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Unit 3

Ch. 11
Species extinction
And endangered species has so few individuals survivors of species could soon
become extinct over all or most of its natural range
A threatened species is still abundant in its natural range because of declining
numbers this likely to become endangered in the near future
Some species also have behavioral characteristics that make them prone to
extinction. One example is the passenger pigeon and the Carolina parakeet nested in
large flocks
Biologist trying to catalog extinctions have three problems: the extinction of the
species typically take such a long time it is not easy to document, scientists have
identified only about 1.4 million of the worlds 4-100 million species, Santos know little
about most of the species that have been identified
Before the human population could be one extinct species per million species on
earth annually. However, now scientists have estimated that we each year we lose 5000
species or .1% of species each year
Importance of wild species
New species eventually about to take the place of those lost to extinction
spasms, messed up lesions, or mass distinctions. Over you still care about the extinction
rate because it would take at least 5 million years for natural speciation to rebuild the
biodiversity we are likely to destroy during this century
Wildlife tourism, or ecotourism, generates at least $500 billion per year
worldwide, and perhaps twice that much
Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation
Premature extinction is often either caused by: habitat destruction, they go
Dacian and fragmentation, invasive species, population growth, pollution, and
overharvesting
And endemic species is a species found nowhere else on earth that are usually
especially vulnerable to extinction when their habitats or destroyed, degraded, or
fragmented. Is species can usually be found on islands
Habitat fragmentation occurs when a continuous area of habitat is reduced in
area and divide into smaller, more scattered, and isolated patches
Invasive species
invasive species into ecosystems can be very harmful to animal and plant
extinctions. Most bases introductions can be beneficial, for example we depend heavily
on introduced species for ecosystem services, food, shelter, medicine, and aesthetic
enjoyment
Protecting wild Species
Many species suffer from exploitation, this is where their killed in order to sell
parts of their bodies for money while wasting the rest of their bodies. It's harmful he
affect ecosystems because it helps to create extinction some on the population

However there is hope. He convention on international trade in danger species is


a treaty signed by 169 countries that restricts international trade of roughly 5000 species
of animals and 28,000 species of plants because they are at risk of becoming threatened
Summary
Humans are the only causes of animal extinction. It is very normal for animals to become
extinct, in fact there are many species that behavioral characteristics that make them prone to
extinction. After many years is extinct animals I supposed to be replaced By other organisms
after series upon series of adaptations.However, as is stated extinction is now primarily caused
by human involvement in nature. Premature extinction is caused by habitat destruction,
fragmentation, invasive species, population growth, pollution, and over harvesting. All of these
are human caused and while there are many different ways humans are trying to correct these
wrongs, there still much more to do. Example, when things that humans have accomplished to
do is create treaties with governments of many different countries who was purposes are to
prevent animal extinction and animal abuse. However there still much more we can do because
are still exists poaching of animals and other ways that humans are affecting species such as
what has been already stated. To fix these other issues and has worked together to reduce
pollution and reduce our expansion into nature, especially In the presence of fragile
ecosystems.

This image lists the primary and secondary causes of ecosystem degradation, and then later
organism extinction.

Ch. 20
Past climate change in the green as effect
Over the past 4.7 billion years, the plan is Carmen has been altered by volcanic
omissions, changes in solar and put, continents moving slowly as a result of shifting
tectonic plates, strikes by large meters, and other factors
Scientist have proposed berries hypotheses to explain major kind of changes
during the past. One involves a change in the length of earths elliptical orbit around the
sun every 100,000 years
The greenhouse effect is a natural process that Wednesday earths lower
troposphere and surface because of the presence of several gas is called greenhouse
gases
There are many different types of greenhouse gases, they include: water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
Climate change and human activities
There are many different pieces of evidence for climate change, it's still there
many people that don't believe it even exists, however there are number of findings
listed by the IPCC for evidence of climate change
This list includes that is very likely that the earth is the hottest is been in 400
years, since 1900 average global temperature of the troposphere nerd surface has risen
by about .6C, the 10 warmest years since 1861 have occurred since 1990, over the
past 50 years the Arctic temperatures have been almostTwice as fast have arisen as
those of the rest of the world, glaciers and floating ice in some parts of the world are
melting, warmer temperatures in Alaska and Russia and in other parts of the Arctic are
melting not so permanent permafrost which releases CO2 and which accelerates the
troposphere warming, during the last century the worldOcean level rose by 10 to 20 cm
Global warming the first to the temperature increases in the troposphere, which
in turn can cause climate change
Factors affecting the earth's temperature
Feedback loops are furthering the process of global warming thing because as
changes occur there sped up by positive feedback loops such as when the oceans
absorb CO2 warming them and allowing them to absorb more CO2
There is a warming effect and a cooling effect of climate change, climate scientist
do not know which of these factors might predominant or how cloud types, cover Heights
and chemical content my very in different parts of the world
Effects of globalWarming
There are many different effects of global warming: it warmer troposphere, rising
sea levels which may friend half of the world coastal estuaries, coastal fisheries, lowlying barrier islands, agricultural lands that could be flooded, climate change will also
change Ocean currents, create more acidic seas, change precipitation and create
weather extremes

Summary
Climate change is a very big issue for the world. I'm a change is where temperatures and
precipitation are changing and all ecosystems in all the world. This is primarily because of a
thing called global warming. We have always had to global warming, but now more than ever it
is affecting us because there are more greenhouse gases being released into the atmosphere
to create more and more greenhouse effect. But this is doing is burning up our atmosphere
Claire that protects the earth from the sun's harmful rays. But then acres is that more solar rays
are entering our earth and so the world is warmed by these raise and this leads to the polar ice
caps melting and the rising of our oceans as and can cause many of the changes in ecosystems
because of the slight temperature changes. There is little That we can do about reversing the
effects of global warming that of already taken place, but what we can do is create a better
future for future generations and reducing the amount of greenhouse gases we release and by
attempting to rejuvenate what we have loss of the earth because of global warming and as
much as we can.

This image includes the many actions


human would need to take in order to
achieve sustainability.

Ch. 24
Valuing ecological services and monitoring environmental progress
All economic goods and services have internal or direct costs associated with
producing them
An important concept in environmental economics is that of optimum levels for
pollution control and resource use
Cost-benefit analysis is a widely used tool for making economic decisions about
how to control population pollution and manage resources that are being used by these
companies to create profits in our capitalist system even though they should be wearing
more about the environment and less about their money
Goes to Mestic product and per capita indicators provide a standardized and
useful method for measuring and comparing the economic output of nations
Economic tools for improving environmental quality
Full costs include internal cost plus external costs, this refers to the cost of
getting resources but also the cost that is put on the environment, usually companies
only look at internal costs and really at external cost because looking at external cost
cost them more money technically even though it would be improving our environment
However there are ways to discourage pollution and research waste by
companies even though it will always want to make money. Because the thing is is that
we can text them more money than they would have to spend to be more
environmentally friendly, so we tax them rather than forcing them just to follow these
rules because in those Cases they can be bribery and other issues with fully checking
the abilities of the company to go green
To many analysts, tax systems in most countries as backward. It discourages
what we want more of including jobs income and profit driven innovation and
encourages but we want less of including pollution, resource least, and environmental
degradation
Regulation is a form of government intervention in the marketplace that used to
help control and prevent pollution amities resource waste
Reducing poverty to improve and environmental quality and human well-being
Poverty usually is defined as the inability to meet one's basic economic needs
Reducing poverty would help our environment because those who are in poverty
are more likely to use all the resources effectively but use poor and low quality resources
that can more negatively affect her vitamins through pollution. What we can do as
established countries is help these third world countries by providing them with better
resources and Establishing the use of green energy
No me with this reduce the pollution to the environment but it also help human
well-being because it would be able to give them higher quality resources and therefore
higher-quality ways of living

Summary
Capitalist society's take it vantage of the environment every single day. Businesses take
advantage of resources and use them all up and then go to wherever the resources are more
plentiful. They use up whatever they can get without thinking of the harmful effects of their
actions, all they have on their minds Is money. Woke up feeling sick systems are in general very
useful and very liberating to most societies, it is these negative effects that haunt us. However
to combat this governments must support legislation to encourage businesses to go green and
Be more environmentally friendly.At the same time, to reduce environmental pollution you can
also reduce poverty in Third World countries. In these countries most people use poor resources
then what is available in first world countries. In these areas for example cool burning is highly
used even though it is very bad for the environment. To help with this kind pollution we should
supply these countries with better aid to make them less impoverished and supply them with
better resources such as ways of producing green energy so that they can be less wasteful and
pollute the environment less as well.

This infographic explains how humans take natural capital to increase our economic systems,
but we take so much that those resources cannot replenish themselves before we take more.

Ch. 25
Environmental policy

Environmental policy consists of laws, rules, and regulations related to an


environmental problems are developed, implemented, and enforced by one or more
governmental agencies
Dealing with environmental problems in democracies
Democracy is a government by the people through elected officials and
representatives
Evaluation of proposed environmental policies are guided by several principles:
the humility principle which is that our understanding of nature and of the consequences
of her actions, reversibility principle to try not to do something that cannot be reversed
later,The precautionary principle when substantial evidence indicates an activity friends
he mailed environment to take precautionary measures, The prevention principal or
whenever possible to make decisions to help prevent the problem from occurring are
preparing are becoming worse, the polluter pays principle to develop tools such as green
taxes to ensure portage for the cost of pollutants, the integrative principle to make
decisions that involve integrated solutions to environmental and other problems, the
public participation credit principal where citizen should have open accessTo
environmental data, you and rides principal are all human and people have a right to
environment that is not harm their health or well-being, and the environmental justice
principle that establishes environmental policies that no groupers an unfair share of the
burden grade by pollution environmental degradation or the execution of environmental
laws regulations and policies
Environmental policy in the United States
Environmental policy can be in stated through very many difficult processes. First
it must be advise and put into a bill by a special interest group. Must get passed
Congress which is very difficult normally because Republicans are very much against
environmental bills because it cost so much money and they feel like it's almost worth
nothing.
Conservation biologists and environmental economists believe that for principles
that govern the use of public land including: protecting adversity and wild habitats and
the ecological functioning of public land ecosystems, no one should receive government
subsidies or tax breaks for using or extracting resources on public lands, American
people deserve fair compensation for the use of their property, all users or extractors of
resources On public lands should be fully responsible for any environmental damage
they cause
Environmental law and laws
There are many difficulties in learning environment lawsuits: plaintiffs bringing the
suit message that was that they have a legal right or legal standing to do so in a
particular court, bringing any lawsuit is expensive and much more so for individuals,
public interest law firms cannot recover attorneys fees unless Congress has specifically
authorized it in the laws that those firms are seeking to have been forced,To stop a new
sensor to collect damages from a nuisance or neck of negligence, plaintiffs a status that
they have been harmed in some significant way, most states have statutes of limitations

where was our limited to how long the plaintiff can take Sue after particular event occurs,
the court may take years to reach a decision
Summary
In order to protect the environment societies must create laws in order in order so it's people will
not is environmentally damaging especially as much as they are right now. Environmental policy
consists of laws rules and regulations related to environmental problems that are enforced Buy
one or more government agencies. And democracies environmental policies are handled in a bit
of a different way. Evaluation of the post man in the policies are guided by many different
principles that must be followed in creating bills based on environmental policy. However, there
are so many rules That it becomes difficult to create these bills because there is little room to
compromise with agencies in groups that oppose these environmental laws. In the US it many
different lives fighting against one another based on environmental policy. Because, well many
people want to help the environment, many believe environmental policy hinders economic
growth because it cost a lot of money to do so and There are many ways to earn money and
create more jobs that would affect the environment negatively. It even so, they must continue to
fight for these policies else environment will still be polluted and abused even more so than
today in the years to come.

This image explains the USs system of establishing environmental policy and the many
systems it must go through before being approved as a national law.

Ch. 26

Environmental worldviews and values


Many people disagree about how Sears and buy mental problems are and what
we should do about them. These conflicts arise mostly out of different environmental
world to use. Environmental worldviews are how people think the world works, what they
believe that role in the world should be, and what they believe is right and wrong
environmental behavior.
Human centered and the life centered environmental worldviews
Planetary management worldview is where people view that we are the planets
miss important and dominant species, and we can and should mention earth mostly for
our own benefit
In the stewardship world humans assume that we have an ethical responsibility
to be caring and responsible managers of the earth. In this you we use earth's natural
capital, you're burning from the earth and from future generations, especially because
studies indicate that human activity and ecological footprint is about 39% greater than
the earths overall ecological capacity
There's an issue with trying decide whether some species to be protected from
premature extension or not. Three of the issues involved include: all species should be
protected from extension because of their intrinsic value or should only certain species
be preserved because they're known for potential instrumental value to us or to their
ecosystems,Should all insect or bacterial species be protected or should we attempt to
exterminate those eight or coughs, hummus, are transmitted disease organisms, should
we emphasize protection of Keystone and foundation species over other species that
play lesser roles in ecosystems
Living more sustainable
To live more sustainably first we need to educate all people on the environment
and spread environmental literacy, this way at least I'll people will be informed on what
the issues in the environment are
We also must learn to live more simply and seek happiness for the pursuit of
material things it's considered folly that almost every major religion and philosophy at the
messages priest incessantly by Martin advertising. Therefore is very unlikely that we will
be living simply but hopefully maybe one day live the way that we do now but on less
resources
While many people are concerned with the environment we often lead into
mental tabs that lead to denial, indifference, and was importantly an action. These
mental traps include: gloom and doom pessimism, blind technological optimism,
fatalism, extrapolation to infinity, Paralysis by analysis, faith and simple and easy
answers
To possibly create a sustainability revolution we would need several different
components including: biodiversity protection revolution, and efficiency revelation, and
energy revolution, a pollution prevention revolution, a sufficiency revolution, a
demographic that revolution, and an economic and political revolution
Summary

There are many different worldviews to the state of our environment. Many people support
protecting our environment however they don't realize but needs to be done to do that.In other
words, there's a lot of environmental illiteracy present in the world. Improving environmental
literacy would allow more legislation for environmental policies to pass because more informed
voters will see that they're necessary in order for our world to continue. We also need to learn to
live sustainably to be able to continue living in this world of ours. We are using way too many
resources to be able to sustain ourselves for as long as we have so far. To begin to live more
sustainably we have to learn to live more simply and create better technology in order to use
less resources. What is keeping up from us from becoming sustainable is beliefs that are
present in many humans heads that there's nothing that we can do about the environment and
that the whole causes either hopeless or can never really be changed back to the way that we
want it.

This infographic shows the main environmental worldviews, what systems of beliefs they
include, and the extent of these beliefs.