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Neuvenheim, Ariana

H Biology Period 5
November 17, 2014

Respiratoy System Summary SEE-IDA structure

The respiratory system is one of many other biological systems. It is
necessary because it is what provides the bodys cells with oxygen and gets
rids of carbon dioxide. This process is also known as breathing.

The respiratory system has many other functions instead of just
breathing and gas exchange. It allows us to speak, sing, and yell, etc.
because of air moving past the vocal cords. The respiratory system is also
necessary for our sense of smell and maintains body temperature. The
respiratory systems main function is breathing which consists of one
inhalation and one exhalation (also known as the respiratory cycle). When
you take in a breath, the diaphragm flattens and moves downward, or
contracts. When you exhale, alveolar sacs compress and air moves out of the
lungs. The lungs have something called vital capacity which is the amount of
air that is able to be taken in and out using forced inhalation and exhalation.
The respiratory system consists of: a pair of lungs (this is the main
organ), oral cavity (aka the mouth), nasal cavity (aka the nose), pharynx (aka
the throat), pleural membrane, epiglottis, larynx (or voice box), trachea (or
windpipe), bronchial tree, intercostal muscles, and diaphragm. The lungs are
protected and enclosed by the rib cage. In each lung are bronchial trees. Air
moves through the branches (bronchioles) of the bronchial tree. The
bronchioles lead to the alveoli where gases are exchanged. The oral cavity
and nasal cavity are both parts that can inhale and exhale air. The pharynx
connects the larynx with the nasal and oral cavity and also enhances sounds.
The larynx is where sound is produced, allowing us to talk. The epiglottis
closes off the larynx when you swallow to prevent you from choking. The
pleural membrane separates the lungs from other organs with its two layers.
In between the two layers is filled with fluid and has roles in the breathing
process. The trachea connects the larynx to two bronchi, leading to the

lungs. The diaphragm is the muscle underneath the lungs. It connects when
you inhale to increase lung space, pulling in more air into the lungs.

Exemplify (Diseases)
There are many different diseases you can get that effect the
respiratory system. Some of the common diseases are interrupted breathing,
tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and different
forms of cancer. According to the textbook, A tumor or damage to the brain
stems medulla oblongata can affect respiratory controls and cause apnea
(Starr Evers Starr 590). When you have apnea, your breathing stops
repeatedly and restarts again. This occurs especially while sleeping. This
disorder also increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. Tuberculosis and
pneumonia are both caused by infections in the lungs. Tuberculosis infected
people cough up bloody mucus, have difficulty breathing and have chest
pains. The book states that multi-drug-resistant strains of M tuberculosis are
increasing in frequency (Starr Evers Starr 590). This means that the bacteria
that causes tuberculosis is evolving and can soon become incurable.
Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, fungi, and bacteria. The symptoms
include coughing, shortness of breath, fever, and chest aches. Bronchitis,
asthma, and emphysema can all be caused by smoking. These diseases
arent as serious but can be deadly. Bronchitis is when the mucus-producing
epithelium is inflamed and secretes extra mucus that causes coughing.
Asthma increases the difficulty of breathing. If you have asthma and avoid
cigarette smoke and polluted air, the risk of an asthma attack can be
lowered. When you have emphysema, the alveolar wall is destroyed and
digested by bacterial enzymes. After the walls are gone, the lungs become
inelastic and distended, causing you to be short of breath frequently.
Smoking does a great amount of damage to the respiratory system. Many
things can be avoided by not smoking such as many forms of cancer,
bronchitis/ emphysema, and cardiovascular disease. The textbook states,
Globally, cigarette smoking kills 4 million people each year. By 2013, the
number may rise to 10 million (Starr Evers Starr 591). This shows how
deadly smoking can be. There are no benefits to smoking.

The respiratory system is much like a tree, but upside down. The oral
and nasal cavities act as the roots, taking in air instead of water and
nutrients. While the pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea are like the
trunk, leading the air to other parts. The bronchi and intercostal muscles act

as branches. The diaphragm and lungs are like leaves, which play a big role
in the respiratory system like the nose and mouth which are roots.

If the respiratory system did not exist, we there would be no plants and
maybe even any animals. We would also not be able to communicate
(talking/ making noises). We wouldnt have a sense of smell either. The
respiratory system is what keeps plants alive because it exchanges oxygen
(the plants waste) for carbon dioxide (the animal/humans waste). Without
it, plants dont get carbon dioxide therefore we dont get oxygen. Without
oxygen, we would die.

Applications or Implications
It is important for the public to understand the respiratory system
because then theyd know that the respiratory system is also responsible for
things other than breathing. People would be able to avoid many diseases
such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, different forms of
cancer, and emphysema. Smoking is a really big problem for both smokers
and non-smokers. If everyone understood the respiratory system, they would
know all the risks and the number of deaths would decrease.

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