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SADT

Structured
Analysis &
2

Design
Technique
3

..............................................................................................................................8
..................................................................................................................................12
SADT................................................................................................14
I .........................................................17
1. ....................................................................................................18
1.1. SADT-...............................................................................................................19
1.2. ......................................................................................19
1.3. ........................................................................20
1.4. ......................................................21
1.5. ......................................................21
1.6. ...........................................................................................................................22
2. ........................................................................25
2.1. ............................................................................25
2.2. ....................................................................................25
2.3. .....................................................................................25
2.4. ..........................................................................................27
2.5. ........................................................27
2.6. ........................................................................29
2.7. -........................................................31
2.8. ...........................................................................................................................31
3. ......................................................................33
3.1. .....................................................................33
3.2. ......................................................33
3.3. -..................................................36
3.4. ICOM .........................................................38
3.5. ........................39
3.6. ...........................................................................................................................42
4. ..........................................................................................43
4.1. ........................................................................43
4.2. ....................................................................44
4.3. .....44
4.4. ....................................................................45
4.5. ...............................................................45
4.6. ...........................................................................................................................46
5. .....................................................................47
5.1. ...........................................................................47
5.2. ...........................................................................47
5.3. " "...................................................................48
5.4. .......................................50
5.5. .................................51
5.6. ................................................52
5.7. ...........................................................................................................................53
6. .......................................................................55
6.1. SADT ..................................................55
6.2. ...............56
6.3. ........................................................................59
6.4. ..........................................................................61
6.5. .................................................................................62
6.6. ..............................63
6.7. ...........................................................................................................................63

II ..................................................65
7. .....................................................................................................66
7.1. ..............................................................................................66
7.2. ..................................................................................................................67
7.3. .............................................................................................................68
7.4. ..................................................................................70
7.5. ...........................................................................................................................70
8. ............................................................................................72
8.1. ...........................................................................................................72
8.2. .........................................................................................72
8.3. ........................................................................................75
8.4. .....................................................................................75
8.5. .........................................................................................76
8.6. .........................................................................................77
8.7. ...........................................................................................................................78
9. .................................................................................80
9.1. ......................................................................80
9.2. .............................................................................83
9.3. ....................................................................83
9.4. ...........................................................................................................................84
10. ...............................................................................86
10.1. ....................................................................................86
10.2. ..............................................................86
10.3. ...............................................................89
10.4. .............................................................................91
10.5. ...............................................................92
10.6. .........................................................................................................................93
11. .................................................................94
11.1. ........................................................................94
11.2. ..............................................................................95
11.3. ..............................................................96
11.4. .........................................................................................................................99
III ..................................................................100
12. /............................................................................................101
12.1. ...................................................................101
12.2. .......................................................................................102
12.3. ..........................................................................................104
12.4. ..................................................................................104
12.5. /................................................................................................108
12.6. .......................................................................................................................108
13. .................................................................................................110
13.1. .................................................................110
13.2. ........................................................................................................110
13.3. ..................................................................................................111
13.4. ..........................................................................................................112
13.5. .......................................................................................115
13.6. .......................................................................................................................115
14. .................................................................................116
14.1. ....................................................................................................116
14.2. .................................................................................116

14.3. .......................................................119
14.4. ..................................................................120
14.5. ........................................................121
14.6. .......................................................................................................................124
15. ....................................................................125
15.1. .....................................................................125
15.2. ...................................................125
15.3. .....................................................127
15.4. ..................................................................................................................128
15.5. SADT..................................................................................................128
15.6. ..........................................................................................128
15.7. .........................................................................................129
15.8. .......................................................................................................................130
16. ..........................................................131
16.1. ................................................................................131
16.2. /..............................................................................................134
16.3. ...............................................................134
16.4. ................................................................................................135
16.5. .......................................................................................................................136
IV . ...........................138
17. ................................................................................139
17.1. SADT-.............................................................................................139
17.2. ...................................................................................140
17.3. ...........................................................................140
17.4. ................................................................................142
17.5. ..........................................................................................142
17.6. ....................................................................................................143
17.7. .............................................................................................143
17.8. ................................................144
17.9. .......................................................................................................................144
18. ................................................................146
18.1. ......................................................................................146
18.2. ..............................................146
18.3. ............................................................148
18.4. ............................................................................149
18.5. ................................................................................................151
18.6. .......................................................................................................................152
19. ..............................................................154
19.1. .........................................................................................154
19.2. .....................................................................................................156
19.3. ....................................................................................158
19.4. .......................................................................................................................158
20. ..........................................................................................160
20.1. .........................................................................................................160
20.2. ..................................................161
20.3. ......................................................................................................162
20.4. ...............................................................................164
20.5. .......................................................................................................................164
21. ......................................................................................166
21.1. AUTOIDEFO.............................................................................................................166

21.2. SPECIF_X..................................................................................................................167
21.3. Design/IDEF..............................................................................................................168
21.4. SADT................170
21.5. .......................................................................................................................171
V . .............................173
" "..................................................................................................173
.................................................................................174
22. ........................................................................................176
1. ..............................................................................177
............................................................................................................................................178
2. ........................................................179
............................................................................................................................................180
3. ..........................................................181
............................................................................................................................................182
4. ...........................................................183
............................................................................................................................................184
5. ................................................185
6. ............................................187
7. .............189
23. .......................................................191
8. ........................................................................192
9. ........................................194
10. ...............................................................................................196
24. .........................................................199
11. ...........................................................................200
12. .........................................................................................203
13. ...........................................................206
14. .......................................................208
25. ...........................................................210
15. ...........................................................211
16. ......................................213
17. ..................................................................215
26. .................................................218
18. .................................................................219
19. .........................................................................222
20. .......................................................225
21. .......................................................227
27. ....................................................................................229
22. .........................................................................................................................................230
23. ..............................................232
24. ..................................234
25. .................................................................................236
" "........................................................................236
-0 ().........................................................................................237
() .............................................................................................238
2. ................................................................................................240
21. ........................................................................................242


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23


Brackett, J., and C. McGowan: "Applying SADT to Large System Problems", SofTech Technical Paper TP059,January 1977.
Connor, M.: "Structured Analysis and Design Technique - SADT", Auerbach portfolio
32-04-02, 1979.
Freeman, P.: "Requirements Analysis and Specification: The First Step", Advances in Computer Technology - 1980, August 1980.
Hori, S.: "Human-Directed Activity Cell Model", CAM-1 Long Range Planning Final Report,
CAM-1, Inc., 1972.
Miller, J.: Living Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978.
Ross, D.: "PLEX1: Sameness and the Need for Rigor", SofTech Deliverable no. 9031-1.1,
December 1975.
Ross, D.: "PLEX2: Sameness and Type", SofTech Deliverable no. 9031-2.0, December 1975.
Ross, D.: "Reflections on Requirements", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol.
SE-3, no. 1,January 1977.
Ross, D.: "Doug Ross Talks about Structured Analysis", IEEE Computer, July 1985.
Ross, D. and K. Schoman: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "Introduction to IDEFO", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-14, September 1979.
Weinberg, G.: An Introduction to General Systems Thinking, John Wiley, New York, 1975.

24

2.
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31

Connor, M.: "Structured Analysis and Design Technique - SADT", Auerbach portfolio
32-04-02, 1979.
Ross, D., and Bracket, J.: "An Approach to Structured Analysis", Computer Decisons,
September 1976.
Ross, D.: "Structured Analysis (SA): A Language for Communicating Ideas", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, January 1977. Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering,
vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78-C-5158, SofTech, Inc., 1981.

32

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39


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Ross, D.: "Removing the Limitations of Natural Language (with Principles behind the RSA Language)", SofTech Deliverable no. 9061-25, July
1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Introduction to IDEFO", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-14, September 1979.

42

SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78C-5158, SofTech,Inc., 1981.

4.
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Mihram, A.: "The Modeling Process", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,
vol. 2, no. 5, November 1972.
Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "Introduction to IDEFO", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-14, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78-C-5158, SofTech, Inc., 1981

5.
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.
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. (..
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(), ,
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,
.

Miller, J.: Living Systems, McGraw-HiIl, New York, 1978.
Ross, D.: "An Essay on Activity Diagramming", SofTech Technical Report no. 7104, November, 1976.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-73-C-5158, SofTech, Inc., 1981.

6.
II - IV ,
.
, SADT
. SADT--, ,
, .
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SADT
, , , .
, .
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.

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6.7.
SADT- , SADT . , , . ,
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. .

. ,
, , .

Alexander, .: Notes on the Synthesis of form, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1964.
Jackson, M.: System Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983.
Orr, K.: Structured Systems Development, Yourdon Press, New York, 1977.
Miller, G.: "The magical Number Seven, Plus Or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity
for Information Processing", The Psychology Review, vol. 63, no. 2, March 1956.

Marca, D., and McGowan, C.: "Static and Dynamic Data Modeling for Information System
Design", 6th International Conference on Software engineering Proceedings, September
1982.
Parnas, D.: "On the Criteria to be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules", CACM, December 1972.
Pirsig, R.: Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, Bantam Books, New York, 1974.
Ross, D.: "An Essay on Activity Diagramming", SofTech Technical Report no. 7104, November, 1976.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78-C-5158, SofTech, Inc., 1981.

II
, ( )
, SADT-. , , , .
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- .
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.

Bravoco, R.: "Supplementary Information Concerning Interview Standards and Techniques",
SofTech, June 1976.
FitzGerald, J., and A. Fitz Gerald: Fundamentals of Systems Analysis, John Wiley, New
York, 1973.
Freeman, P.: "Why Johnny Can't Analyze", Systems Analysis and Design: A Foundation for
the 1980s Workshop Proceedings, September 1980.
Gorden, R.: Interviewing: Strategy, Techniques and Tactics, Dorsey Press, 1980.
Hartman, Matthes, and Proeme: Management Information Systems Handbook, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1968.
Kahn and Cannel: The Dynamics of Interviewing Theory, Techniques and Cases, John Wiley,
New York, 1966.
Mumford, E.: Designing Human Systems for New Technology, Manchester Business School,
Manchester, England, 1983.
Parkin, A.: Systems Analysis, Little Brown, Boston, 1980.
SofTech, Inc.: "Practical Aspects Of Data Collection, IDEFO Architects Guide", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-10, September 1979.
Weinberg, G.: Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design. Little Brown, Boston, 1982.

8.
SADT -0,
.
. ,
. ( )
. ( -0) " ", , , , , .
8.1.
, SADT- ,
, . (, ,
), , (, , ), (, "" ) (,
). , .
: , , , , , . 7 ,
.
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8.2.
.
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. 8-2.

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.
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, , SADT
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.

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(, ), SADT- .
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.
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-0 ,
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.
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8.7.
SADT- , , . ,
. .
, -, , -,
, -, . -0, , , , .

DeMarco, .: Structured Analysis and System Specification, Yourdon Press, New York,
1978.
DeMarco, .: "Specification modeling", Guide50 Proceedings, 1980.
Greenspan, S., and J. Mylopoulos: "Capturing More World Knowledge in the Requirements
Specification", 6th International Conference on Software Engineering Proceedings, September 1982
Jackson, M.: System Development, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983.
Marca, D.: Applying Software Engineering Principles, Little Brown, Boston, 1984.
Orr, K.: Structured Systems Development, Yourdon Press, New York, 1977.
Ross D.: "Some Further Observations about Structured Analysis", SofTech Technical Report
no. 9031-6, January 1976

Ross, D.: "An Essay on Activity Diagramming", SofTech Technical Report no. 7104, November, 1976.
Rubinsteine, M.: Patterns of Problem Solving, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Final Report: Function
Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78-C-5158, SofTech, Inc., 1981.
Weinberg, G.: Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design, Little Brown, Boston, 1982.

9.
, , , ,
, ,
, .
.
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, .
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. , . , .
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.
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2, , . (, , -0 . 8-4)
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, , , (. . 9-2).
,
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-0.
(.. ), , , , , . , , ,

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SADT, .
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. :
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, .

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9.2.
, .
,
, , .
. SADT .
, ICOM-.
: , ICOM-
, . . ( 3 .)
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. . , . , . 9-2 . ,
, . , .

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.
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. , , , , , . SADT-- . , ,
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.
9.4.

, . .
ICOM-, . , . ,
.
:
Alexander, .: Notes on the Synthesis of form, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1964.
Miller, G.: "The magical Number Seven, Plus Or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity
for Information Processing", Tbe Psychology Review, vol. 63, no. 2, March 1956.
Parnas, D.: "On the Criteria to be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules", CACM, December 1972.
Ross, D.: "An Essay on Activity Diagramming", SofTech Technical Report no. 7104, November, 1976.
Ross, D.: "Principles of Structuring", SofTech Technical Paper no. 082, November 1978.
Rubinsteine, M.: Patterns of Problem Solving, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.

SofTech, Inc.: "Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Report: Function Modeling Manual (IDEFO)", contract no. F33612-78-C-5158, SofTech,Inc., 1981.
Thomas, M.: Functional Decomposition: SADT", InfoTech State of the Art Report on Structured Analysis and Design, 1978.

10.
SADT . , . , ,
. .
, ,
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9 10,
, SADT , . .
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-

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. , :

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10.2.2.
. , .

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, 7 8 - ,
.
10.2.3.
.
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.
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.
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.
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.

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,
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. 10-3 , - , , , . ,
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.
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,
.
:
Cohen, G.: "A New Way to Test Writing", 22nd International Technical Communications Conference, 1975.
Elbow, P.: Writing with Power, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1982.
Freedman, D., and G. Weinberg: "Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews",
Little Brown, Boston, 1982.
Freedman, D., and G. Weinberg: "Reviews, Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IEEE
Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, January 1984.
Hale, R.: "Inspections in Application Development - Introduction and Implementation
Guidelines", IBM Report TNL GN20-3814, August 1978.
IBM: "Code Reading, Structured Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IBM Report
GE-19-5200, 1976.
Kohli, R.: "High Level Design Inspection Specification", IBM Report TR21.601, July
1975.
Lannon, J.: Technical Writing, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.
Yourdon, E.: Structured Walkthroughs, Yourdon Press, New York, 1977.

11.

, . SADT- , . SADT - , .
, . ,
. ,
, SADT-.
11.1.
1. - , .

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2. . .

3. - , ,
. . , .

11.2.
1. .
, .
.

2. , .
.
.

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.
.

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5. ,
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. ,
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1. ,
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.

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.

5. , ICOM-.
,
.

6.
. ,
.

7. .
.

11.4.
SADT-
.
; . , . , -
" ". .

Cohen, G.: "A New Way to Test Writing", 22nd International Technical Communications
Conference, 1975.
Elbow, P.: Writing with Power, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1982.
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews", Little
Brown, Boston, 1982.
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Reviews, Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, January 1984.
Hale, R.: "Inspections in Application Development - Introduction and Implementation Guidelines", IBM Report TNL GN20-3814, August 1978.
IBM: "Code Reading, Structured Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IBM Report GE-19-5200,
1976.
Kohli, R.: "High Level Design Inspection Specification", IBM Report TR21.601, July 1975.
Lannon, J.: Technical Writing, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.
Yourdon, E.: Structured Walkthroughs, Yourdon Press, New York, 1977.

III
,
SADT- , , . SADT
, , .
, SADT / ,
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.

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SADT- -
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19.
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,
.
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12.2.
, ,
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. . 12-3: , , , .

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/ .
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SADT- , ,
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. SADT ,
.
SADT- , /. , . , . , , . , , , " /". / , .
:
Curtis, . (ed): "Human Factors in Software Development", IEEE Catalog no. EHO 185-9,
IEEE Computer Society, 1981.
Connor, M.: "Structured Analysis and Design Technique - SADT", Auerbach portfolio
32-04-02, 1979.

Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews", Little
Brown, Boston, 1982.
Kemmer, R.: "Testing Formal Specifications to Detect Design Errors", IEEE Transactions on
Software Engineering, vol. 11, no. 1, January, 1985.
Mihram, A.: "The Modeling Process", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,
vol. 2, no. 5, November 1972.
Mumford, E.: Designing Human Systems for New Technology, Manchester Business School,
Manchester, England, 1983.
Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Forms and Procedures Guide", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-11,
September 1979.
Weinberg, G.: The Psychology of Computer Programming, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
York, 1971.
Yourdon, E.: Structured Walkthroughs, Yourdon Press, New York, 1978.

13.
, .
SADT- .
/,
. , SADT-, , .
14-16 SADT.
13.1.
"" SADT , . , SADT-
. ,
, ( , ) . , , - , , . , , SADT-.
, SADT-.

. .
, . . . , , .
.
13-1 ,
, .
13.2.
SADT- -
, , .
. . 13-2 SADT, . ,
.
, ,
. 1 - , - ,
, , , ,

. 13-1.

. 13-2. SADT-

-. 2, , , , - . 3 ,
.
4, 5 .
13.3.
SADT- , , , .
.
. , , , ( 18).
. 13-3 SADT-, , I, . , , /2. ,
, . /
, . /21 ,
. .

13.4.
SADT- .
, . , , . SADT- , ,
.

. 13-3. SADT-

. 13-4.

, , .
, , , ( , , . 20), , . , ,
, - . , . 6 , . ,
.
, .
. ,
, ,
.
13.5.

. , , ,
, .
. ,

.
, . , SADT, . , , ,
, . 20 .
13.6.
SADT- SADT- ,
. , , . , . , ,
.

Connor, M.: "Structured Analysis and Design Technique - SADT", Auerbach portfolio
32-04-02, 1979.
King, L: "Guidelines for an SADT Chief Author", SofTech Deliverable no. 9595-2, 1980.
Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.

14.
SADT- ,
.
- , SADT-.
, , , ,
, .
14.1.

. , . , ,
,
. -. , , . 14-1, ,
, .
.
.
. - .
. . . . , .
.
14.2.
: (1) , (2) , (3) ; (4)
; (5)
. , . . 14-1 14-2.
14.2.1.
, . , (. 14-2)
/2 . ,
. , .
14.2.2.
. , .. ( ),

. 14-1.

. 14-2.

( ) ( ). , ,
. , 3 . 14-2 ,

.
14.2.3.
.
,
. ,
( ). , .
, ""
() . , " " :
, ,
, , . , , .
, SADT :
. , /2 -
, "" / -
. . "",
. . ,
. .
14.2.4.
, . " ",
- . , .
. , .
14.2.5.
. ,
, .
( ,
). ,
. ,
, , .
14.3.
, , . , ,
. : (1)
, , -

(2) ICOM- , (3)


, (4) . .
14.3.1.
. . , / (.14-1) , . .
14.3.2. ICOM-
ICOM-. ICOM- .
. ,
. /2 ICOM- 13, ( )
2 /.
14.3.3.
,
.
.
.
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.
14.3.4.
,
.
.
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.
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, .
,
,
.
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.
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-

. , , .)
-0, 2
, . 6-1, 14-1 14-2. , , : (1)
, (2) , -,
, (3) ,
. -0 , , , .
14.5.
SADT- , .
, : . , . .
.
:
1. ?
2. , ?
3. , ?
,
, . , ,
, , SADT.
, , . , .
, . , . 15

.
14.5.1.
, , SADT- SADT:

?
?
?
?
?
?
?
, :

ICOM-?

ICOM- ?
?
( ) ?

14.5.2.
, , , , ,
. , . , :

?
?
?
?
, ?

,
:

?
?
?
, :

?
?
, ?

.

. . , :

( ) ?
?
( ) ?
?
?
ICOM-?
?
?
,
?

14.5.3.
: (1) , (2) , .

, , , ,
.
, :

?
- ?
, ?
- ?
?
, :
?
?
?
?
, :

,
, ?
, ?
?
?
, :

?
?
?
, :

?
, ?
?
, ?

(.. ) :

"" ?
?
- ?
,
?

, : " , ?" : " ?". , , .

14.6.
- ,
SADT-. , . , ,
, . - . ,
ICOM-, .
. - . , , , .

.
:
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G/ : "Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews", Little Brown, Boston, 1982.
MacKay, D.: Information, Mecanism and Meaning, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1969.
Macnamara, J.: Names of Things, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.
0 Rourke, J.: "Writing for the Reader", DEC, 1976.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Forms and Procedures Guide", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-11,
September 1979.

15.
SADT- .
SADT , : (1) , (2) , (3)
, (4) "" , (5)
SADT, (6)
. SADT- .
,
. SADT ,
. , , , - - ,
.
. SADT , (
-). . 15-1
15-2 . , .
15.1.
SADT ,
. ,
, , .

. ,
SADT. ,
, , SADT, . 20
.
15.2.
. , , , -, . , /2
. 15-2 ()
25.03.93 - -DAM010. ,
, . 2
. , . , " " , , . "". , .

. 15-1.

. 15-2.
15.3.
, -
. . , 2
/2 , ,

. 2 .
. , , .
.
15.4.
SADT "
". , : (1)
, (2) , (3) (4)
. ,
. , , . , , . , (. 15-2) . ,
, , . 4 5 . , - .
SADT " " " ". " "
/.
, . " " , - .
" " . . , VI, , " "
.
15.5. SADT
.
. SADT . , .
ICOM- . ICOM . . 15-1
.
. , , 14.2.3 ,
SADT : 1 11 102 21 1 41, . . , 401 112.
, ,
, .
,
/. ,
SADT-.
15.6.
, ,
. . -

, . ,
, , , ,
.
.
, ,

15-1. SADT

3
5
01
312

.2
A.I


+
.

+
+

42.3

.401

3
5


3

. . 2

. 1
42
. 3
. .

4

15.7.
, , . SADT
.
, , . , 4 5 . 15-2 , ,
.
, , ,
. , , , . / .
.
SADT- , . .
, ,
. , . , , . , . 15-2
.
SADT-
. SADT.
, ,
.

, , " " "


". . 16-3 .
15.8.
.
.
, .. .
. , SADT
.
.

Elbow, P.: Writing with Power, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1982.
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Reviews, Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, January 1984.
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Walkthroughs, Inspections, and Technical Reviews", Little
Brown, Boston, 1982.
Macnamara, J.: Names of Things, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.
0 Rourke, J.: "Writing for the Reader", DEC, 1976.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Forms and Procedures Guide", SofTech Deliverable no. 7500-11,
September 1979.

16.
.
.
SADT . , : (1)
, (2) / , (3)
, (4) .
, . SADT , , .
. . ( ,
, .) SADT
, , .
( -.) . 16-1
16-2 .
16.1.
, .
, , , . , , . ,
. . , . ,
. . , ,
, . , /2 (. 16-2)
1-5 - 6.
, , , .
, ,
. , 6 . 16-1
. ,
,
" " .
.
,
. , . , .
, , . ,
, - . , , .
,
.

. 16-1.

. 16-2.

16.2. /
,
. .
.
/ . ,
. ,
, /.
.
" ".
. , - , . .
, .
,
. . , : (1) / , (2)
.
16.3.
, ,
. " "
. SADT
,
. . 16-3 , . ,
.
.
, . , ,
. , /
. , , , , . , . ,
,
, .
, - . , . ,
, , . , .
16-3, -

,
.. , 7.
16.4.
- .
, . . . 16-4 , . 16-3.
, 7

. 16-3.

. 16-4.

4 1 .
, ,
- - ,
. 16-4. , - (DAM010) - (DAM015). , , SADT ,
.
.
. , ,
, . .
, .
, , , . , , ,
, , . , .
16.5.
,
. ,
.

.
. , . /. , , , , .
, .

Elbow, P.: Writing with Power, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1982.
Lannon, J.: Technical Writing, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.
Macnamara, J.: Names of Things, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.
Minsky, M.: "Form and Content in Computer Science", CACM, vol. 17, no. 2, April 1970.
O'Rourke, J.: "Writing for the Reader", DEC, 1976.
Freedman, D., and Weinberg, G.: "Reviews, Walkthroughs, and Inspections", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, January 1984.
Weinberg, G.: Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design, Little Brown, Boston, 1982.
Weinberg, G.: Understanding the Professional Programmer, Little Brown, Boston, 1982.
Weizenbaum, J.: Computer Power and Human Rreason, W.H. Freeman, 1976.

IV .
.
, ,
, ,
.
SADT-. ,
SADT- , , , . ,
SADT, , . , .
17 , SADT- .
18 , , . 19 SADT- , . 20 SADT-. 21 SADT
.
"" SADT-, .. .
. , ,
.
, SADT-, ,
SADT-,
V.

17.
, SADT, - ?
, . ,
SADT- . (, SADT-, ,
.) ,
.
SADT-, , , . , .
17.1. SADT-
, , SADT-. SADT-
. . 17-1
SADT-, ,
.
1365, , , - 9331.
, SADT- . -, SADT-

0
1
2
3
4


4 /1

6 /1

1
5
21
85
341
1365

1
7
43
259
1555
9331

17-1.
. , . . , , ,
, , .
SADT-
5-6 .
. , ,
, .
, -

, , . ,
, , . ,
SADT- , , ,
5-6 ,
.

,
.
. , , , .
(, ), (, ), (,
) . , , ,
, , . . , . . , .
17.2.
,
. , ,
,
.
, , .
SADT . , , -
, , :
1) ;
2) ., ,
;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) .
SADT (,
, ). ,
SADT ,
. . 17-1, "" .
17.3.
, , - ,
.

. ,
, .
, .
, , . ,
, .
, ,
.

, , . , .
, .

, -, ,
. .
. 17-1. , .

, ,
.
, , . , ,
. , , -, , .
, SADT- , , , .
17.4.
,
. , , , ,
. , . ,
, (.. ).
SADT ,
, .
, , , , , . , . ,
. - , . ,
, . ,
:
.
, .
, , . , ,
. , .
, 2-3
, . , ,
. . ""
"". /, .
17.5.
, . ,
, . . , . 06 .
/23 6 - .

, . . \
, , , .
, .
, ,
:

" " .
.
, .

, .
,
.
, -
, .
17.6.
, . , , . , .
, (.. ).
. 17-1
. 16-3. .
, ,
- .
. , .
( ,
). , , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
SADT
,
.
17.7.
-
. ,
SADT ,
.
. 17-1. ,

,
. "" , . , , .
, . .
, "" "".
, ,
. . , , .
. ,
, .
17.8.
, , ,
. SADT- 10 320 , ,
. - ,
,
,
, .
, , , ,
, . ,
- . .
. ,
, . / SADT-, , . , , ,
. ,
, .
.
17.9.
SADT- , . SADT- 5-6 ,
100 .
, ,
. , , , ,
. , , ,
, . , , ,
,
SADT- .


Alexander, .: Notes on the Synthesis of Form, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1964.
Connor, M.: "Structured Analysis and Design Technique - SADT", Auerbach portfolio
32-04-02, 1979.
Doczi, G.: "The Power of Limits", Shambhala Press, 1981.
Mihram, A.: "The Modeling Process", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,
vol. 2, no. 5, November 1972.
Nishio, ., and Nogi, K.: "A Stepwise Composition Technique for User Requirements Definition", International Workshop on Models and Languages for Software Specification and Design, University of Laval, Laval, Canada, March 1984.
Ross, D.: "Principles of Structuring", SofTech Technical Paper no. 082, November 1978.
Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "IDEFO Author's Guide to Creating Activity Diagrams", SofTech Deliverable
no. 7500-13, September 1979.
SofTech, Inc.: "The DWS/CS Emergency Preset Structured Specification", Technical Paper
no. 1083-1, August 1981.

18.
SADT- . , ,
. , , , , . SADT- . , , . , , . , SADT
.
18.1.
SADT- ,
.
, ( , ). , . 18-3
, , .
SADT- ,
. .
- , . - , . , SADT , , , . 18-1. ,

, .

SADT-. ,
,
, SADT . . ( - ,
- - ), . ,
. 18-2, 18-3 18-4 .
18.2.
, , , ,
. SADT- , , , . . 18-2 ,
,

. 18-1. , ,

. 18-2

. ,

, , , .
18.3.
, , ,
,
, .
,
. , . 18-3
, . ,
.
, . , . .
/,
.

. ,
, . 9-2,
, , III, .
.
, , . , ,
.
. , . 18-3 , . ,
(, ) (,
).
, , ,
.
, , , , , . ,
, ,
,
( ).
, , ,
, .

. 18-3.
18.4.
, .
, , , ,
. SADT , , . SADT- - , , .
, . 18-4.
- - , .
, , (, , ), (, ), , (,
).
(, ) -

. 18-4. , , ,
(, ). . 18-4 , .
, . , - SADT-. SADT- , . - , , ,
, , . . 18-5 ,
(.. ), .
, .
18-3.
- . , , .
- .
: , - , -. , - , . ,
(,
), ,
(, ). - ,
, 10 .

, SADT- - SADT
- , .
, , SADT- PERT
SADT-, , , . SADT.
18.5.
SADT-, "",
, . ,
. , -0, - , 1, - All . . SADT- "" , . SADT- . - , ,
. " ". - ,
. " ".
,
. .
( ) , .
. ,
. ,
, , .
VI. , ( ) ,
.

. 18-5.
18.6.
SADT- , . SADT : , .
. . ,
. , (, , , ).
, . .
- () ,
,
.

Berlin, J.: Semiology of Graphics, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1983.
DeMarco, .: Structured Analysis and System Specification, Yourdon Press, New York,
1978.
Hurley, R.: Decision Tables in Software Engineering, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
1983.
Lannon, J.: Technical Writing, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.

Marca, D.: Applying Software Engineering Principles, Little Brown, Boston, 1984.
Martin, J., and McClure, C.: Diagramming Techniques for Analysts and Programmers, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1985.
Weinberg, G.: Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design, Little Brown, Boston, 1982.

19.
SADT , , .
SADT- , . , "", "".
SADT- , ,
, .
- . - .
, , , . , SADT
, . .
19.1.
- , , . , , .
, . .
,
. -
,
, .
, ,
, . , , , .
- .
. -
,
.
.
, ,
. SADT , " ". - " ",

.
, , . ,
. 19-1 ,
.
.
. 19-1 , . ,
. ,
- .
, .

. 19-1. ,

19.2.
, SADT - ,
,
.
, - .
, , .

- . SADT ""
, ""
. , .
, .
.
SADT - (
), ,
. , , .
:

[/] * : -->
. . . .
. , , , . - ,
. , ,
.

. 19-2. ,
:
, .
, ,
ICOM-, ICOM- , .

AND, OR NOT . , . 19-2 /2, . ,


. ,
, , .
,
, .

, . , , ( NOT) ICOM-,
. , , ,
, . ,
3 . 19-3 ,
, .
. 19-3. ,
, .
, .
, ICOM- . , 02 03 4 , .

. NOT . , , , .

19.3.

.
, .
, (
"true" ) ( "false"
F) , . . ( ,
. D. , .)
, , ,
. , . 19-1 . 1,
.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
T
T
T
T

F
T
T
T

T
F
T
T

F
F
T
T

T
T
F
T

F
T
F
T

T
F
F
T

F
F
F
T

T
T
T
T

F
T
T
F

T
F
T
F

F
F
T
F

T
T
F
F

F
T
F
F

T
F
F
F

F
F
F
F

19-1. " "


, ,
.
19.4.
SADT . , . SADT
. - .

, .

Dickover, M., and . McGowan: "Software Design Using SADT", SofTech Technical paper
TP061, August 1977.
Mendelson, E.: Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York,
1964.

Martin, J., and C. McClure: Diagramming Techniques for Analysts and Programmers, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1985.
Parnas, D.: "On the Criteria to be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules", CACM, December 1972.
Ross, D.: "An Essay on Activity Diagramming", SofTech Technical Report no. 7104, November 1976.
Ross D.: "Structured Analysis (SA): A Language for Communicating Ideas", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, January 1977.
Schoman, K.: "SADT and PERT", SofTech Deliverable no. CLIN#0-02AG, November 1977.
SofTech, Inc.: "The DWS/CS Emergency Preset Structured Specification", Technical Paper
no. 1083-1, August 1981.
Savith, W.: Abstract Machines and Grammars, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.
Weinberg, G.: An Introduction to General Systems Theory, John Wiley, New York, 1975.
Weinberg, G.: Rethinking Systems Analysis and Design, Little Brown, Boston, 1982.

20.
SADT . , SADT
, , , ,
.
, , . SADT.
SADT .
20.1.
, , , , . ,
.
( ). , , , .
,

. .
, .
- -
.
, . , ,
,
. SADT-, . ,
SADT, , ( , , , ). , , .
. , , (, )
. (
VI.) ,

. 20-1. SADT-
. ,
, , .

, . ,
. 20-1.
20.2.
SADT- , . SADT
, ,
. SADT- . ,
. , .
,
:
, , . .
, ,
, .
, , , . .
, , , , .
- .

. 20-2.
, . , . .
. , .
, , - , SADT. . 20-2,
. .
20.3.
SADT- .
-0 , ,
. , . .
,
. , -0, (.
22, ).
,
/,
-0.
.

. , (. 23 24).

, .
( ),
, , (. 25 26).
. SADT-,
, .
, .
,
.
. , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , , , ,
" ".
,
.
SADT-
.
, SADT.
, ,
, .
. 20-1.
20-1. SADT-.

15-60
10-30
10-40
2-5

10-30
10-30
5-20
5-10

. , , . 20-2.
20-2. SADT-

2-6
3-6
10-30

, , .
, . , .
20.4.
SADT ,
. . , , , . 27 , " " , . , . , .
, , . SADT-, , :

, , , SADT-. ,
, .
, (, , ,
, ), ,
, .
(, , , ) (.. ).
(.. , , ) SADT-,
. .
( , , ) . . (, )
(, )
.

20.5.
SADT
, - , . , . SADT,
, .
, . SADT-

.

Brackett, J.: "Structuring the Analysis and Design Process", GUIDE Productivity Symposium,
1976
Burack, E., and Torda, F.: "The Manager's Guide to Change", Lifetime Learning Publications,
1979.
DeMarco, .: "Breaking the Language Barrier", Computerworld, August 1978.
DeMarco, .: "Controlling Software Projects, Yourdon Press, New York, 1982.
Parkin, A.: Data Processing Managment, Little, Brown, Boston, 1980.
Ross, D. and Schoman, K.: "Structured Analysis for Requirements Definitions", IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-3, no. 1, January
1977.
Schoman, K.: "SADT and PERT", SofTech Deliverable no. CLIN#0-02AG, November 1977.
Weinberg, G.: "Understanding the Professional Programmer, Little, Brown, Boston, 1982.
Yourdon, E.: "How to Manage Structured Programming", Yourdon Press, New York, 1976.

21.
70- SADT . , SADT- , .

ICOM-, SADT, SADT / . , SADT
, .
70- . , , SADT,
. ,
SADT (, ,
,
), AUTOIDEFO.
80-
. .
SADT - , . SADT , SPECIF_X.
AUTOIDEFO, SPECIF_X. , , .
21.1. AUTOIDEFO
, ICAM (Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing),
SADT, IDEFO. ( , SADT
, IDEFO ).
ICAM . IDEF
.
AUTOIDEFO IDEFO- . IDEFO ,
, , AUTOIDEFO ,
. , , .
AUTOIDEFO, , - ,
.
(, , ICOM-),
. - , .
SADT-
.

AUTOIDEFO SADT- /. , . ,
, . , .
, AUTOIDEFO . .
, SADT-,
-0 .
, , , , .
. , , .

, , AUTOIDEFO.
, .
AUTOIDEFO
, .
21.2. SPECIF_X
, SADT
" "
70- . . SADT
. SADT
ESPRIT - 10
, . , 80-
SADT, , SPECIF_X. SPECIF_X
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SPECIF_X Institut de Genie Logiciel
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