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Music Appreciation 122 flashcards | Quizlet

Music Appreciation 122

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A pattern of strong beats and weak beats
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accents

Beats are the basic unit for measuring time in


music, and _____ are what enable us to beat
time.

syncopation

Displacing accents in metered music to


emphasize weak beats is called

measure

Each occurrence of the strong beat/weak


beat pattern is called

actual arrangement of long and short


durations in a tune.

If rhythm refers to the time aspect of music,


then a rhythm concerns the

foreground; background

In most Western music, rhythm exists in the


_____, while meter is in the _____.

nonmetrical

Music that suggests no underlying pattern of


strong/weak beats is called

adagio, allegretto, and presto.

Tempo, or the rate of speed of regular beats


of the meter, is usually indicated with Italian
terms like

sound in time.

The art of music, while containing many


elements, can basically be characterized as

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metronome.

The rate of speed of regular beats of the


meter or tempo, can be measured by a
mechanical or electric device called the:

a meter in which the main beats are


subdivided in twos.

The term simple meter refers to

rhythm

The time aspect of music is commonly called

Italian

Dynamics are usually described in what


European language?

short vibrating elements.

High pitches come from

the speed or rate of the sound vibrations.

In acoustics, the term frequency means

dynamics

In musical terms, the level of strength of


sound vibrations is called

long vibrating elements.

Low pitches come from

pitch

The term that refers to the highness or


lowness of sound is

bassoon

Three of the following woodwind instruments


have approximately the same range. Which
woodwind instrument does not have the same
range as the others?

the amount and exact mixture of overtones


produced

What determines tone color?

fortissimo

What dynamic indication is the loudest?

timbre.

What is another term for tone color?

the method of production of sound vibrations

What is the criterion for organizing the


instruments of the orchestra in their present
families?

trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba

Which lists the brass family of instruments


from the highest range to the lowest range?

mezzo forte, forte, fortissimo

Which of the following lists shows a


progression from softer to louder?

triangle

Which of the following percussion instruments


is not capable of playing melodies?

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violin, viola, cello

Which shows the correct order from the


highest range to the lowest range in the violin
family?

motive.

A distinctive fragment of melody that returns


again and again within a long composition is
called a

melody.

A succession of notes that seem to hold


together in an interesting, sometimes
emotional way can be called a(n)

phrases

In songs, _____ usually coincide with the


poetic lines.

two descending whole steps.

The children's tune "Three Blind Mice" starts


with

all the white and black piano keys.

The chromatic scale is represented by

a sequence.

The duplication of a phrase at two or more


different pitch levels is known as

octaves

The full, continuous range of pitches falls into


a series of "duplicating" segments called

diatonic scale.

When one sings the series do re mi fa sol la ti


do, one is also singing the

half steps and whole steps.

While the chromatic scale is made up


exclusively of half steps, the diatonic scale is
made up of both

half step.

While the distance between any two pitches is


called an interval, the smallest interval in
Western music is called a(n)

modulate

A composer may _____, or change the key


of the music, for a powerful effect.

the major mode; the minor mode

A composition with the do (C) center is in


_____, whereas a piece with the la (A) center
is in _____.

monophony.

A single unaccompanied melody is the


simplest texture, called

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texture

Music can be said to have _____, due to the


blend of various melodic lines and other
sounds occurring in it.

homophony.

One person singing the tune while playing


chords on a guitar is demonstrating the texture
called

supply tension to have the music flow.

The function of dissonance in harmony is to

tonality.

The sense of focusing around a single "home"


pitch that seems more important than the rest
of the notes in the scale is called

chords; harmony

When folk singers play _____ on their guitars


to accompany their singing, they are enriching
their melody with _____.

half step.

When sounding intervals, octaves are the


most consonant of intervals, while the most
dissonant interval is the

imitative polyphony.

When the same or fairly similar melodies


sound together, one coming in shortly after
another, the result is

Form

_____ is an important general concept


referring to the arrangement, organization, and
relationship of various elements in music.

musical style.

A combination of particular rhythms,


harmonies, and tone colors contributes to a
composer's

historical period.

A distinction can be made between the style


of a composer and that of his or her

minuet and trio.

All of the following are genres except

repetition; contrast

From simple song to a large symphony, a


piece of music is organized by means of
_____ and _____ of various musical
elements.

extend music over a definite time span.

One of the main functions of musical form is


to

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American popular music.

The connection between musical style and


lifestyle can be most clearly seen in

A B A.

The form diagram that represents a tune


followed by a contrasting tune followed by a
repetition of the first tune is

repetition; contrast

The larger the piece, the more important


_____ and _____ are to both our memory of
the piece and the choice of the musical form.

performing forces.

When determining the genre of a composition,


look at the text, function, or

French horns; modulation

Beethoven, Piano Concerto No. 5


("Emperor)," III
In this portion of this movement, _________
gently announce a _______ before the piano
continues in another new key.

monophony

Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, IV, "Joy


Theme"
Beethoven demonstrates the use of _____ in
this selection.

imitative polyphony; woodwinds

Britten, The Young Person's Guide to the


Orchestra
In this final section of Britten's The Young
Person's Guide to the Orchestra, we hear
_____ being presented by various "families"
of instruments of the orchestra starting with
the _____.

parallel

Gershwin, "Who Cares?"


When listening to this section, one hears the
_____ nature of the phrases.

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syncopated

Music Appreciation 122 flashcards | Quizlet

Joplin, "Maple Leaf Rag"


The piano left hand maintains a steady beat in
duple meter, while the piano right hand is
consistently

slows down; much faster, marchlike

Rachmaninov, from Rhapsody on a Theme by


Paganini
In this section, the tempo initially _____ but
then abruptly shifts to a _____ pace.

minor mode; major mode

Schubert, String Quartet in A Minor, Op. 29,


I
While this opening melody starts in a _____,
Schubert shifts to a _____.

the full orchestra, loud and accented then


rising in pitch.

Schubert, Symphony No. 8 ("Unfinished"), I


After a pause, we hear

imitative polyphony

Stravinsky, Symphony of Psalms, II


Stravinsky demonstrates the use of _____ in
this selection.

a higher-pitched rendition of the melody.

Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker Suite: "Dance


of the Sugar Plum Fairy"
After the transition from B, Tchaikovsky
brings back A with

poet and composer.

Abbess Hildegard of Bingen, famous for her


book of mystical visions, was also a

nonmetrical

Because plainchant lacks a distinctive beat, it


is referred to as

chanson

"Dame, de qui toute ma joie vient" is an


example of a

reciting tone.

In Gregorian recitation, the pitch on which the


text is sung is called the

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while processing to the graveyard.

In the liturgy for the dead, the plainchant "In


paradisum" is meant to be sung

Notre Dame school

Master Leonin and his follower Protin are


known as part of the _____ of organum.

round

"Sumer Is Icumen In" is an example of a

adding a second melody that moved parallel


to the original chant, note by note.

The first step in the development of organum


was

1,000

The Middle Ages spans a time period of


nearly _____ years of European history.

plainchant.

The official music of the Catholic Church in


the Middle Ages is called

isorhythm.

The structural technique of repeating long


rhythmic patterns over and over at different
pitch levels each time is called

non-imitative polyphony.

The technique that Machaut is known for in


his chansons is

strophic.

Troubadour songs, like hymns and most folk


songs, set all stanzas of the poem to the same
melody, resulting in a form known as

Plainchant is based on the major/minor


system.

Which of the following statements about


plainchant is false?

Minnesingers

Who were the medieval poet-musicians of


Germany?

madrigal.

An important new vocal genre based on a


one-stanza poem and developed in Italy after
around 1530 was called the

homophony

Composers of the Renaissance used _____


as an expressive resource and as a contrast to
the use of imitative polyphony.

plainchant harmonization.

Dufay's "Ave maris stella" is an example of

homophony.

In the simpler plainchant paraphrases, the


early Renaissance composers emphasized the
sensuous effect of the chant through the use of

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sonorous

Renaissance composers using paraphrase


emphasized the _____ aspect of the chant.

madrigal

The _____, a secular vocal piece, was


extremely popular in Elizabethan England
during the late Renaissance.

vocal music.

The best sixteenth-century composers


concentrated primarily on

imitative counterpoint and homophony.

The chief characteristic of the High


Renaissance style was a careful blend of

Mass

The compositional problem that confronted


Renaissance composers was how to write
music that would somehow unify the _____, a
large-scale sacred composition.

Josquin Desprez.

The first master of the High Renaissance style


was

voices alone.

The ideal sound for sacred music during the


High Renaissance was

paired dances.

The pavan and the galliard were usually

paraphrase.

The Renaissance procedure of embellishing


chants with extra notes, creating graceful
rhythms, and smoothing out awkward
passages is known as

Mass.

The sixteenth-century motet is a vocal


composition similar in musical style (but not in
scope or text) to the

declamation and word painting.

Two methods of illustrating or enhancing


words through the music in Renaissance vocal
music are

passacaglia.

A set of variations on a brief series of chords,


or the bass line associated with those chords,
is called a

Orfeo

Called "the last great madrigalist and the first


great opera composer," Monteverdi wrote his
first opera, _____, in 1607.

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organ virtuoso.

During the early Baroque, Frescobaldi was


the foremost

suites; orchestra

French composers specialized in writing


_____ for _____; these were meant for
listening pleasure rather than for dancing.

are predictable and purposeful.

Functional harmony during the Baroque


period makes us feel as if the chords

two different choirs.

Gabrieli achieves Venetian sumptuousness in


his motet "O magnum mysterium" through his
use of

follow the rhythm of highly emotional speech.

In a recitative, the composer tries to have the


singing voice

cello, bassoon, or harpsichord.

In music from the early Baroque period, the


basso continuo can be played by the

from the bottom up.

In the Baroque form of ground bass, the


music is constructed

a musical elaboration of dramatic vocal


virtuosity.

The art of the aria can be described as

court entertainments for royal celebrations.

The earliest operas were

at a girl's school.

The opera Dido and Aeneas was first


performed

meter is clearly and systematically evident.

The significance of bar lines being used for the


first time is that

fugues

Which was not one of the broad sources of


Baroque instrumental music?

Florence

While the madrigal was the most "advanced"


form in the late Renaissance, there was a
group of intellectuals in _____ who criticized
the madrigal and its use of word painting.

Rococo

All of the following terms apply to the period


1600-1750 except

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crisp harpsichord.

Baroque rhythmic energy can be


characterized as being highly regular and
determined. A common feature that
emphasizes the beat in Baroque music is the
use of a

opera.

Because of its story, music, and elaborate


stage spectacle, the genre that best served
Baroque absolutism was

court musicians

Compared to church musicians, _____ kept


in better touch with musical developments
because of their travels.

harpsichord and virtuoso recorder.

Distinctive sound characteristics of the


Baroque period not heard in other periods
include the

scales

During the Baroque period, all possible keys


were available to composers because _____
were tuned (tempered) more precisely.

regularity.

During the Baroque period, the ideal of


rhythm was

affects

It was believed in the Baroque period that


music should mirror a wide variety of
emotions, or

sequence.

One of the most effective devices for forward


motion in Baroque melody was the frequent
use of

Louis XIV.

The monarch of France known as the Sun


King (1638-1715) was

opera house.

The newest institution where a Baroque


composer could make a living was the

continuo

The presence of the _____ in Baroque music


is practically a universal feature.

continuo chords

What provides the basic harmonic framework


for polyphonic music of the Baroque period?

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contrapuntal.

While other textures can be found in Baroque


music, the predominant texture of Baroque
music is

standard forms

Working busily, Baroque composers would


rely on _____, which could be used quickly
to satisfy the needs of the court or church.

episodes.

Contrasting passages of music that separate


the later subject entries in a fugue are called

neglected.

For some time after Bach's death, his music


was

variety

In a multimovement work from the Baroque


period, there will always be _____ in tempo,
mood, key, meter, and form from movement
to movement.

conventional forms and genres

In Baroque instrumental music, composers


relied on __________ to let their listeners
know what to expect and how long a piece
would go on.

summarized

In his later life, J. S. Bach wrote compositions


that _____ his thoughts and ideas about
Baroque-era music.

minuet and trio.

Shorter dances of the Baroque tended to be


grouped in pairs, such as the

exposition.

The first part of the fugue, with its initial


subject entries, is called a(n)

contrasting character of the orchestra and the


soloist.

The focus of ritornello form is on the

systematized, imitative polyphonic form.

The fugue can be described as

suite

The practice of collecting dances from an


opera or ballet together in a _____ was
common during the Baroque period.

stretto.

The technique that produces subject entries


that follow one another faster and are almost
stacked on top of each other is called

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Antonio Vivaldi

The Venetian composer ________ wrote


hundreds of concertos and was a virtuoso
violinist.

the contrast of a large group (orchestra) with


a soloist or small group

What is the basic idea underlying the concerto


and concerto grosso?

variation form

Which form can be described as


uninterrupted repetitions of a clearly defined
melody with interesting changes that retain the
original theme in some way?

It returns many times (usually only in part) in


different keys as the movement proceeds.

Which is true of the ritornello in ritornello


form?

an opera on a religious subject.

An oratorio is basically

opera singers.

As a composer in many vocal and


instrumental genres, Handel was particularly
gifted in composing for

made no effort to create real melodies out of


emotional speech.

In Baroque operatic recitative, the composer

affects

In Baroque vocal music, composers used


certain musical devices consistently to
correspond to certain emotions, or _____, as
theorists called them.

ancient history.

Italian Baroque opera mostly took its plots


from

chorales.

Lutheran hymns are called

a church choir.

One factor that is important for all sacred


music genres during the Baroque period was
the inclusion of

Farinelli

One of the most famous castrati of his day


was _____, who was also a composer and
later an influential figure at the Spanish court.

continuo accompaniment.

Secco recitative has

second, musical sermon.

The church cantata was written to be


performed during Lutheran church services
and were like a

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its ability to project emotion.

The real basis of opera's appeal in the


Baroque era was

coloratura.

The singing style that emphasized virtuosic


technique with fast, brilliant runs, high notes,
and vocal cadenzas was

da capo; from the head

The standard form for the Baroque Italian aria


is A B A, or _____ form, meaning "_____."

a group of anonymous narrators

Unlike other oratorios, Handel's Messiah


relies on _____ to tell the story of the life of
Jesus.

opera singing.

While most careers were not available for


women in eighteenth-century society, women
could achieve fame and fortune in

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