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FUNDAMENTAL OF

HYDRAULIC

Pressure & Flow


The Roles of Pressure & Flow
Pressure pushes, or exert force
Flow makes things move

What is Pressure ?

Pressure in
Confined Fluids

Pascals Law

Pressure & Force Relationship

F
P=
A

P = Pressure
F = Force
A = Area

Hydraulic Lever
Mechanical Lever

Energy Transfer in the Hydraulic lever

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Flow Makes it Moves


What is Flow

Velocity & Flow Rate

Velocity

Flow Rate

Flow Rate
and Speed

Pressure and Force


The Formation of
Pressure

The Path of Least


Resistance

Trouble in
Equipment Using
Oil Pressure

The Role of Gravity


Natural Pressure

The
Weight of
a Fluid

What Causes
Pressure

Loads Create
Pressure

Pressure in
Parallel
Connection

Hydraulic
Power in the
Working
Cylinder

Flow
Increasing Flow
Rate Brings
Increased Speed
Flow

Flow Closing
Relief Valve Will
Not Increased
Speed

Hydraulic Systems
and Energy

Mechanical Energy

Pressure Energy
(Kinetic Energy)
Mechanical Energy

Hydraulics and Work

The Three
Elements of
Work

Hydraulic System
Components

The Hydraulic Jack

Hydraulic Cylinder Operation

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Pump Classification

What is a pump

Positif Pump
Non Positif Pump

Types of Hydraulic
Pumps

Piston Pumps:

Hydraulic Pump Displacement


Fixed Displacement Pump
Constant

Displacement

En
gi
n

Ou

Flow

Fixed flow

tp
u

Pressure

Set pressure

Hydraulic Output

Variable Displacement Pump


Construction

En

ne

Ou
tp

ut

Fl
ow

Flow

Va
ria
bl
e

gi

Pressure

Set pressure

Hydraulic Output

Actuator Classification
What are Actuators?

(A)

(B)

Hydraulic Cylinder
(A)

(B)

Hydraulic Motor

Types of
Hydraulic
Motor

Displace
ment
and
Torque

Valve Classification
Pressure Control Valves

Directional Control Valve


Volume Control Valves

Pressure Control Valves

Directional Control Valves

Check Valves

Spool Directional Valve

Volume Control Valves

Volume Control valve Proportional Flow


Divider

Circuit Diagram (Netral)

Circuit Diagram (Extend)

Line Classification

Advantages of Hydraulic System


a. Flexibility

b. Force Multiplication

c. Smoothness
d. Simplicity
e. Compactness
f. Economy
g. Safety

Disadvantages of Hydraulic System


Need for
Good
Maintenance