . ,
.
. .
. , ,
. MapInfo,
, , . MapInfo .
. MapInfo . MapInfo : , , , , , . , , ,
.
:
MapInfo . Windows MapInfo , Delphi,
Visual Basic, C++, PowerBuilder . MapInfo
MapBasic
.

4.12. GTX
GTX . GTX AutoCAD Autodesk ( GTXRaster CAD), ( GTXImage CAD).
GTX , , , , ,
, - (r2v) - (v2r),
( ,
, ).
GTX :
GTXRaster Tools AutoCAD.
GTXRaster CAD ,
AutoCAD.
GTXRaster R2V AutoCAD. .

111

GTXRaster CAD Plus , , AutoCAD.


, .
GTX :
GTXImage Edit .
GTXImage CAD , . OEM AutoCAD.
GTXImage CAD Plus , , . , . OEM- AutoCAD.

4.13. -
CAD Raster Transformer 2000 - . Raster
Transformer - , Windows .
2000 .
. (, Raster Transformer) AutoCAD, , , AutoCAD.
:
;
;
(, , , ,
).
CAD RELIEF 2000 - . CAD
RELIEF AutoCAD
.
, . () - (), . , AutoCAD
Map , , TIN- ( )
, , .
2000 .
, .
RGS - . RGS - ,
, , ,
. , ,
, AutoCAD.

112

- - .
, .
Easy Trace
- , Windows.
MapEDIT MapEDIT PRO
, ,
, , . MapEDIT PRO - .
. :
, ( ..
);
( )
;
() , - ;
(
).
CAD TELECOM - . CAD TELECOM . CAD TELECOM , ,
.

113


ActiveX , Microsoft Corporation Internet.
BIL Band Interleaved by Line . ,
( BIP) .
BMP BitMaP, bit map, bitmap, . DIB ,

, Microsoft.
Windows OS/2. BMP
1, 4, 8 24 . 2, 16,
256 16 . 4- 8- RLE.
CPU Central Processing Unit .
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange
Windows OS/2 - , .
DEM Digital Elevation Model(s) 1. , , . DTM, DTED; 2.
. , . DEM 5 DMA,
, , , . DEM
, , -, .
DEM SDTS SDTS
.
DIB . BMP.
DLG Digital Line Graph , 1980 . ,
,
, , . . , . 3 , 1:24000, 1:100000
1:2000000. . DLG SDTS.
Ethernet Ethernet ( Xerox 1976 , , CSMA ).
(), IEEE . IEEE 802.3. Ethernet 10 Mbps CSMA/CD. Ethernet
10Base-T. Ethernet Fast Ethernet (100 /).
GeoTIFF Tagged Image File Format, . DRG TIFF, , . (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) NASA.
1.0, 1995 ., TIFF 6.0.
. . , ; , , .
GIF Graphics Interchange Format CompuServe .
CompuServe Inc. 24- , RGB 256

114

, . 64000 * 64000 . LZW.


, , .
GRID (GRA, GRD) Global Resource Information Database -
; ,
(GEMS) .
HDD Hard Disk Drive , .

HPGL Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language Hewlett-Packard, , .


JPG Joint Photographic Experts Group - , JPEG () DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform). 1991 . JPEG . JPEG JFIF JPEG-TIFF. BMP. 16 32 . ,
. .
OLE Object Linking and Embedding () , Microsoft. OLE ,
, , ..
PCX , Zsoft Corporation. (24- ), , 256 ,
24- RGB, 64 000 * 64 000 .
CMYK- HSI-, .
. , , -.
PSD PhotoShop Document PhotoShop, .
RAM Random Access Memory - , ,
.
RLE Run-Length Encoding .
SQL Structured Query Language
,
-. .
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol / , , , . 60- . (DARPA) ARPAnet. TCP/IP UNIX, . TCP/IP . TCP/IP 4 (
- ): , ,
; ( IP, ICMP, IGMP),
; (TCP, UDP), - ; . : Telnet,
FTP, HTTP,
SMTP. TCP/IP IP-, 32 ; , . 255. . ; - .

115

-. IP- , , (Dial-Up IP)


SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol - , -
); , PPP (Pointto-Point Protocol - ; SLIP),
IP- . IP 128 , .
TIFF Tagged Image File Format - ,
. Aldus Corporation. :
.
(CCITT, LZW, JPEG). . TIFF bitmap:
- ,
. : .
,
.
6 GeoTIFF.
VPF Vector Product Format, . VRF , . . 1992 .
.
. DCW.
(neighbourhood analysis, proximity analysis) 1. ,
. .. (nearest neighbour analysis)
( ) ; - 2. :
( ,
).
/ (viewshed analysis, visibility/unvisibility analysis)
,
/ (visibility map, viewshed map) (vista point, viewpoint, point
of view) , (
). ../.
(poin-to-point visibility, intervisibility). ../.
( ) ""
() - ,
, ,


, .
( , , ),
, , , , ,
, (, GPS-, ). -

116

.. (architecture), - (configuration) .
CISC Complex Instuction Set Computer . (), , .
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
. (),
, .
(erial photograph, aerial photo, aerophoto, print) , , . , , . , ().
, .
(vertical aerial photograph), - . (oblique, aerial
photograph, persrective aerial photograph).
(photographic film) -, A. (black-and-white aerial photograph,
monochrome aerial photograph), A. (colour aerial photograph), c . (false colour
composite), A. (conact print)
A. (enlargement print). A. (single photographs, single-lens photograph) A. (stereoscopic photograph, stereopair).
. . (mosaic, photographic strip) -
; (photomontage) - , ; (aerial
photoplan) - , ;
(ortophoto(graph), ortophotoplan, ortophotomap) - ; (photomap) - , , .
, (data base, database, DB) , , , . , ,
, .
. ( ) ().
() ,
, - (file server), , , - (transaction) . ,
( , SQL) , - (client/server). ;
, (distributed database), - , (distributed database management system).
,
(spatial database); (map database), .
(buffer zone, buffer, corridor) . , , (equidistant line), , . "" (buffering) , , 200-
, 100- ..

117

.. ; , "" "" (weighed buffering).


(vectorizer) - () .
(vector data structure, vector data model) .
,
, , .. (. ) () - .
.. (vector data format).
(geographic(al) information system, GIS, spatial
information system) . , , , , , , ( ).
(, , ),
, , - (GIS tehnology), , , , -, . ,
(global GIS), , , , (regional GIS), , (lokal
GIS). , , , , (urban GIS), (environmental GIS)
..; , , . ( ), ( ), , ,
, , . ,
(integrated GIS, IGIS) ( ) .
, - (multiscale GIS) ,
(multiple representation, multiscale
representation),
. - (spatio-temporal GIS) - . (GIS project), , (feasibility stady),
(user requirements)
, - ,
"/" (costs/benefits); (GIS designing),
- (pilot-project), (GIS development); , (test area), ,
, (prototype); (GIS implementation), .
, , , .
(GIS tehnology, geo-informatics) ,
, , ,
, , (GIS tehnology), , (GIS application)
. ( ) .

118

(GIS tehnology) . -
,
.
(map projection, projection) -
( . ) . .. () (L) c x y : x = f1(B,L); y = f2(B,L), f1 f2 - ,
. .. (distortions, alterations),
. ..
(conformal projections, orthomorphic projections),
, (equivalent projections, equal-area projectins, authalic
projections), , (equidistant
projections), - ( )
(arbitraty projections, aphylactic projections, compromise map projections), .
(principal scale, nominal scale) ()
.
(particular scale) .
().
.. .
, (distortion
isograms, lines of equal distortions) - . .. (normal projections, normal aspect (or case) of a
map projection) , ,
(transverse projection, transverse aspect (or case) of a map projection), (oblique aspect (or case) of a map
projection), . , ,

.. ..:
(cylindrical projections), , - , ; (conic(al) projections) , , , ; (azimutal projections,
zenithal projections), , - , ; (pseudo-cylindrical projections), , - ,
; (pseudo-conical projections), , - , - ; (polyconic projections), , , , ;
(conventional projections),
. , ,
(polyhedric projections), . .. . .. (.
. - .).

119

(cartometry) . (artometric indices, artometric parametrs): , ,


, . . (morphometry), (morphometric indices, morpometric parametrs),
.. (., , , . .)
.
- (thematic cartometry and
morphometry).
(quadtree, quad tree, Q-tree) - . ,
, Q-, 4- -
,
, , (quarters, quads),
4 - (Morton order),
, ;
, , , , "" . () .., (Morton matrix),
(Peano curve) (Peano keys). (tri tree) TIN. (hextree), (). .. ,
.. , (octatree).
, ,
. , .
1. , , (graphic
overlay) ,
, , . (topological overlay)
. "" (cleaning) , , ,
(spurious polygons), - (, ), (sliver
polygons, slivers) , ; 2.
, . ; . -
(point-in-polygon), (line-in-polygon),
(polygon-on-polygon) .., (dissolving); - 3. ( ).
.
(peripherals, peripheral, peripheral devices, peripheral equipment,
peripheral unit) . , , . ~ ; , , , , ,
, . .. ,
.. , , .. ..
(input/output devices, I/0 devices) .. () , (streamer) ..
, , (uninterruptible power supply, UPS) ..

120

.
. .: . ., . ., . , . . , ., . . .,
.
(resolution) - . 1.
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, .
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.
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RDBMS), ( , , , ~ " ", ).
, dBASE, Foxbase, Informix, Ingres, Oracle, Sybase .
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( /
). . (flatbed scanner), . (drum scanner), . (sheetfeed scanner) . (handheld scanner).
OSR-. ., : - ( Visioneer); 2 ~ , ~
-

121

(.. ~ , , ).
(scanning) - (1); , (). , . , .
(2) .
.
(digitizihg) . , , . , . , 1. - ,
, (computerreadable form, mashine-readable form) (computerreadable media) (1) . 2. , : () ,
. . : 1) . (2) (tabletbased digitizing); 2) . () (automatic vectorization of raster files), 3) . "" (map background) . (onscreen digitizing), .
(manual), (semi-automated) (automatic)
. . : (point mode)
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, , ., , , , , , . (, ., ,
, , , , ).
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, . . . . , , , , .
. , , , , , .
, (digital terrain model, DTM) . , ,
, ; ", - ".
, (digital terrain model, DTM; digital elevation model, DEM;
Digital Terrain Elevation Data, DTEM) 3- (, ) (three-dimensional data, 3dimensional data, 3-d data, volumetric data) (heights, spotjeights)
(depths, spotdepths) ( Z)
(altitude matrix), (TIN)

122

(, ) (contours, contour line,


isoline, isarithms, isarithmic lines).
,
TIN ( ) . , .
, , , , ; () ~ ,
, ; ~ , .
,
; /; (. ), -;
(cross-section, profile); (curvature) , , .. / (convexity/concavity); (cut/fill
analysis); (ravines, ravine-lines) (ridge-lines,
watersheds), , , (drainage
network, drainage lines) (surface specific points and lines): , (pits) , (peacks), (passes),
, "" (breaks, break lines), (flats); ;
(line fitting, surface fitting); (hill
shadihg) , (reflectance) ; .

: , .. ( (DEM (1)) (DTM);
;

(DEM(2)); "terrain"
"digital terrain model ,
" 22268-76. . "; " " (DSM) , .
(DBV) , , , , , , , , , . . DBV .
(electronic map) . , . , ,
() . . . (., ).

123


1. ArcView GIS: . .: , 1998. 365 .
2. .. . .: 1997. -64 .
3. .. . .: -, 1998. . 91
104.
4. . ( ESRI ).
.: , 2001. 255 .
5. : .
. . ... .: , 1991. 368 .
6. .., .. . . - 2- . .: , 1997. 160 .
7. .. . .: +, 1998. 118 .
8. .. . .: -, 1998. .
8190.
9. .., .. . . .: 1997. 213 .
10. .. . .:
, 1997. -80 .
11. .. . . .:
, 1998. -286 .
12. .. . : - . , 1997. 253 .
-
1.
2.
3.
4.

-, http://gisa.ru/
, http://e-lib.gasu.ru/
, http://www.dataplus.ru/
, http://www.cadacademy.ru/

5. ,
http://www.gis.nnov.ru/
6. ,

http://www.scgis.ru/
7. , http://www.gisok.spb.ru/
8. - , ,

spb.ru/index.html
9. , http://www.agp.ru/

124

http://www.geo-