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STUDYSMART CHEMISTRY FORM 4 CHAPTER 7 : ACIDS AND BASES

7.1 Analysing characteristics and properties of acids and bases

7.2 Synthesising the concepts of strong acids, weak acids, strong alkalis and weak alkalis

7.3 Analysing concentration of acids and alkalis

7.4 Analysing Neutralization

of acids and alkalis 7.4 Analysing Neutralization 7.1 ANALYSING CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND

7.1 ANALYSING CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES Acids

An acid is a chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions, H + (hydroxonium ion, H 3 O + ) + (hydroxonium ion, H 3 O + )

Example : 

 

1.

HCl

H 2 O
H
2 O

HH +

+

Cl -

HCl +

H 2 O

H 3 O +

+

Cl -

2.

HNO 3

H 2 O
H
2 O

H +

+

NO 3

-

3. H 2 SO 4

H 2 O
H
2 O
 

4. CH 3 COOH

4. CH 3 COOH

Acid can be classified based on its basicity+ Cl - 2. HNO 3 H 2 O H + + NO 3 - 3.

a)

b)

Monoprotic acid – (1mol – 1mol) H 2 O Example : HCl H + +
Monoprotic acid – (1mol – 1mol)
H 2 O
Example : HCl
H +
+
Cl -
H 2 O
-
HNO 3
H +
+
NO 3

Diprotic acid (1mol 2mol)

Example H 2 SO 4

H 2 O
H
2 O

Bases and alkalis

A base is a chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH - . - .

Example :which ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH - . NOTE!! All alkalis are bases,

NOTE!! All alkalis are bases, but all bases are not alkalis B A
NOTE!!
All alkalis are bases, but all bases
are not alkalis
B
A
1. Hydroxide Metal H 2 O NaOH Na + + OH - 2. Oxide Metals
1.
Hydroxide Metal
H
2 O
NaOH
Na +
+
OH -
2. Oxide Metals
Li 2 O
Li 2 O
+
H 2
O
+
H 2
O
 2LiOH
 2Li +
+ 2OH -

All soluble bases are known as alkalis2. Oxide Metals Li 2 O Li 2 O + H 2 O + H 2

NH 3 +

H 2 O

2 O + H 2 O  2LiOH  2Li + + 2OH - All soluble

NH 4 +

+ OH

Chemical Properties of Acids

Acid

+ Base

Salt

H 2 SO 4 + ZnO

ZnSO 4

+

H 2 O

+ water

Acid + metal

2HCl + Mg

salt

+ hydrogen gas

H 2

MgCl +

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

Acid

2HNO 3 + CuCO 3

+ carbonate Salt

+ Water + Carbon Dioxide

H 2 O

+

CO 2

Cu(NO 3 ) 2 +

Carbon Dioxide H 2 O + CO 2  Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + Chemical Properties

Chemical Properties of Alkalis

Alkali +

Acid Salt

+

Water H 2 OS

Alkali +

Metal Ion Insoluble Metal Hydroxide

NaOH + HCl

NaCl

+

2OH -

+ Cu 2+

Cu(OH) 2 [Blue Precipitate]

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALIS
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
OF ALKALIS

Alkali + Ammonium salt Salt

NaOH + NH 4 Cl

NaCl

+ water + ammonia gas

+

H 2 O

+

NH 3

4 Cl  NaCl + water + ammonia gas + H 2 O + NH 3

7.2 SYNTHESISING THE CONCEPTS OF STRONG ACIDS, WEAK ACIDS, STRONG ALKALIS AND WEAK ALKALIS The pH scale The pH is used to indicate the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It consist of pH value that range from 0 14.

solution. It consist of pH value that range from 0 – 14. pH value less than
pH value less than 7 indicate an acidic solution pH value equals 7 indicate a
pH value less than 7 indicate an acidic solution
pH value equals 7 indicate a neutral solution
pH value greater than 7 indicate an alkaline solution
INCREASING ACIDITY
NEUTRAL
INCREASE ALKALINE
pH
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Concentration of H + ions increases
Concentration of OH - ions increases
The pH is actually a measure of the concentration if hydrogen ions. The higher the pH value, the
higher the concentration of hydroxide ions.
Strong and weak acids The strength of an acid depends on the degree of ionization
Strong and weak acids
The strength of an acid depends on the degree of ionization or dissociation of the acid in water
An acid which ionizes completely in water to produce high concentration of hydrogen ion is
called a strong acid.
H
HCl
2 O
H +
+
OH -
ion is called a strong acid. H HCl 2 O H + + OH - A

A weak acid is only partially ionizes in water to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ion CH 3 COOH H + + CH 3 COO -

is only partially ionizes in water to produce a low concentration of hydrogen ion CH 3

Strong and weak acids

The strength of an alkali depends on the degree of ionization of the alkali in waterStrong and weak acids A strong alkali is completely ionized in water to produce a higher

A strong alkali is completely ionized in water to produce a higher concentration of hydroxide ion, strong alkali is completely ionized in water to produce a higher concentration of hydroxide ion, OH - NaOH Na + + OH -

A weak alkali ionizes partially in water to produce a low concentration of hydroxide ion, OH weak alkali ionizes partially in water to produce a low concentration of hydroxide ion, OH - NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH -

ion, OH - NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - 7.3

7.3 ANALYSING CONCENTRATION OF ACIDS AND ALKALIS

Concentration is the quantity of solute in a given volume of solution, which is usually 1dm 3 3

Concentration can be defined in two waysin a given volume of solution, which is usually 1dm 3 The two units of concentration

is usually 1dm 3 Concentration can be defined in two ways The two units of concentration

The two units of concentration can be inter-convertedis usually 1dm 3 Concentration can be defined in two ways Molarity x molar mass mol

Molarity x molar mass mol dm -3 g dm -3 ÷ molar mass
Molarity
x molar mass
mol dm -3
g dm -3
÷ molar mass

Preparation of standard solution

Standard solution is a solution in which its concentration is accurately known.-3 g dm -3 ÷ molar mass Preparation of standard solution For preparation of solution by

For preparation of solution by dilution method, add water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change the amount of solute present in the solution.a solution in which its concentration is accurately known. Thus, moles of solute before dilution =

Thus, moles of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilutionnot change the amount of solute present in the solution. M 1 Where, M 1 =

of solute before dilution = moles of solute after dilution M 1 Where, M 1 =

M 1

Where, M 1 = Molarity of solution before dilution

x

V 1

=

M 2

x

V 2

V 1 = Volume of solution before dilution M 2 = Molarity of solution after dilution V 2 = Volume of solution after dilution

7.4 ANALYSING NEUTRALIZATION

Neutralization is the reaction between acid and bases to form salt and water. ACID + BASE  SALT + WATER SALT + WATER

Examples:bases to form salt and water. ACID + BASE  SALT + WATER a. HCl b.

a. HCl

b. HNO 3 + Ca(OH) 2

c. H 2 SO 4 + Ba(OH) 2 d. CH 3 COOH + KOH e. H 3 PO 4 + NH 4 OH

+ NaOH

NaCl +

H 2 O

When acid neutralizes an alkali/base, the pH value is 7. The point of which this happens is called the end point3 PO 4 + NH 4 OH  + NaOH  NaCl + H 2 O

At the end point, H + ion (from acid) combine with OH - ions (from base/alkali) to produce water + ion (from acid) combine with OH - ions (from base/alkali) to produce water

H + +

OH -

H 2 O

Acid-base titration. Acid of known concentration is delivered from a burette to completely neutralizes a known volume of an alkali in a conical flaskH + ion (from acid) combine with OH - ions (from base/alkali) to produce water H

Numerical problems involving neutralization.

M b V b

b

a, acid M a V a

=

+

a

b, base / alkali

salt + water

Ma

= molarity of acid

Va

= volume of acid

Mb

= molarity of alkali/base

Vb

= volume of alkali/base

a

= coefficient of acid in a balance equation

b

= coefficient of base/alkali in a balance equation

TRY

THIS 1

50 cm 3 of 1 mol dm -3 , sodium hydroxide solution is neutralized by 25 cm 3 of sulphuric acid,

Calculate the concentration of acid in mol dm -3 and g dm -3 [RAM = H,1 ; S,32 ; O,16 ; Na, 23]

TRY THIS 2

Calculate the volume of 2 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide that is needed to neutralize 100 cm 3 of

1 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid.