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4 George Macmann, Afghanistan from Darius io Amanullah ,
London, 1929; Percy Sykes. A history of Afghanistan, vol. III,
London, 1940. . .
(1942, 9, . 8082).


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.: Charles Rieu, Catalogue of the Persian
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8 Ibn Muhammed Emin Abul-Hasan aus Gulistane, Das M ujm it
et-tarikh-i badnadirij.$. Nach der berliner Handsckrift herausgegeben
vcn Oskar Mann (Fasc. I. Geschichte Persiens in den Jahren
1747 1750, Leiden, 1891; Fasc. II. Geschichte des Ahmed Sah Dur
rani, Leiden, 1896)
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the origin and rise of the sikhs, Calcutta, 1942.
(William . Morley. A descriptive catalogue of
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" [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdati and the Indian w azir Imad-ulMulk (17561757). Contributed by William Irvine (Indian anti
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Mir Abdoul Kerim Boukhary, Histoire de VAsie centrale
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: Afgan ve Kabul ve Buhara ve Hiva ve Hokand Hanlarenin
ahvali*.

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Tadhkirat al-muluk. A manual of Safavid administration
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1763 1766 ., . 1, . 2945 ( ).
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. , 1784 .,
(. 79, . 7, 1893, . 125- 149).
17 G. Forster, A jo u rn ey fro m B e n g a l to E n g la n d , th r o u g h th e
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its dependencies in P ersia, T artary and In d ia ; c o m p risin g a v ie w
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1842), (Weimar, 1817) (P aris, 1817


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13

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, , 21 Henry Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan, and Sinde; accompa
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22 Abstract of captain Christies journal.
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20 40- XIX .
23 Henry . Rawlinson, Report on the Dooranee tribes dated
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2 i r U er t **

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geographical, ethnographical and historical Extracted from the
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31 t T't (Ji^

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X V III XIX .,
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[Oskar Mann,
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of the 17 and 18 centuries, vol. I, London, 1939, p. 670671).
.
-, [. ,
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1794 .
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21

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XIX .

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panied by a geographical and historical account of those countries,
London, 1816, p. 294, 299, 304; Irwin, Memoir on th,e climate-, soil,
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[Journal of the Asiatic society of Bengal, vol. V IIIIX (Calcutta),
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15 . . , ,
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16 Henry Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan..., p. 317.
23

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1764 .) -
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(1 7 6 7 ), 18 Calendar of Persian correspondence. Being letters which
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19 M. Elphmstone, A n account..., p. 502503.
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21 ,
- ,
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22
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4752 ., ,
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-, 1756 .
1757 . -
,
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-).
; -
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27
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30 , -, . I, . 17.
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, 1834 .
,
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38 . ,
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ney from B engal to England..., vol. I, p. 286287).
X. P. ,
30 . (. R. Gupta, H istory of the Sikhs,
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39 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 153;
Irwin, Memoir..., p. 766.
40 , , . 4;
, ~, . I, . 16; J. P. Ferrier, H istory of the
Afghans, p. 81.
29

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41 Oskar Mann, Quellenstudien..., S. 164.
42 , -
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43 , (.) , , ,
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44 J. P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans, p. 101.
45 , ,
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46 , - , . 24; ,
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52 . , -,
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53 Irwin, Memoir..., p. 739; . Elphinstone, An account..., p. 309,
29.
54 , - , . 6.
55 James Rennell, Memoir of the map of Hindoostan
p. 183.
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, 965 . (1558 .) [.:
. . Raverty, Some
remarks on the
origin of the Afghan
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p. 569; -, - , . 119].
4 , . . 7.
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its dependencies -in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view
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(J. P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans,
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{R. Maclagan, Fragments of the history of Mooltan, the Derajat and
Buhawulpoor, from Persian MSS (Journal of the Asiatic society >
Bengal, vol. XVII, pt. II (Calcutta), 1848), p . 569, 571].
7 , - - , 16; - , - , . 112, 122123.
36

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.

[Oskar Mann, Quellenstudien zur Geschichte des Ahmed Sah Dur
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Gesellschaft, Bd. 52, Leipzig, 1898), S. 175].
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A. A. Kohzad, Two coronations... (Afghanistan, 1950, 3),
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vol. 45 (Calcutta), 1929, 6], p. 656657.
9 ., : ',
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13 A. Dow, The h isto ry of H in d o sta n , vo l. II, p . 383.

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15 J. P. Ferrier, H istory of the Afghans, p. 9495.
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J. P. Ferrier, H istory of the Afghans, p. 106; ,
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17 .: , -, . 148 157;
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19 uiax -, , ,

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40

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England, through the northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan
and Persia, and into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea, vol. II, London, 1798,
p. 8889, 153.
21 J. P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans, p. 104.
22 Ibid., p. 121 123; . . , , . 67.
23 -, - , . 69, 129.
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32 170 ,
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(.: L ongw orth Dames, The coins of the
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[S am in l A h m a d Shah A b d a li, a n d th e In d ia n w a z ir Im adul-M ulk (1756 1757), co n trib u ted b y W illiam Irvin e (Indian
antiquary, vol. 36, 1907), p. 13.
., : M. E lphinstone, A n account..., p. 507.
, - - , . 128.
, . 118.
> J. P. Ferrier, H isto ry o f th e A fg h a n s, p. 68.
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44 . W. Bellew, Journal of a political mission to Afghanistan
in 1857, under major (now colonel) Lumsden; with an account of
the country and people, London, 1862, p. 37; M. Elphinstone, An
account..., p. 166170.
45 H. W. Bellew, A general report on the Yusufzais, in si*
chapters, with a map, Lahore, 1864, p. 211212.
46 M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 359, 522.
48

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geographical, ethnographical, and historical. Extracted from the wri
tings of little known Afghan and Tajik historians, geographers, ona
genealogists, London, 1880, p. 119120.
51 M. Elphintone, An account..., p. 540.
52 Ibid., p. 217.
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northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and
into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea, vol. 11, London, 1798, p. 85.
4 Ganda Singh, Ahmad Shah, the man and his achievements
(Afghanistan, vol. VIII, 1953, K s l), p. 2.
5 , - - , . 122123.
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[Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali, and the Indian wazir
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quary, vol. 36, 1907), p. 45.
54

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# . Elphinstone, A n account..., . 402; . G. Raveriy, Notes on
Afghanistan and p a rt of B aluchistan: geographical, ethnographical
and historical. E x tra cted from the w ritin g s of little known Afghan
and Tajik h istorian s, geogra p h ers, an d gen ealogists, London, 1880,
p. 217.
9 , .
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(.: G. Forster, A journo:
from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 102; Charles Masson, N arrataK j
of various journeys in Baloochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjabi I
including a residence in those countries from. 1826 to 1838, vol. H i
London, 1842. p. 278).

.
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9 . (.: Mohan Lai. |


Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan and Turkistanto Balk, Bouhart
and Herat, London, 1846, p. 302) . , - j.
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30 40- XIX .
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15 Charles Masson, Narrative..., vol. I, London, 1842, p. 278, 3W- ;
16 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, P - r
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23 P. . Caspani, Les murs de Kabul (Afghanistan, 1946, N*")'
p. 31. , , . . >
60 , , "
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1849, . 434435).
24 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol.
p. 6970.
j
25 G. T. Vigne, A personal narrative of a v isit to Ghuzni,
and Afghanistan and of a residence a t the court of D ost Moham
London, 1840, p. 164.

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, , . 10, 13, 14; -
, ,
( , 1843, 50), . 882.
27 G. . Vigne, A personal narrative..., p. 214; Abstract of
captain Christies Journal (s .:
Henry Pottinger, Travels in
Beloochistan and Sinde; accompanied by a geographical and historical
account of those countries, London, 1816, Appendix), p. 145.'
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32 , .., . III, . 418.
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(Arthur Conolly.:
Journey to Ihe north of India, overland from England through Russia,;
Persia and Afghanistan, vol. II, London, 1834, p. 104 107).
34
H. G. Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan..., p. 65; M. Elphinsto
An account..., p. 262- (..., . , W '
181) ,
20 . ( 2 . ).
35 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. *>,
p. 51, 72, 103. . , *
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36 .: . Elphinstone, An account..., . 257. - *
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37 Ibid., . 258.
38 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 19;
M. Elpfrinstone, An
account..., p. 296.
39 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England,.., vol. II, p. 20;
,
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, 1957, 4), . 129130].


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42 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, P jj
W. MoorcroflO. Trcbeck, Travels in the Himalayan provinces*1
Ilindostan, and the Panjab... front 1819 to 1825, vol. II, Ln{j\
1841, p. 200 217; , - , ^

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p. 120.
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19 . (. ;
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- , . 470).
46 ., : . Elphinstone, An account..., . 257.
|
47 - < [
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( -, . I, . 25) 22 . ; ;
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( .: . . Elliot John Dowson, The history of India as told
Us own historians, vol. VIII, London, 1877), p. 280].
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[Ahmed Shah Duranis Feldzuge
Hindostan (Asiatische Magazin Bd. 1, (Weimar) 1802), S. 361!
, -
20 . . *
1756 . * |
(Syad Muhammad Latif, History of the Panjab from the remote* I
antiquity to the present time, London, 1891, p. 228).
66

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49 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,
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60 J. P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans, London, 1858, p. 305;


M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 254255.
51 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, P-71
52 H. G. R averty, Notes on Afghanistan..., p. 65.
53 A bstract of cap tain C hristies journal, p. 415; M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 489. , 31*
, (J. Burnes, Narrative of J
visit to the court of Sinde and Hyderabad of the Indus, Edingburg11
L ondon, 1839, Appendix, p. 29).
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knowledge of the topography, ethnology resources and history j
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History of the Sikhs, vol. Ill, Lahore, 1944, p. 171).
19 ,
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phinstone, An account..., . 255, 318; Charles Masson, Narra*
(we of various journeys in Baloochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab;
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London, 1842, p. 354.
36 Charles Masson, Narrative..., vol. I, p. 354.
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: , 1788 . - 60
, 1794 . 24 .
1805 . 27

1,5 - ;
.

,
. 1757 . -
1 43;
41 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 503.
42 Henry Pottinger, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde; accompa
nied by a geographical and historical account of those countries,
London, 1816, p. 399, 401; M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 409;
R. Leech, Brief history of Kelat, brought down to the deposition
and death of Mehrab Khan, Brahoe,e (Journal of the Asiatic society
of Bengal, vol. XII, 1843), p. 497; H. R. Gupta, Studies in the
later Mughal history of the Panjab (17071793), Lahore, 1944,
p. 251.
43 A. Dow, The history of Hindustan, vol. II, London, 1770,
p. 364, ,
-
[.: (Samin) Ahmad Shah Abdali and the
Indian wazir Imad-ul-Mulk (17561757). Contributed by William
Irvine (Indian Antiquary, vol. 36,1907), p. 47J. - , -
2 (' - ), ,
17 ,
, [Oskar Mann, Quellenstu107

, .
28 . , .
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, 44.
- - 90 45; 1797 .
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48. ,
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90 50.

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dien zur Geschichte des A hm ed S a h D u rra n i (1747 1773) (Zeit*
schrift der Deutschen
M orgenlandischen G e se llsc h a fb , Bd. 52,
Leipzig. 1898), S. 349J.
44 , ,
;
1754 . , ,
- ( , .
, 1755 ., . 7, . 16).
45 J. Heras, Durrani influence in N o rth ern In dia (Islamic
culture, vol. XI, 1937, 4), p. 502.
46 Irwin, Memoir on the clim a te, so il, pro d u ce, an d husbandry
of Afghanistan and neighbouring co u n tries [Journal of the Asiatic
society of Bengal, vol. V III IX, (C a lcu tta ), 1839, 1840], p. 1010.
47 A. Dow, The h istory of H in d o sta n , vo l. II, p. 382.
48 G. Forster, A journey from B e n g a l to E n glan d..., vol. ,
p. 85.
49 , .:
. R. Gupta, Studies....
p. 268.
50 . Elphinstone, An account..., p. 524.
108

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A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 29).
,
24 ( *
., , . 4).
52 J. Heras, Durrani influence..., p. 499; Jadunath Sarkar,
Fall of the Mughal empire, second edition, revised and corrected,
vol. I, Calcutta, 1949, p. 236.
53 , , . 5;
. Forster,
A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 46;
-, . I, . 56; . Elphinstone, An account..., . 503.
54 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,
P 40.
55 M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 501; Charles Masson,
Narrative..., vol. I, p. 357359.
109

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58 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 489.
59 , , . 4.
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61 G. Forster, A jo u rn ey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,
P 88.

M M. Elphinstone, A n account..., p. 312.


63 Abstract of cap tain Christies journal (Henry Pottinger,
Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde, accompanied by a geographical
oni historical account of those countries, London, 1816), p. 411.
XIX ., , ,
(. W. Bellew, A general report..., p. 181).
3 . .

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65 Ibid., p. 79.
6 Ibid., p. 107.
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75 ,
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76 . G. Raverty, Notes on A f g h a n i s t a n p. 65; . Burnes,
Narrative of a visit to the Court of S in de and H yderabad of thIndus, Edingburgh London, 1839, Appendix, p. 42.
77 Henry C. Rawlinson, Report..., p. 828.

-'
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, 1793 1794 ,
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(. Elphinstone, An account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and its
dependencies in Persia, Tartar , and India; comprising a view of
the Afghaun nation and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy,
London, 1815, p. 311).
, ,
,
,
. , ,

*
, ,
[Henry , Rawlinson, Report on the
Dooranee tribes dated 19th April 1841 [Central Asia. A contribution
towards the better knowledge of the topography, ethnology resources
and history of Afghanistan compiled (for political and military refe
rence) by lieutenant-colonel . M. Mac Gregor, assistant quarter
master-general, pt. II, Calcutta, 1871), p. 828].

- X V III :
,

.

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3.


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5.
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(. . , , . 9, . 2),
. 224.
3 ,
, - ,
,
(., : Abdul H adi Kama!, Das Agrarland
Afghanistan und seine Zukunft, Ziirich, 1954, S. 17).
4
, , . ,
, ,
. ,
-
-.
5 ., : G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England,
through the northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Per,sia, and into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea, vol. II, London, 1798, p. 151.

122

:. ,
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, 6 Salyid Ghulam Ali, Nigar-nama-i Hind ( .: H. . Elliot

John Dowson, The history of India as told by its own historians,


vol. VIII, London, 1877), p. 399.
7 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,
P- 86; M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 322323, 486, 559; J. P. Fer
rier, History of the Afghans, London, 1858, p. 98, 99;

-, - , . 471; ,
-, . I, . 56; , ,
, 1790 (
. , . 1, 1861).
. ; [ ]
. ,
( , ., 1825), . 149.

123

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( ).
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;
8 , - - , . 145.
9 [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali, and the Indian wazir Imad-ulMulk (17561757). Contributed by William Irvine (Indian antiqua
ry, vol. 36, 1907), p. 17, 5556.
10 William Irvine, The Bangash nawabs of Farrukhabad
(Journal of the Asiatic society of Bengal, vol. XLVIII, pt. I.
1879), p. 127.
11 Casi Raja Pundit, An account of the battle of Paniput and
of the events leading to it [Asiatic researches, vol. Ill (Calcutta),
1792], p. 104; Akhbar-ul-Muhabat ( .: H. M. Elliot Joh.t
Dowson, The history of India..., vol. VIII), p. 398

124

. ,
12.
13, .
, -,
; ,
, 40 . ,
, 30 .
14.
- - 15.
- ,
- ;
.
,

,6,
.
-
,
,7.
12 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,

p. 85.

13 Casi Raja Pundit, An account of the battle of Paniput...,


p. 104, 108, 139.
14 Akhbar-uI-Muhabat, p. 398399.
15 --', .: Oskar Mann, Quellenstudien
Geschichte des Ahmed Sah Durrani (17471773) (Zeitschrift der
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Bd. 52, Leipzig, 1898),

S. 178.

16 , - X V III .
3700 '-,
[.: . . ,
( X I X ) (
, . V II, .., 1939), . 118].
-, -, 1754 .
300 (.: Jadunath Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal empire, second edition, revised and corrected,
vol. , Calcutta, 1950, p. 38).
17 James Rennell, Memoir of a map of Hindostan or the Mogul
empire: with introduction, second edition, London, 1792, p. CXXII1.

.
1758 . 1775 . [.: Mohammed
Jasin, The Talpurs of Sind (The Indian historical quarterly, vol
XVII, 1941, 1, March), p. 3637].

125

' ,
.

,
;
-. -

18.
- 19.
-
, . *
,
,
, ;

. 1788 . - ,
,
-,
; ,
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.

, .
18 . Elphinstone, Art account..., . 532.
19 , , .
-
( .
1240 , . I, .., 1940, . 170, 171, 173, 191, 197).
(. , .
, , ., 1937, . 97).
II 1654 .;
600 , ,
[Tadhkirat al-muluk. A Manual of Safavid Administration
(circa
1137/1725). Translated and explained by V. Minorsky,
London, 1943, p. 34]. , - ( ,
-. . I, . 10).
20 Celendar of Persian correspondence. Being letters which
passed between some of the Companys servants and Indian rulers
and notables, vol. VIII, Calcutta Delhi, p. 331, 798.
126

,
,
, 1500

, ;
500 ;
8 . ,
;
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, -,
:
23.
. - - , . 146.
,
.

.
22 [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali..., p. 13; M. Elphinstone, An
account..., p. 519; Calendar of Persian correspondence vol. IX,
P. 108, 431.
23 , ,
..., . 11.

127


() ,
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600 800 ;
25.
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( 1722 . ).

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- : ,
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1700 ;
24 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 535.
25 . , 18121813 , . 11,
., 1824, . 93, 133134. . .:
Saiyid Ghulam Ali, Nigar
nama-i Hind, p. 398.
, ,
.
26 F. Colombari, Les Zembureks, Paris, 1853.
27 , - - , . 216
217.
28 Casi Raja Pundit, An account of the battle of Paniput...,
p. 104; H. , -
1761 (
, ., 1951, . 95).

128

2600 3270 ;
| 700 29.

, -, .
40 : ; -
70 30.
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31. -,
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9,5 32.

, .
, -
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, -,
. ,
37
30 ,
39 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 531532; . R. Gupta,
Studies in the later Mughal history of the Panjab (17071793),
Lahor, 1944, p. 269
(
, 17931794 .).
30 C asi R aja Pundit, An account of the battle of Paniput...,

p. 1 0 4 -1 0 5 .

31 , - , . I, . 15; J. P. Fer
rier, History of the Afghans, p. 79; - ,
Tapux-u , . 119. 2944 .
32 S. A. Z . Nadvi, The use of cannon in maslim India (Islamic
culture, vol. XII, 1938; 4), p. 417.
129

iuedTy 23 .
.
.
1 . .
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10 , )
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XVIII .
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3 . .
33 A. Dow, The history of Hindostan, vol. II. London, 1770.
p. 386.
34 () ('
); ,
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Forster> journey from Bengal to England..., Vol.' II.

37 Oskar Mann, Quellenstudien..., S. 311.


38 M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 289.

39.
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, 1770 ., . 111, . 25 ( ).
40 Calendar of Persian correspondence, vol. V, p. 438, 1843.
41 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. .
p 29.
42 , . . 1755 ., &
. 253.
132

-, ,

- 43.

30% . 70% I ,
:
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43 Svad Muhainnad Latif, History of the Panjab from the remo
test antiquity to the present time, London, 1881, p. 229.
44 ...
. -
() : ,

(. W. Bellew, A general report on the
Yusufzais, in six chapters with a map, Lahore, 1864, p. 184).
45 , ,

(. Elphin*tone, An account..., p. 355).

133


, .

, , -
, 46,
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)
47 . G. Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan and part of Baluchistan:
geographical and historical. Extracted from the writings of litcle
known Afghan and Tajik historians, geographers, and genealogists,
London, 1880, p. 79, 80, 95, 107, 217 , *
. ,
.
1.34

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. 48 . G. Raverty, N otes on Afghanistan..., p. 44.
49 Casi Raja Pundit, An account of the battle of Pant put...
9, 105, 139.
.

135


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136

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Kenne, Turks in India, London, 1879, p. 236237; . .
1722 1803 , . I, .*
1869, . 343344.
53 [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali..., p. 56.
54 . , Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Panipat: 176l>
Poona, 1946, p. 89.
55 M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 530.
56 -, - , . 573.
57 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 537; .
(.: . Markowsky, Die
fnateriale Kultur des Kabulgebietes, Leipzig, 1932, Tafel XX).

137

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;
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XVIII .
5060 58.

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58 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II,
p. 85. , - 277 .
59 , - - , . 152.
60 , , 17791780 . -,
, 18 .
, . - (.:
- , - , . 154155).
61 [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali...-, p. 55.

138

, ,

. 62. ,
. 25 ,
.


. 1762 .,
, -
100
63. 1764 . -
80 64.

,
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, , 65.
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66, .
.,
1,52 . .
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,
67.
,
,
2 Ibid.
63 Q. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. I,
p 277278; Hakikat..., p. 15, 20, 21.

64 Tarikh-i Najib-ud-daulah (Islamic Culture, vol. VII,


1933, 4), p. 615. 3 .
65 . - -
1748 . ( , -, . 101).
66 , ,
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67 Ch. J. Rodgers, The coins of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Journal
of the Asiatic society .of Bengal, vol. 54, 1885), p. 67.

139

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69 Saiyid Ghulam Ali, Nigar-nama-i Hind, p. 410.
70 1750 . - -
,, ,
, (.: , , . I, . 1314;
J. P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans,
p. 76).
71 Henry George Keene, Turks in India, p. 238239.
72 [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali..,, p. 56.,

140

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40 .
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18 . .
. Jadunath Sarkar, Fall of Mughal empire, vol. I, 1949, p. 115;
H. R. Gupta, Adina Beg Khan, the last mughal viceroy of the Pan
jab (Islamic culture, vol. XIII, 1939, 3), p. 329.
74 1750 . - 5060 .
; 1754 . - 50 .
(. , . , 1750 ., . 8, . III;
1751 ., . 5, . 106; 1755 ., . 5, . 7 8 ). ,
1755 ., ,
60 . , (. . . , ..., . 1, . 415). , 70 . bo h h o e . ( J . P. Ferrier, History
of the Afghans, p. 74).
75 Hakikat..., p. 1819; [Samin] Ahmad Shah Abdali...,
p. 55
141

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: 41 . , 28 . . 2 . . .
: Saiyid Ghulam Aii, Nugar-nama-i Hind p. 398.
77 Casi Raja Pundit, An account of the battle of Paniput...,
p. 195. . : Akhbar-ul-Muhabat, p. 399.
78 J. Heras, Durrani influence in Northern India (Islamic
culture, vol. XI; 1937, N 4), p. 507; A. Dow, The history of Hin*
dostan, vol. II, p. 382383.
79 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II.
p. 85
142

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81 Calendar of Persian correspondence, vol. VIII, p. 637638,
1548; Mohan Lai, A brief account of the origin of the Daudputras,
and the power and birth of Bahawal Khan, their chief on the bank
of the Ghara and Indus (Journal ol the Asiatic society of Bengal,
vol. VII. pt. I. IS38, p. 32).
, , . 11. 21.
83 Calendar of Persian correspondence, vol. VIIl, p. 361,
798
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, 1843, 50), . 884; . , , -
- , . 153.
86 . R. Gupta, H istory of the Sikhs, vol. Ill, Lahor, 1944, p. 6 2 . ,
30 . (Joseph D avey Cunningham, H istory of the
Sikhs from the origin of the nation to the battles of the Sutlej,
vol. XXXII, Calcutta, 1903, p. 149).
87 -, - , . 628.
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91 Muhammad J a f a r Shamlu, Tarikh-i Manazilu-l Futuh ( .:
H. M. Elliot John Dowson, The history of India..., vol. V III,
P 149-150).
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95 . >-. , ;:
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. -, , ., 1843, . 113;
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98 J. P. F e rrie r, History of the Afghans, p. 99.

89 .
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, - (Charles Rieu,
Catalogue, vol. I l l , London, 1883, p. 717 718, add. 26 285).

100 H . G . R a v e rty , Notes on Afghanistan..., p. 217, 269, 270.


101 . -''. . I, . 57;

. G.

Raverty, N otes on Afghanistan..., p. 217; , - -


, 28-.
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Abdali..., p. 43].
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104 H e n ry . R S w lin so n , Report..., p. 825.


105 S yed H a s a n A sk a ri, Taimur Shah and an Indian prince
(The J o u rn a l of th e B ih a r re s e a rc h so ciety , v o l. ,3 3 , p t. 1 II,
Patna. 1947). p. 90. 92.
'06 3 , -, . I, . 57.
107 . G. Raverty. N otes on Afghanistan..., p. 217, 269270.

149

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109 H e n ry P o ttin g e r , Travels in Beloochistan..., p. 284.


110 , - - , . 156 160.

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of the Indian Moghuls: its organisation and
administration,
London, 1903, p. 167.
1.2 , -, . I, . 56.
113 , ,
..., . 12.
4 G. Forster, A journey from B engal to England..., vol. .p. 49, 29, 86, 88. , ,
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,
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. . (J. P. Ferrier, H istory of the Afghans, p. 318).
115
H. R. Gupta, H istory of the Sikhs, vol. Ill, p. 66. llo -.
. , 12 .
12 14 "(. Forster, A journey from
Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 83).
i

151

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116
G. Forster, A journey from B engal to England..., vol. II
p. 49.
1,7 Henry C. Rawlinson, Report on the Dooranee tribes dated 19th
A pril 1841 [Central Asia. A contribution towards the better know- t
ledge ol the topography, ethnology resources and history of
Afghanistan compiled (for political and military reference) by
lieutenant-colonel . M. Mac Gregor, assistant quarter master
general, pt. II, Calcutta, 1871) J, pp. 824827 , 25 277 -.
. ,
;
; [1 = 80 = 65 .
(. Markowsky. D ie materiale
Kultur, S. 152);
, 1 - 559 .
(L. Bogdanov, The Afghan w eights and measures (Journal of the
Asiatic society of Bengal, vol. 24, 1928,
N S., 4), p. 421].
33 .

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. 319).
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: 2890 (.: Henry . Rawlinson, Report..., p. 826).
119 H. R. Gupta, H istory of the Sikhs, vol. Ill, p. 61.
120 Saijid Ghulam Ali, Nigar-nama-i Hind, p. 399.
,Jl M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 533, 534.

15*

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122 Ibid., . 529; . G. Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan..., p. 269
270; , - - , . 112.
123 . G. Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan..., p. 44, 9495;
M. Elphinstone, An account..., p. 356; Charles Masson, Narrative
of various journeys in Batoochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab;
including a residence in those countries from 1826 to 1838, vol. I,
London, 1842, p. 164; Mohan Lai, Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan
and Turkistan to Balk, Bouhara and Herat, London, 1846, p. 77.
124 . , . 1836, 37 ~38 ., . I,
., 1847 . 181.
125 , : G. Fosrter, A journey from Bengal to England...,
vol. II, p. 54, 5557.
126

,
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151

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128.
,

, -1
- (ibid., vol. II,
-58).
127 .: . . - ( .: - , , ., 1874, . 340).
128 , -, . 1, . 56; . Elphin
stone, An account..., . 474475; J. Burnes, Narrative of a visit to the
court of Sinde and Hyderabad of Indus, Edinburgh London, 1839,
App.enfhx, p. .22; Muhammad Aslam, Farhatu-n Nazirin

H'. M. Elliot John Dowson, The history of India..., vol. VIII p. 171);.
Jadunath Sarkar, Fall of the M ughal empire, vol. 1, p. 246.

155.

,
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-
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129
Malcolm, Sketch of the Sikhs (Asiatic researches, vol. XI.
1812). p. 246.
130 , -, ., 1957. . 336337.

156

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. 30, 43.
133 G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England..., vol. II, p. 151.
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XIX .


, . , J Heras. Durrani influence..., p. 508 (
, Calendar of Persian Correspondence,
vol. . p. 386, No 1499).
I3S> G. Forster, A journey from Bengal to England.... vol. II,
p. 88.
136 - _
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.: . . ,
, ., 1954, . 307.
2 W. . Smith, Lower-class uprisings in the Mughal empire
(Islamic culture, vol. XX, 1946, 1), p. 38.
3 - , Tapux-u , . 99.
, - - , . 174175.
11 . .

161

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4
J. Leyden, On the Rosheniah sect, an d its founder B a yezid
Ansari [Asiatic researches, vol. XI (London), 1812], p. 396.

,

[.: Dharma Bhanu, The Raushania m ovem ents and the
Mughals (Islamic culture, vol. XXVI, 1952, 11), p. 59].
162


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[Henry . Rawlinson, Report on the Dooranee tribes dated 19th April
1841 (Central Asia. A contribution towards the better knowledge
of the topography, ethnology resources and history of Afghanistan
compiled (for political and military reference) by Heutenant-colonel

U*

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8
. , .

(. Elphinstone,
account of the Kingdom of Caublu, and its dependencies in Persia
Tartar and India; comprising a view of the Afghan nation and a
history of the Dooraunee monarchy, London, 1815, p. 21).

166



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. 12
G. Forster, A- journey from Bengal to England, through the
northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and into
Russia, by the Caspian-Sea, vol. II, London, 1798, p. 83.
!S Ibid., p. 40.
14 . . , , . 5.
15 Charles Masson, Narrative of various journeys in Baloochistun,
Afghanistan, and the Panjab; including a residence in those conn* tries from 1826 to 1838, vol. I, London, 1842, p. 427.

169


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16 . Elphinstone, An account..., . 402.
17 Joseph Davey Cunningham, History of the Sikhs, from the
origin of the nation to the battles of the Sutlej, vol. 32, Calcutta,
1903, p. 186.
18 . - , , . .
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vol. 32, Calcutta,
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