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2000 2003

.. . 20002003.
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2 H

II

4
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
7
8

5
5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
8
9
11

6
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12
12
13

7 3d-
7.1 3d- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 3d- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14
14
14
15

8 4d-
8.1 4d-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
15

9
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16
16
17

10
10.1 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18
19
19
20

11
11.1 . .
11.2 ? . .
11.3
11.4 . . .
11.5 . . .

.
.
.
.
.

21
21
22
23
23
25

12
12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26
26
27

13
13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28
28
29
30

III

31

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, ,
.
C
R

1
0 R C.
1 . + x y C , x + y C.
a x, y C: x + y C. , x, y R, x + y
R.
b 0 C R , x C: x + 0 = 0 + x = x.
c x, C,
(x), C, , : x + (x) = (x) + x = 0.
, x R, (x) R.
d x, y, z, C, : (x+y)+z = x+(y+z)
e x, y, C, : (x + y) = (y + x)
2 . x y, C, , x y C.
a x, y, C: x y C. , x, y R, x y
R.

b 1, C R, 0, ,
: x C: x 1 = 1 x = x
c x, C 0, (1/x) , x (1/x) = 1. , x
R, (1/x) R.
d x, y, z, C, : (x y) z = x (y z)
e x, y, C, : x y = y x
1-2 . x, y, z,
C, :
(x + y) z = (x z) + (y z)
3 ,
R. . x y, R,
x y. x y
y x .
a x, R:
(x x) =
b x, y, R:
(x y) & (y x) =, (x = y) =.
c x, y, z, R:
(x y) & (y z) =, (x z) =.
d x, y, R:
(x y) or (y x) =.
1-3 . x, y, z, R: (x y) , ((x + z) (y + z)).
2-3 . x, y, R: (0 x) & (0 y) =, (0 (x y)) =.
4 (). X Y R, ,
x, X, y, Y,

2 H

(x y) , z, R, , (x z) & (z y) x, y
X, Y .
5 .
a i, C,
R, , i i = (i) (i) = (1)
b i (i), {i, i}
( ).
c x, C, a b, R, : x = a + (i b)

2 H
0 (5.b)
. i i
. , x, C, - . , i -
i, i i
-. - C C,
-.
1 x R, x = a + i b, a = x, b = 0. . b , i = (x + (a))/b,

. (V.1). x x.
, x = a + i b, a = 0 b 6= 0
.
2 a b, R, a+ib, C,
a i b.

3 i, x = a + i b, y = c + i d, :
x + y = (a + c) + i (b + d)
x y = ((a c) (b d)) + i (b c + a d)
1/y = (c i d)/(c c + d d)
x/y = x (1/y) = (a c + b d)/(c c + d d) + i (b c a d)/(c c + d d)
4 i, x a + i b .
: x = a1 + i b1 = a2 + i b2. T: x + (x) =
0 = a1 + i b1 + ((a2 + i b2)) = (a1 a2) + i (b1 b2) = 0
1 b1 b2 = 0 a1 a2 = 0.
( R .)
5 x = a + i b y = c + i d ,
y y = (y) (y) = x. a = 0
b = 0. a b c d

.

II


, , , C4
. ,
(
, , ).

3
C4 (
), ,


C ( ).
Cn .
C4 ( ), ,
. , ,
:
X = (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 )
(0, 0, 0, 0) .
( !)
.
( ):
X + Y = (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) + (Y1 , Y2 , Y3 , Y4 ) =
= ((X1 + Y1 ), (X2 + Y2 ), (X3 + Y3 ), (X4 + Y4 ))
a X = a (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) =
= ((a X1 ), (a X2 ), (a X3 ), (a X4 ))

4
4.1
:
, :
x : X = (F1 (ak ), F2 (ak ), F3 (ak ), F4 (ak )),
Fi ; ak .
ak Fi . ak

C,
.
, .
Fi , , , , Fi
, .
4.2 , ,
: .
: 2d- .
: 3d-
.
Kd-
K- . , .
Fi . Fi , K- K- N - , N
Fi .
, K-
. ,
Fi a + b, 2d-
c = a + b.
, , , .

5
5.1
: ( )

, :
X = X0 + a R
: X0 , ; R ,

; a .
, .
, .
R = (R1 , R2 , R3 , R4 )
, , .
.
R .
-, ,
.
, . , .
(
). ,
.
5.2
: , . :
1) Ra Rb , Rb Ra ;
2) Ra Rb , Rb Rc , Ra Rc ;
3) .

10

: x : X = X0 + a Rx
y : Y = Y0 + b Ry , Rx = c Ry , c
.
: X0 Y0 . X0
x, , X0
y. X0 = Y0 + d Ry . Y0 = X0 + e Rx .
d Ry = e Rx .
X0 Y0 , d e ,
Ry = (e/d) Rx . c = (e/d) , c ,
. X0 = Y0 x
X0 , Y0 .
, Rx Ry ,
X0 , , .
, ,
.
, X0 Ra Rb ,
Y0 .
, Ra = c Rb , c . , Y0
:
Y = Y0 + a Ra , : Y = Y0 + a c Rb .
a , c , b a, b = a c. ,
Y0 Rb ,
Y0 Ra ,
, Y0 .

11

, Ra Rb
Ra = c Rb , c ,
Ra Rb .
: ,
.
, ,
,
.
5.3 ...
:
. X Y .
, X Y
, .. Y X
. X
Rxy = Y X. , Y .
, . :
X = Z0 + a Rz , Y = Z0 + b Rz . : X = Y + (a b) Rz
a b , X Y . X = Y + Rxy ,
(a b) Rz = Rxy , , Rz Rxy
.
Rxy = Y X X Y ,
X Y , . , X Y ,
-, .
, X, Y, Z ,
Y X Z X .

12

6
6.1
: (
) ,
:
X = X 0 + a Ra + b Rb ,
X0 , ; Ra , Rb ; a, b .
x , Ra Rb , X0 .
x y , x
y y
x.
6.2
Rc ,
d e, Rc = d Ra + e Rb .
,
.
x y, ,
x y.
, , x y, y x:
Rxa Rxb :
Rxa = d Rya + e Ryb

13

Rxb = f Rya + g Ryb

d e
. Rxa Rxb
f g
,
. ,
Rya Ryb Rxa , Rxb , ..
x. y x.

6.3 ...
:
.
: X0 , Y0 , Z0 . :
X = X0 + a (Y0 X0 ) + b (Z0 X0 ),
Y0 X0 Z0 X0 ,
.
R = R0 + c Ra + d Rb
X0 , Y0 , Z0 . X0 , Y0 , Z0 :
X0 = R0 + c Ra + d Rb
Y 0 = R0 + e Ra + f Rb
Z0 = R0 + g Ra + h Rb
Ra , Rb :
(Y0 X0 ) = (e c) Ra + (f d) Rb
(Z0 X0 ) = (g c) Ra + (h d) Rb
,
Y0 X0 Z0 X0 , Ra Rb Y0 X0 Z0 X0 , R0 = X0 cRa dRb , R R = X0 +k (Y0 X0 )+l(Z0 Y0 ),

7 3D-

14

.. .
, ,
.
: ,
. , , , .

7 3d-
7.1 3d-
: 3d ( 3d) , :
X = X 0 + a Ra + b Rb + c Rc ,
: X0 , 3d-; Ra , Rb , Rc , ,
; a, b, c .
7.2 3d-
R 3d-,
d, e f , :
R = d Ra + e Rb + f Rc .
, , 3d-.
3d-, ,
3d-.

8 4D-

15

3d- X 3d- Y ,
, 3d- X 3d Y .

7.3 ...
, .

3d-.

3d-, 3d-.
3d-,
.

3d-, 3d.

3d-. .
. ,
, 3d-.

4d-

8.1 4d-
,
. , 5
3d-

16


4d-, , , :
X = X 0 + a Ra + b Rb + c Rc + d Rd
: X0 4d-; Ra , Rb , Rc , Rd
, 3d-,
; a, b, c, d .
Ra , Rb , Rc , Rd 4d-. ,
Ex = (1, 0, 0, 0), Ey = (0, 1, 0, 0), Ez = (0, 0, 1, 0) Et = (0, 0, 0, 1),
.
X
:
X = X1 Ex + X2 Ey + X3 Ez + X4 Et
X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 , .. .
, . , ,
,
,
. ,
, , ,
, C4 .

9
9.1
P (Ra , Rb ) , :

17

1 P (Ra , R0 ) = P (R0 , Ra ) = 0, R0 -
2 P (Ra , (c Rb )) = c P (Ra , Rb ) = P ((c Ra ), Rb ), c C
3 P (Ra , (Rb + Rc )) = P (Ra , Rb ) + P (Ra , Rc )
4 P ((Ra + Rb ), Rc ) = P (Ra , Rc ) + P (Rb , Rc )

, Ri . 4d- :
P (Rx , Ry ) =
= X1 Y1 P (R1 , R1 ) + X2 Y1 P (R2 , R1 ) + X3 Y1 P (R3 , R1 ) + X4 Y1 P (R4 , R1 )+
+X1 Y2 P (R1 , R2 ) + X2 Y2 P (R2 , R2 ) + X3 Y2 P (R3 , R2 ) + X4 Y2 P (R4 , R2 )+
+X1 Y3 P (R1 , R3 ) + X2 Y3 P (R2 , R3 ) + X3 Y3 P (R3 , R3 ) + X4 Y3 P (R4 , R3 )+
+X1 Y4 P (R1 , R4 ) + X2 Y4 P (R2 , R4 ) + X3 Y4 P (R3 , R4 ) + X4 Y4 P (R4 , R4 )
P (Ri , Rk ) = Pik , :
X
P (Rx , Ry ) =
Xi Yk Pik
i,k

Pik ,
.
9.2
Pik C,
.
Pik
( ) , ,
, , :
X
P (Rx , Ry ) =
Xi0 Yi0 i
i

i Pik .

10

18

i (
, det Pik 6= 0), ,
i ,
:
X
P (Rx , Ry ) =
Xi00 Yi00
i

, ,
.
: Pik .
,
.
, P (Ri , Rk ) (i,k), ,
- .

10
,
. , . ,
,
, ,
.
:
Ra Rb
:
1 Ra R0 = 0, R0 = (0, 0, 0, 0) -
2 Ra (c Rb ) = c (Ra Rb ), c C
3 Ra Rb = Rb Ra
4 Ra (Rb + Rc ) = (Ra Rb ) + (Ra Rc )

10

19

: Ra Rb = Rb Ra .
, , ,
, .
( !)
, .
.
Ra Rb = (P (Ra , Rb ) + P (Rb , Ra ))/2.
10.1 ,
Ra Rb ,
.
Rab Rbc , , Rab Rbc = 0 :
2
2
2
2
2
Rac
= (Rab + Rbc )2 = Rab
+ Rbc
+ 2 Rab Rbc = Rab
+ Rbc

10.2 ...
: X0 , y : Y = Y0 + a Ry ,
Ry Ry ,
.
: Za Zb .
:
Ry (Za X0 ) = 0
Ru (Zb X0 ) = 0
:
Z a = Y 0 + a Ry

Z b = Y 0 + b Ry

:
Ry (Y0 + a Ry X0 ) = 0
Ry (Y0 + b Ry X0 ) = 0

10

20

a Ry Ry + Ry (X0 Y0 ) = 0
b Ry Ry + Ry (X0 Y0 ) = 0
:
a Ry2 = b Ry2
Ry Ry 0, , a = b Za = Zb .
10.3 ?
Ra ,Rb , Ry
: Ry = c Ra + d Rb , c
c .
X = X0 + a Rx X 0 = X0 + a Rx0 y.
Rx , Rx0 :
Rx = k Ra + l Rb , Rx0 = k 0 Ra + l0 Rb
:
x : (l Ra + l Rb ) (c Ra + d Rb ) = 0
x0 : (l0 Ra + k 0 Rb ) (c Ra + d Rb ) = 0
:
(c Ra Ra + d Ra Rb ) l + k(c Ra Rb + d Rb Rb ) = 0
(c Ra Ra + d Ra Rb ) l0 + k 0 (c Ra Rb + d Rb Rb ) = 0
, Ra , Rb , ,

(c Ra Ra + d Ra Rb ) (c Ra Rb + d Rb Rb )
. Rx Rx0
, .. .
Ra , Rb
,

11

21

l k, .. X0 y.
. Ra , Rb ,
y, :
Ra Ry = 0 Rb Ry = 0,

c Ra Ra + d (Ra Rb ) = 0

c (Ra Rb ) + d Rb Rb = 0,
c 6= 0, d 6= 0 y Ra Rb .
Ra Ra = 0

Ra Rb = 0

Rb Rb = 0

Ra Ra 6= 0

Ra Rb 6= 0

Rb Rb 6= 0

.. ,
.
, Ra ,Rb
e Ra2 6= 0 Rb2 6= 0 .
. ,
, , .
,
.
.
Ra Ra = 0 .

11
11.1
.

11

22

, X, Y
, , ,
, Y = X + 1 Rxy , Rxy = Y X. (
!)
X Y
R(X, Y ), Rxy L(Rxy ).
11.2 ?
.

. , , ( ). ,
, :
.0
.
, ..
.
. ,
.
.1 : R(X, X) = 0
. R(X, Y ) = 0,
Y = X, , X Y
R(X 0 , Y 0 ) = 0 XY
( ).
, R(X, Y ) , X Y
.
.2 : R(X, Y ) = R(Y, X)
.3
o: R(X, Z) = R(X, Y ) + R(Y, Z). ,
, .

11

23

, R(X, Z) R(X, Y ) + R(Y, Z), X, Y, Z


.
, R(X, Z) = R(X, Y ) + R(Y, Z) X, Y, Z
, , , , , ,
.
.4 X, Y, Z , , Rxy = a Rxz , R(X, Y ) = a R(X, Z).
3,
Rxy , Ryz , ,
Rxy = cRyz .
.
11.3
: L(Rxy ) := R(X, Y )
x : X = X0 + a Rx . a
X x.
X0 , Y0 .
: X = X0 + a (Y0 X0 ).
Za , Zb :
Za = X0 + a (Y0 X0 )
Za = X0 + b (Y0 X0 )
, :
Zb Za = (b a) (Y0 X0 )
11.4
, R(Za , Zb ) = b a Zb Za
:
:

11

24

0 R(Za , Zb ) = b a C.
1 Za = Zb a = b R(Za , Zb ) = 0
2 R(Za , Zb ) = b a = (a b) = R(Zb , Za )
3 R(Za , Zc ) = c a = (b a) + (c b) = R(Za , Zb ) + R(Zb , Zc )
4 R(Za , Zb ) = (b a) = x (c a) = x R(Zc Za ), Za , Zb , Zc ,
Rab = x Rac
,
, .
.
,
.
Ra (X, Y ) .
, c Ra (X, Y ), c ,
.
, , ,
.
: Ra (X, Y ) Rb (X, Y )
, x, , Ra (X, Y ) Rb (X, Y )
. Ra (X, Y ) = c Rb (X, Y ),
c .
: x : X = X0 +aRx , a = 1
:
Ra (X0 , X0 + Rx ) = La (Rx) 6= 0
Rb (X0 , X0 + Rx ) = Lb (Rx) 6= 0
, Xi , Xj ai , aj :
Ra (Xi , Xj ) = (aj ai ) La (Rx )
Rb (Xi , Xj ) = (aj ai ) Lb (Rx ) = Ra ((Xi , Xj ) Lb (Rx )/La (Rx ),

11

25

c = Lb (Rx )/La (Rx ), .


, R(X, Y ) = 0 X Y ,
X 0 ,Y 0 , R(X 0 , Y 0 ) = 0.
,
.
X, Y ,
R(X, Y ) = 1. , , Rxy .
. ,
,
.
: , , ,
, . ,
.
.
11.5
: Ex , Ey , Ez , Et ,
, :
L(Ex ) = L(Ey ) = L(Ez ) = L(Et ) = 1

Ei Ej = ij

1, i = j
ij =
0, i 6= j
X Y :
X Y = (X1 Ex + X2 Ey + X3 Ez + X4 Et ) (Y1 Ex + Y2 Ey + Y3 Ez + Y4 Et )

12

26

X Y = X1 Y1 + X2 Y2 + X3 Y3 + X4 Y4
, R (a, b, c, d) :
R2 = (a Ex )2 + (b Ey )2 + (c Ez )2 + (d Et )2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2
. .
,
R4 , C4 .
L(R) , : L(R)2 = R2
, ,
,
. L
, , ,
, .

12
12.1
: x x , :
X = X 0 + a Ra + b Rb + c Rc + d Rd
:
Y = Y0 + a Ra0 + b Rb0 + c Rc0 + d Rd0
a, b, c, d . (, ,
4d-.
.)
Ra0 , Rb0 , Rc0 , Rd0 3d-, .

12

27

.
Ra , Rb , Rc , Rd : Ri Rj = ij .
:
(X X0 )2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + d2
(Y Y0 )2 = a2 Ra02 + b2 Rb02 + c2 Rc02 + d2 Rd02 + 2abRa0 Rb0 +
+ acRa0 Rc0 + adRa0 Rd0 + bcRb0 Rc0 + bdRb0 Rd0 + cdRc0 Rd0
+ acRc0 Ra0 + adRd0 Ra0 + bcRc0 Rb0 + bdRd0 Rb0 + cdRd0 Rc0
12.2 ,
: (Y Y0 )2 = (X X0 )2 .
X, :
Ri0 Rj0 + Rj0 Ri0 = 2ij
, Rc0 = Rc , Rd0 = Rd ,
Ra0 = k Ra + l Rb ,

Rb0 = m Ra + n Rb

k,l,m,n :
k 2 + l2 = 1;

m2 + n2 = 1;

km + ln = 0.

.
, :
k = cos
m = sin

l = sin
n = cos

.
X0 Y0 ,
Ra ,Rb , X0 .
:
180 : k = n = 1, l = m = 0

13

28

90 : k = n = 0, l = 1, m = 1
i :
k = n = ch ,

l = m = i sh

Rx2 Rx .
k, l, m, n .
k = cos
m = sin

l = sin
n = cos

. :
1: k = 1, n = 1,

l=m=0

2: k = 1, n = 1,

l=m=0

13
13.1
.
1 X = (X1 , X2 , X3 , X4 ) :
X = (X10 , X20 , X30 , iX40 )ei

X10 , X20 , X30 , X40 , R

2 X, Y :
X = (X10 , X20 , X30 , iX40 )ei

Y = (Y10 , Y20 , iY30 , Y40 ei )ei

X10 , X20 , X30 , X40 , , Y10 , Y20 , Y30 , Y40 , , R

13

29

13.2
Xa , Xb , Xc
, ,
.
Xa , Xb , Xc ,
, L(Rac ) = L(Rab ) + L(Rbc ),
.
: , :
L(Rac ) 6= 0,

L(Rab ) 6= 0,

L(Rbc 6= 0

ab, Xd
Rad = Rac . , ,
:
L(Rac )
Xd = Xa +
Rab = Rab .
L(Rab )
L(Rac )
L(Rac ) = L(Rab )
L(Rab )
.
=

L(Rac )2 = L(Rab )2 + L(Rbc )2 + 2L(Rab )L(Rbc )


:
2
2
L(Rac )2 = Rac Rac = Rab
+ Rbc
+ 2Rab Rbc = L(Rab )2 + L(Rbc )2 + 2Rab Rbc

:
Rab Rbc = L(Rab )L(Rbc )
Rcd :
2
2
2
Rcd
= (Rca + Rad )2 = Rca
+ Rac
+ 2Rca Rad

13

30

Rca = Rac :
2
Rcd
= L(Rac )2 + L(Rad )2 2Rac Rad

Rac Rad = Rac Rab = (Rab + Rbc )Rab =


2
= (Rab
+ Rab Rbc ) = (L(Rab )2 + L(Rab )L(Rbc )) =

= L(Rab )(L(Rab ) + L(Rbc )) = L(Rac )2


:
2
Rcd
= L(Rcd )2 = 0

Xc Xd ,
cd. :
Rad Rcd = Rad Rca + Rad Rad = 0
.. Rad , Rab Rcd .
Rab .
: Xc = Xd .
, Xa , Xb ,
Xc , , , {a, b, c} , , :
R 6= R + R
, .
13.3
, :
X = (a1 X1 , a2 X2 , a3 X3 , a4 X4 )
ai = ei si ,

s {1, i}

X1 , X 2 , X3 , X 4 , R

13

31

ei , si /2
. Xi , R.
. , , Xi C.
X Y :
R2 = e2i [s01 (X1 Y1 )2 + s02 (X2 Y2 )2 + s03 (X3 Y3 )2 + s04 (X4 Y4 )2 ]
s0i {1, 1}
, [R2 e2i ] (s01 , s02 , s03 , s04 ). , , , . ,
; R ei ;
( ) .


. , s01 = s02 = s03 = 1
s04 = 1, ,
.
, , , ( )
(+.+, +, +)

32

III


,
.
,
, . ,
,
,
.
, Ivan Mak
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