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2 t 7 d, sal 2a tof] a il ‘ ing: a grain of truth 3 1 terr 4 f to 0.04 go against the grain if t > grained / gre with fit ar ar mae grammar /‘grema/ noun *&* 1 [u] the set of rules that describe the structure of a language and control the way that sentences are formed: errors in spelling and grammar ¢ the teaching of grammar + The book covers all the essential points of English grammar school 1 . Suitable for pecial examination to be allowed {(iiAiia seine et FCE exam or x ae : situs gramme see ram Grammy Macmillan Education Between Towns Road, Oxford OX4 3PP A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited ‘Companies and representatives throughout the wold ISBN 978 1 4050 1751 0 Text and design © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003, First published 2003 Al rights reserved: no part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval syster, transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Designed by Marc Theriault at Polyplano, Thessaloniki, Greece Design development by Thomas Nicolaou at Polyplano Cover design by Mare Theriault Series editor: Emma Parker Cover image and text extracts from the Macmillan English Dictionary, published by Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002 text © Bloomsbury Publishers Plc 2002 ‘Malcolm Mann would like to thank everyone at Macmillan and Macrnillan Zenith forall their support and encouragement during the writing of this series, Steve Taylore-knowles would like to thank Jeanne, Sue, Emma, Yanni and George for making it happen and keeping it fun, Male for putting up with putting him up, Jo for just putting up with him, and all his FC students whose faces and voices were constantly in his mind as he wrote, ‘The publishers would like to thank Ana Gibson, ELT Consultant ‘The authors and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce their photographs: CORBIS Images (UK) ppé(Brandtner & Staedeli,12Uohn Hulme Eye Ubiquitous), Patrick Giardino(C)}, 15, 2[Catherine Karnow), 28(Chris Daniels 38{Rune Hellestad), 44(Colin Garrat:Milepost 92), 54(Lynn Goldsmith], 60, 70U}oseph Sohm;ChromoSohm Inc], 76lJohn Wilkinson:Ecoscene(A), Michael S. Yamashita(®), Sally A. MorgansEcoscene(C)), 86(Phil Schermeister), 92|Roger Ressmeyer{A], Keren Sul(B), 94(Michael A. Keller Studios, Ltd), 102(Patricia McDonough}, 108\Helen King), Tig{Joseph Sohm:ChromoSohm, inc}, 124[Roy Botterelll, Digital Stock/Corbis 72 Printed and bound in Thailand 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 Ww 9 8 7 (ey Topic Skills Exam Grammar focus practice focus rose 1 Films Multiple choice cloze: lexical Part! expressing collocations and items present time 6 2 Occupations ‘Open cloze: lexico-grammatical Part 2 expressing collocations and patterns past time n Practice Exam 7 13 3 Education Key word transformations: Part3 linking present grammatical items and past time n 4 Sport Error correction: lexical Part4 expressing collocations and items future time 28 i Practice Exam = 5 People Word formation: prefixes PartS _comparatives and superlatives 38 | 6 Travel Multiple choice cloze: lexico- Part 1 modals | grammatical collocations and patterns 44 Practice Fram 50 7 Foodand Drink Open eloze: grammatical ters Part2 _modals 54 "8 The Media Key word transformations: Part 3 reported speech and lexical collocations and items reported questions 60 Practice Exam 4 66 “9 The Weather Error correction: lexico-grammatical Part —_—_relative clauses. collocations and patterns 70 10 _The Environment _ Word formation: suffixes Part 5 result clauses 16 Practice Exam 5 2 11 Technology Multiple choice cloze: Part 1 conditionals grammatical items 86 + 12. Health and Open cloze: lexical collocations Part2 _passive voice Fitness and items 92 Practice Bram, 38 13 Transport Key word transformations: lexico- Part3. causative form r grammatical collocations and patterns 102 14 Fashion Error correction: grammatical items __Part 4 wishes 108 Practice Bram 7 4 "15 Grime Word formation: irregular forms Parts countable and - uncountable nouns 113, 16 Shopping Revision of key FC problem areas inversions na Practice Exam, BO Exam know-how B34 Key First Certificate Collocations and patterns Bé ‘ Phrasalperfect 147 Introduction This book is designed to prepare students for the Use of English paper of the Cambridge First Certificate in English examination. We felt that it would be useful to explain our approach to this preparation, as there is still some misunderstanding as to what the Use of English paper focuses on, tests and demands of students. From a detailed analysis of both Use of English past papers and the UCLES First Certificate in English Handbook, it is clear that success in the Use of English paper demands far more than merely a knowledge of grammar. For the first four parts of the paper, there are three main types of iter tested lexical items, lexico-grammatical items and {grammatical items (see below for explanations of these terms). Any effective preparation for these parts must focus on all three types, not just the grammatical ones. For Part 5 of the paper — word formation — there are three main types of item frequently tested: prefixes, suffixes and irregular forms. Students must be trained in what to expect in ‘each part of the exam and how to ‘use their English’ most effectively. Exams DATABASE The structure of this book is based on a detailed understanding of the demands of the Use of English paper. It provides a systematic and methodical approach to lexical, lexico-grammatical and ‘grammatical items for the first four parts of the ‘exam, and focuses on prefixes, suffixes and irregular forms for Part 5. Our first task in developing this book was to produce a searchable database of all items previously tested at First Certificate level since the last revision in 1996. This involved keying in items, including distractors, from all papers administered since then at UK, local and international centres. This searchable database was constantly referred to in the development of this book. It was absolutely vital in analysing key lexical areas, recurring lexico-grammatical patterns and grammatical structures which are frequently tested This ensured that all items produced for this book accurately reflect the level and content of Paper 3. This detailed analysis also enabled us to make reasonable predictions of items likely to be tested in the future, giving candidates a vital advantage when it comes to taking the exam. ‘We hope the Frequently Asked Questions that follow will further help to explain the benefits of the structure of this book. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1 What are lexical items? Lexical items are questions which test vocabulary. They might test the difference in meaning between discrete words, such as ‘spectator’ and ‘witness, or they may be concerned with collocations, phrases and expressions. For example, in English we say ‘green with envy’ but not ‘green with jealousy. The difference between ‘envy’ and jealousy’ is purely a lexical issue. 2 What are grammatical items? Grammatical items test a knowledge of and ability to use grammar. For example, in English we say ‘I moved here three years ago’ and not ‘I have moved here three years ago! The choice of the present perfect is purely a grammatical issue. 3 What are lexico-grammatical items? Lexico-grammatical items contain both a lexical and grammatical element. For example, the difference in meaning between ‘able’ and ‘capable’ is a lexical issue. But there is also a difference in the grammatical pattern that each adjective takes. The pattern for ‘able’ is ‘be able to do something, whereas for ‘capable’ itis ‘be capable of doing something’ 4 What do candidates have to do in each part of the Use of English paper? Part 1 (multiple choice cloze) Candidates are given a text containing gaps. Each gap has four options. Candidates must choose the correct option to fill each gap. number of questions: 15 Part 2 (open cloze) Candidates are given a text containing gaps. Candidates must write one word to fill each gap. number of questions: 15 Part 3 (key word transformations) For each question, candidates are given a sentence, and a key word. They must use that key word (without changing it at all) to complete a gap in a second sentence so that the second sentence means the same as the first sentence. They are only allowed to write between two and five words (including the key word) in each gap. number of questions: 10