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Cisco

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R o u t e r s

Joe

Habraken

A Division of Macmilan Computer Publishing, USA, 201 W. 103rd Street


Indianapolis, Indiana 46290



Cisco

, 2005

004.715
32.973.202-018.2
12
12

.
Cisco: . . - .: , 2005.
- 320 : . ( ).
ISBN 5-94074-295-5
LAN- WAN-, , Cisco Cisco IOS.
,
, , .
,
, ,
Cisco.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information
storage retrieval system, without permission from the Publisher.
.

.
, , . , , .
,
.
, , .
.
ISBN0-7897-2103-1 (.)
ISBN 5-94074-295-5 (.)

Authorized translation from the English language edition,


entitled Practical Cisco Routers, published by Que,
Copyright 1999
, .
, 2005

13

15

1.

16






/

,

16
17
18
20
20
: 22
....24
26

27
27
28
29
30


Ethernet
IBM Token Ring
FDDI
AppleTalk

32
32
34
34
35

2. OSI

37

OSI

37

OSI

39
41
41

CISCO




....42
43
43
44
46

46


NetBEUI
TCP/IP
IPX/SPX
AppleTalk

47
48
48
50
51

3.

54

55
55
55
59
59
61


.25

'.

61
62

Frame-Relay

63

64

64

4.

66

5.




66
68
70
71
71
72
73

75
75
76
77
78
79

7
81

82

82
83
86

87
89
92

93

6.

94

94

96

99


:



7.

101
102
102
102
104

104

Cisco

104
105
106

107

109

110

111
111
113

114

8.

115

115

117

CISCO








119
119
121
122
.,.

124
124
125
126
127

.'

9. Cisco IOS

128


Exec

130
130
131

IOS

133
136

138

>

139


cCDP

141
141



ping

143
143
144

145

III

147

10. TCP/IP

148

TCP/IP OSI



-.

148
,

150
150
151
153

IP
IP

153
155
157
159

160

IP-

'.
IP-

160
162
164
166
167

168
168
170
171
172

1 1 . IP

, LAN
,
WAN
:

174

174
176
177


RIP
IGRP
'.

179
180
182


Telnet . i

185
187

12. Novell IPX

189

IPX/SPX
IPX/SPX

189
190

IPX-
SAP
IPX-

191
193
195

IPX-
LAN
WAN

197
197
200

IPX-

201

13. AppleTalk
AppleTalk
AppleTalk
AppleTalk-
LAN
WAN
AppleTalk-

203
204
207
207
209
211

'.

212

CISCO

IV

215

14.

...:.
..

216
217
218

IP
IP

220
221
223
224

IPX

225

AppleTalk

227

15. W A N

231

WAN
HDLC

231
'.

233

233

.25

235

Frame-Relay

236

ISDN

239

16.
Cisco ConfigMaker

242

Cisco ConfigMaker

242

Cisco ConfigMaker

243

Cisco ConfigMaker

243



LAN

243
245
248
250
252

17. TFTP
TFTP
TFTP

.
.'

255
255
256


TFTP Cisco..

257

t 11
TFTP.

259

TFTP
IOS TFTP

260
261

18.

265

265
265
268
269
269

LAN
Ethernet
Token Ring

270
270
272

.'

WAN

273

TCP/IP
ping
trace

275
276
277

IPX
AppleTalk

278
278

280

281

II
Cisco

290

296

312



. ,
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, Internet
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, ,
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, : Cisco
, . , , ,
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Cisco. , ,
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13


I, , . , .
( OSI)
. .
II, ,
Cisco,
Cisco Cisco IOS.
III, ,
: TCP/IP, IPX/SPX AppleTalk,
Cisco
.
IV, , Cisco, .
ConfigMaker.


,
Cisco1. , , .


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WAN-) , : show
i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0.
1

Internet. . . - . . .

14

CISCO

( )
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Ctrl+P.
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-,
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17

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(, ), , (peer-to-peer network).
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- (server-based network). -,
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( ), ( ).
, , ,
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, Windows 3.11, Windows 95/98
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(, ) . :

Nf*i Shared
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Share Mare
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fiependson
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18

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Windows NT .
(Access Control List - ACL), , . . . .

19

,
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, . , , . ,
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Windows NT), (
). . 1.1 ,
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1.1.



(, Novell NetWare)
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( , Microsoft Exchange)


(, SQL-)
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), (local area
network - LAN). , . ,
(internetwork), ( campus network).
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PCI Ethernet). ,
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PCI, ISA EISA. ,
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, - , (, Windows 98),
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, :

21

. 1.2.

1. .
2. ( ,
).
3. . Plug-andPlay Windows 95/98, . , (
-, ).
4. , . ,
.
5. (, Windows NT 4 - ) (Interrupt
ReQuest - IRQ) / (Input/Output - I/O) . IRQ /
.
IBM Token Ring,
Token Ring. , ( ), , .


(, ).
( ) ,
.

22

/

.
- , ,
- , , .
, . , , , IRQ. , , ,
- IRQ.
8 . Windows NT 2000 Server Windows NT 2000
Professional Microsoft's Plug-and-Play . ,
, .
Novell NetWare 4.2 Novell NetWare 5 Plugand-Play, .

IRQ : (
, )
. DOS Windows 3.11 Microsoft System Diagnostics (
msd.exe). Windows 95/98 => =>
=> , , , .
(. . 1.3).
Windows NT Workstation 4.0 Windows NT Server 4.0
IRQ => =* =>
Windows NT.
, .
. 1.2
. : IRQ .
, LPT2, . IRQ ,
.

using (he setting


Setfng Hardware
System

01
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ftos

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Standard 101 02-Key Micfwoft Natural r.eyboad


Programmable inlwrupt corAolei
U.S. Robotics 56K FAX INT PnP

23

Commuracations Port ICO Ml ]


YAMAHA GPL3-SA*WDM Driver
Standard Floppy Disk Control
Pirte Port (LPT 1)

. 1.. IRQ
1.2. IRQ


(COM2 COM4)

4
5
6

(LPT2)

(LPT1)

8
9
10
11
12
13

14
15

(1 COM3)

SCSI ( )
SCSI ( )
PS/2


IRQ,
,
. / , , .
, /. 220h, 280h, 300h, 320h 360h ( h ,
(hexadecimal) ). / ,
IRQ.

24


. , - ,
. - , FDDI, (synchronous optical
network - SONET), , .
, .
, ( ; ).
Ethernet 10 /, 100 / (Fast Ethernet) 1 / (Gigabit Ethernet). He IBM Token Ring.
IBM . Token Ring
1. , RJ-45.
(RG-58 RG-11)
, . ,
-, . , , , .
RG-58 . , .
.
-.
, , . -, . (
) .
,
, .
- ,
, - .
.
, , .

25

- .
- ,
(light emitting
diode - LED). , , .
. 1.3 , . 1.4.

: , ( , ), ,
. , .

1.3.

' .'


(CAT 5 UTP)

10 100/

100

185

10 /

- 500

0/
2 /

, .

. 1.4. , , -

26

,

. .
(hubs) . . , ,
(. 1.5)1.

. 1.5. -

.
, ,
. , . .
J

, , , , . IBM Token Ring (multistation



( . hub ). - . . .

27

access unit - MAU).


,
.
^ -

IBM Token
Ring . 2 ( ).

OSI.


,
. -
(, Ethernet IBM Token Ring). (,
,
),
. .
(
).


, (. 1.6). , . , , , ,
( ), . (
), , Ethernet.

. 1.6.

28

, . , ( 50- 50 ).
, , .

,
,

. : , .

.
. , , .
(, )
.
.
.



, . - , (. 1.7). ( - , ) -
, . .

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,
, .

29

( ,
.)
: , . .

. 1.7.


(. 1.8), .
. . (fiber
distributed data interface - FDDI).
.
, , , . , . ,
, .
, , .

30

Token Ring
. 1.8.

, , .
,
, -
().
. , .
.
FDDI FDDI.


1. . , (. 1.9). -
1

. - . . .

31

. 1.9.


.
, , , - .
, , .
, , . ,
,
.
,
. , : , -
, (, ,
IBM Token Ring).

3 2 ^


, . , Ethernet,
, . .
_

Ethernet
Ethernet, (carrier sense multiple access with collision detection CSMA/CD). , , ,
. . , .
, ,
.
Ethernet - . , . Ethernet - . Ethernet
( ) 10 /. WBaseT, 10 ( /), Base (baseband), (twisted pair). . 1.4
Ethernet.
Ethernet
(IEEE) IEEE 802.3.
Ethernet
(MAC) OSI. OSI MAC 2.

1.4. Ethernet

lOBaseT
10Base2

100

185

,
,

33

1.4. Ethernet ()

10Base5

500/

-,
,

lOBaseFL

. Ethernet
,
. :
Ethernet 802.3 - IEEE, Ethernet.
Novell NetWare 2.2 3.1;
Ethernet 802.2 - IEEE. Novell NetWare:
3.12, 4.x 5.x1;
Ethernet SNAP - AppleTalk;
Ethernet II - , Internet.
Ethernet ,
Fast Ethernet (100 /) Gigabit Ethernet (1 /).
, Gigabit Ethernet
.
Ethernet - . ,
, (, Token Ring). . ,
, .
:
(bridge) . 4.
,

_J

Novell IPX/SPX Novell NetWare, (


OSI) ,
, IPX. 802.3 802.2, . . . .

2 - 4631

34

IBM Token Ring


IBM Token Ring .
Token Ring ,
(multistation access unit - MAU).
, ,
MAU.
, , . , , (nearest active upstream
neighbor - NAUN), , , -
(nearest active downstream neighbor - NADN).
,
.
IBM Token Ring IEEE 802.5. Token Ring (MAC)
OSI. OSI MAC 2.

Token Ring . ,
Ethernet (4 16 /),
. ( Token Ring.)
Token Ring , , .
,
7 , , . - ,
. , ' .

FDDI
(fiber distributed data interface - FDDI) , ,.
. FDDI

35

- .
, 100 / .
FDDI
,
. FDDI , , , .
FDDI 1, ,
. .
, , (. 1.10).

/
. 1.10. FDDI

FDDI . , .
FDDI .
, . - . . .

36

FDDI, .

AppleTalk
AppleTalk - , Apple Macintosh. (
Macintosh Ethernet Mac Ethernet).
, Macintosh, LocalTalk
Macintosh.
AppleTalk .
Macintosh .
, . , .
AppleTalk, Ethernet, . AppleTalk (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance - CSMA/CA). , , ,
. , , ,
, .
, , CSMA/CA ( Ethernet).
:
AppleTalk 230,4 /. ,
, Macintosh , , .

fo

OSI


. , .
, - .
(ISO)
,
-. , , , , ISO 9002. ,
,
ISO . , ISO 9660
CD-ROM.

OSI -

70- XX ISO (open systems interconnection reference model - OSI/RM).
, , OSI. 1984

.
OSI ,
.
, . , TCP/IP AppleTalk -

38

OSI

. ,
, OSI.
^


( ).

OSI , .
:
,
.
, ,
FTP. ,
;
.
, ;

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.
, IP-.
, -.
OSI ,
. OSI
,
, , , .
, , - ,
.
, ,
, .


, NetWare IPX/SPX TCP/IP,
, OSI, OSI ( Novell. NetWare Windows NTj.

OSI

39

,
IPX/SPX TCP/IP, ,
OSI, - OSL , (Novell NetWare Windows NT),
.

OSI
OSI .
, - () ( ):
(, ..). , , , ;
1.

1
i
,

, ,
OSI

.
7

. 2.1
OSI .

- , ,


,
, .
. ,
. ,
. 2.1. OSI - ,

,
.

OSI , , . , ,
.
,
, .
,
( )
. - . , .

40

0SI

, . (, Outlook
Eudora), . .
(
) . , , ,
.
,
( . 2.2 ).
- , , , ,
.
(
: , ) - .
-
OSI.
.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

t

. 2.2. OSI -
-

OSI t 4 1

,
.
OSI ( ).



.
, : , ,
. , .
, ,
World Wide Web, ,
(simple mail transfer protocol - SMTP), TCP/IP,
/.


. , . , , ASCII-,
.
( , ) .

.
(, Excel)
,
, .
.

OSI . (, ) -, , ,
,
OSI .

42

OSI

, ,
( , )1.


, , , ,
(. 2.3).
, , .



. 2.3.

,
, . , .
, , : . ,
, , , ,
.

. - , , .
.
, , ,
, . ,
. - . . .

OSI t 4 3

, .


.
, . .
.
, ( OSI).
, .
UNIX, Macintosh, Windows
TCP/IP Internet.
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, :
, .

- Ethernet, Token Ring .. - 1,


.


( ). , , . ,
.
.
,
.
, , , . , .

44

OSI

. (,
IP- ) (
, ).

.
, .
.
5.

, OSI ( )
.
. , .


.
, . . 2.4 ,
Windows 98.
, .
. , (cyclical redundancy check - CRC). , .
, .
, , ,
. . 2.5 Ethernet 802.2.
. 2.1 .
,
, (,
), (
Ethernet), .

. , .

OSI

DNS Serveu \
Node Type"

45

Sioadcast

NetBIOS Scope I
WINS Ptoqi Enabled ['

.. ; . IP Routng nabted
NetBIOS RewWion Use* DNS
."Ethernet Adapter Woroatian
I
f
IP AUoconfigwation Addess
Subnet Mesk
Def** Gateway'r
DHO>Setvr
Pfinay WINS Serve f

^255.255.255

Secondly WINS SKVW f


lease Obtained!

04 25 997:47:4? AM

Lease ExptesReleeje j

ReQew j

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. 2.4.


. , TCP/IP IPX/
SPX, .
,
.


LLC
(SSAP)
(DSAP)

()

LLC


(FCS)

. 2.5. Ethernet OSI


2.1. Ethernet

46

OSI

2.1. Ethernet ()
^

DSAP

SSAP

CTRL

FCS

, Windows, =$ . winipcfg
.
IP, .
Windows NT . , .
- .


, ,
, . .
(,
).
^ -

1 ( ).


OSI, , . IEEE 802 : (logical link
control - LLC) (media access control - MAC).
LLC
. (service access

4 7

points - SAP); , , . IEEE 802.2.


MAC , ,
,
. 802 MAC ( ), , Ethernet Token Ring (. 2.6).
^^-

1 (
).
LLC:
IEEE 802.2


MAC:
IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.5
IEEE 802.12

. 2.6. : LLC MAC


, ,
OSI, , OSI. .

-.

. IEEE. 48- , 00-00-B3-83-B3-3F.

48

OSI

Ethernet, Novell NetWare (NetWare 2.x


3.x), , IEEE. ,
Ethernet 802.3 IEEE. NetWare
Ethernet
Ethernet 802.2, .

NetBEUI
NetBIOS (NetBIOS extended user
interface - NetBEUI) - , Microsoft IBM / (network basic
input output system - NetBIOS).
NetBEUIpa6oTaeT OSI,
NetBIOS, . Microsoft : (server message block - SMB). ,
. , .
NetBEUI , , . , NetBEUI , ,
, ( NetBEUI ).

TCP/IP
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
. TCP/IP , TCP/IP , .
TCP/IP - , (Windows, UNIX ..).
TCP/IP
. TCP/IP ,
OSI,
. . 2.7 TCP/IP,
OSI ( TCP/IP,
). . 2.2 , .
TCP/IP 10.

N.

,
FTP, f
\
' /

49

N.
\

SMTP

FTP

>

TCP

ARP

UDP
,
TCP IP,

OSI

( .

>

. 2.7. TCP/IP
2.2. TCP/IP
FTP '
SMTP
TCP
UDP

P
I

ARP

File Transfer Protocol


IP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Internet
Transport Control Protocol .

User Datagram Protocol , TCP

Internet Protocol
TCP/IP
Address Resolution Protocol IP- -

TCP/IP ( ,
),
. , Internet, 32- IP-, (

OSI

). IP- 129.30.20.4,
.
^ -

10 IP- .

TCP/IP ,
TCP/IP , TCP/IP . , , TCP/IP .
^^-

TCP/IP 10.

IEEE 802 , LLC , MAC 802:


802.1
802.2
802.3
802.4
802.5
802.6
802.7



Ethernet (CSMA/CD)




802.8

802.9

802.10
802.11
802.12

IPX/SPX
/ (Internetwork Packet
Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange - IPX/SPX) Novell
Novell NetWare. IPX/SPX ,
TCP/IP (DARPA). , .
, ,
(, ..)
. TCP/IP, ,
.

51

TCP/IP, . IPX/SPX
, .
. 2.8 IPX/SPX
OSI. . 2.3 . IPX/SPX .

SAP NCP

OSI:
,

IPX


. SPX

. 2.8. IPX/SPX
2.3. IPX/SPX

SAP
NCP

Service Advertising Protocol


NetWare Novell
NetWare Core Protocol
OSI (, ).

SPX
IPX

Sequenced Packet Exchange Protocol - ,



Internetwork Packet Exchange Protocol ,

IPX/SPX 12.

52

OSI

AppleTalk
AppleTalk
, . ( Macintosh , ,
Ethernet, EtherTalk) AppleTalk Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI;
.
AppleTalk - ( 1),
. . 2.9 AppleTalk OSI, . 2.4 .
. 2.72.9
OSI. , , OSI .
, , . TCP/IP, , ,
. , FTP , .
FTP OSI.

, , .
. ,
. ( 4.) Internet . TCP/IP
,
intranet , , , SMTP HTTP .
extranet Intranet, .

, , , OSI . , . , TCP/IP
(RIP), AppleTalk . .

53

AppleTalk
,
OSI. AppleTalk, ,

. 2,9. AppleTalk - Macintosh


2.4. AppleTalk
AppleShare

AFP

AppleTalk Filing Protocol

ATP

AppleTalk Transaction Protocol

NBP

Name Binding Protocol


ZIP

Zone Information Protocol AppleTalk

AARP

AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol


DDP

Datagram Delivery Protocol AppleTalk


IPX/SPX, AppleTalk
.
AppleTalk
Cisco 13.

S J


, , "
.
, , .
, , .
,
.

. .

.

, . , , ,
. ,
1 .
^-

4.

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( - ),
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, ):

55


(, , ..) , .
:
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,
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, , . ,
.


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.
, , ()
(), . . , 56 /,
.

( ). , , ( ). . 3.1
, .


.
, : , , ,
.

56

. 3.1.

, , -
(digital data service - DDS)
(T-Carrier).
(PSTN) (POTS). , .

DDS
DDS, , ( ) 64 /. DDS
, CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit),
, , .
DSU, -
CSU. , CSU/DSU , (. 3.2).
DDS - ,
.
(integrated services digital network ISDN) - , .

57

CSU/DSU

DDS

CSU/DSU

. 3.2. DDS


(, ) .
, , , MUX. . 3.3 ,
. , , .
1 . 24 64 / , , 1,544 /. -

, . . 3.1
.
3.1.
1

24

1,544

96

6,312

672

44,736

4032

274,76

1,
. ,

58

-Ethernet (LAN)

||
]

Ethern

e t (LAN)-

. 3.3. ,

. 2 .
, 4,
;
( - ).
, ,
,
. ( ), , CSU/DSU.
,
.
DDS , , Frame-Relay.
1 (
) .

59

.
, . - .

11 .
1. , 12 11, 28, 14 168.


- .
.
, .
,
.
, , (. 3.4).

(public data network - PDN) (digital terminal equipment - DTE), . (data circuit terminating equipment - DCE),
CSU/DSU,
1
.
.
: .



.
(), . .

DCE . - . . .

60

~\
S

,
-
. 3.4. ,


(integrated services digital network - ISDN).
ISDN, , . ISDN , .
ISDN: ISDN BRI ISDN PRI.
BRI (Basic Rate Interface) : - 64 / D- 16 /, . BRI -.
- 128 /.
PRI (Primary Rate Interface) ,
. 1,
23 - ( 64 /). D- -
.

6 1
ISDN 15 ( ISDN).


, , Internet.'
,
(digital subscriber service - DSL). DSL
7 /. DSL, , ,

. , DSL :
.


, .
. ,
. , , .
.
, ,
( , ).

.
: .25, Frame-Relay,
ATM; .


70- XX .25. ( ) .
.

62

.25
.25 ,
AT&T General Electric. .25
(DTE)
(DCE). DCE
DTE, , .

, .25
DTE. , , , .
,
. .25 DTE (), (. 3.5).

>*
^^

. 3.5. .25

^ 6 3

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91

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96

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input e r r o r s , CRC, ( , overrun, i g n o r e d , 8 abort
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5 n i n u t e output r a t e 0 b i t s / s e c , p a c k e t s / s e c
p a c k e t s i n p u t , b y t e s . no b u f f e r
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input e r r o r s , CRC, 0 frame, 8 overrun, Ignored, abort
0 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , b y t e s , 8 underruns
output e r r o r s , c o l l i s i o n s , 318 i n t e r f a c e r e s e t s , r e s t a r t s
output b u f f e r f a i l u r e s , output b u f f e r s Mapped out
carrier transitions
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Hewlett Packard - HP OpenView;
Cisco ConfigMaker. (. 8.1)
,
( ConfigMaker) .
, , ,
.
ConfigMaker 16;
TFTP. TFTP,
. TFTP - 17.
J t e > Bbjratt l o t *

j New

Open

1
Save [ U

S * Devices
| HJDiaHnPCt (modem)
Dial-in PCs (ISDN)
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[ f=l Csico Mciro Hub Stack
~: G3 Mcro Hubs
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'?! I h Detect Addrew Securyli Deviler Png i Men

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ISDN Lsed Line
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CONSOLE (. 8.2).

,
.
, .
^ -


9.

1 1 7

. 8.2. :
I - CONSOLE; 2 - AUX()

. , .


: RAM, NVRAM,
Flash RAM, ROM, . , , .
, mecm POST (Power On
Self Test), : ,
. ,
.
, (ROM), Cisco IOS. -'
( IOS, ),
Flash RAM TFTP ( IOS
). , IOS -.
, . NVRAM, , IOS,
TFTP.
,
(. 8.3). ,
-,
; , NVRAM ,

118

. 8.3.

NVRAM ,
.

NVRAM,
, , .
, .
^ -

7 ( Cisco). Cisco IOS 9.

. erase
startupcon fig Enter: ,NVRAM. reload

Enter. .

1 19



(
), (. 8.4).
, .
le dt Seu
tp Central |i/ndow
C
r
ICopyright
OS<tB> 2580
Software<G2500-D-U?
Uersio^ll.aO^
RELEASE SOFTWARE <fcl>
<onc>20-flpr-98
1986-1998
by cisco
Systems,
Inc.
Compi
l
e
d
M
by phanguy
Image text-base: 0X0303118:46
F7C, data-base:
C i s c o 2505 <6803B) p r o c e s s o r ( r e v i s i o n K> w i t h 204BK/2048K b y t e s of
P r o c e s s o r board ID 08867026. w i t h hardware r e v i s i o n 00000000
Bridging software.
X.25 s o f t w a r e , Uersion . . .
1 Ethernet/IEEE 8 0 2 . 3 l n t e r f a c e < s >
E t h e r n e t / I E E E 8 0 2 . 3 r e p e a t e r port<s>
2 Serial network interfaced
32K b y t e s of n o n - v o l a t i l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n memory.
8192K b y t e s of p r o c e s s o r board System f l a s h (Read ONLV>

N o t i c e : NURAM i n v a l i d , p o s s i b l y due t o w r i t e e r a s e .
System C o n f i g u r a t i o n D i a l o g
fit any p o i n t you nay e n t e r a q u e s t i o n nark ' ? ' for h e l p .
Use c t r l - c t o abort c o n f i g u r a t i o n d i a l o g a t any prompt.
D e f a u l t s e t t i n g s are in square b r a c k e t s ' [ ] ' .
would you l i k e t o e n t e r the i n i t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n d i a l o g ?

[yes]:

. 8.4.

,
(IP, IPX, 'AppleTalk), , . ,
IP IP- (
).
^*

IP- 11.

2505 Cisco IOS 11.3, IP, IPX, AppleTalk


DECnet. : IP, IPX AppleTalk.


, .
^ (Telnet):

1 2 0

1. Would you l i k e t o e n t e r t h e i n i t i a l
c o n f i g u r a t i o n d i a l o g ? ( ?) Enter ( ) - . . 8.4.
2. , . Enter,
(. 8.5). , Ethernet 0 , Serial . , IP-
.
ie d* e*up ConrldWindow Hefci
A
y pointto yaoouo
e n t e r a quesi ion nai ' ? ' f o r h e l p .
r t c o n f i g u r a t i o n d i a l o g a t any p r o m p t .
Utseanctrl-c
ckets
[yes]:
Woud
l you like to
flny interface listed with OK? e val
"NO"
u does n o t have a v a l i d c o n f i g u r a t i o n
Interface
IP-Address
0) ? Method S t a t u s
Protocol
unassigned
N( u n s e t up
Ethernets
unassigned
H< u n s e t down
Cerlall
unassigned
u n s e t down
down
Seriall
Configuring global parameters:
E n t e r h o s t [ R o u t e r ] :

. 8.5.

3. . (, c i s c o k i d ) Enter.
4. enable s e c r e t .
(Enable), . - Enter.
5. .
, .
, Cisco IOS,
.
, , (, password) Enter.
6. .
, Telnet. . Enter.
7. ,
(simple network management protocol SNMP).
,
Cisco Works.

1 2 1

, SNMP:
Enter.


, . , , IOS, ,
:
1. 2505 , DECnet (DECnet - Digital
Equipment Corporation). ;
, Enter.
2. ( 2505) , AppleTalk. ( ;
AppleTalk 13).
Enter.
3. , IPX ( 12), ( Enter).
4. , IP. (. 8.6). IP
, 10 11, : , , ConfigMaker
TFTP. Enter.
Configuring global parameters:
Enter h o s t [ R o u t e r ] :

ciscokid

The enable s e c r e t i s a one-way c r y p t o g r a p h i c s e c r e t


I n s t e a d of t h e e n a b l e password when i t e x i s t s .

used

Enter e n a b l e s e c r e t : password
The enable password i s used when t h e r e i s no e n a b l e s e c r e t
and when u s i n g o l d e r software and some boot i m a g e s .
Enter enable password:
X No d e f a u l t i n g a l l o w e d
Enter e n a b l e password: C i s c o
Enter v i r t u a l t e r m i n a l password: password
Configure SNMP Network Management? [ y e s ] : no

Configure IPX? [ n o ] :
Configure IP? [ y e s ] :

. 8.6. IP ,

5. , IGRP -
IP. IGRP RIP

1 2 2 ^

11, .
Enter.
6. , RIP.
, Enter.
7. , , .
Enter ( ).


, , , . , IP, IP-. ( , IP-, 10.)
:
1. 2505 Ethernet 0.
, Enter.
2. , IP (0),
( ) Enter.
3. IP- (,
, , IP-). 1 0 . 1 6 . 1 . 1
(. 8.7) Enter.

! Setup Csn
jtd
i tfindow

Configuring interface parameters:


Configuring interface Ethernets:
Configure IP on this interface?"[yesIs
IP address for this interface: IB.16.1.1

. 8.7. Ethernet 0 IP-

. . , IP (. 10).
, IP- ( ) 14 , . 4
Enter.
5. 0 - , , .
, Enter.

/ 1 2 3

6. ,
Serial 0. . Enter.
7. , IP SO. , Enter.
8. SO ( IP,
IP-), IP-. IP- 11. ( Enter).
9. IP- SO 10 . 32 . 1 . 1
Enter.
10. : 4
( 0). Enter ( ).
11. , Serial 1. ( Enter).
12. , IP . (
), Enter.
13. IP- S1: 10.48.1.1 (. 8.8) Enter.
14. : - 4. Enter.

Configuring interface parameters:


Configuring interface EthernetB:
Is this interface in use? Isms]:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]:
IF address for this interface: 10.16.1.1
Number of bits in subnet field [BI: 4
Class netuork is 1B.B.B.B. 4 subnet bits; ask is /12
Enable all hub ports on this interface? [yes]:
Configuring interface SerialB:
Is this interface in use? [yesl:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]:
Configure IP unnumbered on this interface? [no]:
IP address for this interface: IB.32.1.1
Number of bits in subnet field [41:
Class A network is la.B.B.B. 4 subnet bits; nask is /12
Configuring interface Seriall:
Is this interface in use? [yes]:
Configure IP unnumbered on this interface? [no]:
IP address for this interface: IB.48.1.1

. 8.8. IP-


( ). , , yes ()
Enter. NVRAM .

124

Enter, ,
.


, , . : , ,
.
. ( ) .
, ,
. ( , )
, , .
, , , .
, ..
, , -
IOS .
IOS,
, . RXBoot , IOS . (. ).


, .
, ( , ).
. 8.9 ,
: > (). show i n t e r f a c e s .

1 2 5

tie dt Setup,Central Wn
idow Hdp -

E t h e r n e t s i s u p , l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up . u s i n g hub
Hardware i s L a n c e , a d d r e s s i s 0 0 1 0 . 7 . 5 0 c 3 <bia 1 0 . 7 . 5 0 >
I n t e r n e t address I s 10.1.1.1/12
MTU 1500 b y t e s . BW 10080 K b i t , DLV 1008 u s e c . r e l y 2 5 5 / 2 5 5 . l o a d 1/255
E n c a p s u l a t i o n . l o o p b a c k n o t s e t , k e e p * l i v e s e t (10 s e c )
ftRF t y p e : flRPfl, fiRP I i n e o u t 8 4 : 0 0 : 0 0
L a s t i n p u t newer, o u t p u t 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 2 . o u t p u t hang newer
Queueing s t r a t e g y : f i f o
O u t p u t queue 0 / 4 0 , 0 d r o p s ; i n p u t queue 0 / 7 5 , d r o p s
5 minute i n p u t r a t e 0 b i t s / s e c . 0 p a c k e t s / s e c
5 ninute output r a t e 0 b i t s / s e c , 0 packets/sec
0 p a c k e t s i n p u t , 0 b y t e s , 0 no b u f f e r
Received b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s , g i a n t s , t h r o t t l e s
0 i n p u t e r r o r s , 0 CRG, Frame, o v e r r u n . 0 i g n o r e d . 0 a b o r t
0 input packets with dribble condition d e t e c t e d
445 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 47601 b y t e s , u n d e r r u n s
0 output e r r o r s , c o l l i s i o n s , 2 interface r e s e t s
0 babbles, l a t e c o l l i s i o n , deferred
0 l o s t c a r r i e r , 0 no c a r r i e r
0 o u t p u t b u f f e r f a i l u r e s , 0 o u t p u t b u f f e r s swapped o u t
More I

. 8.9.

,
. .
^-

, , 9.


'
, ,
(, show running-conf ig, ). conf ig .
, .
(
).
enable Enter, Enter. . 8.10 show r u n n i n g - c o n f ig.
#.

, ' , .
d i s a b l e Enter.
, l o g o u t
Enter.
( ) .

1 2 6
> d* efup Control Wnidow Hepl
ciscokidttshow
running-config
Building configuration...
Current configuration:
irsion 11.3
i service password-encryption
hostname ciscokid
enable
secret
S $I$93Qy$aH2GMj9n6qUPaJugTEo9wl
able
password
hub
ether
6 1 cisco
link-test
auto-polarity
hub e t h e r 2
link-test
auto-polarity
tber 3
-test
-polarity
hull _ t h e r 0 4
link - t e s t
auto
.arity

arity
arity

arity

. 8.10.


: , ,
, .
.
.

conf ig. ,
:
1. conf i g
Enter.
2. , : ,
- , Enter.
3. , h o s t - n a m e [name],
[ name ] .
Enter. (. 8.11).

1 2 7

PopeyeRconFi
fe d* Setupcr Wn
idow Hdp
Configuring
from terminal,
nemory,
or network
Enter
configuration
connands,
one per
line. En[terminal]?
d with CNTL/Z.
Popeyc<config>tthostnane
Uinpyhamburger
Uimpy<config>4tenable
secret
Uimpy<conFig>aiine c o n s o l e
Uijnpy<config-line>login

. 8.11.

4. ( ) e n a b l e s e c r e t [ p a s s w o r d ] , [ p a s s w o r d ] -
. Enter. hamb u r g e r (. . 8.11).
5. . , ,
.
, l i n e c o n s o l e 0 Enter.
6. l o g i n Enter.
7. p a s s w o r d [ p a s s w o r d ] , [ p a s s w o r d ]
, Enter.
c i s c o (. . 8.11).
i
8. , Ctrl+Z.
, .
( r u n n i n g - c o n f i g ) , , , ( s t a r t u p - c o n f i g u r a t i o n ) NVRAM,
. copy r u n n i n g - c o n f i g s t a r t u p - c o n f i g Enter.
.


, . :
1. , , .
Ctrl+Break.
2. . e / s 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Enter. .
3. / 0 2 1 4 2 ( , NVRAM) Enter. i

128

4.
5.
6.
7.

Enter. , . No Enter.
enable . copy s t a r t u p - c o n f i g running-conf i g Enter. .
on fig. , enable s e c r e t [new password], [new
password] - .
conf i g - r e g i s t e r Ox, (, 2). Enter.
end Enter, . . , 1.


.
Cisco IOS . , , .
, Telnet
(. 11, Telnet). ,
1 ine vty 0 4 Enter.
login

Enter. password, [password],
[password]
. Ctrl+Z.

Cisco IOS. ,

Cisco Cisco IOS . - . . .

Cisco I OS
9

Cisco IOS (Internetworking


Operating System) . IOS, , , .
- .
, IP IPX/SPX.
, RIP IGRP.
, . IOS:

. . , IP, Ethernet IP- ;

;
,
. NVRAM
. . TFTP
(. 17);

IOS, , .

5-4631

130

CISCO IOS

,
. Cisco IOS . Cisco
IOS, -: , IOS 11.3
. ,
, .
Cisco (command-line
interface - CLI),
. Telnet, .
- IOS CLI. , ,
.
DOS UNIX,
CLI .
, . ,
.
(RIP, IGRP) 8 ( ). 1.


8
: , . :

;
,

;
, .
^>-

8 ( ).

Exec
Cisco IOS
Exec.

1 3 1

;
: , , .
, show i n t e r f a c e E t h e r n e t 0 Ethernet.
Enter; . . 9.1 2505
IOS 11.2.

s*how.*
Seiup Coethernet
nrtol Wnidow8
interface
EthernetB
isisup,
protocolisis00u
p ,b3usi
H
a
r
d
w
a
r
e
L
anline
ce, address
a.5n0gh3hub<bia8 0010.7b3a.50b3>
Internet
/191B.7D
H
IU 1580address
bytes, isB
W130.11
000.0604.1Kbit,
LV 1088 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255
E n c a p s u l a t i o n ARPfl, l o o p b a c k n o t s e t . l i v e s e t <1B s e c )
fiRP t y p e : , RRP T i n e o u t 8 4 : 0 0 : 0 0
Last i n p u t n e v e r , output 8 0 : 0 0 : 0 4 , output hang never
Las'
'
Queue ing s t r a t e g y : f i f o
Output queue 0 / 4 8 , 8 d r
S n i n tu t e i n pt u t r a t e 8 b i t s / s e c , p a c k e t s / s e c
5 ninute output rate b i t s / s e c , packets/sec
0 p a c k e t s i n p u t . b y t e s , no b u f f e r
Received 8 b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s . 0 g i a n t s , t h r o t t l e s
0 i n p u t e r r o r s , CRC, f r a m e , 0 o v e r r u n , i g n o r e d , a b o r t
8 input: p a c k e t s w i t h d r i b b l e c o n d i t i o n d e t e c t e d
6 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 848 b y t e s , u n d e r r u n s
output e r r o r s , c o l l i s i o n s , 3 interface r e s e t s
babbles, 8 l a t e c o l l i s i o n . deferred
l o s t c a r r i e r , no c a r r i e r
o u t p u t b u f f e r f a i l u r e s , o u t p u t b u f f e r s swapped o u t
pope y e t

put queue 0/48, 8 drops; input queue 8/75, 8 drops

. 9.1. show interface

Ethernet 0


, , Exec. 11-13 15.


Exec ,
, :
, - . , ,
(, Serial I). He ,
. :
1. conf i g
Enter.
2. , .
- . Enter.

132

CISCO IOS

Fie cW Setup Centrol Wnidow Hdp


popeyeltconf iff
p
ife)ttencapsulation
ppp
pooppeeyyeeC
<ccoonnffiggi
-if>K
nd
popeyeK
. 9.2.

3. , . Serial 1 i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 1 (. 9.2).
4. Enter <conf i g - i f >#.
, ,
Serial 1.
5. , . , ,
, e n c a p s u l a t i o n ppp.
6. ,
Serial 1. , end Ctrl+Z, .
, , .
- , , . ; ,
(, hostname, ). :
, , , ()
. hostname e n a b l e
secret;
, .
, , . ,
, Serial 0, i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0;
,
. , IP-, IP Address, IP- .
, IP, IPX AppleTalk.

BIOS 1 3 3

. - . /
Ethernet Ethernet
. Ethernet
, ,
, HDLC. 10 15.

IOS
IOS . , . ? Enter. . 9.3 ,
.
,, ,
. , show.
show ( , )
?, ( ), Enter. (. 9.4).
(. . 9.4).
etup CfirtcJ

>?
commands:
access-enable
lear
johnect
disable
disconnect
mable
xit

login
logout

info

mi
in
how
lip
_ystat
telnet
ilnal
eroute
el
there

. Hep
l
s-List entry
Create a temporary Ac
Reset functions
Open a terminal connection
nnection
Turn off privileged
commands
d
Disconnect an existing network connection
Turn on privileged commands
Exit from the EXEC
Description of the interactive help system
Lock the terminal
Log in as a particular user
Exit from the EXEC
Bequest neighbor and version information fr i a m u l t i c a s t
router
Show statistics after multiple multicast traceroutes
Trace reverse multicast path from destination to sou
tion
Open a X.Z9 PflD c o n n e c t i o n
Send echo messages
S t a r t IETF P o i n t - t o - P o i n t P r o t o c o l <PPP>
Jtesume an a c t i v e n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i o n
Open an r l o g i n c o n n e c t i o n
Show r u n n i n g s y s t e n i n f o r m a t i o n
S t a r t S e r i a l - l i n e I P <SLIP)
Display information about t e r m i n a l l i n e s
Open a t e l n e t c o n n e c t i o n
Sot t e r m i n a l l i n e p a r a m e t e r s
Trace r o u t e t o d e s t i n a t i o n
Open a t u n n e l c o n n e c t i o n
List active connections
S e t X.3 p a r a m e t e r s on PflD

. 9.. 1

134

CISCO IOS

popeye>show
clock
dialer
basts
hub
location
1*0 de neap
PPP

Display the system clock


IPuhdomai
n-name,
lookup
style,
Dialer
parameters
and
statistics
H
status
and
conf
icjurat
ion nan.
Display
system
location
Show Modthe
em Capabilities
database

;erminal
raff
ic-shape
sers
ersion
popeye>show

vers and host table

sSnhm
psstatistics
ow
tacacs*
si
Display
terminal
paraneto:
traffic
rate
shapingifiguration
configuration
Display
information
teminal
Systen hardware and about
software
statusline.

. 9.4.

Enter . , v e r s i o n
(. 9.5).
,
. '
: ?, - ? ( ).
. 9.6 . : ,
( ).

1 d
modeneap
P
PP
rsessions
m
on
terminal
traffic-shape
users
version

S
Hoden Capabilities
database
PhPoPw parameters
and statistics
t
t
t
i
tics
about Telnet
sInfo
nmp _

Shows
Display
configuration
parameters
traffic terminal
rate
shaping
configuration
Display
information
about
terminal
System hardware
and software
status lines

tn) 2500 Software <C2S00-D-L>, Uersion 11.2(9). RELEASE SOFTWARE (fcl)


led Hon 22-Sep-97 21:41 by ckralik
Image text-base: 0X0302B1C4. data-base: 0x80001000
i
Bootstrap,
Uersion ll.B(lBc), SOFTWARE
B o o t s t r a p Software CIGS-BOOT-R>. Uersion 1 1 . 0 < 1 0 c > , RELEASE SOFT

WARE ( f c l )
pope ye uptime i s 6 h o u r s , 5 minutes
System r e s t a r t e d by poweron
System image f i l e i s "flash:8B114ie?.bin",
booted v i a f l a s h
sco 2505 ( 6 8 0 3 0 ) p r o c e s s o r ( r e v i s i o n K> w i t h 2O48K/2048K b y t e s of
o c e s s o r board ID 08867835, w i t h hardware r e v i s i o n 00000000
idging software.
X.2S s o f t w a r e , Uersion 2 . 0 . NET2, BFE and GOSIP c o m p l i a n t .
1 Ethernet/IEEE 8 0 2 . 3 i n t e r f a c e d )
8 Ethernet/IEEE 8 0 2 . 3 r e p e a t e r p o r t < s )
2 S e r i a l network i n t e r f a c e s )

memory,

. 9.5. :
1 - ; 2 - ; 3 -

BIOS

135

Fle
i <* Seu
tp Cono
jl l Wmdow Hepl
popeye?
Exec commands:
access-enable
access-template
bfe
clear
clack
configure
connect
copy
debug
disable
disconnect
erase
exit
help
lock
login
logout
mrinfo
mstat
mtrace
-connection
no
pad
ping
ppp
reload
resume
.
rlogin
rsh
send
setup
show
slip

Create a temporary Access-List e n t r y


Create a temporary Access-List e n t r y
F o r n a n u a l emergency modes s e t t i n g
Reset f u n c t i o n s
Manage t h e s y s t e m c l o c k
E n t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n node
Open a t e r m i n a l c o n n e c t i o n
Copy c o n f i g u r a t i o n o r image d a t a
Debugging f u n c t i o n s ( s e e a l s o ' u n d e b u g ' >
Turn off p r i v i l e g e d commands
Disconnect an e x i s t i n g network connection

' .

E r a s e f l a s h o r c o n f i g u r a t i o n memory
E x i t from t h e EXEC
D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n t e r a c t i v e h e l p s y s t e m
Lock t h e t e r m i n a l
Log in a s a p a r t i c u l a r u s e r
E x i t from t h e EXEC
R e q u e s t n e i g h b o r a n d v e r s i o n i n f o r m a t i o n from a m u l t i c a s t
router
Show s t a t i s t i c s a f t e r m u l t i p l e m u l t i c a s t t r a c e r o u t e s
T r a c e r e v e r s e m u l t i c a s t p a t h from d e s t i n a t i o n t o s o u r c e
Name an e x i s t i n g n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i o n
Disable debugging f u n c t i o n s
Open a X.29 PAD c o n n e c t i o n
Send echo messages
S t a r t IETP P o i n t - t o - P o i n t P r o t o c o l <PPP>
H a l t and perform a c o l d r e s t a r t
Resume an a c t i v e n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i o n
Open, an r l o g i n c o n n e c t i o n
E x e c u t e a remote command
Send a message t o o t h e r t t y l i n e s
Run t h e SETUP command f a c i l i t y
Show r u n n i n g s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i o n
S t a r t S e r i a l - l i n e IP <SLIP>

. 9.6. ,

.
. ?,
(. 9.7)
.
dt Seu
tp Canrtat W
nidow &dp

popeye8cnfig
C o n f i g u r i n g from t e r m i n a l , memory, o r n e t w o r k [ t e r m i n a l ] ?
E n t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n commands, one p e r l i n e .
E n d w i t h CNTL/Z.
popeyefconfig)Bint s i
popeye<config-if)t?
I n t e r f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n commands:
accessexpression
Build a bridge boolean access expression
appletalk
A p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e subcommands
arp
S e t arp type <arpa, probe, snap) or timeout
autodetect
A u t o d e t e c t E n c a p s u l a t i o n s on S e r i a l i n t e r f a c i
backup
Modify d i a l - b a c k u p parameters
bandwidth
S e t bandwidth i n f o m a t i o n a l parameter
faridge~group
Transparent bridging interface parameters
carrier-delay
Specify delay for interface transitions
cdp
CDP i n t e r f a c e s u b c o m m a n d s
clock
Configure s e r i a l interface c l o c k
compress
-
Set s e r i a l interface f o r compression
ustorn-queue-list
Assign a custom queue l i s t t o an i n t e r f a c e
dce-terminal-timing-enable
Enable DCE t e r m i n a l t i m i n g
decnet
I n t e r f a c e DECnet c o n f i g commands
default
S e t a command t o i t s d e f a u l t s
delay
Specify i n t e r f a c e throughput delay
description
Interface specific description
dialer
Dial-on-demand r o u t i n g <DDR> commands
dialer-group
Assign i n t e r f a c e t o d i a l e r - l i s t
down-when-looped
P o r c e l o o p e d s e r i a l i n t e r f a c e down
dxi
-DXI c o n f i g u r a t i o n commands
encapsulation
S e t e n c a p s u l a t i o n t y p e f o r an i n t e r f a c e
exit

E x i e from i n t e r f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n mode
fair-queue
Enable F a i r Queuing on an I n t e r f a c e
full-duplex
C o n f i g u r e f u l l - d u p l e x o p e r a t i o n a l mode
half-duplex
C o n f i g u r e h a l f - d u p l e x and r e l a t e d commands
help
D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i n t e r a c t i v e h e l p s y s t e m
hold-queue
S e t h o l d queue d e p t h
idle-character
Set i d l e c h a r a c t e r type
ignore-ded
i g n o r e ded
invert-txc
Invert transmit clock
ip
,
I n t e r f a c e I n t e r n e t P r o t o c o l c o n f i g commands
ipx
NovellXIPX I n t e r f a c e subcommands
keepalive
Enable k e e p a l i v e
More

. 9.7.

136

CISCO IOS

,
More (). , Enter,
. ,
Esc.

. show.
, .
, . ,
.
, . , . , .

show interfaces
show i n t e r f a c e s Enter. ( . 9.8 2505 Ethernet Serial).
, .
(-) IP- Ethernet 0, ( ) ,
, . , Ethernet ( Ethernet, , CSMA/CD) ( ).
, .
, Backspace,
Ctrl+A, - Ctrl+E.

1 3 7

lie * $Hup Cantroi &nidow

popeyeHshow interfaces
15

hutp

fttiP -.~m f i ^ u t 4:7 " " * "


g newer
L a s t i n p u t : 0 : 3 0 , o u t p u t B0:BB:B7. o u t ppu t hang
L a s t c l e a r i n g of "show i n t e r f a c e " i
nters never
Queueing i
Kit p u t i
i ninuti
d r o p s ; i n p u t queue 0 / 7 S , d r o p s
87 !
y t e s , 8 no
Received 282 b r d c a s t a , 8 r u n t s , 0 g i a n t s , 8 t h r o t t l e s
i n p u t e r r o r s . i CRC. f r a m e , o v e r r u n , 0 i g n o r e d . a b o r t
8 i n p u_._
t packets
p a c k e t s with
i t h dribble
d r i b b l e condition
c o n d i t i o n dete
detected
7051 packets output. 663296 bytes, underr
output errors. collisions, 3 interface resets
babbles, late collision, deferred
lost carrier, no carrier
output buffer failures, output buffers swapped out
SerialB is up. line protocol is up
Hardware is HD6457B
Internet address isCQ3.18.32 . 1 >
15 WE K b i t . 2 US ec. rely 255/255. load 1/255

Open: IPCP. CDP


L a s t i n p u t 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 6 , o u t p u t 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 4 , o u t p u t hang newer
L a s t 1 9 of i n t e r f a c e
counters never
I n p u t q u e u e : 0/75/0 < s i z e / n a x / d r o p s > ; T o t a l o u t p u t d r o p s :
Queue ing s t r a t e g y : w e i g h t e d f a i r
O u t p u t q u e u e : 0/64/ ( s i z e / t h r e s h o l d / d r o p s )
Conversations
0/2 < a c t i v e / H a x a c t i v e )
Reserved C o n v e r s a t i o n s 0/0 < a l l o c a t e d / n a x a l l o c a t e d )
5 Piinute i n p u t r a t e 9 b i t s / s e c . 8 p a c k e t s / s e c
5 Hinute output r a t e b i t s / s e c , packets/sec
16875 p a c k e t s i n p u t . 586464 b y t e s , 8 no b u f f e r
Received b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s , g i a n t s , t h r o t t l e s

. 9.8. show interfaces



: 1 - Ethernet (0010.7.50
2 - IP- Ethernet (130.10.64.1/19); 3 - Ethernet (ARPAj;
4 - IP- Serial (130.10.32.1/19); 5 - Serial (PPP).

show i n t e r f a c e s . ,
Serial 0 IP- (,
).
. 2505 ,
Serial 1 (
Enter).
, show i n t e r f a c e s , , - , .


show i n t e r f a c e E t h e r n e t 0 Enter. , Ethernet 0.
show . . 9.1 , ( ).

1 3 8 CISCO IOS
9.1. show
show clock
show version
show p r o t o c o l s
show processes
show h i s t o r y
show hub


IOS



2505

,
.
~^-

show IP 11 13, IPX - 12.

. , show sh, interface


Ethernet
0
int . , show interface
Ethernet
0 sh int E0.
. , , , .


, , (. ). (,
).
, , :
1. e n a b l e Enter.
2. .
3. c l o c k s e t , , , . :
c l o c k s e t 2 1 : 43 : 05 13 J u n e 1999 (. 9.9).
4. Enter.
5. show c l o c k
Enter.
. , , show c d p n e i g h b o r s ,

1 3 9

p
o
yeettshIlock
ti closck
e t 21
p
oppeeyBe
21:43:12.323
U
TC Sun Jun 13 1999
pope yet

. 9.9. : 1 - clock

set

(.
).


. - , . NVRAM,
.

NVRAM show .
.
, :
1. e n a b l e Enter.
2. .
3. sHow running-conf i g Enter ( . 9.10 ).
4. Enter ( ) .
,
.
, (
, , ). running-conf i g , :
.
NVRAM,
.
NVRAM ( ) NVRAM .

1 4 O CISCO IOS

fe Setup Control Wnidow Hefc

interface Ethernet
ip address 1.10.4.1 255.255.224.0
interface SerialB
ip address 130.IB.32.1 255.255.224.
e n c a p s u l a t i o n ppp
b a n d w i d t h 2
l a c k r a t e 2008008
t
interface Seriall
d e s c r i p t i o n c o n n e c t e d t o Cisco25B5_l
no i p a d d r e s s
e n c a p s u l a t i o n ppp

no
ip classless
sniupserver
community public IK
line
con 8 0 0
exec-timeout
password 7, 09541012188
login
l i n e aux 0
lint
passw
login

end

. 9.10. show running-config


, copy r u n n i n g - c o n f i g
s t a r t up- on f i g Enter. , Building
configuration ( ). , [].
show s t a r t u p - c o n f ig, show r u n n i n g - c o n f i g (. . 9.10). ,
NVRAM, .
-, IOS. - , .

-
, show
f l a s h Enter (. 9.11). IOS
.
7' 4>
. , Enter.

1 4 1

File gtSt Setup Control Wn


idow Hefe
popeyettshow flash
System flash directory:
File Length Hane/status
1 5334792 80114109.bin
[5334656 bytes used. 3053752 available. 8388608 total]
8192K bytes of processor board Systen flash (Read ONLV>
popeye

. 9.11. show flash IOS


-
,
di sabl e: .

,
show debug.
TFTP,
NVRAM (. 17).


,
, - . Cisco (cisco discovery protocol - CDP),
. CDP Cisco, CDP, . ( IOS 10.3
CDP .)

CDP
* CDP,
show cdp i n t e r f a c e , .

CDP
, show
cdp i n t e r f a c e Enter. . 9.12

142

CISCO IOS

Window Hdp "


popeyeftshow dp i n t e r f a c e
E t h e r n e t s i s u p , l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up
E n c a p s u l a t i o n flRPfl
S e n d i n g CDP p a c k e t s e v e r y 60 s e c o n d s
HoldtiPie i s 180 s e c o n d s
S e r i a l B i s u p . l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up
E n c a p s u l a t i o n FPP
S e n d i n g CDP p a c k e t s e v e r y 68 s e c o n d s
H a l d t i M i s 180 s e c o n d s
SerialB.l is deleted, line protocol is
E n c a p s u l a t i o n PPP
S e n d i n g CDP p a c k e t s e v e r y 60 s e c o n d s
H o l d t i n e i s 180 s e c o n d s
S e r i a l l i s down, l i n e p r o t o c o l i s down
E n c a p s u l a t i o n PPP
S a n d i n g CDP p a c k e t s e v e r y 60 s e c o n d s
H o l d t i n e i s 180 s e c o n d s
popeye* -
popeyeRshow cdp i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l
S e r i a l B i s u p . l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up
E n c a p s u l a t i o n PPP
S e n d i n g CDP p a c k e t s e v e r y 68 s e c o n d s
H o l d t i n e i s 188 s e c o n d s
pope ye

. 9.12. show cdp interface ,


CDP

: CDP .
CDP . , . 9.12, show cdp i n t e r f a c e
sO, Serial 0. , CDP CDP.
CDP 60 .
,
, .
180 , .
CDP , . -
, .
- erase . IOS
TFTP (. 17).
\

- CDP , :
1. , conf i g t e r m i n a l
( ).
2. , CDP (, i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0). Enter <conf i g - i f >#, .
3. cdp enable.

1 4 3

4. , Ctrl+Z (. 9.13).
CDP :
,
.

, cdp holdtime
[seconds],
[seconds]
.

fe Id. SfituQ Central Wnidow gdp


peyeBconf
ig terminal
tor configuration
commserialB
ands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Kpopeye<config>tinterface
popeyeCcDnfi
g-iF>Rcdp enable
popey<:<config-if~Z
Id22h:
popeyeixSVS-5-C0HFIG_I: Configured from console by console
. 9.13. CDP '



CDP , .


, showcdp
neighbors Enter. . 9.14 2505, , . . 9.2 .
<*. Seu
tp Central V^ndow - Hec
f
popeyeBsh cdp neighbor

C a p a b i l i t y Codes: R - Router, T - Trans B r i d g e , - Source Route Bridge


S - S w i t c h . H - H o s t . I - ICMP, r - Repeater
Device ID
olive
pope

. 9.14. show cdp neighbors


144

CISCO IOS

9.2. show

Device ID

Olive

Local Interface

Serial


Capability

R (

(R), (), (S)


Platform
Port ID

Cisco

2505 (
)

Serial

, , , , show dp neighbors, .
show cdp neighbors d e t a i l s , . IP- IOS, .

ping
p i n g (Packet
InterNet Groper),
, .
, IP, IPX
AppleTalk, (. 18).
, .
, , . .


, p i n g
fip a d d r e s s ] , [ i p a d d r e s s ] IP-
Olive, .
: p i n g 130.10.32.2.
. 9.15: 100% . , 0%.

Telnet. Telnet
( 11).

1 4 5

. fie d* Seu
tp ' Conrtol fcjratow
pope yelp in? 130.10.32.2
T
y
p
e
escape
uenece
S
ending 5, 108seqbyt
!!t!!
S u c c e s s r a t e i s 1 p e r c e n t <5/5>. r o u n d - t r i p
pope y e t

nin/aug/nax - 4 / 4 / 4 HS .

. 9.15. ping

no cdp
run, . CDP
, , no cdp enable. CDP
cdp run ( ).

Cisco IOS .
, - , , .
banner
motd [end c h a r a c t e r ] , [end c h a r a c t e r ] , . ,
#, $ , .
:
1. , conf i g t e r m i n a l
( ).
2. $. banner motd $ Enter.
3. . Enter
,
(. 9.16).
4. , ( $) Enter. .
5. Ctrl+Z .
Enter,
. ,

146

CISCO IOS

'ile * Seu
tp Control Wnidow

popeyeKconfig terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
popcye<conf igJltbannei* notd $
Enter TEXT message. End with the character '$'.

NON-AUTHEO
ON
EL LOG OFF AND
OR
TIZE
VD
OIRPER
SS
l'N
flCN
H
popeye<config>t
. 9.16. .

q u i t .
Enter, ,
(. 9.17). , .

Setup Control ^mdow {Hepl

popcy* con0 is now available

Press RETURN to get started.

UELCOHE TO THE POPEVE ROUTER!!!


"1 WHAT I AM"
NON-AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL LOG OFF AND
EAT VOUR SPINACH
User Access Uerification

. 9.17.

, Cisco IOS ( 1). , , , ,


.
^ -

8 (
).

TCP/IP

TCP/IP - . , Internet. (network operating


systems - NOS), Windows NT 4.0 Server, Windows 2000 Server Novell
NetWare 5.0, TCP/IP . '
2 .
TCP/IP WAN,
,
. , TCP/IP Internet, ,

, .
, Internet.
Cisco Telnet ( TCP/IP)
, - TFTP - Cisco
IOS. TCP/IP
, , .
^

. 17. TCP/IP 2, TCP/IP.

TCP/IP OSI
TCP/IP 70- XX - , OSI.
TCP/IP OSI,
( ), IP ARP,

TCP/IP OSI

/149

OSI. TCP/IP, (Department of Defense - DOD) - DOD, DARPA, , TCP/IP.


- ( , OSI). . 10.1 DOD OSI.
OSI

DOD TCP/IP

. 10.1. DOD OSI

DOD ,
TCP/IP ( OSI). , ,
, . . 10.2 TCP/IP DOD.
^-

OSI 2.


, .

150

TCP/IP

TCP/IP (application layer)1 , , ,


. :
(file transfer protocol - FTP) . FTP ( FTP Internet
) , , Web-;
(trivial file transfer protocol - TFTP),
FTP, ( TFTP). TFTP
Cisco IOS ( 17);
(simple mail transport protocol - SMTP)
. Internet;
(simple network management protocol SNMP) . - ( , ), , .
. Cisco, CiscoWorks, SNMP
;
(Telnet) , .
. 11 , Telnet .

(host-to-host layer)
-.
1

- OSI,
DOD. - . . .
DOD (transport layer)
OSI. - . . .

TCP/IP OSI 1 5 1


. - TCP UDP:
(transport control protocol - TCP) , (virtual circuit) - -. TCP
, ,
. , ,
;
(user datagram protocol - UDP) ,
,
( TCP).
. -
. UDP / TCP, TFTP SNMP .


(internet layer), (network)
OSI, , . ,
Internet;. IP; IP, . (, IP) (-) .
:
Internet (Internet Protocol - IP)
(),
IP- IP- . IP -
. . -
;
(Address Resolution Protocol - ARP).
IP , IP - - (
, Telnet

1 5 2 TCP/IP

SMTP). , IP (-)
-, (, Ethernet). ARP IP -. IP - ;
Internet (Internet Control Message
Protocol - ICMP). , , . ,
, ,
. , ICMP, ARP, IP.
IP IP, IP- , IP- ( IP), ,
. MAC ( , Ethernet Token Ring)
MAC, CRC. DOD MAC (network access
layer), ,
(data link layer) OSI. IP- , , .

TCP/IP, IP (RFC 791), RFC (Request For Comments). Internet. RFC (http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hyper-text/information/
rfc.html) RFC (hftp://www.csl.sony.co.jp/rfc/l. Internet RFC

ping traceroute

ICMP. ping 9 ( IOS ), traceroute
18 (
).

IP 1 5 3
IP .


(network access layer) ,

, , . ,
, ( ) (,
) . OSI/
, Ethernet, Token Ring FDDI. 2 IEEE, ,
.
MAC ( DOD OSI),
.
. Ethernet, Token Ring
FDDI MAC,
ROM ( MAC).
. 10.2 , OSI DOD,
DOD, TCP/IP.
.
IP
MAC, ? , IP.
^>

1 ( ).
IEEE 2 ( TCP/IP).

IP
IP 32
( - ).
IP - 200.1.25.7 ( ). IP , .

154

TCP/IP
OSI

DOD

TCP/IP

FTP
TFTP
SMTP
SNP
VTELNET/

,
-:
Ethernet, Token Ring,
FDDI

. 10.2. DOD TCP/IP 05/

IP :
: 200.1.25.7;
: 11001000 00000001 00011001 00000111;
: 8 1 19 7.
IP - , : ,
, .
IP . , ,
, , .
, .
IP , IP ,
, - , -
. , ,
, , (
- -).
, , , , .
IP -

IP 1 5 5

-. : ,
, , , ,
. , .
IP , , , ,
Internet - .
IP
(
-). 1
- , . , .
.

IP ,
, - . IP, , IP.

IP
IP , :
16
. IP , ,
- ( ), 127 . ARPAnet (( Internet) -
;
, . 16384 , 65000 ;
; 2
. 254 .
. - . . .

156

TCP/IP


IP . , IP- , 10.5.25.8,
. , 10. IP- - 5.25.8 - 1.
, ,
( ).
, . , , 16 .
(200.44.26.3)
. IP (200.44.26)
. ,
(
), , , (
).
IP .
Internet-
Internet. : http://
www.arin.net. ,
. www.internic.net (, Microsoff.com Habraken.net).

. 10.1 , 126, 128. 127?


, , ,
.

. 10.3 IP , , .
. 10.1 IP-
;
IP.
1

: , , , . - . , .

IP 1 5 7

. W.3. IP-

10.1. IP

1-126
128-191
192-223

>

oKi
127

16777214 .

16384

65534

130.13.44.52

2097152

254

200.15.23.8

10.15.121.5

IP: D

,
Internet.
D Microsoft NetShow, .
,
Internet.


IP-, 200.1.25.7 ( ,
. 10.1), 32 , 8 (

1 5 8 TCP/IP

) . IP- 200.1.25.7 32 : 11001000


00000001 00011001 00000111.
, , , . , IP
, 1 0.
, ,
(, ). IP , IP ( ):
0;
1, 0;
1, 0.
. 10.4 , . , IP.

: 01100011

,
0

: 10110001

1,
0

: 11000111

. 10.4. IP-

Windows . ( => => ). .


IP .
Bin ( ) : 1111110. ,
0, , , : 01111110.
Bin, , Dec.

IP 1 5 9


IP, , IP- .
, IP-
, - .
. 10.2 . . IP .


10.2.

255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0

255.255.255.0

1 , 128 .
0,
. 128 (
. 10.1).

1, 0.
, 255, - 0. . 10.5 .
IP , .
: IP
. IP, . . 10.3
.
10.3.
11
1

. . 10.6 IP-
.

160

TCP/IP


255.255.0.0
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

. 10.5. ,
IP-

255.255.0.0

11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

IP- 180.20.5.9
180.20 -

10110100 00010100 00000101 00001001


10110100 00010100 00000000 00000000

. 10.6. IP-

IP- . ( 180.20.0.0).


IP- , . . ,
, .
:
, , ,
.
, (, ), . , , IP- .
5.

IP-
IP- . .

IP- , 1 6 1

, 1 ( 0
). . 10.4 , ,
1 .
10.4.

1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

0
1
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

128
192
224
240
248
252
254
255

IP 128, - 64. , ( 1, - 2) - .
. 10.4
. 1, 255.
, IP-, . ,
, 1 , 3 ( 1 + 2).
. 10.4, , , : , 255 , IP, ?
, ,
, .
, , ,
- .
>

IP, , . , - , .
6 - 4631

1 6 2 TCP/IP

01110001 . 10.7. : 64 + 32 +
+ 16 + 1 = 113. , , -
, 1.



. .
1 126. , 10.0.0.0.
.
,
, . 24 , 224 - 2 = 16777214 ( ,
, , 3 , 24 ; 2).
2
(224), . , 1, , .
, . , , IP-
10.0.0.0, . IP .
IP ,
.
,
.

. 10.7 , . ,
2 ,
,
2.
, . , , ,
(LAN), (WAN). .
, 30 (

IP- 1 6 3

10.0.0.0
00001010 00000000 00000000 00000000



3 (24 )
224-2=16777214

. 10.7. ,

, 30 ,
- ,
Ethernet - ).
. 10.8 , . (LAN)

-LAN ( 3 ) "

LAN ( 4)

. 10.8. , , L
WAN,

164

TCP/IP

. , ,
.
, ( ).
, ,
. , , - , .
, ( LAN WAN), . ,
, IP-. , ,
, , .


30 . - 10.0.0.0 -
( ) ( ). ? , , ( , ).
, , ( 10.0.0.0, ).
, (
, ).
, IP-
( 30 IP-), . , , ,
.
, 30 .
(, 1, - 2 ..), 30 , 31. 31,
30? , 0, ,
. ,

IP- / 1 6 5

: 1. . 10.9 ,
30 .
, 30 ,
. , .
(128, 64, 32, 16 8)
. : 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 = 248.
: 255.0.0.0.
( ). : 255,248.0.0.
,
30 . ,
(
, ),
IP-, 30 .
, ,
,
. , 26 , 30, . , , , , 26 .

10.0.0.0
00001010 0OO00OQ0 00000000 00000000



128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
30
5
| 1+2 + 4 + 8 + 16-1=30 |

. 10.9.

166

TCP/IP

IP-
.
, . . IP- .
: 128, 64, 32, 16 8.
,
, - 8. 1, IP- 30 .
, 30 IP- 10.8.0.1. 8 - IP. ,
. IP,
8, .
, 8
: 16. , 10.16.0.1. 8 , 30 .
0, - 1? 0 ( 0) 255 (
1), IP . ?
, , 1 0. ,
0, , ( ), , , .
IP- ,
, . , 10.8.0.1
10.16.0.1 ( ).
. 10.5 10
30, . 20
(8) ( ).
. . . . .

IP- 1 6 7
W.5. IP- 10 30

<:

10.8.0.1
10.16.0.1
10.24.0.1
10.32.0.1
10.40.0.1
10.48.0.1
10.56.0.1
10.64.0.1
10.72.0.1
10.80.0.1

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

10.15.255.254
10.23.255.254
10.31.255.254
10.39.255.254
10.47.255.254
10.55.255.254
10.63.255.254
10.71.255.254
10.79.255.254
10.87.255.254

.. 5J.':'.':,' :-,.
'

,
IP. , , ,
, . IP-, IP , ,
.
.
24 . 30
. , IP- 19 .
, , 2 19 , 2. 524286
IP. , , , , .
.
/~~~
:
~
:
:
;

254 ? , IP, (
), (
255).
(255),
254.

168

TCP/IP

IP,
, . , (
) 16777214 . 30 , 524286 IP,
524286 30 = 15728580 . ,
1048634 .



.
, . .


, ,
(16 ) . , 65534 . - 255.255.0.0.
,
180.10.0.0. . ,
. . 10.10 ,
- 255.255.224.0:
IP-
, . 32.
180.10.32.1 ( 180.10.32.0 ).
, 32 (64).
- 180.10.64.1. . 10.6
, .
10.6. IP-
-

180.10.32.1

180.10.64.1

180.10.96.1

4 -
5
6

180.10.128.1
180.10.160.1
180.10.192.1


180.10.63.254
m | l 80.10.95.254
180.10.127.254
180.10.159.254
180.10.191.254
180:10.223.254

169

255.255.0.0
180.10.0.0


128 64 32)16 8 4 2 1
6
3
1+2 + 4 - 1 = 6


,


128 + 64 + 32 = 224

255.255.224.0
. 10.10.

,
13 , 2 13 - 2 =- 8190 IP.


, , .
(254 IP-), ,
.
. 200.10.44.0. (),
.
.
, 12(1 + 2 - 1 =
= 2 ). (
) . , 128 64, 192, 255.255.255.192.
. 10.11 , ,

.

170

TCP/IP
255.255.255.0
200.10.44.0


128 64)32 16 8 4 2 1
2
2
+ 2 -1 = 2 ]


,

128 + 6 4 = 192

255.255.225.192
. 10.11.

IP-, .
,
, 64. 64 . , , - 200.10.44.64. , .
, IP- - 200.10.44.64.
IP-, , 200.10.44.65. 200.10.44.128
( + ) : '
. , , 200.10.44.129.
. 10.7 ,
, .
10.7. IP-

200.10.44.64

200.10.44.65

200.10.44.126

200.10.44.127

200.10.44.128

200.10.44.129

200.10.44.190

200.10.44.191

1 7 1

(Net ID) ISP (, 200.10.44.0),


Net ID . , , . ,
. , , InterNIC ISP, - , , , -
.

IP- :
2 , , ,
6
2. : 2 - 2 = 62.
, 62 2 = I24 IP-.

, IP : ,
, - 1. , ,
200.10.44.642, 200.10.44.1
200.10.44.633. ,
.



( - 200.10.44.2
200.10.44.62; 200.10.44.1 , 200.10.44.63 -
). 0, .
, IP
: ip s u b n e t - z e r o
Enter ( , ).
0, - 0 1 - .
255.255.255.128 ( ). IP :
200.10.44.1-200.10.44.126 (200.10.44.127
1
2
3

. - . , .
200.10.44.191. - . . .
200.10.44.192 200.10.44.254. -. . .

172

TCP/IP

) 0 200.10.44.129-200.10.44.254 (200.10.44.128 , 200.10.44.255 - ) 1.


0 ( ), . 10.8 IP, ,
0. IP- ,
.
: 0, , ,
.
10.8. IP-
0

255.255.255.192

255.255.255.224

...1

...126

...127

...129

...254

...255

...1

...62

...63

...65

...126

...127

...129

...190

...191

...193

...254

...255

...1

...30
...62
...94
...126
...158
...190
...222
...254

...31
...63
...95
... 127
...159
...191
...223
...255

...

...65
...97
...129
... 1 61

...193
...225



, Internet, .
, , . .
. 10.9 ,
(
0). . 10.10 (
0).

1 7 3
10.9.

2
6
14
30
62
126
254

255.192.0.0
255.224.0.0
255.240.0.0
255.248.0.0
255.252.0.0
255.254.0.0
255.255.0.0

4194302
2097150
1048574
524286
262142
131070
65534

10.10.

1
6
14
30
126
254

2
3
4
5
6

255.255.192.0
255.255.224.0
255.255.240.0

16382
8190
4094

255.255.248.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.254.0

2046

255.255.255.0

1022
510
254

IP
, TCP/IP - ,
( ,
Internet). , . 10 IP- IP .
.

IP- : LAN WAN IP- ,


( IP- IPX
AppleTalk). IP- ( , RIP IGRP).
LAN . , 130.10.0.0,
. 255.255.224.0.
. 11.1 IP- .
11.1. IP- ,
130.10.0.0
130.10.32.1
130.10.64.1
130.10.96.1
130.10.128.1
130.10.160.1
130.10.192.1

130.10.63.254
130.10.95.254
130.10.127.254
130.10.159.254
130.10.191.254
130.10.223.254

1 7 5

. 11.1 . IP- (. . 11.1) .


IOS, .

Ethernet

Ethernet
Serial
Serial 1

IP-
130.10.32.1
130.10.64.1
130.10.128.1

IP-
Ethernet 0
130.10.96.1
Serial 0
130.10.64.2
Serial 1
130:10.160.1 Ethernet

2505
Serial 1

2505
rial 1

4500

. 11.1. ,
( IP)

2505 . ( : Ethernet Serial) IP-. IP- . . 11.2 IP- ( . 11.1),


.
11.2. IP- 2505
1

Ethernet 0
Serial 0
Serial 1

130.10.32.1
130.10.64.1
130.10.128.1

176
~^>

IP
LAN (, Ethernet) , LAN,
WAN - WAN. , RIP IGRP, 5, .

LAN
LAN, Ethernet Token Ring, . LAN ( ).
LAN .
IP- - IP-, , .
IP- LAN :
1. conf ig t, Enter. .
2. LAN,
, i n t e r f a c e e t h e r n e t 0. Enter.
.
3. i p a d d r e s s IP-
. i p a d d r e s s 1 3 0 . 1 0 . 3 2 . 1
2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 2 4 . 0 (. 11.2). ,
Enter.

le dt Setup Cfnlhoi &mofrw


popeyeHconfig t
p
ope ye < conff>tti
igXint
e0 138.18.32.1.2 5 5 . 2End5 5 . 2w2i t4h. 8 CNTL/Z.
popeye<confi
p address
popeye<configg-i-if>*

r^J
3

. 11.2. LAN
IP-

4. Ctrl+Z .
5. ,
Enter.
show i p i n t e r f a c e LAN. , IP-
Ethernet 0 show i p i n t e r f a c e eO
Enter. . 11.3
2505.
,

1 7 7

Fe
i * Seu
tp Cfitttd ^mdow .
Internet
address
138.IB.32.1/19
Broadcast
addressisisby
255.255.255.255
Address
determined
setup connand
MTU isaddress
1588 bytes
Helper
is
not
set
Directed
broadcast
forwarding
Outgoing
access
list
is not
not set
setis enabled
inbound
access
list is
Proxy
flRP
is
enabled
Seci
Split
horizon
IIC
redirects are alw.
wayal
sways
sent sent
CM
HU
PPP unraachable:
IIP
C
mswitching
ask replies.is_
fast
disabled
I P f a s t s w i t c h i n g on t h e i n t e r f a c e i s

IP multicast f a s t switching i s enabled


outer Discovery i s d i s a b l e d
IP output packet accounting i s d i s a b l e d
IP access v i o l a t i o n a c c o u n t i n g i s d i s a b l e d
TCP/IP h e a d e r c o m p r e s s i o n i s d i s a b l e d
P r o b e p r o x y nane r e p l i e s a r e d i s a b l e d
Gateway D i s c o v e r y i s d i s a b l e d
Policy routing is disabled
Network a d d r e s s t r a n s l a t i o n i s d i s a b l e d
pope ye It

disabled

. 11.3. IP- show ip

interface

IP
. 11.3, , IP- 130.10.32.1/19
. 130.10.32.1 ,
- /19 - : , -t
.
, (16 )
: 19-16 = 3 ( 3 - ,
).
(128 + 64 + 32), 224. , - 255.255.224.0.
show ip int erf a ce, , IP-
.

L
, /19, , , .
, ,
.

WAN
WAN IP- LAN. Serial 0 IP- :
1. conf i g t, Enter. .

1 7 8 IP
2. WAN.,
, i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0. Enter, .
3. i p a d d r e s s IP-
. i p a d d r e s s 1 3 0 . 1 0 . 6 4 . 1
2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 2 4 . 0 (. 11.4). Enter.
tie dt Setup tentid Vm
/ d*y Hdp
popeyetconfig t
popeyeCconfig>lint
s0
papcye<conFig-if)Xip
popeye<confis-if>* address 130.10.64.1 255.255.224.8

. 71.4. WAN
IP-

4. Ctrl+Z .
5. Enter, .
,
RAM NVRAM. , .
copy
running-config
startup-con
fig, Enter. NVRAM .
Serial 0
show i p i n t e r f a c e sO.
WAN IP-,
. , WAN, 1.
, 2505 . 11.1 Serial 0 ( WAN WAN).
. , Serial 0 , Serial 0 - .
.
IP- , , . - . . .

7 9

Serial IP- ( -
IP, IP-). ip unnumbered [ i n t e r f a c e ] . [ i n t e r f a c e ] , Ethernet 0, ,
Loopback 0, IP- (. 11.5).
popeyeHconfig
tft Setup Ctartrcl

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.


popeye<config>Bint si
popeye<config-if>ip unnumbered ethernet B|

-^J
i

. 11.5. Serial IP-,


IP-

i p unnumbered Serial,
Serial, WAN,
IP-. , Telnet , ping ( IP-). , . 11.5,
, Serial 1, Ethernet 0, , WAN, Serial 1.


IP- , 1.
,
2. . , RIP ,
15 ( ),
.
IGRP OSPF. RIP IGRP.
^-

1
2

IP, RIP IGRP,


5, .

. - . . .
IGP (interior gateway protocol). - . . .

180

IP

IP- (
), , . ip routing,
Enter.
, Ctrl+Z. IP no ip
routing.

RIP
RIP - , . RIP , .
RIP . , , IP-. , (. . 11.1),
- 130.10.0.0,
RIP .
RIP :
1. conf i g t
Enter. ; .
2. r o u t e r r i p , Enter.
RIP .
3. network [major network number]. [major
network number] ( ) -
, , . 130.10.0.0. network 130.10.0.0 (. 11.6)
Enter.
4. network [major network number]
IP, . , Ethernet ,
network 1 .
5. Ctrl+Z,
.
6. Enter, .
1

RIP RIP classfull. RIP-2 classless. RIP-2 classless


network , . - . , .

1 8 1

& * letup Cflntrol


popeyetfcortf
iff t
Enter
configuration
comtands,
ne pep line. Bid with CNTL/Z.
popeyetconfig>Krouter
rip
popeyetconfig-routerJUnrtwork
popsyeCconf1router

1.1..8

. 1.6. router rip RIP ,


network IP-,

, IOS
RIP,
RIP.
RIP,
show i p r o u t e , Enter. . 11.7
2505, . , ,
( ,
). ,
, , R
( RIP ).

eycflsh i p r o u t e
e s : - c o n n e c t e d , 5 - s t a t i c , I - IGRP, R - RIP. - Mobile, 8 - RGF
D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP e x t e r n a l , 0 - OSPF, 1 - OSPF i n t e r Area
HI - OSPF NSSft e x t e r n all t y p e 1 , N2 - OSPF HSSfl e xtt e rln a l t y p e 2
El - OSPP e x t e r n a l type 1 . E2 - OSPP e x t e r n a l t y p e 2 , E - EGP
1 - I S - I S , LI - 1S-IS l e v e l - 1 . 12 - IS-1S l e u e l - 2 . ej - c a n d i d a t e d e f a u l t
U - per-u*er s t a t i c r o u t e , - ODR

Gateway of last resort is not set


13B1.318..8
.B/19 is subletted, 3 subnets

1.2. i s d i r e c t l y connected, Ethernet8

130.IB.64. i s d i r e c t l y connected, SerialB


R
13B.1B.S6.B [ 1 2 8 / 1 ] i l i a 1 3 8 . I B . M . 2 . 8 8 : 8 8 : 1 9 .
popeyet

SerialB

. 11.7. show ip route RIP

, RIP,
show i p p r o t o c o l . , RIP 30 .
RIP 180 . , , RIP ,
180 , . 240
, , .

show i p p r o t o c o l , Enter. RIP, , RIP (. 11.8).

182

IP
ie d* Setup Control Wn
idtw
p
opeueXshProtocol
ip protocol
Routing
is "rip"

Redistributing:
rip
Default
version
control:
send
1, receive any version
Interface
S
Recu version
Key-chain
1
Ethernet*
1end 12
Seriaie
1
12
SeriallFor Networks:1 1 2
Routing
138.18.8.
Gateway
Distance
138.18.64.2
128
D i s t a n c e : ( d e f a u l t i s 128>

L a s t Update
8:0:88

popeyeft

T|

. 11.8. show ip

protocol

debug i p r i p RIP, . Enter (. 11.9).

pieopedyeS
tbp
ConB
d W
n
idow Hep
l
de
eu
ug debuggi
ip
rip
RoIPpe protocol
ng i . on
p
y
e
I
I
Id82h: RIP: eceiued v] u p d a t e f r on 138 I B . 6 4 . 2
t o 255.25 .255.255
ldB2b: BIP: eu3nb8nd. IienBt g. 6wl1.38u. p1ind8 a 1t e hops
ldB2h:
netric 1
ubnet
138 . 1 8 . 9 6 , 8 , x t e t r i c 2
Id82h:
ldB2h:
ending ul update to 255.25 .255.255
ldB2h: RIP: eceiued
ubnet
138.18
mtric 1
f r o n 138 1 8 . 6 4 . 2
ldB2h:
Id82h: RIP: 3e n8d. 1i n8g. 9 6wl.wl u puindp ad1taet ehops
t o 2SS.2S . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5
Id82h:
ldB2h: RIP: u b n e t 136 . 1 0 . 6 4 . 0 , P t e t r i c 1
ldB2h:
ldB2h: RIP: Bending wl u p d a t e t o 2 5 5 . 2 5 1. 2 5 5 . 2 S S
1

SerialB

via Ethernets
via Seriaie
n

( 1 3 0 . 1B . 3 2 . 1 )
( 1 3 0 . 1 0 . 64.1>

SerialB

via Ethernets
via SerialB

<138.1 0 . 3 2 . 1 )
( 1 3 9 . 1 0 . 64.1>

. 11.9. debug ip

rip

RIP, no d e b u g
i p r i p Enter (
).
, , 5.

IGRP
RIP ,
15 , . IGRP ( RIP) , , .
, 255 ,
.

1 8 3
IGRP , RIP: IGRP
IP-, . IGRP (, , ),
(autonomous system - AS), . .
,
EGP (exterior gateway protocol). BGP (border gateway protocol).
,
( , IGRP, ).
1 65655.
, , .
,
EGP. Cisco
7500, , 2.

IGRP :
1. conf i g t
, Enter, .
2. r o u t e r i g r p [ a u t o n o m o u s
s y s t e m n u m b e r ] , [autonomous s y s t e m number] ( ) - , AS, . , r o u t e r i g r p 10 IGRP AS 10. Enter.
3. n e t w o r k [ma j o r n e t w o r k number ] .
[major n e t w o r k number] ( ) -
, .

130.10.0.0. n e t w o r k 13 0 . 1 0 . 0 . 0
(. 11.10) Enter.
Bte * etup Ccjntrol Wnidow <
popcyeconfiguration
Bconfig t commands. one per line. End with CNTL/Z
'.
Enter
4
. 11.10. IGRP

184

IP

4. network [major network number]


IP, . ,
Ethernet , network.
5. , Ctrl+Z, .
show ( ,
IGRP), ,
RIP. , show ip r o u t e , IGRP (. 11.11). ,
, - , ,
I ,
IGRP.
te * Setup Conhol
papeyelsh ip route
D
EO
IGSR
P? NEX'
EIGRP%
xtern1,al, N
02-"-OS
, Ift'N-SSfO
SPFintertyarea
N
1---O
PF
SSfl-external
type
OPSF
PP
i external
2
El
S
P
P
external
type
1.
E
2
O
S
P
F
external
type
E - po
EGPdefault
i - IS-IS. LI - IS-IS leuel-1. 12 - 1S-IS leuel-2. * -2,candidate
U - p e r - u s e r s t a t i c r o u t e , - ODR

13.1../19 i s s u b n e t t e d , 3 s u b n e t s
1 3 0 . 1 0 . 3 2 . i s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d , Ethernet0

I
13~9! 100/7100] v i a
popeytt|

138.18.64.2,

00:01:87.

SerialS

. 11.11. show ip route


IGRP

IGRP 90 ( RIP
30 ). 630 , .
IGRP,
, debug i p i g r p e v e n t s . . 11.12
.
debug i p i g r p t r a n s a c t i o n (. 11.13).
IGRP
5, .

no debug all Enter.

185

fe dit letup CenrtoJ Wnidow


pope ye
y debug- ip igrp events
IGRP event debugging is on
SPT IGRP: received update fropi 130.IB.64.2 on SerialB
Id03h:
Id83h:
Id031i:
idB3h:
Ide3h:
Id03h:
ldB3h:
id83h:
ldB3h:
Id03h:
ldB3h:
ldB3h:
Id83h:
ldB3h:
Id03h:
Id83h:
Id83h:
Id83h:

IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:
IGRP:

Update c o n t a i n s 1 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n . and e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
Total r o u t e s in update: 1
s e n d i n g u p d a t e t o 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 v i a E t h e r n e t s <10.18.2.1>
Update c o n t a i n s 2 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n . and 8 e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
T o t a l r o u t e s in u p d a t e : 2
sending update t o 2S5.255.2SS.255 v i a S e r i a l B <13.1.64.1>
Update c o n t a i n s 1 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n , and e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
T o t a l r o u t e s 1 u p d a t e : 1
r e c e i v e d u p d a t e f r o n 1 3 8 . 1 8 . 6 4 . 2 on S e r i a l B
Update c o n t a i n s 1 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n . and e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
Total routes in update: 1
s e n d i n g u p d a t e t o 2 5 5 . 2 S 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 u i a E t b e m e t B <13B.1B.32.1>
Update c o n t a i n s 2 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n , and e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
T o t a l r o u t e s in u p d a t e : 2
sending update t o 255.25S.255.2SS v i a S e r i a l B U 3 0 . 1 8 . 6 4 . 1 >
Update c o n t a i n s 1 i n t e r i o r , s y s t e n . and e x t e r i o r r o u t e s .
Total r o u t e s in update: 1
r e c e i v e d u p d a t e F r o n 1 3 8 . I B . 6 4 . 2 on S e r i a l B

I d 0 3 h : IGRP: T o t a l r o u t e s i n u p d a t e : 1

. 11.12, debug ip igrp events


IGRP
fie

CgriKi Wnidow

otocol debugging is
"] GRP: sending update to 255.255.255.255 via Ethernets <130.10-32.1>
'38.18.64.8, netric-7000
ldB3h:
t j.30.18.96.8, netric-7100
Id03h:
ng update to 255.255.255.255 via SerialB (138.10.64.1>
Id03h-138.18.32.8, netric-HBB
Id03h:
d update fro* 138.10.64.2 on SerialB
Id03h:
130.10.96.B, netric 7180 (neighbor 11BB>
Id03h:

. 11.13. debug ip igrp transaction


,
,

. - RIP IGRP - , .
, . .
:
.
, ,
, , .
.
. , , , .
, . 11.14.

186

IP


194.10.30.0



194.10.10.0

L-T-LAN-T-!
I
IP-
Ethernet 0 194.10.10.1
Serial 0
194.10.20.1

IP-
Ethernet 0
194.10.30.1
Serial 0
194.10.20.2
Ethernet

Ethernet 0

2505

2505

. 11.14.
1-

LAN ( 194.10.30.0).

i p r o u t e 1 9 4 . 1 0 . 3 0 . 0 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 1 9 4 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 2 .

, LAN ( 194.10.30.0)
. , ,
IP- 194.10.20.2. . 11.15 ,
.

CgntM Undo H*
epeyetconfig
jiter
configuration
commands, one per line. End with CNTL^Z.
o p e y e < c o n f i i p m u t e 1 9 4 . 1 . . 2 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 1 9 4 . I B . 29.2
9

. 11.15. ip

route

, . , i p r o u t e , ,
(, 194.10.10.0, ). -, IP- , .

TELNET 1 8 7

. , . , , .
, . IGP .

Telnet
IP- , (
Telnet) , IP- . , 2505,
. IP- 130.10.96.1
Ethernet 0 IP- 130.10.64.2 Serial 0. ( Telnet), .
Telnet, ,
.
Telnet
:
1. t e l n e t [ i p a d d r e s s ] , [ i p a d d r e s s ] - IP- . ,
, t e l n e t 130.10.96.1, IP- Ethernet 0. Enter.
2. Telnet,
. Enter.
(. .11.16).
, .

. 11.16. Telnet

188

IP

q u i t ,
.
Telnet - ,
. , .
^>~


8, .

NOVELL

IPX

Novell NetWare -
(network operating system - NOS),
LAN 80- .
NetWare IPX/SPXK , TCP/IP, OSI.
IPX/SPX
, , TCP/IP, . NetWare , -
LAN WAN.

IPX/SPX
Novell NetWare - , /.
( ), ( ).
IPX/SPX - ,
, , Cisco.
. 12.1 IPX/SPX OSI.
, IPX-.
IPX/SPX (,
TCP/IP AppleTalk) 2 ( IPX/SPX). OSI ( OSI - ).
IPX/SPX Novell NetWare. 4, Novell TCP/IP. NetWare 5.0 5.1
TCP/IP , IPX/SPX. . , .

190

NOVELL IPX
IPX/SPX

OSI

SAP

NetWare
Shell

NCP

SPX
IPX

RIP

NLSP

IEEE (Ethernet, Token Ring ..)


WAN (PPP, Frame-Relay ..)

. 12. l. IPX/SPX

60- Xerox Palo


Xerox Network Systems XNS,
NetWare. , .
, Xerox Palo, IBM PC, Apple Macintosh. . Xerox ? ...

IPX/SPX
TCP/IP, IPX/SPX . ,
NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) , OSI. (Virtual Loadable Modules - VLMs)
.
IPX/SPX, :

SPX (Sequence Packet Exchange) -


,

IPX- 1 9 1

- -. SPX
ID SPX- (SPX - TCP
TCP/IP);
IPX (Internet Package Exchange) - , IPX/SPX.
OSI, IPX , IPX RIP;
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) - , , (1/18 ) IPX. RIP IPX/SPX
( RIP TCP/IP) - ,
, IPX, NetWare;
SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol) - , NetWare. NetWare
60 SAP,
- ( SAP );
NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol) -
Novell , RIP
( SAP) IPX-. RIP SAP
( IPX-).

IPX/SPX TCP/IP ( 10), -. ,


OSI ( ) . ,
IPX/SPX, IPX/SPX.

IPX-
IPX- 80- (10-) (
TCP/IP , , 32- ), . ,
TCP/IP. IPX- . , 32 , - IPX,
48 . . 12.2 IPX- Novell.

1 9 2 NOVELL IPX

?
Novell NetWare, . ,
NetWare ( ). - ( ) Novell NetWare
(, 763B20F3, . 12.2).

763B20F3. 00.60.08..01.74

. 12.2. IPX-

IPX- IPX (
NetWare).
, Monitor ( Novell NetWare 5.0
5.1) Servman ( Novell). load servman monitor
(
NetWare) Enter. .
I

NetWare ( ),
NetWare, .
, IPX ( IP -
, IP- ).
, ,
, NetWare. , Ethernet 0 NetWare,
.
IPX- .
MAC . , IPX-

IPX- 1 9 3

- .
. 12.3 NetWare.
NetWare


763B20F3

(1|| |


IPX-
763B20F3. 00.60.08..01.74


IPX-
763B20F3. 00.CO.09.AC.44.07

. 12.3. IPX- ' -


> MAC 2 ( ),
- 1 ( ).

SAP
IPX-, SAP IPX1. Novell SAP 60 .
, SAP, ,
NetWare. ,
, SAP NetWare.
Novell NetWare NetWare 5.0,
Novell IP, SLP. - .
. .

7 - 4631

194

NOVELL IPX

SAP, NetWare, ,
SAP
SAP .
Cisco ,
IPX, SAP , . Cisco, , SAP Novell ,
SAP - , ,
. SAP NetWare. . 12.4 , Cisco SAP.

NetWare

SAP

SAP

NetWare

SAP

NetWare

SAP

NetWare

NetWare

NetWare
- NetWare LAN -

'

. 12.4. SAP ,
SAP

IPX- 1 9 5

Novell ,
,
(Get Nearest Server request GNS), ,
. , GNS,
SAP, (,
), , ,
.

IPX-
, IPX- IPX/SPX
, IPX-. IPX, .
IPX- :
1. c o n f i g t, Enter. .
2. ipx r o u t i n g
Enter. . 12.5.

pope<y*eH
c
o>nfigC
torftd commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Enter
configuration
p
o
p
e
y
e
C
c
o
n
f
l
g
J
B
ip|x pouting
popeye<conf i*j>K
. 12.5. IPX-,

3. Ctrl+Z.
4. Enter.
, IPX-, . show p r o t o c o l Enter.
, (. 12.6). .
IPX- ipx r o u t i n g IPX RIP . , IPX RIP
( RIP, 1-,
).
: ( IPX ),

9 6 , NOVELL IPX
IoiTciin-CI)M?VI

tie ttt Seu


tp Cflrtrol Wn
idow ifetp
protocol Is up
138.18.64.1/15

872.1.?.5
r o t o c o l i s up
138.10.32.1/19
IPX a d d r e s s i s 7632.1.7.50
S e i - i a l l i s down, l i n e p r o t o c o l i s down
I n t e r n e t address i s 1 5 . 9 6 . 8 . 1 / 1 1
popeyett
IPX address i s

up, line

. 12.6. ,

(, ). .
: .
. 12.7 IPX, ( ) (). 2 (


IPX
5 [5/2] 1
5 [3/2] 2

. 12.7. IPX

IPX- 1 9 7

) 3, .
, IPX-,
ipx routing
node, node () - - .
( MAC), . , Ethernet . .


IPX-
IPX-, IPX.
IPX - , Novell. MAC, .
, IPX , IP. IPX
- , LAN
.

LAN

, OSI. LAN :
Ethernet Ethernet, Token Ring - Token Ring,
FDDI - FDDI.
NetWare
LAN: Ethernet, Token Ring FDDI. , .
NetWare Ethernet. Ethernet , . 12.1 . Cisco,
Ethernet .

198

NOVELL IPX

, , . WAN, HDLCn , 9.
IEEE-, Ethernet Token Ring, 2.
. LAN ( )
Ethernet. WAN () HDLC , WAN.

12.1. Ethernet

Ethernet 802.3


NetWare (2/3.11).
,

IPX-

novell-ether

Ethernet 802.2


NetWare 3.12/5.X

sap

Ethernet II

,
TCP/IP / DECnet

snap

Ethernet SNAP

TCP/IP / AppleTalk


, . ( 1 NetWare,
, Ethernet ).
, LAN IPX- IPX ( )
. -
.
Novell NetWare Ethernet, Token Ring
FDDI. Token Ring
Token Ring ( ) Token Ring SNAP; FDDI - SNAP, FDDI 802.2 FDDI RAW (
FDDI, IEEE).

IPX- 1 9 9

IPX- LAN
:
1. c o n f i g t,
Enter. .
2. Ethernet (, Ethernet 0) IPX, i n t e r f a c e
e t h e r n e t 0 Enter. config-if,
IPX- .
3. ipx network: [network number] e n c a p s u l a t i o n
[ frame t y p e ] , [network number] - NetWare,
. [frame type]
( ). , Ethernet Novell,
Novell IntraNetWare 4.11. Ethernet 802.2 (
sap Cisco).
: i p x n e t w o r k f87c2e0f e n c a p s u l a t i o n s a p
(. 12.8). Enter .
lie
(*confi
Sefp
tg
j t Central
popeyet
Enter
configuration
one per
p
o
p
e
y
e
C
c
o
n
f
ig>Hintercamunds,
face ethernet
0 line. End with CNTL/Z.
p o p e y e < c o n f i g - i f > I i p x network fS7c2eBF e n c a p s u l a t i o n
popeye(cenflg-if>l

. 12.8. LAN IPX-,


4. Ctrl+Z.
5. Enter, .
IPX-.
, Ethernet 0 (
IPX-), show ipx i n t e r f a c e
E t h e r n e t 0 Enter. . 12.9
Ethernet 0 IPX- 2505.
, IPX-, show ipx interface

Enter. .

200

NOVELL IPX

popeyeRshow
i ethernet
EthernetB
isipx
up.interfa
line
l i n e .__.
p r o t o c o l i s up
IPX address i s 872.1.7.5, SAP

~ 3

[up]
Delay of t h i s IPX network, in t i c k s i s 1 throughput l i n k d e l a y
IPX WAN p r o c e s s i n g not e n a b l e d on t h i s i n t e r f a c e .

IPX t y p e 28 propagation packet forwarding i s d i s a b l e d


Incoming a c c e s s l i s t i s not s e t
Outgoing a c c e s s l i s t i s not s e t
IPX h e l p e r a c c e s s l i s t i s not s e t
SAP GHS p r o c e s s i n g e n a b l e d , d e l a y , output f i l t e r l i s t
SAP Input f i l t e r l i s t i s not s e t
SAP Output f i l t e r l i s t i s not s e t
SAP Router f i l t e r l i s t i s not s e t
Input f i l t e r l i s t i s not s e t
Output f i l t e r l i s t i s not s e t
Router f i l t e r l i s t i s n o t s e t
H e t b i o s Input h o s t a c c e s s l i s t i s nut s e t
N e t b i o s Input b y t e s a c c e s s l i s t i s not s
H e t b i o s Output h o s t a c c e s s l i s t i s not s
H e t b i o s Output
y t e s a c c e s s l i s t i s not e t
put bby
Updates e*c h 68 sseconds, aging M u l t i p l e s RIP: SflP: 3
i z e i s 480 b y t e s
SftP i n t e r p a c k e t d e l a y i s 55 ...
RIP i n t e r p a c k e t d e l a y i s 55 * n . naximi* i z e i s 432 b y t e s
IPX a c c o u n t i n g i s d i s a b l e d
IPX f a s t s w i t c h i n g i s c o n f i g u r e d ( e n a b l e d )
RIP p a c k e t s r e c e i v e d 8 , RIP p a c k e t s s e n t 17
SAP p a c k e t s r e c e i v e d . SftP p a c k e t s s e n t 4
poseyet
popeyei

i s not si

. 12.9.
Cisco IOS 9.

WAN
( WAN) IPX- LAN.
WAN ( , WAN),
, LAN.
WAN1 ,
WAN, Frame-Relay.
HDLC ( 15 ,
, HDLC, Frame-Relay , WAN).
. 12.10 Serial 0 2505. , ( ,
Frame-Relay) IPX. IPX-
Efa * eftfi Cfirtrd WJndo** H*
popeyel
config t conwands. one perLine. End with CHTL/Z.
Enter
popeyeconfiguration
Cconfigg>
>i
intpxsBnetwork 763b2Bf3
popeye<confi
popeyeCconfig--iiff>
KncapsuUtian hdlc

. 12.10. IPX-
. - . . .

IPX- 2 O 1

IP-, , IP.
^ -

WAN, HDLC , 3 (
).

IPX-
IPX-, IPX.
, , ,
. show i p x r o u t e Enter.
. 12.11 IPX 2505,
2505 . , (763B20F3 F87C2E0F, ) , B86C033F, Ethernet 0 ,
.
(7/1).

eye>S
eo
hw
* Cipax
rt"* route
pop
sh
- Connected primary

Codes:
S
R
s

network,
- Connected secondary n e t w o r k
- S t a t i c , F - F l o a t i n g s t a t i c . L - L o c a l < i n t e r n a l > , U - IP
PXIMN
- RIP. E - EIGRP, N - NLSP, X - E x t e r n a l , - a g g r e g a t e
- seconds, u - uses

3 T o t a l IPX r o u t e s . Up t o 1 p a r a l l e l
Ho d e f a u l t

route

p a t h s and 16 hops

allowed.

known.

76320 <PPP>.
SoB

F87C2E8F <SflP>.
EtB
R
IB7/B1] wia 72.1.7.50.
popeye>

5 3 s . SeB

. 12.11. IPX

,
. ,
IPX, .
.
IPX- show i p x
t r a f f i c debug i p x r o u t i n g a c t i v i t y . show i p x t r a f f i c IPX,
. . 12.12
.
debug ipx r o u t i n g a c t i v i t y show ipx r o u t e
show i p x t r a f f i c , .

2 0 2 t NOVELL IPX

RIP SAP, . (. 12.13).


, RIP SAP
. no debug ipx r o u t i n g a c t i v i t y ,
IPX. , , , .

JB gdu? W
nidow

ropeye>show ipx traffic

flefc

'

^^^^^^^

ystem T r a f f i c f a r ...8881 System-Name: popeye


Rcvd:
236 t o t a l . 2 f o m a t e r r o r s . checksum e r r o r s . bad hop c o u n t .
19 p a c k e t s p i t c h e d , 217 l o c a l d e s t i n a t i o n . M u l t i c a s t
B e a s t : 218 r e c e i v e d , 454 s e n t
Sent:
44S g e n e r a t e d , 0 forwarded
SAP:
SflP^rlquests? *8 11 s e r v e r s
SAP N e a r e s t r e q u e s t s , r e p l i e s
SAP General Mane r e q u e s t s , r e p l i e s
SAP a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e c e i v e d , s e n t
SAP f l a s h updates s e n t . 8 SftP format e r r o r s
217 RIP a d v e r t i s e m e n t s r e c e i v e d , 448 s e n t
7 RIP f l a s h updates s e n t . 8 RIP f o r m t e r r o r s
Rcvd r e q u e s t s , r e p l i e s
Sent r e q u e s t s , r e p l i e s
unknown: no s o c k e t , f i l t e r e d . no h e l p e r
SAPs t h r o t t l e d , f r e e d NDB l e n 8
Watchdog:
packets r e c e i v e d , r e p l i e s spoofed
Queue l e n g t h s :
IPX i n p u t : 8 , SAP 8 . RIP 8 , GNS
SflP t h r o t t l i n g l e n g t h : B/Cno l i n i t > , n e t s pending l o s t r o u t e
Delayed p r o c e s s c r e a t i o n :
EIGRP: T o t a l r e c e i v e d , s e n t 8
Updates r e c e i v e d 8 . s e n t 8
Queries r e c e i v e d 8 , s e n t
R e p l i e s r e c e i v e d B, s e n t
SAPs r e c e i v e d 8 . s e n t
NLSP:
Level-1 Helios r e c e i v e d 8 . sent
PTP H o l l o r e c e i v e d , s e n t fl
L e v e l - 1 LSPs r e c e i v e d 8 . s e n t
LSP R e t r a n s m i s s i o n s : 8
LSP checksum e r r o r s r e c e i v e d :
LSP HT-fl checksum e r r o r s r e c e i v e d :
Level-1 CSNPs r e c e i v e d 8 , s e n t
L e w e l l PSNPs r e c e i v e d 8 . s e n t
Echo:

reply

. 12.12. show ipx traffic



IPX

popeyeftdebug
ipx routing
IPX routing debugging
is activity
on
ld82M IPXRIP: positing full update to 763B28F3.ffff.ffff.ffff
Id02h:
ldteh:
ldB2h:
ldB2h:
Id82h:
t)
ldB2h:
ldB2h:
Id82h:

via SerialB (broadcast

IPXRIP: -7632.1.7.5, d s t - 7 6 3 B 2 B F 3 . f f f f . f f f f . f f f f ,
packet s e n t
network F87C2EBF, hops 1 , d e l a y 7
IPXRIP: update from 72.1.7.5
B86CB33F in 1 hops, d e l a y 7
IPXRIP: p o s i t i n g f u l l update t o F 8 7 C 2 E B F . F f f f . f f f f . f f f f
v i a EthernetB (hroadca
IPXRIP: s r c - P 8 7 C 2 E B F . e e i e . 7 b 3 a . 5 e b 3 . d s t - F 8 ? C 2 E B F . f f f f . f f f f . f f f f ,
network 86, hops 2 . d e l a y 8
network 763B20F3. hops 1 , d e l a y 2

packet s e n t

. 12.13. debug
RIP SAP

1 3

APPLETALK

AppleTalk - ,
( , Apple Macintosh) . AppleTalk , (zones).
,
,
Apple,
AppleTalk Cisco, Macintosh .
Macintosh ,
Apple (Macintosh
; PowerMac G3 Ethernet). Macintosh,
, (, , EtherTalk). AppleTalk Ethernet (EtherTalk), Token Ring (Token
Talk) FDDI (FDDITalk).
. 13.1 AppleTalk, OSI. (
). :
(Datagram Delivery Protocol - DDP) - , , UDP TCP/IP;
(AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol AARP) - ,
AppleTalk . AARP
, ;

204

APPLETALK

NBP

RTMP

ZIP

AARP

DDP

IEEE (Ethernet, Token Ring ..)

. 13.1. AppleTalk, ,
051

(Zone Information Protocol - ZIP) - . , . ;


(Routing Table Maintenance
Protocol - RTMP) - , ,
AppleTalk.
,
AppleTalk ;
(Name Binding Protocol - NBP) - , AppleTalk, . ,
.
AppleTalk 2, AppleTalk.

AppleTalk
AppleTalk 24- , , ,
, .

APPLETALK 2 O 5

16 , AppleTalk - 8 .
, ,
IP, AppleTalk . AppleTalk
: ..
AppleTalk .

, . ,
10-10 , , , , ( 10). 100-130 .
(cable range).
AppleTalk , , . ,
. 253
, . . 13.2 AppleTalk (LAN), , (LAN),
. ( 253 ), .
, , .
AppleTalk,
. Macintosh, ZIP ( ) .
. AARP, , .
, Macintosh . Novell NetWare ( IPX/SPXj.
Macintosh.

,

AARP. , ,
( , ).

, (. )

206

APPLETALK
100-115

AppleTalk

AppleTalk



AppleTalk

. 13.2. AppleTalk,

AppleTalk. 1 . , , 127,
254 . 2 ' . 2
. AppleTalk
, 2,
Cisco AppleTalk.

APPLETALK- 2 0 7

. , 10,
200, 10.200.
^ -

IP 10 (
).

AppleTalk
AppleTalk . - , "
Microsoft. :
,
, - ..
AppleTalk, - .
, , . ,
AppleTalk-, . , .
.
Marketingl desktopAl. . 13.3 LAN AppleTalk .
AppleTalk 0-255, 0, 254 255. 0
\
, ,
. 254 255 , .
J

AppleTalk-
AppleTalk
, , ( IP)
.

208

APPLETALK

MAC LAN -

Desktop

. 13.3. AppleTalk

AppleTalk , TCP/IP
IPX/SPX. , , AppleTalk , , AppleTalk . , Apple Macintosh .
, AppleTalk , AppleTalk- . AppleTalk
Web- Apple Macintosh,
h ftp:/til, in fo. apple, com. www, cisco. com (
Cisco IOSJ.

,
-.
AppleTalk-, :

APPLETALK- J2O9

1. config t, Enter.
2. a p p l e t a l k r o u t i n g Enter (. 13.4).

Se
p
ap
ey*eD
ctu
op
nfig
t| commands, one per
Enter
configuration
p
o
p
e
y
e
<
c
o
n
f
i
g
>1tappl
line. End with CNTL/-Z.
popeya<config>l etalk routing

. 73.4. , AppleTalk-

3. , Ctrl+Z.
4. Enter .
AppleTalk- RTMP, ,
RIP IP, .
AppleTalk-, , AppleTalk. (
) AppleTalk. . 13.5
, 2505.
LAN ( ), WAN
( ). , WAN : Wanconnect.
. 13.1 AppleTalk, . 13.5. WAN LAN AppleTalk-,
.
13.1. AppleTalk
1 ()
2 (Olive)
-

Ethernet 0
Serial 0

1-10
11

Desktop
Wanconnect

Ethernet 0

12-20

Multimedia

Serial 0

11

Wanconnect

LAN
LAN AppleTalk IP IPX. .

210

APPLETALK
AppleTalk LAN 1
Ethernet
At: 1-10, Desktop

popeye
At: 11-11, Wanconnect
At: 11-11, Wanconnect

HDLC

olive
At: 12-20, Multimedia
Ethernet
AppleTalk LAN 2

. 13.5. LAN AppleTalk



WAN

LAN AppleTalk
:
1. conf i g t,
Enter. .
2. i n t e r f a c e e t h e r n e t 0 (,
) Enter.
3. config-if a p p l e t a l k cable-range 1-10,
Enter. ,
LAN AppleTalk.
LAN, LAN .
4. , a p p l e t a l k
zone desktop. desktop - LAN.
. Enter (. 13.6).
5. Ctrl+Z.
6. Enter .

APPLETALK- 2 1 1

Fto *

Centrala
i fndow Hdp

opeyeVconf i g

p o p e y e < c o n f i g > t i n t
p o p e y e f c o n f i g - i f ) M a p p l e t a l k c a b l e - r a n g e 1-10'
p o p e y e < c o n f i g - i f > t t a p p l e t a l k zone d e s k t o p

. 13.6. LAN

LAN,
AppleTalk-. : , , ,
IP- .
AppleTalk
LAN- Ethernet. , AppleTalk Token Ring
DDL , Token Ring ( ) AppleTalk-,
Token Ring 0.

WAN
WAN :
WAN . ,
( IP-,
IP).
WAN AppleTalk- :
1. conf ig t, Enter. .
2. i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0 ( ) Enter.
3. config-if a p p l e t a l k c a b l e - r a n g e 11
Enter. , WAN.
4. ,
a p p l e t a l k zone wanconnect, wanconnect ,

2 1 2 APPLETALK

, , WAN. Enter (. 13.7).


5. Ctrl+Z.
6. Enter, .
pope<
y*eO
conf ig t coi
Enter
configuration
popeye<config)tint
s0 inds.cable-range
one per line. End with CHTLXZ.
popeye<confi
g-if Xtappletalk
popeye<Cfiif>ir
conf ig-iOHappletalk
zone wancon1n1ec-1t1

. 13.7. WAN

Cisco WAN 15.

AppleTalk-
AppleTalk- , AppleTalk , AppleTalk
, , .
, show a p p l e t a l k
r o u t e Enter. . 13.8
2505, Ethernet 0 LAN
AppleTalk, Serial 0 - 2505 . , , . 12-20,
R, - LAN AppleTalk, ( . 13.5).
AppleTalk- show.
,
fc* &* ts/ tfrekw H *

popeyetlshau appletalk route

Codes: R - d e r i v e d , E - EIGRP d e r i v e d , - c o n n e c t e d . - flURP


S - s t a t i c P - proxy
r o u t e s in i n t e r n e t
The f i r s t

zone l i s t e d f o r e a c h e n t r y i s i t s d e f a u l t

<prinary)

zone.

Net 1-10 d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d , EthernetB, zone d e s k t o p


Net 1 1 - 1 1 d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d . S e r i a l B , zone wanconnect
R Net 12-20 tl/Gl
v i a 1 1 . 4 5 . s e c . S e r i a l B . zone m u l t i m e d i a

. 13.8.

APPLETALK- 213

AppleTalk-, AppleTalk . . 13.2 ( ).


13.2. show
Show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e b r i e f

appletalk


AppleTalk

Show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e



AppleTalk

Show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e eO


AppleTaik

Show a p p l e t a l k zone
Show a p p l e t a l k global

,

,
,
ZIP
RTMP

, , , ,
show, . 13.2, show, IP
IPX/SPX. ,
.

. 13.9 show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e
brief, . 13.10 - show a p p l e t a l k zone, . 13.11
show a p p l e t a l k global.
RTMP AppleTalk , . debug
apple r o u t i n g Enter. . 13.12 . , no debug a p p l e r o u t i n g Enter:
.
, AppleTalk , IP IPX. , AppleTalk , , .
- IP ( IPX), , , AppleTalk.

214

APPLETALK

&* fcdt Setup Cgntra* ^criow


p o p e y e t s h apple l n t b r i e f
Interface
Address
Ethernets
7.169
Seriaie
11.15
Seriall
unassigned
pop*yet

^ ^
Config
Extended
Extended
not c o n f i g ' d

Statu!
up
up
down

. 13.9. show appletalk


interface
brief

Set* Cental

**

popeyetsh apple :

wanconnect
multimedia
desktop
Total of 3 zones
popeyel|

Network<s>
11-11
12-28
1-18

. 13.10. show appletalk


zone

gdt ehg Central Wndow
popeyettsh
apple
AppleTalk
globalglobal
information:
I n t e r n e t i t incompatible w i t h

o l d e r . P h a s e l , r o u t e r s .
There are 3 r o u t e s in t h e i n t e r n e t .
There are 3 zones d e f i n e d .
Logging of s i g n i f i c a n t AppleTalk e v e n t s i s d i s a b l e d .
ZIP r e s e n d s q u e r i e s e v e r y IB s e c o n d s .
RTMP updates are s e n t e v e r y IB s e c o n d s .
RTtiP e n t r i e s are c o n s i d e r e d BAD a f t e r 2B s e c o n d s .
RTNP e n t r i e s are .discarded a f t e r 60 s e c o n d s .
AARP probe r e t r a n s m i t c o u n t : I B , i n t e r v a l : 2 .

DDP d a t a g r a m w i l l be checksummed.
RTfiP datagrams w i l l be s t r i c t l y checked.
RTHP r o u t e s may not be propagated without z o n e s .
Routes w i l l not be d i s t r i b u t e d between r o u t i n g p r o t o c o l s .
Routing between l o c a l d e v i c e s on an i n t e r f a c e w i l l not be
IPTalk u s e s t h e udp base port of 768 <Defav.lt).
AppleTalk EIGRP i s not e n a b l e d .
A l t e r n a t e node address format w i l l not be d i s p l a y e d .
Access c o n t r o l of any networks of a zone h i d e s t h e z o n e ,
popeye1

'

performed.

. 13.11. show appletalk


global
AppleTalk
* *
popeyeftdebug apple r o u t i n g
AppleTalk BTMP r o u t i n g debug
AppleTalk E
i
db
6
dl9h:
6dl9h:
6
dl9h:
6dl
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
fidl9h:
6dl9h:

AT:
AT:
T
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:

1 from 1 1 . 4 5 <new B . o l d l . b a d B.ign 0 . dwn B>


s r c - E t h e r n e t B : 7 . 1 & 9 . d s t - 1 - 1 0 , s i z e - 2 2 . 2 r t e s . RTMP pkt s e n t
s r c - S e r i a l B : 1 1 . 1 5 . d s t - 1 1 - 1 1 , s i z e - 1 6 , 1 r t e , RTT1P pkt s e n t
Route ager s t a r t i n g on Main AT RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )
Route ager f i n i s h e d on Main AT RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )
RTHP from 1 1 . 4 5 (new B . o l d l . b a d B,ign , dwn B>
s r c - E t h e r n e t 0 : 7 . 1 6 9 . d s t - 1 1 0 , s i z e - 2 2 , 2 r t e s , RTHP pkt s e n t

6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9b:
6dl9h:
6dl9h:
6dl9h

:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT:
AT

Route ager f i n i s h e d on Hain RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )


RTMP from 1 1 . 4 5 <new B . o l d l . b a d B.ign B. dwn B)
s r c - E t h e r n e t B : 7 . 1 6 9 , d s t - 1 - l f l , s i z e - 2 2 . 2 r t e s , RTHP pkt s e n t
s r c - S e r i a l B : 1 1 . 1 5 . d s t - 1 1 - 1 1 , s i z e - 1 6 . 1 r t e , RTHP pkt s e n t
Route ager s t a r t i n g on Hain AT RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )
Route ager f i n i s h e d on Main RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )
RTHP From 1 1 . 4 5 Cnew B,old l . b a d ,1 , dwn B>
s r c - E t h e r n e t B : 7 . 1 6 9 . d s t - i - l B . s i z e - 2 2 , 2 r t e s , RTHP pkt s e n t
s r c - S e r i a l H : l i . 1 5 . d s t - 1 1 - 1 1 . s i z e - 1 6 , 1 rtft, RTMP pkt s e n t
Route a g e r s t a r t i n g on Hain AT RoutingTable <3 a c t i v e n o d e s )
R t
f i i h d
M i AT R t i T b l
<3
ti
d )

B.old l.bad B.igng B, dw

6dl9h: AT: src-SerialB:11.15, dst-11-11, size-16, 1 rte, RTHP pkt sent


6dl9h: AT: Route ager starting on Hain AT RoutingTable <3 active nodes)
6dl9h: AT: Route aeer finished on Main AT RoutingTable <3 active nodes)

. 13.12. debug apple

routing

1 4

, , Cisco LAN - TCP/IP, IPX/SPX AppleTalk. ,


,
.
, . ; ,
.
, ,

.
. , (permit) - (deny), (
1
Telnet ). , , , . ,
. ( - , IP- IPX) , .

,
.
,
Cisco Telnet. - . . .

.
.
. , -'
(, , IP, IP - ).
IP IPX . ,
www,cisco. com
Cisco ( Web- Cisco). ,
Cisco IOS.


, - ,
- .
,
.
, , , ,
, . , , (
, ),
.
,
, , . . 14.1 .
, ( ,
),
. ,
, .
, , , ,
Ethernet, LAN. , . ,
, WAN.

218






( )

'''

. 14.1.
,

, .


.
, , . , Ethernet 0
( IP- IPX-)
IP
IPX. ,
, IP.

, Ethernet 0 Ethernet 1,
. ,

J 2 1 9

. ,
, - .
- :
. ,
.
-
: . , , .
,
, LAN ( ,
). ,
.
, (
, ).
, , . ,
- , . ,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, . , ,
, , - .
.
.
, , , .
,
(deny all), ,
. '

2 2 O

IP
IP IP- , .
IP-
.
, -
(, Ethernet 0 Serial 1), ,
. . 14.2 IP. .
IB * Sw Csrdc*
*
popeyeftsh access-list 1
Standard IP access l i s t 1
ennit 130.1B.B.B, wildcard bits 8.8.255.2SS
sny
280.98.28.. wildcard bits 8.8.8.255
deny
any
pope ye II

. 14.2. IP, ,
-

.
. 14.3 .
Serial 0
. , , 1 130.10.0.(1,
.
, WAN LAN (, 200.90.20.0), ( ).
1 ,
( LAN) - .
,
. , , IP.

, IP. ,
. IP IP- , IP- ,
, UDP ICMP.

IP 2 2 1
2
IP- 200.90.20.8


130.10.0.0


200.90.20.0

Serial 1

Serial 0

1
IP- 190.10.45.5

. 14.3. ,
IP- 10 ( IP).

IP
IP-, IP-,
, . ,
, , IP- . , 200.90.20.0,
.
(wildcard mask). , , , , , .

2 2 2 t
^

_, ,

.
; ,
.

, , 0.0.0.0
hos t,
. IP-,
, any.
, deny any,
IP-,
.

, 0.0.0.255 ( - 00000000 00000000 00000000


11111111).
, . , , 0 (0 ),
, , - 1 (255
). , , . , ,
, ( ) - . , , IP- . ,
(. . 14.1).
14.1. 130.10.0.0
130.10.32.0
130.10.64.0
130.10.96.0
130.10.128.0
130.10.160.0
130.10.192.0

1, 2 3 (
130.10.32.0 130.10.96.0): deny 1 3 0 . 1 0 . 3 2 . 0 0 . 0 . 3 1 . 2 5 5 .

IP , 2 2 3

(deny) IP- ,
. ?
, , 130, ,
- 00000000, 0 .
, 130 (10000010). 10
(00001010), - 00000000.
0.0.
, . 1 - 32, - 00100000. , (
).
- 64 ( - 01000000),
. 3 - 96 ( - 01100000), .
,
00011111, ( 128),
( 64 32). , , , ( ).
16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 31.
: 0.0.31.
.
, ( ).
255, 11111111. ,
130.10.32.0-130.10.96.0, 0.0.31.255.
, - . ,
, ,
, - .


, 1
(190.10.45.5) Serial 0 , IP. , 1 99.

224

IP :
1. conf ig t, Enter. .
2. , a c c e s s - l i s t
[ l i s t #] permit deny [ i p address] w i l d c a r d mask;
[ 1 i s t # ] 1 99.
permit () deny (), .
[ i p address ] IP- . 1 (190.10.45.5),
a c c e s s - l i s t I permit 1 9 0 . 1 0 . 4 5 . 5 0 . 0 . 0 . 0. Enter.
3. a c c e s s - l i s t I deny any
(. 14.4).
popeyel
onfiggu rta t i o n coNRiands,
E
nter- <cconfiguration
copmands,onei per ~l i n' e . End w. i t.h0 . CNTLsZ.
p o p e y e <conf
c o n fiigg>>aacccceessss-- lliis st t 1 permit l190.18-45.
0
p
< cc
g )1
lla
| ac
p
<
igi>
poo
opppeeeyyyefl<
c0o
onn
nFfF
ig>
ilccc e s s - - l i s t I deny ny
r

. 14.4.

4. Ctrl+Z, .
5. Enter .
show.
show, a c c e s s - l i s t 1 Enter (. 14.5).
* <* Setup Cenhoi Window
popeyeKsh a c c e s s - l i s t
per-it
deny
pope y e R |

198.IB.45.5
any

. 14.5. show

access-list


, , , - Serial 0.
, .
Serial 0 :
1. conf i g t, Enter, .
2. Serial 0
i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0 Enter.
3. config-if i p a c c e s s - g r o u p I o u t
(. 14.6). Enter.

IPX 2 2 5
File d* Setup Control \j/indow
popeyedconfig
t commands, one pet*line. End with CNTL/Z.
Enter
configuration
popeyeCconfig>Bint
s0
popeye<config-if>8
. 14.6. , ,

4. Ctrl+Z .
5. Enter .
, . . ,
. ,
( IP-, ).

, ( ), , no access-li
st 1, , .


IPX
IPX IPX-. IPX 800 899' ( ) , IP, IPX-
.
a c c e s s l i s t 800 deny [source network
address] [ d e s t i n a t i o n network addess]. 800 , IPX. [ source network address ] (
) - IPX,
. [ d e s t i n a t i o n network a d d r e s s ] (
) - IPX- , .
IPX 1 .
IPX , .

8-4631

226

. 14.7 IPX. , , , 763B20F3


02B2F4 Ethernet 0 .
, : 1
.


763B20F3



/
Ethernet


7232

NetWare

NetWare

. 14.7. NetWare,

IPX
:
1. conf ig t, Enter .
1

IPX 32 . ,
. IPX 02B2F4 ( ) , . . . .

APPLETALK ^ 2 2 7
2. , a c c e s s - l i s t 800
( IPX 800 899), ,
^ , -.
(. . 14.6) a c c e s s - l i s t 800 deny 763B20F3
02B2F4 ( ). Enter.
3. . r m i t 11
IPX. a c c e s s - l i s t 800 p e r m i t *-l - 1
( ). Enter.
4. Ethernet 0 ,
i n t e r f a c e E t h e r n e t 0 , Enter.
5. config-if i p x a c c e s s - g r o u p 800 i n ( ). Enter.
. 14.8.
fe * Setup Cgntiol Wnidow fcjdp
popeyeflconfig t
8 p e m i t - 1 -1
p o p e y c < c o n f i g > t t i n t
popeye<conf i g - i f > t t i p x a c c e s s-gi-oup 800 in
popeye<CDnfi 9 -if>*

. 14.8. IPX, Ethernet 0


6. Ctrl+Z, .
7. Enter, .
show.
show a c c e s s - l i s t 800, , Enter.
Cisco IOS
IPX ( IP), .
/,
IPX/SPX, SAP SPX. - Cisco IOS, .
IPX 12 ( IPX-).


AppleTalk
,
AppleTalk, Cisco IOS 600 699.
8*

2 2 8


( AppleTalk).
, : a c c e s s - l i s t 600 permit
cable-range 100-110.
AppleTalk AppleTalk .
AppleTalk ,
. ,
AppleTalk ( . 14.9 AppleTalk).
100-110



Ethernet 0

I T

AppleTalk LAN

. 14.9.
AppleTalk

APPLETALK 2 2 9
AppleTalk,
( 100-110 10) Ethernet 0 . , ,
.
AppleTalk .
object, ,
PrintServer.
AppleTalk
Cisco IOS Web- www. Cisco, com.

AppleTalk :
1. c o n f i g t ,
Enter. .
2. AppleTalk, a c c e s s - l i s t
600 ( AppleTalk 600 699),
, . (. . 14.8) a c c e s s - l i s t 600 deny z o n e ZoneA ( z o n e () ,
, ZoneA). Enter.
3. . p e r m i t a l l
. a c c e s s - l i s t 600 p e r m i t
a d d i t i o n a l - z o n e s ( ). Enter.
4. Ethernet 0 , i n t e r f a c e E t h e r n e t 0 , Enter.
5. config-if a p p l e t a l k a c c e s s - g r o u p 600. Enter.
. 14.10.
dt Setup Cen
popeyeflconfig
ttral Juf

t c i * c o n f 1 ^ t unniinris
o n e pel* l i n e
tni
f
p o p e y e < c o n F i g > t t a c c e s s l i s t 6 0 0 d e n y z o n e ZoneA
pope
popeye
p o p e y e ( c o n f i g - i f > H[aapp pp l e tt aa ll kk a c c e s s - g r o u p 6 0 8
0
pa p e y e < c o n f i g - i f >

i CNTL^Z.

. 14.10. AppleTalk,
Ethernet 0

2 3 0 ^

6. Ctrl+Zj .
7. Enter .
show a c c e s s - l i s t
600, . AppleTalk , IP IPX,
. , ,
Macintosh ,
Macintosh .
^^-

AppleTalk- 13,
AppleTalk.

ZJ

WAN

WAN
LAN (,
Ethernet LAN IP, IPX AppleTalk) Cisco. Cisco
WAN,
WAN, 3. , ISDN, ISDN.
Cisco IOS, WAN- . WAN , . 56,
Frame-Relay 1.
, TJ, Frame-Relay, - , - . 56,
, Frame-Relay: .

, , .
WAN, .
,
(Digital Terminal Equipment - DTE).
DTE CSU/DSU , (Digital Communication

232

WAN

Equipment - DCE), , , .
.
, ( WAN), , show
i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l [ i n t e r f a c e number], [ i n t e r f a c e number] - . , , Serial ,
, show
i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0 ( ) - . 15.1.
ie dt > Control W
nidow gdp
popeyets
lh int line
s0
Serial0
is up
Hardwaisre up,
is HD645protocol
70
I n t e r n e t ddreslTis 130.1!4.1/19
MTU 1500 b y t e s . BW 2800 K b i t . DLY 20000 u s e c . r e l y 2 5 5 / 2 5 5 . l o a d
E n c a p s u l a t i o n PPP, l o o p b a c k n o t s e t , k e e p a l i u e s e t <10 s e c )
LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDP. ATALKCP, IPXCP
L a s t i n p u t 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 , o u t p u t 0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 . o u t p u t hang n e v e r
L a s t c l e a r i n g of "show i n t e r f a c e " c o u n t e r s n e v e r
I n p u t q u e u e : 0/75/0 < s i z e / i * a x / d r o p s ) ; T o t a l o u t p u t d r o p s : 0
Queue i n g s t r a t e g y : w e i g h t e d f a i r
O u t p u t queue: 0/64/8 < s i z e / t h r e s h o l d / d r o p s >
Conversations
0/1 < a c t i v e / n a x a c t i v e )
R e s e r v e d C o n v e r s a t i o n s 0/0 < a l l o c a t e d / N a x a l l o c a t e d )

1/255

5 minute o u t p u t r a t e 0 b i t s / s e c , p a c k e t s / s e c
54897 p a c k e t s i n p u t . 2127380 b y t e s . 0 no b u f f e r
Received 0 b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s . 0 g i a n t s , 0 t h r o t t l e s
0 i n p u t e r r o r s , , 0 f r a m e . 0 o v e r r u n , 8 i g n o r e d , 0 a b o r t
54891 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 2126555 b y t e s , u n d e r r u n
output buffer f a i l u r e s , 0 output buffers
12 c a r r i e r t r a n s i t i o n s
DCD=up DSR-up DTR=up RTS-up CTS-up
popeyeltl

swapped

out

. 15.1. WAN
^

.25 , Frame-Relay 3, .25 FrameRelay. WAN, HDLC , ,


.
6, .

DCE. ,
2505,
DTE ( V.35 DIE),
DCE ( V.35 DCE).
, WAN-. DCE ,
, CSU/DSU. clock
rate
( config-if ). 1200 8000000 / .
show controller
serial
[interface
number] (DTE DCE), .

2 3 3

HDLC
HDLC WAN- Cisco. ,
. HDLC, ,
(, 56
56 /). IGRP , IGRP - .
HDLC WAN- , . :
1. conf i g t, Enter. .
2. WAN, , i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0. Enter.
config-if.
3. e n c a p s u l a t i o n HDLC, Enter.
4. , bandwidth [ k i l o b i t s / s e c o n d ] . , [ k i l o b i t s / s e c o n d ] - . , 56 bandwidth 56, Enter (. 15.2).
* * Sclup Conlrol ifrKtow
opeyeBcoof i y t
E ntt e r c o n f i gf u ri a tti o n coiwiands, one p e r l i n e .
popeye<config>Bint s i
popeye<config-if>ttencapsulation hdlc
p o p e y e < c o n f i g - i F H t b a n d v i d t h 56
.
popeye<config-if>

End w i t h CNTL/Z.

. 15.2. HDLC WAN-


5. Ctrl+Z .
6. , Enter.
, ,
. , Cisco
7200
. interfase
serial
slot/port.
slot , port - .
..J

234

WAN


- (Point-to-Point Protocol - )
TCP/IP, (
HDLC). - , IP,
IPX AppleTalk. e n c a p s u l a t i o n .
,
HDLC. :
1. on f i g t , Enter. .
2. WAN, , i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0, Enter.
config-if.
3. e n c a p s u l a t i o n , Enter.
4. , b a n d w i d t h [ k i l o b i t s / s e c o n d ] , [ k i l o b i t s / s e c o n d ] -
. , 56 b a n d w i d t h 5 6,
Enter (. 15.3).
FpieopEed
etunpf igCotnto
it Wn
idow Hep
l
yitetconfiguration
tS
co
Enter
ci ds. one per line. End with CHTL/Z.
popeye<config>iint
s0
popeyetconfig-iOBencapsuiatioi
popeytKconfi
g-iOSbandwidth 56

.. 15.3.
5. Ctrl+Z .
6. , Enter.
p i n g
WAN. , WAN- Serial 0. WAN - . IP- WAN-,
p i n g [ i p a d d r e s s ]. . 15.4

popeyeXping 130.10.64.2
T
ype escape sequence to abort.
Sendi
ttt!tng 5. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 138.18.64.2. tineout is 2 seconds:
S u c c e s s r a t e i s 180 p e r c e n t <5/5>, r o u n d - t r i p nin/aug/ 4/4/4
popeyeX|

. 15.4. WAN-
ping

.25 , 2 3 5
. -
IP- 130.10.64.2 ( ,
IP-).

.25
.25, 70- , ( , , Frame-Relay ), - WAN-
DTE () DCE ( CSU/DSU).
.25 .121 (
). 1 14 .121- ,
, .25.
.25 ,
.25- (
128 ). , , .25, ( ). Internet- .
.25 :
1. c o n f i g t , Enter. .
2. WAN, ,
i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0, Enter. config-if.
3. e n c a p s u l a t i o n x2 5, Enter.
4. .121- , 2 5 a d d r e s s [ d a t a l i n k a d d r e s s ] , [ d a t a l i n k a d d r e s s ] ( ) - , Internet-. ,
25 a d d r e s s 3 4 7 6 5 0 0 0 1 ( 3 4 7 6 5 0 0 0 1 - .121-
), Enter.
5. 25 i p s [ b i t s ] ,
[ b i t s ] () . 256 , 2 5 i p s 256. Enter.
6. ;
25 ops [ b i t s ] . 256 :
25 ops 2 5 6. Enter.
7. ( , )
2 5 win [number of p a c k e t s ] , [number of p a c k e t s ] - . (
), 25 win 5 Enter.

236

WAN

8. ,
25 wout [number of p a c k e t s ] , 25 wout 5 ( ).
Enter. . 15.5 ,
1-8, , .

. 15.5. .25,
,

9. Ctrl+Z , .
10. . Enter.
.25 show i n t e r f a c e [ s e r i a l #], [ s e r i a l #] -
, .25.
^

.25 3, .25.


Frame-Relay
Frame-Relay ,
DTE DCE. DCE Frame-Relay ( ) (. 15.6), .
Frame-Relay
WAN. (Data
Link Connection Identifier - DLCI), FrameRelay. (. . 15.6), Frame-Relay.
.
Frame-Relay (Local Management Interface - LMI).

FRAME-RELAY 2 3 7

"^^^

. 15.6. Frame-Relay

LMI - , Frame-Relay. Cisco


LMI:
cisco - Cisco, Northern Telecom, DEC StrataCom LMI;
ansi - American National Standards LMI;
q933a - International Telecommunications LMI.
Frame-Relay WAN.
:
1. c o n f i g t ,
Enter. .
2. WAN, , i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0. Enter. config-if.
3. e n c a p s u l a t i o n frame, Enter.

238

WAN

4. DLCI- Frame-Relay f r a m e - r e l a y i n t e r f a c e - d l c i
[ # ], [ # ] - DLCI- . , DLCI- 100, f r a m e r e l a y i n t e r f a c e - d l c i 100. Enter.
5. f r a m e - r e l a y i n t e r f a c e - d l c i 100
d l c i DLCI.
,
i n t s0 Enter.
6. LMI ( ,
IOS , 11.2), f r a m e - r e l a y l m i - t y p e [ ], l m i
t y p e ( LMI) - cisco, ansi q933a.
LMI ansi, : f r a m e - r e l a y l m i - t y p e a n s i . Enter (. 15.7).
fie E* Setup Cgntrd
popeyettconfig
t
Enter
connands. one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
p
opeueconfiguration
<configg>
N
in
popeye<confi
--i
ff>IFranerel
>tBs8
encap franc
popeye<confi
g
i
interfacedlci 100
p
opeye<conf ig-fi dlcDBintay=0lni-type
popeyeCconfig-if>Hfrane-relay
ansi
popeye <conf ig-if>*
. 15.7.
Frame-Relay
7. Ctrl+Z .
8. , Enter.
IOS 11.2, LMI, . FrameRelay,
LMI . .
LMI,
(
LMI).
show i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l [ i n t e r f a c e n u m b e r ] , show
f r a m e - r e l a y l m i f r a m e - r e l a y map Frame-Relay. show f r a m e - r e l a y l m i , , LMI-. . 15.8

ISDN 2 3 9

. 15.8. LMI

( ).
show frame-relay map , DLCI , .
, . 15.9 DLCI- 100,
IP, IPX AppleTalk.
ie dt Selup C&iid u
jfodow jefr
pope yells h frame nap
SerialB <up): ip 130.18.64-2 dlci 100<0x64.0xl840>, dynamic,
S e r i a i e <up>: 1 7 6 3 2 0 ! 1 0 ! 7 ^
broadcast,, status defined,

dlci"l00<Bx64,0xl840>.
active

1
dynamic.

. 15.9. DLCI-

DLCI- ( )
, . , Serial 0,
,
Serial 0.1, 1 - , DLCI-.

ISDN
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - ,
. : ISDN (Basic Rate ISDN - BRI)
ISDN (Primary Rate ISDN - PRI).
ISDN , ISDN.
, ISDN-,
.
ISDN WAN,
:

240

WAN

,
. ISDN, , Frame-Relay.
ISDN BRI . BRI , 64 / (
128 /). (Service Profile Identifier - SPID). SPID-
, ,
ISDN, .
( .35- DTE DCE),
DCE.
frame-relay
interface-type
dee config-if.
,
DCE. frame-relay
swi tching
Frame-Relay.

ISDN
,
. . BRI PRI Web- www.cisco.com
-, Cisco

ISDN - ISDN, . SPID-


, (, HDLC).
BRI ISDN ISDN
:
1. conf ig t, Enter. .
2. ISDN, i sdn
switch type b a s i c - [], ,
. Enter.

ISDN ^ 2 4 1
3. ISDN. i n t b r i [ n u m b e r ] , [number] - BRI , BRI 0 BRI 1. Enter.
4. config-if (, ) Enter.
5. SPID- ISDN , config-if
i s d n s p i d l [ S P I D # ] , r a e [ S P I D # ] -
, (,
6125551234). i s d n s p i d l
6125551234. Enter.
6. SPID- , i s d n s p i d 2
[SPID #] config-if, , Enter.
7. , Ctrl+Z
.
show i n t b r i [number] .
NVRAM copy r u n n i n g - c o n f i g s t a r t u p - c o n f i g .
^

ISDN 3 ( ),
NVRAM - 7 ( Cisco).


"

Cisco

CONFIGMAKER

Cisco ConfigMaker
Cisco ConfigMaker - . Web- Cisco, ,
-
Cisco IOS. Cisco ConfigMaker ( ) . . , ,
Cisco ConfigMaker
.
Cisco ConfigMaker ,
Cisco IOS. , , , . , Cisco ConfigMaker
( , show, ping).
Cisco
IOS 11.2 (
Cisco IOS 12.0). , IOS , show v e r s i o n , .
Cisco IOS Cisco ConfigMaker, ,
LAN .

CISCO CONFIGMAKER 2 4 3

Cisco ConfigMaker
Cisco ConfigMaker IOS
, Web- Cisco, . Cisco ConfigMaker
, Cisco,
.
:
1. Internet- http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/734/
configmkr. Enter.
2. Download Cisco ConfigMaker,
Click Here ( Cisco ConfigMaker ).
.
Submit (). FTP,
. FTP .
3. Cisco ConfigMaker .

Cisco ConfigMaker
Cisco ConfigMaker ,
Microsoft Windows 95/98, Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000. :

486 ( Pentium);
16 RAM;
20 ;
SVGA 800x600, 256 ;
CD-ROM ( -).

Cisco ConfigMaker - ( IOS)


Internet.
- CD-ROM. , ,
.
, , .
.


Cisco ConfigMaker, , , , LAN,

244

CISCO CONFIGMAKER

. ,
(, Cisco) , (
).
IP, IPX AppleTalk, - .
/
- Cisco ConfigMaker . , - .
Cisco ConfigMaker, Windows ( =>
=> Cisco ConfigMaker) ConfigMaker,
Windows .
Cisco ConfigMaker (. 16.1).
, ;

a
: Dee
ld FtewaJ
) Internet
orporate Network
-V- Ethernel LAM

I
Host
| n j DiaHn PCi [modem]
I ?2 Dial-in PCs [ISDN|
g jJJ Cisco Cache Engine
I 0 Cisco Micio Webserver 200
I ffi 3 Micro Hubs
I 3 ^ J Miao Hub Stacks
'+, J Switches
- 4 J Rouleii
I
8= i*J Cisco 800 Series

'

r V : l

dsi

"

'

s t a r !

Wt C i i c o Conf
you can also:

2i

Device: g Needs kit mabon


i Connection: / Needs tit mation
Ready

| Ready for debvery Eire

mddhwy DcSveied s

/ Has requiied information

( 4 )

. 16.1. Cisco ConfigMaker :


1 - ; 2 - ; 3 - ;
4 - ; 5 -

2 4 5
/

. No, .
Cisco ConfigMaker :
Cisco,
, . , , LAN
;
, . LAN-, Ethernet, WAN-,
HDLC ;

;
, . , ,
View => Task List ( => ). ,
;

Cisco ConfigMaker.
. , .


, LAN.
, - 2505 Ethernet
LAN - . :
1. 2505, + () . 2505 (. 16.2).
2. 2505, . Cisco 2505.
3. Device Name ( ) , (
). Next ().
4. (. 16.3), Next.

246

CISCO CONRGMAKER

I 8, <" '*
Dee
l d FfewaJ DeSver Pn
ig ; Tutaa
il

Si

Device: Neede Womation Ready for deSveiy

DeCveied uce**(ully

j ! Correction: / Needi / Has required Wormalion


NUMl

. 76.2.
-=-|-^.7-.-^-,. .1
The Lcgn
i Pasiwotd So
tws you to o
l g inlolhe devcie (t
consoe
l port oi by tdnet'
After you login. Ihe Enabe
l P^w
j word eo
l w youtomake changes
to the devc
ies' contg
i *iabort.

. 16.3.

5. , . IP,
IPX AppleTalk (. 16.4).
Next.
6. ,
. Finish ()
.
(
). LAN, .

2 4 7

Setect the netwotk protocosl you pa


in to use on ths route

. /6.4.

Ethernet LAN, icon (), - , LAN.


LAN (. 16.5).
.
0 4 yfe*flbjectto
Icfc H*

Cut

X
Delete

; <> %.. * Tutora


il
| Detect FtewalDegvet Png

Dsco 2509
Cisco 25O9-RJ
*%Dseo251l
' 9 Osco 2511-RJ
\-4 Cisco 2514
- Cisco 2516
4 1 Cisco 2520

/
/

/
X

Ethernet
HDLC
PPPISjre Serial
Fiame Relay
Async
ISDN
ISDN Leased Lhe
zLhl
Device: Needsrtorniatkjo Ready foi ddivery

JiConriednn: /Needs

/Haiteqoieiiinfama

iEirotondeivety ^DeSvwed

Ready

. 16.5. LAN ,
,
Esc , . ,
Delete ().

248

CISCO CONFIGMAKER

LAN
LAN ,
LAN.
: IP- . IPX AppleTalk,
.
LAN :
1. Ethernet
( Ethernet LAN). Ethernet
Connection ( Ethernet) .
2. , - Ethernet
LAN, Ethernet.
3. (Ethernet LAN), Ethernet,
Ethernet LAN Ethernet .
Next.
4. IP- Ethernet ( IPX,
IPX-, AppleTalk -
). IP- (. 16.6).
Enter the IP Waraiation ( Ihii Ethernet coreclion. Th iP
iniotmetion appSei to the connection interface on Popeye.

IP address:

1130. ID . 32 . 1

|1.|

. 16.6. IP-

5. Subnet Mask ( ) ,
, (. 10).
6. Next.
7. ,
. Finish .

2 4 9

LAN.
( ) View => Attributes => IP Address, IPX Address AppleTalk Address
( => => IP-, IPX-, AppleTalk-) -
. , Attributes () .
Attributes , , . View => Attributes => Port Number ( =* => ).
. 16.7 Ethernet LAN,
IP-.
IP
Ethernet, IP- , . , , ,
IP-. IP- (. 10) IP-.

Vew QMects loot H*

'1< ~ Odete

Delect

Riawel' DdrMt

Ping

| Tutoriel

1700 SHI
s) Csico 2500 Se
is
; *S Csico 2501
fCtcio25D3
J Csico 2509
'-* Csico 2509-RJ
| <BOsco2511-RI
: Csi co251
K
1 S&CO2516
*%t Csico 2520

3J Devc
i e: Nee* ntotmabon Rea*toway Eror on de*eti
^ Comecw
f o: / Needsrtotmaiion/'Hatfequi'ed rt
. 16.7. View ,

2 5 0 ^ CISCO CONFIGMAKER

, Cisco ConfigMaker
.


,
LAN ( Ethernet Cisco ConfigMaker)

WAN ( Frame-Relay). Cisco ConfigMaker .
( ,
, ). 2505 (. 16.8)
WAN:
1. .
WAN (, ) .
2. , , , .
3. WAN,
( HDLC). .
4. Next, .

Detect Friewal Deky Pn


ig
'i 43 Csico 2500 See
ris
Ckco 2501
-" D*co 2503

*"4 Dsco 2507


-* Dsco 2509
* dsco 2509-RJ
Cisco 2511
Cisco 2511-RJ
4 1 Ci;co2514
Dsco 2516
IV usco 2520

ISDN
/ ISDN Leased Line
Voice Line
_xj

Device: ||| Needsrtonnabon Ready tot deiveiy E n ndetvy j l Delivered ucesslugy

Connecboa/Needsinfocmabon /Haslequksdinfoimalion
Ready

. /.8. WA

2 5 1

5. (, Serial 0), WAN (. 16.9).


Next.

. 16.9. ,
WAN

6.
(. 16.10). IP-
( IP),
Next.
E
tao
ttihn
ea
IPpp
/oftro
wn
lthfiefoc
ron
thn
s
ieco
oc
ne
nedo
o
in
n. d
TN
s. P
I
n
ifon
rm
e
irlis
tiP
nPPn
itec
rfa
v
ie
*;***5""
( atttess j

. 16.10.

7. Next.
8. (IP- ) . 6.
Next.
9. , , No Backup
( ). . Next.

252

CISCO CONFIGMAKER

10. , WAN . Finish.


(. 16.11). View Addressing ( ), .
***> look *
Delete ! j Detect FeewaH Deiva

Ping

! TUotiaJ

i - J 1700 Sei

i^j Cisco 2500 Sefies


Cisco 2501
j Cisco 2503
: *S Cisco 2507
a
i ? Cisco 2509

* Cisco 2509[-1 Cisco 251


!
-*S! Cisco 251
| S Cisco 2514
| Cisco 2516
i 4 Coco 2520

I
I

*j Device: Needs rtotmatkxi


j Connection: / Needs rrfotroation

eO, 130 10.32.1/10

Reacb- deSvety Q Eirai on t


H lequiied infonnatioo

. 16.11. WAN

Cisco ConfigMaker
, LAN, .
. .
, Cisco ConfigMaker. IP-,
.
, , , Cisco ConfigMaker.

2 5 3

.
, , . ,
.
1.
-, View => Options
( => ). , .
:
1. Cisco ConfigMaker , , . (. 16.12).
2 ().

x J! <. ..

- * i *

Delete hi.Detect FiewaH

Ping

: !

j i j Cisco 1700 Sen


sco 2500 Secies
^ 9 Cisco 2501
Cisco 2503

* Csico2507

Cisco 2509
?"?? Cisco 25D9-RJ
9 Cisco2511
? Cisco 2511-RJ
"^ Cisco 2514
Cisco 2516
P Cisco 2520

/
/

/
/

/
xj

G, 530 10.32.1/19

Elhemel
HDLC
PPP|5ireSl
Fiame Relay
k m
ISDN
ISDN Leased
Voice line

.rib!
Needs Womatiod delivwy

j;Co4nedore /NeedsWowa^ion /HasietxMedrrfami

. /. /2. ,

2. Deliver () Cisco ConfigMaker. , . Next.


3. Cisco ConfigMaker ,
-, ( ,
).

254

CISCO CONFIGMAKER

4. Next.
5. (. 16.13). (
) , NVRAM.
Pe
lasewak We N
i s wziard cong
fiuresyour devc
ie.
may take several mrae
lis.

Illllllllllllllllllll
Savn
ig cong
fiurao
tin to the Popeyes' notwoa
ltfe

, 16.13.
6. , (), . Finish .
.
show s t a r t u p - c o n f i g :
,
Cisco ConfigMaker.
Save () Cisco ConfigMaker. Save as ( ) , Save In ( ) -
. Save.
, File => Exit ( =>
). Cisco ConfigMaker

, Cisco.
^>

7,
.

Cisco ConfigMaker ,
Windows. , .

TFTP

TFTP

NVRAM, ,
, ,
. , , .

, NVRAM .
.
(Trivial File Transfer Protocol - TFTP) TCP/IP,
, TFTP. FTP, Internet ( Web- FTP), (
). IP- ,
TFTP, . TFTP ,
( ) IOS
IOS .
, TFTP
(, ). . 17.1 TFTP.
, TFTP ,
TFTP.
, IP-.

256

TFTP

)
TFTP
IOS Flash

TFTP

NVRAM

IOS Flash

(
TFTP
\

. 17.1. TFTP

, , FTP
. FTP
Internet . , ( IP-
).
FTP, .

, , 9, .

TFTP

TFTP. Cisco ( Web- http://www.cisco.comy

TFTP, Internet ( TFTP server). Web-, www.solarwinds.net, TFTP- SolarWinds,
Cisco. : TFTP . ,
. TFTP ,
, .
TFTP Cisco,
Web- www.cisco.com. (

TFTP CISCO 2 5 7

Cisco, ). Software Center1 ( ).


Other Software ( ).
,
(. 17.2).
. (. ).
m e t E u p J o i e i p i n vided

J&

Vim Fjv.

Iods

i
I1

-1
Back
Addis,,

* . .

.-

HI

a
s14>

bf MSN

Hdp

Refresh

Home

Seech

Favaies

h lislbiy

Ma

Software Center
Other Software

*." Dimes
_j

.CO I ' p u b l i c / i w - c . nter/:w-o'l t.shlml

^ G o ; Li

Cm i
n

I
' Other Software Products
Cisco TFTP Server for Windows 95Aindows
98/N~T 4.0 *
Cisco TFTP Server is en easy-to-use Windows ?5/Windows
98/ 4.0 TriTiil File Transfei iJFTPj w m apphcalion for
Usnsfening files ftom one system to another with TFTP client
software Also, it can be used to upgrade software on Cisco
ptodtfets that support TFTP client.
Special File Access
You must have been given a special code by a Cisco
lepresentative to retrieve files in this area.

bout R st
Soft*- f4*
Specail Fit* Ac

Additional Information

*j

[ST

. 17.2. TFTP
Web- Cisco


TFTP Cisco
TFTP Cisco
Windows 95/98, (
TFTP). , Ethernet 0
IP- 10.16.0.1,
. , IP-
, Ethernet 0.
1

Cisco TFTP . . . .

9 - 4631

258

TFTP

14 ( IP- ), Ethernet, Ethernet 0 , IP- 10.16.0.1 10.32.255.254.


TFTP, IP-
. TCP/IP
10.16.0.4 (. 17.3).
B
n
idngs } Advanced ] DN5 Corfgurao
iln
Gae
tway ] W
N
IS Cog
rfiuabon P
I Address
H
yon
u
ne
tcu
kdm
dn
o
storno
jan
maate
cw
ia
g
in
n
ee
ssesit, in
ask
y
erw
few
c
fw
isie
tra
w
It to
da
dfre
,ss
a
dIP
thenadd
tyrp
tho
eursp
a
c
be
o
la
w
Qba
ln
i an !P addte a
. 0. A
SybneM
t aac
f 1255 .240 . 0-0

Cancel [

. 17.3. , ,
TFTP, IP-

IP-, TFTP. Cisco :


1. Windows Explorer , .
2. Cisco TFTP, .
3. , Next
TFTP , .
4. Browse ()
. Next.
5. TFTP.
, . Next.
6. .
Finish, .

TFTP 2 5 9

DHCP, NT 4 DHCP,
IP-. DHCP ,
TFTP, TCP/IP (. . 17.3).
. , TFTP.

TFTP
NVRAM RAM TFTP. , , NVRAM, T F T P , (
,
).
TFTP :
1. TFTP , => => Cisco TFTP Server. TFTP - ,
IP- TFTP,
TFTP .
2. e n a b l e .
3. c o p y - s t a r t u p - c o n f i g t f t p
Enter.
4. IP- IP- T F T P
( - 10.16.0.4). Enter.
5. , .
conf g (, c i s c o 2 5 0 5 c o n f g).
, Enter.
6. (. 17.4). Enter
( , ).
TFTP. W r i t i n g r o u t e r namec o n f ig. ! ! [OK] , .
TFTP (. 17.5).
9*

260

TFTP

fe Ed letup Csnod Wnidow


Ci
sco2SBSNcopv startup-config tftp
Remote h o s t ? 1 8 . 1 6 . 8 . 4

. 17.4. IP- TFTP ,



TFTP Seivei 110.1.0.41 - CAPRGGRAH FILE5\CISC0 SY5TEM5\CISC0 TUP 5.. HE1E3
). Ed
a\ x f t ' l i
TueJunDi 16:42:04 1999: Receiving 'cca250tconlgi fia* 10.1.0.1 in binary iftode
II
'
Tue Jon 01 1 <2 M 1999: Succnilul.

^1

. 17.5. TFTP

RAM . , 3
copy r u n n i n g - c o n f i g t f t p .

TFTP
TFTP , ,
.
TFTP NVRAM RAM
. , NVRAM, , .
Windows
Explorer , TFTP. . TFTP : C:\dsco
Systems\Gsco TFTP Server. Windows Explorer,
, .

TFTP 2 6 1


NVRAM:
1. TFTP .
2. e n a b l e .
3. copy t f t p s t a r t u p - c o n f ig,
Enter.
4. IP- IP-
TFTP ( 10.16.0.4). Enter.
5. , (
,
). Enter.
6. (. 17.6) Enter.
Setup
Cnd
tfstartup-conf
n
flidow g
Cid
sc
yotftp
A
dor2
es5sBo5ftcorepm
te host
[255.255.2i5
5.25S1? 10.16.0.4
of c o n f i g u r a t i o n f i l e [ c i s c o 2 5 - c o n f g ] ?

C o n f i g u r e u s i n g c i s c o 2 5 0 5 - c o n f g from 1 0 . 1 6 . 0 . 4 ? [ c o n f i i - !

-U

. 17.6. IP-
Enter

( NVRAM).
[], , . TFTP, .

IOS
TFTP
, TFTP
( IP ). TFTP
IOS Flash RAM , .
Cisco IOS . , 12. , ,
, ,
IOS . IOS Cisco, 11.
www.cisco.com.

262

TFTP

, Cisco,
. Cisco. . 17.7 Web-,
IOS - IOS, IOS (, Cisco 2505, IOS,

).
'
ie Veiw Favorites Tools Hep
l
^ ." -> . & jh
4
Back Fawaid Stop Refresh Ho
Ajdtettjgj larsfwcgi?9Ct_cfyp(o^ds>OOT-&h

a - i i i = J
. i
:
Seatch Favoties HsiKxy Mali Pmt <* Dsic

b^

*j

Cisco IDS Planner


Welcome to the New Cisco IOS Planner!
Our new Cisco IOS Planner allows you moreflexibilityto browse.for your preferred software. No longer are you limited to
seeing just one major release at a time, or forced to make choices in a certain order. You can now view all major releases, all
platforms, and all software featuresfroma single interface. Choosing a platform, a maintenance release, or software feature wil
automatically limit the other menu choices based on your selection, until you arrive at your preferred software.
CCO Software Center Team
[12.0]

Your Selected Platform


2501-2525

(11.21

[VLSI

11

Select Release
Major Release Updates
1204

LD

[1M1

[AH]

Select Software Feature


EMTEKFRISEITOS
ENTERPRISE 1 40
W
> ONLY

. 17.7. - IOS Web- Cisco

IOS Flash RAM Web- Cisco ( -,


IOS) TFTP. C:\Cisco Systems\Cisco
TFTP Server. Windows Explorer
.
IOS Flash
RAM . , IOS .
, Flash
RAM: IOS. 2505 Flash RAM 8 , , ,
IOS.

IOS TFTP 2 6 3

, , TFTP . , IP- /
TFTP , Ethernet
, . , TFTP ping.
ping IP Address,
IP Address IP- / TFTP, Enter. ,
TFTP.

IOS TFTP, Flash RAM :


,
\. TFTP .
2. enable .
3. copy t f t p flash, Enter.
4. ,
IOS.
Enter.
5. IP- IP- TFTP
( 10.16.0.4). Enter.
6. IOS TFTP, . , IOS;
80114109.bin, IOS 11.2. Enter.
7. . IOS ( 6) Enter.
8. Flash RAM IOS, Enter.
Flash RAM IOS,
. Enter.
9. , yes, Enter. . 17.8 Cisco 2505
IOS.
10. Flash RAM: yes Enter.
IOS . .

2 6 4 TFTP
Fie d* Setup Control Wnidow
Cisco25BStcopy tftp flash
Flash load helper ul.8
This
processsystem
will accept
the
copytheoptions
and then
terminate
the current
image
tonot
use
ROM based
image
for the copy.
Routing
Functionality
will
be available
during
that

i
you
are
logged
in
v
ia
tc
inct
t
his
connection
willtine.
t em in at e .
U s e r s w i t h o n s o l o a c c e s s see at he r e s u l t s the copy operat ion
Proceed?

[confirm!

System F l a s h d i r e c t o r y :
File
Length
Name/status
1
5334792
80114109.bin
[5334856 b y t e s u s e d , 3053752 a v a i l a b l e , 8388668 t o t a l ]
Address or name of remote h o s t [ 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 1 ? 1 0 . 1 6 . 0 . 4
Source f i l e name? 8B114109.bin
D e s t i n a t i o n f i l e name [80114109.bin
1?
1
Recessing f i l e '88114109.bin
on 1 0 . 1 6 . 0 . 4 . . .
Loading BB114189.bin from I B . 1 6 . 0 . 4 ( v i a E t h e r n e t s ) : f [OKI
Erase f l a s h d e v i c e before w r i t i n g ? [ c o n f i r m ]
F l a s h c o n t a i n s f i l e s , fire you sure you want t o e r a s e ?
System c o n f i g u r a t i o n has been m o d i f i e d . Save?

[confirm]

[yes/bo]:

yes|

. 17.8. I
Flash RAM
, IOS (, 11.2 6 ). Cisco TFTP, , #.
.
, Enter ( ). IOS
show f l a s h . Flash RAM
IOS ( , 6).
Flash RAM
, IOS
TFTP.
copy f l a s h t f t p , - IP- , . .
TFTP IOS. ,
.

\ \'V.

, (
), Cisco
.



, .
, , : . ,
, ,
. , , .
, ; (
).
,
, : '
, . .


, RAM, .

2 6 6
, ,
.
6 . WAN- ,
(, 2505), , - ( ,
Cisco 4500).
- show i n t e r f a c e s . up (. 18.1), , ; ,
. (
up), ( down),
, .

popeyelsh
interfaces
Ethernets is up. line

p r o t o c o l i s up , u s i n g bub
Hardware i s L a n c e , a d d r e s s i s 8010.7.50 ( b i a 8 8 1 . 7 . 5 >
I n t e r n e t address is 130.10.32.1/19
flTU I S M b y t e s . BV 10000 K b i t . DLS 1808 u s e c . r e l y 2 5 5 / 2 5 5 . l o a d
E n c a p s u l a t i o n flRPfl. l o o p b a c k n o t s e t . k e e p a l i u e s e t <1B s e c )
ARP t y p e : ARPA. ARP Timeout 0 4 : 0 0 : 8 0
L a s t i n p u t n e v e r , o u t p u t 8 0 : 0 8 : 8 8 , o u t p u t hang n e v e r

1/255

Queueing s t r a t e g y : f i F o
Output queue / 4 8 , d r o p s ; i n p u t queue 8 / 7 5 . d r o p s
p a c k e t s i n p u t , b y t e s , no b u f f e r
R e c e i v e d b r o a d c a s t s . I) r u n t s . g i a n t s , t h r o t t 1 6 s
I n p u t e r r o r s , CRC. 0 franc,
overrun, ignored, abort
input packets with dribble condition detected
27437 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 2302872 b y t e s , u n d e r r u n s
output e r r o r s , c o l l i s i o n s , 4 Interface resets
babbles, late c o l l i s i o n , deferred
l o s t c a r r i e r , c a r r i e r
o u t p u t b u f f e r f a i l u r e s , o u t p u t b u f f e r s swapped o u t
S e r i a i e i s u p , l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up
Hardware i s HD64570
D e s c r i p t i o n : connected to o l i v e
I n t e r n e t address i s 130.1.64.1/19
MTU 1580 b y t e s , BU 2B00 K b i t , DI.V 20000 u s e c , r e l y 2 5 5 / 2 5 5 , l o a d
E n c a p s u l a t i o n PPP. l o o p b a c k n o t s e t . k e e p a l i v e s e t <1 s e c )
LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDP, ATALKCP, IPXCP
L a s t i n p u t 8 : 0 : 8 3 , o u t p u t 8 0 : 9 0 : 0 1 , o u t p u t hang n e v e r

1/255

I n p u t q u e u e : 0/75/0 < s i z e / i i a x / d r a p s > ; T o t a l o u t p u t d r o p s :


Queueing s t r a t e g y : w e i g h t e d f a i r
O u t p u t q u e u e : 0/64/0 ( s i z e / t h r e s h o l d V d r o p s )
Conversations
0/1 ( a c t i v e / w a x a c t i v e )
R e s e r v e d C o n v e r s a t i o n s 0/0 < a l l o c a t e d / M X a l l o c a t e d )

. 18.1.
show
interfaces
. show
c o n t r o l l e r s .
. 18.2 show c o n t r o l l e r e t h e r n e t .
, : . , ( ) . ,

2 6 7

Ffe * letup Cento


i l Wn
idow Hdp

pLN
olfpCeEyelunit
show0.controller
idb 0x95?ethei
fl0, ds 0x97268. rec
0x2130080.
IB a t 0X2B6MC: node0xB00e. f i l t e r 000t ddr
l00x2020 reset_i*ask i
ddress B01B.7b3a.50b3

s t a t i o n a d d r e s s BB10.7b3a.5Bb3
default station
b u f f e r s i z e 1524
RX r i n g w i t h 16 e n t r i e s a t Bx206DP0
Rxhead - 0x2B6DFB <B>, Rxp - 0x97284 <B>
pak-0xB99EE8 ds-0x210P.2E s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0 ax_siz< 1524 p a k _ s i z e - 0
Bl -0x0991)18 ds-0x2183?6 s t a t u s - B x 8 0 max_si2i 1524 p a k _ s i z e - B
B2 pak-0xB99B48 ds=0x20FC8E s t a t u s - 0 x 8 B * a x _ s i z i 1524 pak_size>B
B3 pak-0x0999?8 ds-0x20F606 s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0 n a x _ s i z i 1524 p a k _ s i z e - B
04 pak-Bx0997fl8 ds-0x28EF4E s t t u s - 0 x 8 B nax_sizf 1S24 p a k _ s i z e - B
B5 pk-0xB995D8 ds-0x2BE896 s t a t u s - n a x _ s i z i 1524 p a k _ s i z e - 0
B6 p a k ' 0 x 0 9 9 4 0 8 ds-Bx2BElDE = t a t u s " 0 x 8 8 n a x _ s i z i 1524 pal _ s i z e = 0
B7 pak-0xB99238 d s -0x2BDB26 s t a t u s - 0 x 8 B M x _ s i z <
09 pak-0x099068 ds-Bx20D46E s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0 *ax_siz<
09 pak-0x098E98 ds-0x28CDB6 s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0 nax_siz<
IB pak=0x098CC8 ds-0x20CFE
11 pak-0x898fiF8 ds-0x2BC046 s t a t u s - M X . s i z e '1524 pal _ s i z e 0
12 pak-0xB9B928 ds-0x2BB98E s t a t u s - 0 x B B *AX_size 1524 pa!
13 pak=0x0987S8
k0B987S8 d
ds-0x20B2D6
0 2 0 B 2 D 6 s t ttu sB- 08x 800 _ i
1524 pai
14 pak'0xB9B588 ds-0x20flClE s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0 max
1524 pai _ s i z e - B
15 pak-Bx0?83B8 d s -0x2Bfl566 s t a t u s - 0 x 8 0
1524 pa ;_5ize-B
TX r i n g w i t h 4 e n t r i e s a t Bx286EA8, t x _ c o u n t - 0
t x j t e a d " 0x206EB0 <1>, h e a d _ t x p - 0x972DC <1>
t x _ t a i l - Bx206EBB <1>, t a i l _ t x p - 0x972DC <1>
Bfl -0000 ds=0x232D2E s t a t u s - s t a t u s 2 - 0 x 0 f l B 0 p a k _ s i z e - 7 7
Bl pak-0x000000 ds=Bx2314flfl s t a t u s - 0 x 0 3 s t a t u s 2 = 0 x 0 0 e 0 p a k _ s i z e - 0
02 pak-Bx000000 ds=0x245fi?E s t a t u s - s t a t u s 2 - 0 x 0 0 B e p a k _ s i z e - 3 3 7
03 pak-0x800008 ds-0x2314flfl s t a t u s - s t a t u s 2 - 0 x 0 B e 0 p a k _ s i 2 e - 6 8
0 m s s e d datagrams 0 overruns
0 t r a n s m i t t e r underruns, 0 excessive c o l l i s i o n s
0 single collisions. multiple collisions
dna n e n a r y e r r o r s , CRC e r r o r s
aligniMnt e r r o r s . r u n t s . giants
t d r . 0 s p u r i o u s i n i t i a l i z a t i o n done i n t e r r u p t s
8 no enp s t a t u s , 0 b u f f e r e r r o r s . 0 o v e r f l o w e r r o r s
Hore

. 18.2. ,


, , ( Cisco ,
).
- V.35. LAN
WAN : .

, , . show s t a c k s , ,
( Cisco ,
, ).
, ( ) .

( )
(, ), .

268

,
( - , ) 1. ,
CiscoWorks, ,
.
.
,
, . ,
. ( ). , .
,
.


, ,
, .
Ethernet Ethernet . , LAN ,
LAN .
, ,, . ,
, - , .
LAN,
. ,
, . - (. ) .

Token Ring. Token
Ring (MAU), LAN .
, LAN .
bottleneck,
. - . . .

- 2 6 9

, WAN,
. - CSU/DSU, . CSU/DSU , WAN .
, . .
. ,
Frame-Relay. , .
, Frame-Relay,
.


LAN , . , -.
,
,
.
,
.
, , . .
, .
,
, .
, .
. , , ,, .
.
~^

1, .

. , ,

270

, . (
), (
).

. ,
;
. , .


LAN
LAN
,
IOS. show. LAN - Ethernet Token Ring.
^>-

Ethernet Token Ring 1,


.

Ethernet
Ethernet - ,
(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection - CSMA/CD).
, , . ,
, ,
, .
show i n t e r f a c e s e t h e r n e t [ i n t e r f a c e number] Ethernet. . 18.3 Ethernet 0 Cisco 2505.
, , Ethernet. ,
, RAM.
, show i n t e r f a c e s e t h e r n e t [ i n t e r f a c e number]:
E t h e r n e t O i s u p , l i n e p r o t o c o l i s up , Ethernet .
( down), LAN .

LAN 2 7 1
File. dt Seu
tp ControlWn
idow Hecf
pope
ye is his
owup.
interfaces
ethernet
Ethernet!)
line
protocol
is u0p . using hub 0
Hardware i s L a n c e , d d r e s s i s 0 0 1 0 . 7 b 3 a . 5 0 b 3 <bia 010.7.0>
D e s c r i p t i o n : c o n n e c t e d t o EthcrnetLflH
I n t e r n e t address is 130.18.32.1/19
riTU 1500 b y t e s . BW 10000 K b i t . DLV 1000 u s e c . r e l y 2 5 5 / 2 5 5 . l o a d
E n c a p s u l a t i o n fiRPfl, l o o p b a c k n o t s e t , k e e p a l i v e s e t <1B s e c )
flRP t y p e : , flRP Timeout 6 4 : 0 0 : 0 0

1/255

L a s t c l e a r i n g of "show i n t e r f a c e " c o u n t e r s n e v e r
Queue ing s t r a t e g y : f i f o
Output queue 0 / 4 0 , d r o p s ; i n p u t queue 0 / 7 5 , 0 d r o p s
S ninute input r a t e b i t s / s e c . packets/sec
5 ninute output r a t e 0 b i t s / s e c , packets/sec
0 p a c k e t s i n p u t . 0 b y t e s . 0 no b u f f e r
Received 0 b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s , 0 g i a n t s , t h r o t t l e s
0 i n p u t e r r o r s , 0 CRC, f r a n e , 0 o v e r r u n , 0 i g n o r e d , 0 a b o r t
8 i n p u t p a c k e t s w i t h d r i b b l e c o n d i t ion d e t e c t e d
7651 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 744702 b y t e s , 0 u n d e r r u n s
0
0
0
pope ye

babbles, 0 l a t e c o l l i s i o n , 0 deferred
l o s t c a r r i e r , 0 no c a r r i e r
output buffer f a i l u r e s , output buffers
|

swapped o u t

. 18.3. Ethernet 0

, . configuration-if
, s h u t ( ), no s h u t ( ),
;
H a r d w a r e a d d r e s s - ;
I n t e r n e t a d d r e s s IP- ,
( IP- , TCP/IP);
MTU ;
BW , ;
r e l y , 255/255
. , ( ..);
l o a d . ,
255/255 ( ,
);
E n c a p s u l a t i o n Ethernet,
( 802.2 Ethernet).
(, NetWare 802.3),
. config-if Ethernet - , s n a p ;
c o l l i s i o n s .
,
, , ,
LAN .

, IOS
.

272

Ethernet LAN (, ).

Token Ring
LAN Token Ring
. , , , . Token
Ring , Ethernet.
Token Ring show
i n t e r f a c e s t o k e n r i n g [ i n t e r f a c e n u m b e r ] . show
i n t e r f a c e s Ethernet, , , . , Ethernet (, H a r d w a r e A d d r e s s , I n t e r n e t A d d r e s s ,
MTU, BW Rely); LAN Token Ring,
:
Token r i n g i s up , . ( down),
configuration-if;
Hardware a d d r e s s - ;
I n t e r n e t a d d r e s s IP- , (IP- , TCP/IP);
MTU ;
BW ;
r e l y , 255/255
. ;
l o a d . 255/255 ( , Token Ring LAN);
Ring Speed Token Ring LAN, . Token Ring, ,
(4 16 /): . , ,
show r u n n i n g - c o n f i g . , r i n g - s p e e d config-if ;
R e s t a r t s . Token
Ring 0.

WAN , 2 7 3

Token Ring LAN ,


.
Token Ring
'Token Ring LAN. , , Token Ring LAN
. Token Ring, Token Ring.
www.ibm.com ( Token Ring).


WAN
WAN LAN.
show i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l [ i n t e r f a c e n u m b e r ] . : WAN- ( Frame-Relay). ,
, .
show i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l [ i n t e r f a c e number] ,
(
. 18.4 show i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l 0
2505):
S e r i a l O i s up , .
( down), CSU/DSU, . , ,
( CSU/DSU , , :
). (
, Ethernet);
l i n e P r o t o c o l i s up , WAN-
. ( down), , , ( show r u n n i n g - c o n f i g )
, ,
.
;
I n t e r n e t a d d r e s s IP- , (IP- , TCP/IP);
MTU
;

274

Setup Central Window Hefe

popeyefshow interfaces serial


SerialB is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is HD6457B
Description - connected to olive
Internet address is 130.18.64.1/19
15B0 bytes. BW 280B Kbit, DLV 2 u n c , rely 255/255. load 1/255
Encapsulation PPP. loopback not set, keepaliwe set CIS sec>
LCP Open
Open: IPCP, CDP. ATflLXCP, IPXCP
L a s t i n p u t ' : : 0 , o u t p u t : 0 : . o u t p u t hang n e v e r
L a s t c l e a r i n g of "show i n t e r f a c e " c o u n t e r s newer
I n p u t q u e u e : 0/75/8 C s l z e / H a x / d r o p s > ; T o t a l o u t p u t d r o p s :
Queue ing s t r a t e g y : w e i g h t e d f a i r
O u t p u t q u e u e : /4/8 < s i z e / t h r e s h o l d / d r o p s >
R e s e r v e d C o n v e r s a t i o n s / < a l l o c a t e d / M x a l l o c a t e d )
5 minute i n p u t r a t e 8 b i t s / s e c , p a c k e t s / s e c
5 minute o u t p u t r a t e b i t s / s e c , p a c k e t s / s e c
17974 p a c k e t s i n p u t , 707978 b y t e s , no b u f f e r
Received b r o a d c a s t s , r u n t s , g i a n t s , t h r o t t l e s
i n p u t e r r o r s , CRC, frame, o u e r r u n , i g n o r e d , a b o r t
17981 p a c k e t s o u t p u t , 708047 b y t e s , u n d e r r u n s
output e r r o r s , c o l l i s i o n s , 6 interface resets
o u t p u t b u f f e r f a i l u r e s , o u t p u t b u f f e r s swapped o u t
DCD-up
popeyet

DSR-up

DTR-up

RTS-up

CTS-up

. 18.4.

, CSU/DSU, (breakout box). CSU/


DSU .
, ,
CSU/DSU.

BW }'.
config-if
bandwidth. , ;
r e l y , 255/255
. , ( ..);
load . 255/255 ( ,
LAN
);
Encapsulation WAN, . WAN- , . , WAN- ,
( ,
Frame-Relay);
CRC , . , ,
CSU/DSU .

TCP/IP 2 7 5

,
show , .
WAN . , dial-up ISDN - .
, WAN, .
DCE,
clock rate config-if .
1200 800000000 /. ,
DCE, show
controllers
serial
[interfacenumber].
, ,
, (DCE DTE).


TCP/IP
TCP/IP ,
. 10 , IP , IP
. , ,
IP-,
, .
, IP. :
- LAN, , LAN (
) IP- , LAN.
, ( IP-);
- show i p r o u t e , , . , , ;
. - .
show running-conf i g ( , );

276

IP- - , IP- ( , IP), show i p i n t e r f a c e s .


14 IP.
, ,
, . , ,
.

ping
p i n g -
( ). IP- ICMP. , . , , .
ping, ping [ i p a d d r e s s ], [ ip
a d d r e s s ] - IP- , . . 18.5 ping
.
Ete <* Setup Cartel *
poyp
eK
ping 138.18.96.1
T
peedyin
S
en
gescape
5, sequence to abort.
!!!!!
88-byte C
IMP Echos to 138.IB.96.1. tineout is 2 seconds:
is 188 percent <5/5>. round-trip Ptin/aug/nax - 4/4/8 ns

~3

. 18.5.

ping, ( IPX AppleTalk), , . p i n g Enter. ,


ping, Enter ( ). . 18.6 ping.
ping trace .

IPX 2 7 7

p
opeyedpintip
g
Protocol
Target IP address:

138.1.64.2
Repeat c o u n t [ 5 ]
Datagram s i z [ 1 0 0 ] :
TiMout i
conds [21=
Extended
Mids En]:
Sweep
sizes En]:
T
S e n d i n g 5 , 1 0 0 - b y t e 1 Echos t o 1 3 0 . 1 0 . 6 4 . 2 , t i n e o u t i s S s e c o n d s :
TtTt
S u c c e s s r a t e i s 100 p e r c e n t <5/S>, r o u n d - t r i p nin/avgXiMX - 4/4/8 vis
popeyet

Sweep range of sizes En]:


Typ escape sequence to abort.

. 18.6. ping

trace
t r a c e ,

. , , , . t r a c e , t r a c e
[ip a d d r e s s ] .
. 18.7 .
IP 130.10.64.2. 4 .
Je E * Setup Caned

\{ rrfo* jH

p o p e y e t t r a c e 1 3 0 . 1 0. 9 6 . 1

_d

Type e s c a p e s e q u e n c e t o b o r t .
T r a c i n g t h e r o u t e t 130 1 0 . 9 6 . 1
popeyet

. 18.7.


IPX
IPX, ,
IP. IPX- ,
IP- . , , IPX:
Novell
, NetWare . ,

278

, ;
- NetWare
, -. ,
. ,
, load
monitor NetWare;
. Ethernet - NetWare , Ethernet 802.2 Ethernet 802.3. LAN ,
, NetWare, .
show ipx i n t e r f a c e b r i e f ( 2505 . 18.8).

Ete Edti getup Cgnrloi

IPX Network5
EncapsulationuStatus
plnturfac
opeyeNsh ipx int briefF87C2E0F
Ethernets
p '
SerialB
763B20F3
PPP
up
Scriall
unassigned not c o n f i g ' d
down
Pope ire It

IPX S t a t e
[up]
[up]
n/a
1

. 18.8. ,
IPX-

, . .
IPX LAN, , . ,
, , .
ping
( ) IPX-, . .

^ -

IPX- 12, IPX-.


AppleTalk
AppleTalk LAN ( IP IPX);
,

APPLETALK 2 7 9
. .
Apple Macintosh
AppleTalk, Chooser ().
, AppleTalk, .
, , LAN ( ).
AppleTalk . 1
' ,
. AppleTalk, AppleTalk, '
. '
, 2 AppleTalk.
AppleTalk p i n g d e b u g a p p l e t a l k r o u t i n g . , p i n g
, ,
. debug
AppleTalk .
^ p i n g AppleTalk, p i n g
a p p l e t a l k [ n e t w o r k n u m b e r . n o d e a d d r e s s ] . ,
Ethernet 0 , AppleTalk. p i n g
a p p l e t a l k 1 2 . 1 7 6 ( AppleTalk p i n g ) - . 18.9.
.lie dt Setup ControlWindow

H<*>

S
ending 5. 100-byte AppleTalk Echos t o 1 2 . 1 7 6 , t i n e out i s
Iftit
Success
rate is 100 percent <S/5>. r o u n d - t r i p nin/a vg/nax
pope

seconds:

= 8/8/12

m
I

. 18.9. AppleTalk
d e b u g , , , .
no d e b u g a l l , : d e b u g a p p l e t a l k r o u t i n g (. 18.10).

2 8 O

*> * Setup Central Wn


idow Hefe
p
ope ye tide bug apple rout in: del
flppleTalk
fllTlk EIGRPRTKPti muting
d

8:54:46:
8:54:46:
8:54:56:
8:54:56:
54:56:

AT
AT
AT
AT

8:55:06:

R
ouPte ager
on8.old
Man
i l.bad
AT RBo.u
ingT
abd
lfcwn<3B>active n
R
TM
fromfinished
11.45 (ndst-11-il,
ew
igtn
8,
src-SerialB:11.15,
size-16.
1
rte,
P pkt n
R
oute ager starting on Man
i flTRoutingTable <R
3TMactive
Route a g e r f i n i s h e d on Main flT RoutingTable a c t i v e n
IP from 11.45 <new 8 , o l d l . b a d B.ign B. dwn 0 )
: - S e r i a l 0 : 1 1 . 1 5 . d s t - 1 1 - i l . s i z e - 1 6 . 1 r t e , RTrtP pkt

tent
>des>
ides)

. 18.10. AppleTa

, (, Ethernet) ( , IP), .

, ,
, .
( ) ,
ping, Telnet .. ,
.
. (, Visio Standard Visio), . Visio, Enterprise,
, . .
, :
. , .

Jf'f
/'

Cisco
IOS, . ,
( ). , : , .
, show , - .
.
, IOS IP AppleTalk, , IP
AppleTalk. ,
Enter.


(. 1.1). , , .
/77.7.
show CDP N e i g h b o r

,
LAN

show c l o c k
show f l a s h

"
-


IOS ,
Flash RAM ,
Flash RAM

282

1.1. ()
show h i s t o r y

10

show hub

show i n t e r f a c e e t h e r n e t
[ i n t e r f a c e number]
show i n t e r f a c e s e r i a l
[ i n t e r f a c e number]
show i n t e r f a c e s


Ethernet

show processes
show p r o t o c o l

(CPU)

show v e r s i o n

IOS,

2505

Serial
,
; ,


,
NVRAM, .
.
IOS TFTP . , (. 1.2).
1.2. ,
copy flash t f t p


IOS Flash
TFTP

copy running-conf ig
startup-config
copy startup-conf ig t f t p
.copy t f t p flash
copy t f t p startup-conf i g


NVRAM

NVRAM TFTP
,
IOS, TFTP Flash RAM

,
" TFTP
NVRAM

2 8 3
1.2. ()

e r a s e s t a r t u p - c o n f ic

show running-conf i g

,
RAM

show s t a r t u p - c o n f i g

- ,
, NVRAM.

NVRAM



,
(. 1.3). ,
.
.
1.3.

enable seer
[password]

password
\

hostname [name]

line console 0

, ,

line vty 0 4

,
,

password [password]

, :
l i n e
c o n s o l e 0
l i n e v t y 0 4

, , 8, .


(. 1.4). con f i g ( ,
). ,

284

WAN,
(, WAN).
1.4.
config

Ctrl+Z


,
.

enable cdp

,
( config-if,
show c d p n e i g h b o r )

encapsulation
[encapsulation
type ]
interface ethernet
[ i n t e r f a c e number]

interface serial
[ i n t e r f a c e number]

LAN Serial

,
Ethernet.
,
Serial

IP
IP-
IP- . . 1.5
RIP IGRP.
1.5. IP
a c c e s s - l i s t [ l i s t #]
p e r m i t deny
[ip address]
[ w i l d c a r d mask]

debug i p i g r p
transaction
debug i p

rip

ip access-group^
[ l i s t number]
o u t i n


IP. ,
, .
,
. ( l i s t #)
IP: 1-99
,
IGRP
,
RIP,
,
IP. o u t i n
, , :
(in) (out)

2 8 5
1.5. IP ()
ip address [ip address] config-if IP
[subnet mask]
. i p a d d r e s s
IP- ( i p a d d r e s s ) ( s u b n e t mask),

ip routing

,
1-

i p unnumbered
[ i n t e r f a c e
logical interface]

config-if
IP-. [ i n t e r f a c e
l o g i c a l i n t e r f a c e ]
(, Ethernet), IP-

network
r o u t e r z i p r o u t e r
[major network number] i g r p , , IP

*
,
no debug all

no ip routing

,
IP-

router igrp
[autonomous system
number]

,
IGRP. a u t o n o m o u s s y s t e m
n u m b e r ,
( )

router rip

,
RIP

show a c c e s s

, .
[ l i s t n u m b e r ] ,

l i s t [ l i s t number]
show i p i n t e r f a c e
[ i n t e r f a c e t y p e and
number]

,
IP

show i p p r o t o c o l

,
,
(, RIP)

show u p r o u t e

,
RIP IGRP

telnet

[ip

address]

IPX
IPX-
IPX- (. 1.6 - IPX RIP).

286

1.6. IPX
access list [list #] permit ,
deny (source network
IPX
address] [destination
800 899
network address ]
access-list [list #] permit
deny 1 1


IPX.
,

debug ipx routing activity

,
IPX RIP,

ipx access-group [list #]


in out

config-if,
IPX
. ,
: ( i n )
(out)

ipx network [network


number]encapsulation
I frame type]

( config-if),.
IPX
Ethernet . ,

Ethernet

ipx routing

,
IPX-

no d e b u g i p x r o u t i n g

, IPX

.activity
show a c c e s s - l i s t [ l i s t #]

,
IPX
,

, IPX

show i p x r o u t e

, IPX

show i p x t r a f f i c

,
IPX

AppleTalk

AppleTalk AppleTalk (. '1.7).
1.7. AppleTalk
a c c e s s - l i s t [ l i s t #]
deny tuiM.permit zone
[zone name]

,
.
AppleTalk 600 690

2 8 7
1.7. AppleTalk ()
access-list [list#]
d e n y p e r m i t c a b l e
range [cable range]

,
AppleTalk

appletalkaccess-group
[ l i s t #]

config-if,
AppleTalk

appletalk cable-range
[ c a b l e - r a n g e number]

,
AppleTalk

appletalk routing

,
AppleTalk-

a p p l e t a l k zone
[ z o n e name]

,
AppleTalk

show a p p l e t a l k g l o b a l

,
, ,
ZIP RTMP

show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e

,
AppleTalk

show a p p l e t a l k i n t e r f a c e
brief

,
AppleTalk

show a p p l e t a l k
i n t e r f a c e eO

,
AppleTalk

show a p p l e t a l k z o n e

WAN
WAN (. .8). Frame-Relay .25 .
1.8. WAN
bandwidth [bandwidth]

config-if
Serial

clock r a t e [clock r a t e ]

config-if
Serial ,
DCE

e n c a p s u l a t i o n [WAN
protocol]
frame-relay
interface-dlci
[ d l c i #]

config-if WAN
Serial (, , HDLC ..)
config-if,
DLCI ,
Frame-Relay

288

1.8. WAN ()

frame-relay lmi-type
[LMI type]

config-if, LMI ,
Frame-Relay

isdn spid [spid channel


designation] [SPID#]

,
SPID ISDN

isdn switch type basic[switch identifier]

,
ISDN,

show frame-relay lmi

, Frame-Relay

show frame-relay map

, DLCI

x25 address
[data l i n k address]

config-if,
.25,

X25 i p s [ b i t s ]

config-if,
.25

x25 ops [ b i t s ]

config-if,
;
.25
.

x 2 5 w i n [number of
packets]

config-if,
.25

x25 wout [number of


packets]

config-if,
.25



(. .9). p i n g t r a c e .
1.9.

p i n g [node a d d r e s s ]

" show c o n t r o l l e r
show i n t e r f a c e
[ i n t e r f a c e type]

,
( ping, IP-
AppleTalk IPX),

,

, ,

[ i n t e r f a c e number]
show s t a c k s

, ,

t r a c e [ip address]

,
.
AppleTalk

2 8 9


. , .
1.10. IOS
banner motd

[banner end

character]

( ); .

Ctrl+Z

,

'

disable

enable
quit

. ,
, ,
,

reload
set clock

,
'
,

10 - 4631

Cisco

( , )
, , ,
, . , :
.
, .
Cisco (,
, ..) - , . Cisco, . . 2.1
,
.
, .

Cisco 7500
Cisco 7500 - , , , . 7513 (. . 2.1)
Internet ( , , ).

CISCO 2 9 1

Internet


Cisco 1005
Cisco 1005
Cisco 1005
Cisco 1005

Cisco 4500

Cisco 7513

Ethernet

. 2.1. LAN
Cisco

7513 11 ,
, . , Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, T-l,
Synchronous serial ISDN. .
. 2.1 7513.
2.7. Cisco 7513


Flash RAM

"'':';?::".;:;;.";;,;'

16 , 220

RAM

32 , 128

11 ^&

10*

292

2.7. Cisco 7513 ()



, MIPS RISC

30 *

Cisco 4500
Cisco 4500 LAN . , . 2.1
( ) LAN (
LAN).
Cisco 4500 ,
. , , Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, Serial, ISDN .
4500, ,
, ,
(. 2.2).
2.2. Cisco 4500

Flash RAM

4 , 16

RAM

4 , 16

, 100 IDT Orion RISC

5,6

, , . , 7513 30 , 2500 4 , , .

CISCO 2 9 3

Cisco 2500
Cisco 2500 - .
. 2.2 2500, . 2.3
. ,
, ,
1000. , Ethernet, Token Ring ISDN.
2.3. Cisco 2505

Flash RAM

RAM

4 , 16

. ,
Ethernet

20 68030

. 2.2. 2500

Cisco 1000
Cisco 1000 - , LAN WAN ( ). . 2.1
, Cisco 1005
4500
WAN.
1000 ,
.

294

Cisco 1005 ( 60- ,


Cisco - . . 2.3). , , 4500 WAN, , Frame-Relay HDLC.

Cisco 1005

Ethernet

. 2.3. Cisco 1005 Ethernet


Cisco 1005
, Ethernet,
, Ethernet
(. 2.4).
2.4. Cisco 1005

Flash RAM

Flash RAM, PCMCIA

RAM

68360

2,5

Flash

, :
- Cisco IOS. , , .

CISCO 2 9 5

, , .
Web- Cisco,
www.cisco.com. Cisco, ,
, . ,
, , .

(Autonomous System). ,
, .
IP . . .

(Agents). , SNMP
. . SNMP.
(Terminal Adapter), ISDN.
, ISDN,
. . ISDN.
(Distance-Vector Routing
Algorithms). ,
( ). , .
MAC (Addresses Media Access Control). MAC ROM . MAC .
Ethernet. . Ethernet
CSMA/CD (
).
Token Ring. IBM ,
. Token Ring
4 16 /. IBM
LAN Token Ring.

2 9 7

(Asynchronous Communication). . - .
(Banner). , .
(Share-level Security). . . . .

(Uninterruptible Power Supply - UPS).


, ,
, .
(High-Order Bits).
IP- ( ).
(Lower-Order Bits). IP- ( ).
(NeArest Upstream Neighbor - NAUN).
Token Ring , .
(NeArest Downstream Neighbor - NADN). Token Ring ,
. . .
(Virtual Loadable Modules Netware - VLMs).
,
IPX/SPX.
(Virtual Interface). . .
(Virtual Circuit). ,
WAN ,
. .
(Virtual Terminal). , Telnet .
(Voltmeter). , .
(Leased Lines). PSTN . .

298

CISCO

(Global Commands). , , hostname enable secret.


(Datagrams), . .
(Cable Range). AppleTalk, . , , , .
(Dynamic Algorithms). , .
NT (NT Domain). , NT - (Primary Domain Controller).
(Delay). , . .
(Data Link Broadcast). ,
CDP, CDP Cisco. . CDP.
(Interrupt ReQuest - IRQ). ,
, , IRQ, .
AARP (AARP Broadcast).
AppleTalk .
(Zone). AppleTalk ( Microsoft).
(Data Link Connection Identifier DLCI). , , (, Frame-Relay).
(, IP-)
- - DLCI , . . Frame-Relay.
(Service Profile Identifier - SPID). ,
ISDN ,
ISDN .
.
(Encapsulation). . , Ethernet
Ethernet , .

2 9 9

Exec (Exec). Cisco IOS ( ,


). Exec.
(Interface), . .
LAN(LAN Interface). , LAN,
Ethernet Token Ring.
LMI (Local Management Interface). , Frame-Relay.
Cisco LMI: Cisco, ansi q933a.
WAN (WAN Interface). , ISDN, WAN-. . .

IP- (IP Unnumbered). , IP- ( IP).


(Fiber Distributed
Data Interface). ,
. FDDI , .
, 100 /.
(Command-Line Interface - CLI). Cisco IOS , IOS.
(Campus). ,
LAN. . .
A (Class ). IP, 16 .
(Class ). IP, 65 . .
(Class ). IP, 254 .
D (Class D). IP, . Microsoft NetShow,

.

300

CISCO

(Class E). IP- , .


(Clients). ,
( ), .
(Loopback Interface). ,
,
. .
.

(Port Commands). , ; , . . .
(Switches). OSI,

. MAC ( ).
, , , .
(Switching). .
(Circuit Switching). , . (),
1.
(Packet Switching). , . .
(Router Console). ,
. .
(Roll-Over Cable). .
(Hub). ,
OSI, ;
.
(Bottleneck), . ,
. .
. - . , .

3 0 1

DDS (Digital Data Service). , . -, .


, , (Logical Interface). , IOS . . , .

(Anding). , ( IP- ) .
(Local Area Network - LAN). , , .
(Router). ",
OSI LAN LAN WAN. ( Cisco
Cisco IOS).
(Subnet Mask). 32 , . , IP- , - - .
(International Data Numbers). . .121.
(Beaconing). Token Ring, .
(Metric). ,
. : ,
.

(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection - CSMA/CD). Ethernet. , , , , .


(Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance CSMA/CA).


AppleTalk. , , .
DOD (DOD Model). ,
TCP/IP, - DOD,
DARPA, , TCP/IP.

302

CISCO

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection


Model). , 70- ISO. 1984
. ,
( ) , .
ISDN (ISDN Modem). . .
(Bridges). , - .
OSI. ,
.
(Load). . 255 (255/255
).
(Reliability).
. . .
(Nonextended Segment). AppleTalk, .
(Null Interface). , . . .
(Area). , . -
.
(Wildcard Mask). 32 ,
IP- , IP- .
(Public Switched Telephone Network PSTN). , Baby Bells.
, , (Public Data Network or Private Data Network). , . PDN
WAN LAN.
(Data Circuit Terminating Equipment DCE). , ,
(DTE) . . .

(Digital Terminal Equipment - DTE). , (DCE) . . .

3 0 3

(Octet). ; IP-.
(International Standards Organization ISO). , ,
.
OSI. . OSI.
(Attenuation). .
(Baseband). ,
.
Flash RAM. , .
Cisco IOS, . Cisco
IOS (, ), , .
NVRAM (Nonvolatile RAM). RAM,
. NVRAM

. NVRAM .
RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM ( , RAM) , ,
.
ROM (Read Only Memory). , . , (POST), .
(Leading Bits). IP-.
. (, ).
; , - ; - ,
- .
(Repeaters). ,
, , . , , .

304

CISCO

, , (Border Router). ,
.
(Subcommands). , . .
.
LLC (Logical Link Control).
OSI, -
- .
(User Mode). . , . . .
(Port). . .
(Serial Interface). , , WAN-.
, V.35,
WAN DCE. . .
(Serial Adapters). ,
- .
(Deny Statements). ,
.
(Permit Statements). ,

.
(Privileged Mode). , . . .
(Bandwidth). ,
1 .
(Protocol). , , .
AARP (AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol).
OSI, AppleTalk . ,
.

3 0 5

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). TCP/IP, IP- .


BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). EGP
Internet, . , .
CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol). Cisco, . . .
DDP (Datagram Delivery Protocol). AppleTalk, ( UDP TCP/IP).
EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol). , . .
BGP.
Frame-Relay (Frame-Relay). WAN- , ,
DLCI (
Frame-Relay). . .
FTP (File Transfer Protocol). - TCP/IP, .
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control). WAN-
OSI. HDLC, Cisco, Cisco.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).
,
, .
IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol). , .

IGP, RIP IGRP. . RIP, IGRP OSPF.
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol).
, Cisco 80- .
, ,
RIP, 15 .
IPX (Internet Package Exchange Protocol). ,
IPX/SPX.

306

CISCO

OSI,
IPX RIP.
IPX RIP (IPX Routing Information Protocol). IPX, : (1/18 ) .
NBP (Name Binding Protocol). OSI, AppleTalk,
( , ).
NCP (Netware Core Protocol). IPX/SPX, ,
OSI.
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface). , NetBIOS Microsoft IBM.
NLSP (NetWare Link Services Protocol). NetWare
, IPX- IPX RIP.
OSPF(Open Shortest Path First). RIP. OSPF
, , . . IGP.
(Point-to-Point Protocol).
, WAN- .
RIP (Routing Information Protocol). ,
.
IP ( ).
RTMP (Routing Table Maintenance Protocol). OSI, AppleTalk.'
SAP (Service Advertisement Protocol). , NetWare.
,
,
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol). TCP/IP,
.
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). TCP/IP, . -, .


- njimu.mii n

null

:...-^i^_u_"*'

SPX (Sequence Packet Exchange). IPX/


SPX,
.
TCP (Transport Control Protocol). , - - TCP/IP.
Telnet. ( TCP/IP),
, .
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).
FTP, (
).
UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP/IP,

OSI, TCP. . TCP.
ZIP (Zone Information Protocol).
OSI,
AppleTalk.
(Routing Protocol). , OSI .
.
(Extended Segment). AppleTalk,
.
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode - ATM). ,
(53 ) - -
.
. . SONET.
(Configuration Mode). ,

.
(Time Domain Reflectometer TDR). , , , .
(Server). , - .

308

CISCO
tf

||||||

....

TFTP (TFTP Server). , TFTP Cisco IOS. TFTP .


(Network Interface Card - NIC), . ,
. NIC .
IOS (Internetworking Operating System). , Cisco,
. IOS

.
NOS (Network Operating System). - Windows NT, Novell NetWare AppleTalk,
LAN.
IPX (IPX Network Number). IPX-,
16 (32 ). 12 (48 ) .
Xerox (Xerox Network Systems - XNS). 60-
Xerox Palo Alto
XNS. Novell NetWare XNS.
(Network). ,
.
intranet. ,
Internet, Internet, SMTP ( ), HTTP ( Web-) .,
.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). ,
. ISDN . ISDN:
BRI ISDN PRI ISDN.
SONET(Synchronous Optical Network). , Bell Communications.
, .
WAN (Wide Area Network). .
.

3 0 9

(Peer-to-Peer Network). , ,
, . Microsoft.
(Server-Based Network). , - ,
, .
(Synchronous Communication). ,
- -.
LocalTalk. ,
Macintosh ( Macintosh).
(Dial-up Connection). , . .
(Keepalives). , , .
(Neighbors). , LAN WAN.
(Access List). ,
.
(Static Routing). , .
(Static Algorithms). , .
AppleTalk. Apple , Apple Macintosh.
DECnet. , Digital Equipment Corporation.
IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet
Exchange - IPX/SPX). NetWare LAN; , TCP/IP, OSI. IPX/SPX
Novell NetWare, , TCP/IP.

CISCO

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).


, (Windows, UNIX ..) .
.121 (.121), .
, WAN- .25. 1 14 ; .121-
, .25-.
(Convergence). ,
, .
, , .
(Clock Ticks). , RIP
IPX/SPX. 1/18 .
(Hop Count). RIP ( - ). . RIP.
(Running Configuration). , RAM.
(Topology). . , , (, ,
).
(Star Topology). ,
.
(Ring Topology). . ,
, .
(Mesh Topology). , . .
(Bus Topology). , , :
(Service Access Point - SAP). LLC OSI , - OSI -.

3 1 1

(Tunnel Interface). ,
, . . .
(Node). : , .
CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit). ,
LAN () .
MA [/(Multistation Access Unit). Token Ring . MAU ,
, .
(Breakout Box). , , CSU/DSU.
ping (Packet InterNet Groper). , (, ) IP.
(Cyclical Redundancy Check), . , OSI , .
, , -, -.
, , .
(Broadcast Storms). ,
Ethernet .
(Gateway). - ,
, , , IBM
AS400 LAN PC.
(Default Gateway). ,
LAN. LAN
.
(Cells). , . . .


239
Serial 110
155

84
- 84
84
84
99

FDDI 34
Ethernet 32
IBM Token Ring 34

' 161
161
159

166

37
61
269

181
142

55
DDS 56
57

207

151
209

NT 25
89

90

GNS 195
195
22
AARP 205
18
207


236
19

LAN 176
LMI 236

3 1 3
IP- 179
102,184
130
101
102
102
102
239
99


151
17

132
132
132
71
240
59
109 .
44
Cisco 243
139

71

290
185

222
155
270
DOD 149
55
ISDN 101
190
70
57

DLCI 239
SPID 240
191
, 240

236
88

235
235
197

59
59
59
157

Flash RAM 106


NVRAM 106
ROM 106
272
68

244
244
0 177
95

216
216
- 150
148
AARP 205
AppleTalk 52

314

CISCO

ATM 64
BRI 240
DDP 203
DECnet 121
Frame-Relay 63, 236
HDLC 64
Internet 152
IPX 191
IPX/SPX 50
ISDN 239
NBP 204
NetBEUI 48
NLSP 191
PPP 66, 234
RIP 191
RTMP 209
SAP 191
SNMP 120
SPX 191
TCP/IP 48,152
Telnet 150
X.25 62, 235
ZIP 204
. ,
66
81
82
141
103

150
150
151
153

151
152
Internet 152

34

126
124
125
268
269

42
205 .
17
55

, .
ISDN 60
61
203
19
155
155
155
1 7
18

183
149
141
222
233

191
191

207
115

3 1 5
11
28
29
11
30

41
42
43
43
46

44
151
150
41

73

111



Cisco
14.04.2005. 70xl00'/i6.
. .
. . . 20. 3000 . .

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