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RIGHTS IN PLAY

A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION

Table of Contents

About the JHC..................................................... 4


Part 1: Introduction.............................................. 5
Part 2: Games and Activities................................. 8
1. Warm-Up Activities and Energizers.................. 9
Back to Back
Blanket Stand
Catch the Dragons Tail
Elephant, Palm Tree, Giraffe
Going Dotty
Group Sit
Look Up Look Down
Silent Calendar
Stand-Up
The Human Knot
The Taco Game
Trust Fall
2. Your Rights.................................................. 22
An Important Job
Camp Rules Relay
Human Rights and My Community
Human Rights Charades
Human Rights Freeze Tag
Human Rights Squares
Introducing Human Rights
Puzzle Relay
Rainbow of Rights
Rights Auction
Rights Balloon Game
Rights Flag Tag/G.R.O.W.
Suitcase of Rights
The Calendar Game
Treasure Hunt
Tug of Rights

The Rights in Play Manual is possible because of your


ongoing commitment to our work.

4. Children and War........................................ 77


Landmine Field Simulation Game
No Place Like Home
Packing Your Suitcase

The John Humphrey Centre would like to thank the


Human Rights Education and Multiculturalism Fund for
their ongoing support.

3. Celebrating Diversity ................................... 64


Children From Around the World
Diversity Welcome
Early Contact
Sets
Step With Me
The Amoeba Race
The History of Your Name
Zombies

6. Communication and Cooperation ................ 97


Active Listening
Ankle Walk
Bears in the Air
How Do You See It?
One-Way, Two-Way Communication
Talking Circle
The Smarties Game
7. Conflict Resolution..................................... 114
5 Pictures
Doctor Harper and Doctor Gagnon
The Ambassadors
8. Constructing Peace ................................. 127
3 Things I Can Do
Cooperative Bridge Building
Human Rights Collage
Imagining Possible Futures
Rights Magnets
The Promise of the Peace Dove
What Characterizes Human Beings?
9. Different Resources ................................... 141
Jellybeans to Feed the World
Peace Monster
Something to Think About
Unequal Resources
10. Disabilities................................................. 152
A City Like No Other
Alligator Pond
Sandpaper Letters
Signals
You and I
11. Discrimination........................................... 162
4 Corners
Backpacks of Privilege
Barnyard
Discriminatik
Exclusion
Unpacking the Privileges

12. Games From Around the World.................. 178


Cover Your Ears (Korea)
My Little Bird (Tanzania)
The Big Lantern Game (Japan)
The Mitten Game (North America)
What is My Bride Like? (Israel)
Who is it? (Chile)
13. Gender Equality......................................... 187
A Fairytale
Advantages and Disadvantages
Definitions of Women and Men
14. Human Rights and the Environment............ 199
Journey of Bottled Water
Needs
Secure the Water
Systems are Dynamic
15. LGBTQ Rights............................................ 212
A Dating Dilemma
Count Your Losses
Language Lesson
LGBTQ Trivia
Safe Space
Standing on the Other Side of the Fence
16. Status........................................................ 228
Pick Your Card
Power and Privilege
Status Olympics
The Scramble for Wealth and Power
17. Stereotypes................................................ 242
Cultures Game
Cultural Perceptions
Lollipop Wrapper Game
The Masking Tape Activity
Theyre All Alike
18. (Un)fairness............................................... 254
Camouflage
Play a Relay
The Pen Game
Word Game

5. Child Labour and Poverty............................. 86


Building a House
TaoBahayLupa
The Urban Poor
Understanding Our Rights
Whats in a Name?

about the JHC


The John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights is a non-profit
organization that is named after John Peters Humphrey, a Canadian principle
drafter of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Since 1998, we have
envisioned a world that manifests a culture of peace and human rights in which the
dignity of every person is respected, valued, and celebrated. We aim to transform
this vision into reality through the implementation of educational programs and
activities, community partnerships, and empowering citizens based on the principles
of the UDHR. We believe that perceiving and understanding the world through a
human rights lens is essential to effectively responding to the ills in our society and
our world from issues such as discrimination and bullying to poverty, war, and
genocide.
Empowered by the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights and Training,
adopted on December 19, 2011, the John Humphrey Centre continues its
mandate, as reinforced by Article 1 of the Declaration:
1. Everyone has the right to know, seek, and receive information about all human rights and fundamental freedoms and should have access to human rights
education and training.
2. Human rights education and training is essential for the promotion of universal
respect for and observance of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for
all, in accordance with the principles of the universality, indivisibility, and interdependence of human rights.
3. The effective enjoyment of all human rights, in particular the right to education
and access to information, enables access to human rights education and training.
Our education philosophy is based on the belief that all education needs to be
centred on collective wisdom we all have something to bring to the table and
it is through the harnessing of our collective stories that we are able to achieve a
greater understanding of difference, diversity, and human rights. All education or
learning involves tapping into the wisdom that exists within participants.
We focus our programming on learning in a format that involves experiential,
transformative, and applied learning that reinforces an individuals understanding
of dignity and expands their awareness and understanding through engagement
with others. True learning comes through experience and engagement with others
which is why our approach to educational programming is specifically designed to
empower participants to build their active voice and citizenship and to apply their
learning to address needs they identify in their community.
One of the ultimate goals of human rights education is the creation of a genuine
human rights culture. To do so, students must learn to evaluate real-life experiences
in human rights terms, starting with their own behaviour and the immediate
community in which they live. They need to make an honest assessment of how the
reality they experience every day conforms to human rights principles and then to
take active responsibility for improving their community.
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(United Nations, 2003)

PART
1
INTRODUCTION

Human Rights Education

The curriculum is comprised of:

All people no matter their age, sex, race, culture,


religion, or location have the same basic needs in
order to live a healthy life. Learning that people have a
right to have these basic needs met is very important,
especially in our interconnected world. Human Rights
education aims to:

1. Introduction
2. Warm-up Activities and Energizers
3. Core Your Rights Games with background
information
4. Games focused on specific human rights related
topics and issues with background information
5. Appendixes, including key human rights documents

The Curriculum

The Rights in Play (RiP)1 toolkit has been used for


over a decade to creatively promote human rights
education. Through non formal educational activities,
Rights in Play aims to:
Help children and youth ages 5-25 explore the
world around them through over a hundred
exciting games and activities, using experiential
learning techniques.
Explore different aspects of human rights
locally, nationally and globally through
interactive activities and discussions.
Provide knowledge and understanding of
human rights concepts and documents
including The Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, The Convention on the Rights of the
Child, and The Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms.
Many of the RiP activities are adapted from local or
global organizations concerned with the promotion of
human rights, global citizenship and education. The
John Humphrey Centre Program Coordinators have
also developed several activities.

1. Formerly known as Rights in the Sun (RITS).

How to Use the Curriculum


Getting Started

To begin using the RiP curriculum:


Familiarize yourself with the layout of the book.
Look through the human right documents
provided in Appendix A (p. 262).
Read the background information and
Factoids found at the beginning of each
section.
Browse through the games, noting that each
provides information on age, purpose, time,
and resources needed.
The Structure of a RiP Session

A general outline of a RiP session is found below:


1. Opening Human Rights Conversation and/or
Warm-up Activity
We recommend beginning your RiP session with a
human rights conversation. Try using the example
Human Rights Introduction found in the Your Rights
section of the curriculum. This can mean asking the
children what they know about human rights and listing
examples. For groups needing a more energetic start
or younger groups, begin with a warm-up activity.
2. Game 1: Your Rights
Frequently, the introduction is followed by a Your
Rights game and discussion to further reinforce the
understanding of specific human rights.
3. Games 2, 3, 4: A Specific Human Rights Topic
These are activities that suit your particular theme
or focus. These games are followed by a discussion
of facts and figures as well as time to reflect on the
emotional responses participants had to the games.

Lay the groundwork for the creation of a global


ethic and a common vision for human dignity.
Develop rights respecting attitudes and
behaviour, as well as solidarity and kindness.
Ensure the values of equality and nondiscrimination are upheld.
Foster an understanding and appreciation of
diversity.
Empower people to become active citizens and
develop the tools necessary to defend human
rights.
Cultivate a culture of peace based upon
human rights values, non-violence and
understanding.

4. Closing Comments
It can be beneficial to end a session with some closing comments. Ask the participants what they have learned, what
they can do with that information, and, again, what human rights are. You may also want to share where they can find
more information.

Planning A RiP Session

You are now ready to plan your first customized RiP session. To help plan your session, a blank session plan template
as well as sample session plans are provided in Appendix B (p. 273). A simple way to begin is by identifying answers
to the questions below.

Playing times can vary greatly depending on


discussion. Plan an extra game just in case.
With very young children, anything more than
an hour is difficult, whereas teenagers can
participate in a half-day session or longer.
Older youth often want more information.
Research your topic and provide thematic
handouts, such as the factoids provided at
the beginning of each section.
With most of the games in this curriculum, a
group of 10-20 participants is ideal.
Prepare the necessary resources for each
activity ahead of time.

Session Planning Tips

PART
2
TOPICS, GAMES, AND ACTIVITIES

SECTION
1
WARM-UP ACTIVITIES AND ENERGIZERS

Back to Back (IO)


Ages: Any age
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great ice-breaker activity that encourages positive group

dynamics.

Procedure:

Players stand in pairs, except one volunteer who will help facilitate the game.
If there is an odd number of players at the start of the game, the session
facilitator can assume this role instead of calling upon a volunteer.
When the volunteer/facilitator calls back to back, the players must back up
to a different person and form a new partnership.
When the volunteer calls face to face, the players must move forward until
they are facing a new partner. The new partners shake hands.
The volunteer can choose whether to call back to back or face to face,
and the players must find a new partner each time.
The last two people to find partners are eliminated.
The game continues until there are only two players left.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is needed.


Adapted from: Center of Web, 2003. The Index (250+Games. [Online]: Available at: http://www.ultimatecampresource.com/

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site/camp-activity/birthday-line-up.html. [Accessed on 14 June 2006].

Blanket Stand (IO)


Ages: Any age
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: A large blanket.
Purpose: This is a great warm-up game. Participants are encouraged to think

about group cooperation and problem solving.


Procedure:

Lay a large blanket out on the ground.


Have everyone in the group stand on the blanket without touching the ground
around/outside the blanket.
Fold the blanket in half and ask the group to find a way to all get on the
blanket again.
See how many times you can fold the blanket and with everyone on top of it
without any body parts touching the ground around/outside the blanket.
Variation: Have the group stand on the blanket. Ask them to flip the blanket
over to the other side without stepping off the blanket.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is needed.


Emphasize the ideas of cooperation, teamwork and communication.
What strategies did you use throughout the activity?
How did effective communication make it easier to solve the problem?
How are communication, teamwork and human rights related?

Hint: This game works best with a maximum of 10 participants for


each blanket.
Adapted from: Center of Web (2003) The Index (250+ Games). [online]: Available at: http://www.centerofweb.com/kids/

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games/xtra_games.htm#Blanket%20Stand. [Accessed on 14 June 2006].

Catch the Dragons Tail (O)


Ages: 6-12
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: A belt, kerchief, and large open space.
Purpose: This game demonstrates the idea that teamwork is sometimes

challenging. It explores why teamwork is rewarding despite its challenges.


Procedure:

This game requires at least 8 participants.


Instruct the participants to line up and put their hands on the hips or shoulders
of the person in front of them (like a train).
Explain to them that they are now a dragon.
Ask the person at the end of the line to put on the belt and tuck the kerchief
into the back of the belt so that it is hanging like a tail.
Tell the participants that the people at the front are going to try to catch the
dragons tail and the people at the back are going to run away to avoid having
the dragons tail caught. The only rule is that the dragon must stay connected
at all times.
Watch the dragon chase its tail for about 10 minutes or until it has been
caught.
Discussion:

What did you think of this game? Did you like your position in the dragon?
Why or why not? How did it feel to be in the middle? Did you know which
side you were helping?
When in real life is teamwork challenging? When are you pulled in two
directions at once?
Why are teamwork and cooperation important?
How do teamwork and cooperation lead to rights respecting communities?
Adapted from: Activity Village, 2011. Catch the Dragons Tail. [Online]: Available at: http://www.activityvillage.co.uk/catch_the_

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dragons_tail.htm. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

Elephant, Palm Tree, Giraffe (O)


Ages: 6-14
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This is an active warm-up activity and an excellent ice-breaker. Older

groups may also find it entertaining.


Procedure:

You will need 15 to 30 children standing in a circle to play this game.


Start by explaining that this game is a game of elimination. Show examples of
how the elephant, palm tree and giraffe are acted out. Note: If the children are
younger, you can choose to only do elephant and palm tree to make the game
easier.
Form the elephant by asking one person to be the trunk by extending their
hands together in front of them, hanging downwards. The ears are formed by
having the two people on either side of the trunk lean towards the trunk with
their hands in a big oval overhead.
Form the palm tree by having one person wave their arms overhead in a large
V with open palms. This person is the trunk. The two people on either side of
the trunk make additional branches on the sides by waving their arms in a large
V overhead by leaning slightly away from the trunk.
Form the giraffe by having one person be the head and reach their arms
overhead with one hand on top of the other. The two people on either side
of the head form the legs by bending forwards with their arms hanging
downwards.
Explain that each time you call elephant, palm tree or giraffe you will point to
one person who will be the center of the figure. The two people on either side
will fall into their positions.
After a few tries, start eliminating participants who dont make the correct figure
and ask them to sit down. If there is someone sitting down in the middle of an
elephant or palm tree or giraffe, the next standing person will have to fill in.
Continue until only a few people are left.
Discussion:

As this is a warm up activity, not much debriefing is necessary.


Adapted from: Deep Fun, 2012. Elephant, Giraffe, Palm Tree. [Online]: Available at: http://www.deepfun.com/pointless2.html.

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[Accessed on 20 August 2012].

Going Dotty (IO)


Ages: Any age
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: Small, self-adhesive coloured dots in at least four colours, one for

each participant; an open space so that participants can move about freely.
Purpose: This simple exercise has a variety of possible uses. It quickly

establishes the need for cooperation among individuals in order to solve a group
task and it heightens the importance of non-verbal communication. At a practical
level, the activity can be used as an enjoyable means of organizing participants into
random groups for further work.
Procedure:

Participants form a circle, close their eyes and remain silent. Each participant
has a coloured dot stuck to his or her forehead.
The different coloured dots should be spread among the participants so that
neighbouring participants do not have the same colour. There should be an
approximately equal number of each colour among participants.
Participants open their eyes and try to form groups with other people wearing
the same-coloured dots. They cannot speak, point at colours, look for
reflections or peel off the dot.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up activity, not much debriefing is needed. You may, however,
want to emphasize that this game is meant to create an atmosphere of
teamwork and cooperation for the rest of the session.
You may also want to discuss the importance of effective communication. How
difficult was it to find your group without words? How important is it to interpret
body language in understanding one another? How important is it to choose
words well and listen well so that people understand one another?
How are communication and cooperation related to human rights? Why are
they important?
Hint: Participants will try to point at colours or mouth words when
trying to get into groups - watch out for this.
Adapted from: Pike G., and Selby, D., 1998. A Chapter of Activities In Smith, D. and Carson, T Educating for a Peaceful Future.

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Toronto: Kagan & Woo Ltd., pp. 216-217.

Group Sit (IO)


Ages: Any age
Time: 5 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great warm-up game that encourages teamwork and

problem solving.
Procedure:

Have the participants stand in a close circle with the toes from both their feet
touching.
Ask them to sit down without breaking the connection with their toes.
Give participants a few minutes to strategize before starting.
One of the best ways to do this is to hold hands and then sit down, but refrain
from telling participants this strategy at the beginning of the game.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up activity, not much debriefing is needed.


You can emphasize the importance of working as a team to solve a problem,
as well as communication and cooperation.
How are communication and cooperation related to human rights? Why are
they important?
Adapted from: Human Rights Resource Centre. Group Sit. [Online]: Available at: http://www.hrusa.org. [Accessed on 19 June
2006].

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Look Up, Look Down (IO)


Ages: Any age
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great ice-breaker game that encourages positive group

dynamics.

Procedure:

The group stands in a circle with their shoulders touching, looking at the
ground.
One designated person calls, Look up! Players must look at the face of
someone in the circle. If you are looking at someone who is looking at you
(making eye contact) you are out.
The designated person then calls, Look down! Players look back down at the
ground.
The game continues until there are only two players left.
Variation: Have participants make a sound (choose as a group)
when they are eliminated.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is needed.


Adapted from: Holden Leadership Center, 2009. Look Up, Look Down. University of Oregon. [Online]: Available at: http://
leadership.uoregon.edu/resources/exercises_tips/energizers/look_up_look_down [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

16

Silent Calendar (IO)


Ages: Any age.
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great warm-up game that encourages communication and

teamwork.

Procedure:

Have the group get in a line.


Tell them they must, in silence, get in order by one of the following criteria:
birthday, height, name, age, etc.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is required.


Discuss the difficulties of communication when you are not able to use
language. What issues might you encounter when communicating with each
other becomes challenging? How were you able to solve communication
problems in this game?
Highlight that silent types of communication require patience, an open mind,
and respect for others.
How does effective communication promote respect for human rights?
Adapted from: Human Rights Resource Center. Silent Calendar. [Online]: Available at: http://www.hrusa.org [Accessed on 19

17

June 2006].

Stand-Up (O)
Ages: Any age.
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a quick warm-up game that can be used to increase energy in

the group. It also sets the tone for the rest of the presentation because the game
requires a large degree of teamwork.
Procedure:

Explain that you want to begin with a fun game that will get them all working
together as a team.
Number everyone off as 1 or 2.
Have all the #1s sit in a straight line, shoulder to shoulder, with their feet out in
front of them.
Next, have all the #2s sit in a straight line so that each person from line #2 is
leaning on the back of a person in line #1 (back-to-back). Have all the #2s
stick their legs straight out in front of them.
Have participants in line #1 link arms with the person in line #2 who is directly
behind them.
On the count of 3, have everyone try and stand up together at once without
unlinking their arms.
Especially with a larger group, standing up will take several tries. As the group
gets better, they will coordinate their moves so that they all move as one (which
is the key to being able to stand up!).
Discussion:

18

Not much debriefing is required because this is simply an energizer to get the
group going.
Tell the group that the exercise is a fun way to get them working as a team.
You would like them to continue to work as a group during the human rights
session. You also want to create a safe space, where people can support one
another. Sensitive issues come up when people are talking about rights (for
instance poverty, sexuality, racism, disabilities, etc.).

The Human Knot (O)


Ages: Any age
Time: 5 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great warm-up game that encourages cooperation and

teamwork.

Procedure:

Have the group stand in a circle.


Each participant will reach across the circle and hold hands with two different
participants. Each hand must hold the hand of a different participant. You
cannot hold the hand of the person beside you.
Once the group has created the knot, the participants must work together to
untangle the knot, and become a circle again. Occasionally the group will end
up in more than one circle.
The participants must not let go of hands as they are untangling their knot.
Discussion:

19

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is needed.


Point out and discuss the importance of cooperation, teamwork and
communication in this game, and indicate that these values will be needed
throughout the session.

The Taco Game (O)


Age: Any age
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is an energizing warm-up game that encourages cooperation.
Procedure:

Have participants line up in a row facing forward.


One person (the facilitator) will yell out a number of tacos. Each time they yell
a number of tacos, the participants have to form groups of that number. It is a
good idea to start with larger numbers and work downwards.
Play music or give a countdown so that the participants have limited time to
form the groups.
The groups that have less or more than the required number of tacos are out.
Ask the participants who are eliminated to tell everyone their name, age, and a
human right.
Discussion:

As this is a warm-up game, not much debriefing is needed.


Hint: This is a good game to use to make teams for the next activity.

20

Adapted by: Aaida Rajabali for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2006.

Trust Fall (O)


Ages: 10+
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: This is a great warm-up game that increases the level of trust within

the group.

Procedure:

Have the participants stand in a close circle with their shoulders touching.
One participant will stand in the middle.
Have the participant in the middle keep his/her body as stiff as a board as they
let him/her fall to the outside of the circle. The participants around the circle
will catch him/her and then push him/her in another direction.
If participants become comfortable with this, the person in the middle can try
closing his/her eyes.
Next, moving outside of the circle, you can try having one participant fall back
as two people stand behind to catch him/her.
Discussion:

Was it difficult to let go and fall?


Why was it difficult?
Did you have trouble trusting the other members of the group?
What are some things that can be done to build trust amongst people?
Why is creating trust an important aspect of promoting human rights?

Adapted from: Center of Web (2003) The Index (250+ Games). [Online]: Available at: http://www.centerofweb.com/kids/

21

games/xtra_games.htm#Trust%20Fall. [Accessed on 14 June 2006].

SECTION
2
YOUR RIGHTS

For more informations visit:


www.amnesty.org
www.un.org/en/rights
www.unicef.org
www.chrc-ccdp.ca

Human Rights as Your Rights


We need human rights to live life in freedom and dignity and have our basic needs
met. Human rights are the basic privileges and freedoms that all humans are
entitled to. They include political, economic, social and cultural rights. States have
an obligation to promote these rights, however, in many places, people still struggle
to meet their basic needs, attain equality and reach their full potential.
The ratification of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by the
United Nations in 1948 created the first global document to guarantee human
rights to everyone. The UDHR contains 30 articles. Today, there are more than 80
international treaties that build upon the tenets set out in the UDHR. Some examples
include:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (1948) (this document is
included on p. 263 and to learn more about the UDHR, read the Youth Guide
to the UDHR which is available online at www.jhcentre.org)
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
(1965)
The Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women
(CEDAW) (1981)
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (1989) (this document is
included on p. 265)
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) (2008)
Individual countries may also have their own human rights legislation in place in
addition to global documents.
Human Rights in Canada

23

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, signed in 1982, protects the rights
and freedoms of everyone in Canada (to learn more about the Canadian Charter
of Rights and Freedoms, read the Youth Guide to the Canadian Charter which
is available online at www.jhcentre.org). It is a national legal document that is
binding on federal and provincial governments and state officials. Most of the rights
outlined apply to Canadian citizens, permanent residents and visitors. Some rights,
including the right to vote (Section 3), only apply to citizens. The Charter is one part
of the Canadian Constitution. This means that it is the highest law of Canada and
therein difficult to change. In addition to the Charter, the federal and provincial
governments have passed supplementary human rights laws and the provinces have
their own Human Rights Commissions.

Childrens Rights
Every human being is entitled to the rights laid out in the UDHR, however children
also have specific rights that are presented in the United Nations Convention on
the Rights of the Child (CRC), signed in 1989. The CRC is a document of principles
that guides how we view children and helps provide us with the tools necessary
to ensure that every child survives and develops to their full potential. The CRC
outlines 54 articles that protect the rights of children until they turn 18. All articles
are important and interconnected.
The CRC is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate all forms
of human rights civil, economic, cultural and social. All countries in the world,
except for Somalia and the United States have ratified the CRC. By ratifying the
CRC, states show their commitment to protecting childrens rights and become
responsible for amending their own laws and policies to better meet childrens rights
goals. States are required to report to the Committee on the Rights of the Child with
their progress every five years.
The CRC encompasses four types of rights:
1. Survival Rights: The right to life and to have your most basic needs met.
2. Development Rights: Rights that allow you to reach your fullest potential.
3. Participation Rights: Rights that allow you to take an active role in your
community.
4. Protection Rights: Rights that protect you from all forms of abuse, neglect and
exploitation.
(Source for types of rights list: UNICEF Canada, 2010. When Disaster Strikes, Understanding Humanitarian Emergencies.
[Online] Available at: http://www.unicef.ca/sites/default/files/imce_uploads/. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].)

Canada Ratified the CRC in 1991. To date, Canada has submitted four progress
reports on the Convention on the Rights of the Child to the UN.
Games in this section include:
Rights Flag Tag /G.R.O.W.
Rainbow of Rights
Rights Balloon Game
Rights Auction
Human Rights and My Community
Human Rights Squares
Suitcase of Rights

An Important Job
Tug of Rights
Treasure Hunt
The Calendar Game
Puzzle Relay
Camp Rules Relay
Human Rights Freeze Tag
Human Rights Charades
24

Factoid : Human Rights and Childrens


Rights
Definitions:

Human rights are universal. They are basic privileges and freedoms that all
humans are entitled to. This means that everyone has these rights regardless of
their religion, ethnicity, socio-economic status, sex or country of origin.
Human rights are inalienable. They cannot be taken away from anyone.
Human rights are indivisible, interconnected and mutually reinforcing. All rights
are fundamental and it is important that human rights are respected in their
entirety.
Human rights ensure that people have access to their basic needs such as
food, water, shelter, health services, and sanitation. They guarantee protection
from violence, deprivation, and suffering.
Human rights make sure that everyone can live with dignity and have the ability
to thrive. They provide the tools we need to develop to our full potential.
Human rights are reciprocal. They go hand-in-hand with responsibility.
Everyone has a responsibility to respect the rights of others.
Understanding the Concept:

Human rights are the rights all humans have and are protected through many
different international declarations and treaties. These include The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (1948) and The Convention on the Rights
of the Child (CRC) (1989). The CRC protects the rights of those less than 18 years
of age. In Canada, The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, signed in
1982, protects the rights and freedoms of everyone in the country. This means that
in addition to the rights proposed in international documents, Canadian law offers
added protection.
Did You Know?

2. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2012. The State of the Worlds Children 2012. [online]: Available at: http://www.unicef.org/
sowc2012/pdfs/SOWC%202012-Main%20Report_EN_13Mar2012.pdf [Accessed on 3 July 2012].

25

Canadian legal scholar John Peters Humphrey was a principle drafter of the
UDHR.
The UDHR contains 30 articles that make up your basic human rights.
Human rights violations still exist. For example, in 2008, 67 million primaryschool-aged children were not in school, 53% of them girls. This violates Article
28 of the CRC - childrens right to education. Over one third of children in
urban areas worldwide go unregistered at birth. This is a violation of Article 7
of the CRC children have the right to an identity.2
Edmonton was the first Human Rights City in North America.
Human Rights Day is celebrated on December 10th every year.

An Important Job (I)

Discussion:

Ages: 6-14

Ask the participants to compare


their list and the summary of the
Convention. Which needs have
been identified as rights? Are there
any differences between the two
lists? Why?
Why do you think the United
Nations thinks childrens rights are
so important that they need special
protection of their own? Do you
think children should have their
own set of rights? Why or why not?
Do you think all the children in
your country and in the world have
all of these rights? Why or why
not?
Pick one or two rights. Ask the
children to imagine what life
would be like without these rights.
Give examples.

Resources: Chart paper and

markers, a simplified copy of The


Convention on the Rights of the Child
(see Appendix A on p. 262).
Purpose: This brainstorming activity

shows that human rights documents


are based on the basic needs of all
people.
Procedure:

Explain that the United Nations


is the parliament of the worlds
nations.
Ask the participants to imagine
that they have been asked by the
United Nations to make a list
of all the things that all children
everywhere need in order to be
happy and healthy. These might
include food, play, air and love.
Write up these needs as they are
suggested without judging them.
When there are no more
suggestions, ask the children to
identify which of their suggestions
are really needs, and which are
wants (for example, TV and candy
would be wants not needs). Try to
identify needs which are the same
for all children everywhere.
Now show the participants the
summary of the Convention on the
Rights of the Child. Explain that
years ago, a similar list was made
by the UN which later became
the Convention. The Convention
reminds the worlds nations of the
needs of children.

Variation: Tell the children


that they have been asked to
develop a set of camp rules
for a global summer camp.
They must create rules that
will protect the rights of all
the campers. First, have the
children list all of the needs
they think every child all over
the world has. Once this has
been completed, ask them to
create rules to protect these
needs. Compare their camp
rules with the UN Convention on
the Rights of the Child.
Adapted from: MacPherson, S. & Tigchelaar, M., 2004. New
Horizons: Human Rights Education for Families. Edmonton,
AB: Indo Canadian Womens Association.

26

Time: 15 minutes

Camp Rules Relay (O)


Ages: 9-13
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: 8 to 10 sheets of newsprint, each with a camp rule written in

large letters at the top; several sets of Rights Cards (each set should be a different
colour); masking tape; something with which to hang up the sheets of newsprint
(tape for walls, string for trees, etc.).
Purpose: This activity encourages participants to think about the ways in which

rules and laws are often designed to protect their rights. At this age, children are
often quick to say but its my right. This game encourages them to examine how
rules give them responsibilities to protect the rights of others.

Before participants arrive, hang up the sheets of newsprint in a line. Each piece
of newsprint should feature a common camp rule in very large print. See
below for some examples. Set up a start line about 25m away from the rules
for the relay.
Begin this game by telling the group that people everywhere have rights.
Human rights are things that ensure that we all get what we need to live. Give
an example of a human need and corresponding human right, one that is NOT
part of the game. Explain that if each of us wants to make sure that our rights
are respected, we have to respect the rights of others as well. There are rules,
laws and conventions that we all have to follow which are designed to protect
the rights of others. These rules set out the responsibilities that we have to the
people around us.
Tell the children that they will play a relay game where they have to match
some human rights with the camp rules that protect those rights.
Have the participants line up in groups of 4-6 behind the start line for the relay.
In front of each group, place a set of 8-12 Rights Cards face down. There
should be a piece of sticky tape on the back of each right.
Tell the children that they can turn over the top Rights Card. As a group, they
must decide which rule to place the right under, and onto which newsprint sheet
to stick their rights card. For example, the right to express oneself might be
stuck to the newsprint on which is written the rule listen to others and respect
what they have to say.
Once they have decided where to place their first Rights Card, the first person
runs to stick that card under the rule that they think protects it. That person
runs back to the group and the next person in line turns over the next Rights
Card. All team members must take turns running in the order in which they are
lined up.

27

Procedure:

Team members can ONLY turn over their next right card when the previous one
has been attached to a rule page. That means they can look at it and begin to
decide as a team where it will go as the last runner is coming back. Because
this is a relay, one runner must have returned across the start line before the
next runner can start running.
If the runner places the Rights Card under an appropriate rule, they may
continue.
If they place the right under an inappropriate rule, they will be given an
additional rights card by the arbiter (a camp counselor or teacher). This means
that they will have to run extra laps.
The above rule ensures that the teams will think about where they place their
rights. The rule also makes it very risky for teams to cheat by following other
teams and copying them since the other teams may have been incorrect.
Remind the children that some rights might fit well under several different rules.
The first team to finish wins the relay race, but continue to play until all teams
are finished.
Discussion:

Begin by looking at the camp rules that were posted. Discuss the rights the
children have associated with each rule. Ask the groups to describe the
connection that exists between the rights and rules posted.
Why is there is a strong connection between rights and responsibilities?
Can you come up with any other rules at camp which might protect human
rights?
Tell the children that laws, like provincial human rights codes, lay out rules
people must follow to protect the rights of others. Often these laws protect
the same human rights as camp rules do. For example, the right to express
yourself and to have others respect your freedom to express yourself.
Conclude by asking the participants do you think all people in Canada and
the rest of the world have all of these rights? Why or why not?

28

Created by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Rights, 2005.

Pages - PLEASE SUBSTITUTE WITH YOUR CAMP/SCHOOL RULES







Listen to what others have to say, do not interrupt them.


Do not tease or make fun of any other person if it makes them feel bad.
Do not push, shove or fight.
Play fairly.
Listen to Camp Leaders.
Do not ___________ without an adult supervising you.

EXAMPLE RIGHTS



The right to freedom of expression.


The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
The right to safety and security.
The right to play.

29

Human Rights and My Community (IO)


Ages: 10+
Time: 60 minutes
Resources: Markers, large sheets of paper.
Purpose: This activity introduces the concept of human rights through group

discussion, drawing and presentation.


Procedure:

30

Divide participants into groups of 3-4.


Hand out three large sheets of paper and markers to each group.
Ask each group to think about human rights and make a list of words
connected to human rights. Have each group share their answers.
Ask each group to now draw a picture to answer the question: What are
human rights?. Have each group present their answers.
Divide the participants into new groups of three to four and ask them to
complete a diagram. They begin by drawing a small circle in the centre of their
paper and then answer the following questions:
1. What is important in our community? (In the small circle in the middle of the
paper, write the question and then make another circle around the centre
and split it into four quadrants. Write one answer in each of the quadrants).
2. Why is this important? What need does it fill (Make four additional circles in
the four corners of the paper and write the original answers in each circle.
Draw another circle around each of the four new circles and divide them
into four quadrants. Write one answer to the question in each quadrant).
3. Hand out copies of the UDHR to each participant. Ask them to find out
which articles correspond to their answers and to write down the article
number beside each answer.
4. Have groups present their responses.

Diagram

What is
Important
in Our
Community?

Discussion:

31

What did you learn from this activity? What will you do with that information?
How do human rights affect you in your everyday life?
Why are human rights important?

Ages: 8+
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Slips of paper with

charades written on them.

Purpose: This game provides

an interactive way to introduce or


reinforce human rights knowledge in
an indoor or outdoor setting.
Procedure:

Hand out slips of paper with


charades to each participant.
Give everyone a few minutes to
plan their charade.
Have a participant silently act
out their charade. They may tell
the audience how many words
they are acting out by holding up
fingers.
Let the group guess what it is.
If clues are needed, the facilitator
can give out a few keywords or in
older groups, the team/participant
themselves can provide a keyword
that does not contain the charade
word in it.
Once the charade is correctly
guessed, briefly discuss its
connection to human rights, its
importance or what happens when
the right is violated (if its a right).
Continue until everyone has
participated or its time to move
on.
Discussion:

Was it hard to act out your rights/


charades?

Which charades were the hardest/


easiest to act out? Why?
In real life can it be difficult to
understand and respect other
peoples rights and make them
understand and respect yours?
Charade Examples:

Right to vote (Canadian Charter


Section 3)
Freedom of expression (UDHR
Article 19)
Right to education (UDHR Article
26)
Right to the best health care
possible
(CRC Article 24)
Right to food (CRC Article 27)
Right to clothing (CRC Article 27)
Right to play (CRC Article 31)
Right to rest (CRC Article 31)
Right to be protected from
kidnapping
(CRC Article 11)
Democracy
Right to equality (Canadian
Charter Section 15; UDHR Article
1)
Literacy
No one can be forced into slavery
(UDHR Article 4)
Refugee
Freedom of religion (UDHR Article
18)
Universal
Culture
Freedom
Equality (UDHR Article 1)
Freedom of speech
Right to marry (UDHR Article 16)
Freedom of the press (Canadian
Charter
Section 2b)
Peace
Right to work (UDHR Article 23)
Right to rest and leisure (UDHR
Article 24)

32

Human Rights
Charades (IO)

Human Rights Freeze Tag (O)


Ages: 8-16
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Gymnasium or outdoor area with defined boundaries.
Purpose: This classic variation of tag is a great energizer and tests the human

rights knowledge of the group.


Procedure:

Brainstorm some human rights examples as a group.


Explain that in order to protect their rights in this version of tag, participants
must avoid being caught. They can only regain their rights when they state a
human right they have to the facilitator or leader.
Explain the rules of freeze tag. Tagging can only be done from the shoulders
down. Every time someone is tagged they have to stay still and freeze with their
hands overhead in a diamond shape (i.e. making the gesture for the right to
shelter).
To become unfrozen, each participant must correctly say a human right (or
freedom) to the leader.
To start, ask for a few volunteers (depending on group size) to be it and do
the tagging.
Begin playing. After a while, change whos it and continue the game.
At the end of the game, gather the children/youth for a discussion.
Discussion:

33

Which rights were the most common answers when unfreezing participants?
Why?
Are some rights easier to remember or more important than others? Why or
why not?
In reality, do some people lose or gain their rights? In what situations?
How would it feel to lose your rights?
How can you protect your rights?

Human Rights Squares (I)


Ages: 14+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: A copy of Human Rights Squares (see the following page) for

each participant, a copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for each
participant (see Appendix A on p. 262).
Purpose: This activity reveals what participants already know about human

rights and the issues that are of concern to them. It also stimulates discussion about
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and categories of rights.
Procedure:

Give every participant a copy of Human Rights Squares. Explain that


participants must walk around the room and find people who can answer the
questions in their Human Rights Squares. Everyone tries to get an answer and a
signature from a different person for each square. Participants must try to fill in
as many squares as possible.
Stop after five minutes.
Variation: Have participants work in partners or teams instead of going around
the room.
Discussion:

Which were the easiest squares to find answers for? The most difficult? Why?
Which squares had global answers? National answers? Local or community
answers?
Can you match any of these squares to articles of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights? To articles of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms?
Which of the squares are related to civil and political rights? To social,
economic, and cultural rights?
Do you think that there are some squares that should be more emphasized
than others in discussions relating to Human Rights? Why or why not?
What additional squares might you create for this game?
Adapted from: David Shiman, 1993. Teaching Human Rights. Denver: Centre for Teaching International Relations Publications,
University of Denver. [Online]: Available at: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hereandnow/Part-3/Activity4.

34

htm [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

Human Rights Squares

A human right

A human right sometimes


denied to women around the
world

Document that proclaims


human rights

A right that women in Canada


gained after men

Children at war & child


soldiers are often denied this
right

Child workers & labourers


often have this right neglected

A right every child has in the


world

A woman who has fought for


womens rights in Canada

Country where people are


denied their rights because of
race/ethnicity/gender

Country that respects rights

Type of human rights violation Human right not yet achieved


that disturbs you the most
by everyone in this country

Right you would be most


willing to give up

A right that is important to you Country where human rights


are violated

Organisation that fights for


human rights

Country where people are


denied rights because of their
religion

A right often denied to


refugees

A right that is not respected in


your community

A right that is respected in


your community

A right that is respected in


Canada
35

Get an answer for as many squares as you can and write your answers in the correct box below. Stop when the time is
called.

Introducing Human Rights (IO)


Ages: 8+
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: Flipchart/whiteboard, markers.
Purpose: This is one example of an initial introductory discussion on human

rights that can be used at the beginning of a RiP session. At the end, participants
should know what a human right is, be able to list examples of their rights, and be
able to identify different types of rights.
Procedure and Discussion:

36

Write down the question What are human rights? on a whiteboard or


flipchart. Ask students to respond to the question and write down their answers.
Explain that human rights are for everyone, young, old, male, female
regardless of where they live or what religion they practice.
Ask for examples of human rights. Write these down.
Explain that human rights can be grouped into categories: rights that are
associated with needs (shelter, food, healthcare etc.), rights to keep them safe
from harm (protection from exploitation and cruel punishment), and rights to
take part in decisions that affect their life (right to be listened to by adults etc.).
Ask why do we have human rights and why are human rights important?.
Write the answers down.
Explain that human rights ensure everyone can live a dignified life and grow to
reach their full potential. Human rights ensure everyone is safe and has their
basic needs met.
Ask What would life be like without human rights?, Can you think of any
examples of human rights abuses? Write these down.

Puzzle Relay (O)


Ages: 11-16
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Puzzle pieces (with the Charter of Rights on one side and

corresponding picture and written rights on the other side), two copies of the
questions (found on the following pages), a large open space, two facilitators.
Purpose: This game teaches the participants the rights they hold as Canadians.

It also teaches them the value of working together.


Procedure:

37

Break apart the puzzle you have created and place all of the pieces with the
rights pictures in one pile and all of the pieces with rights phrases in another
pile. Make sure you know which picture represents each right before starting
the game.
Tell the participants that you are going to run a relay; the object is to build a
puzzle.
Divide the participants into two equal groups and have them form two lines
behind the start line. The facilitator will read a question to the person at the
front of the line. That person will hop, skip, etc. to get to the pile of puzzle
pieces. S/he must then choose the puzzle piece that correctly answers the
question and return to the facilitator.
The facilitator will check the puzzle piece. If it is the correct answer to the
question, the participant will put the puzzle piece in a successful pile and
return to the end of the line while the next person steps up for a new question.
If the answer is incorrect, the next person in line will take the puzzle piece and
be asked the same question by the facilitator. S/he will follow the instructions,
taking the incorrect piece back to the answers pile and choose the piece s/he
thinks is correct. This process repeats until the correct piece has been found.
Run the relay, encouraging each line to go faster and race throughout the
game.
As soon as one line has all of its puzzle pieces, the facilitator passes them to
the group and tells them that they can begin building the puzzle of the Charter
of Rights.
The group will quickly realize that they are missing pieces. Once both groups
have discovered this, they may recognize that they need to put all the pieces
together to build the puzzle.
Once they have discovered this and built the puzzle, congratulate them on
figuring it out.

Discussion:

What did you think of this game? Did you find it difficult to match any of the
rights you had to the corresponding puzzle piece? Did you find that some rights
corresponded to more than one puzzle piece and vice versa? Which one(s)?
Were there any rights that we have that surprised you? What were they?
How do you think our lives would be different if any of these rights were not
a part of our Charter? Why is it necessary for these rights to be in place?
Can you think of a place where people dont have all these rights? Can you
imagine what it is like to be afraid of your government?
How did you feel when you discovered that the two lines were racing to get
puzzle pieces that would be shared?
Created by: Caitlin MacLachlan, Aaida Rajabali and Darcie Tymrick for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights,
2006.

38

Questions
Each of the two facilitators should have a copy of the question, answer and
instruction sheet here.
I = Incorrect | C = Correct Answer
Q. What right allows you to have the religion of your choice or, if you
choose, no religion?
I. Hop to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Freedom of conscience and religion (You are free to make choices about the
beliefs you want to hold, and you are free to practice your faith).
Q. What right allows you to hold your own opinion without worrying
that the government will persecute you for it?
I. Crab walk to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion (You are entitled to hold the beliefs and
opinions you choose without any danger of the government persecuting you for
your ideas).
Q. What right allows you to voice ideas and opinions without fear of
being punished by the government?
I. Run to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Freedom of expression (You can voice your opinion and express your ideas
without fear of being punished by the government. This right also guarantees
freedom of the press).
Q. What right allows you to hold meetings to share your ideas
without worrying that the government will punish you?
I. Hop backwards to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Freedom of assembly and freedom of association (You can hold meetings,
reunions, political assemblies, etc., to share ideas, teach, work, etc., without
worrying that the government will punish you).

Q. What right allows you to move around and within Canada, and
enter or leave Canada as you wish?
I. Hop on one leg to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Every Citizen has the right to enter, remain in or leave Canada (In Canada, you
are allowed to come and go whenever you wish. You also have the right to
move around within Canada and to work anywhere in Canada).

39

Q. What right allows you to have a say in who your political leader
is once you are 18 years old?
I. Skip to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Every citizen has the right to vote in an election (Anyone over 18 years of age
who is a Canadian Citizen can vote in a Canadian election).

Q. What right makes it law that the government cannot put you in
jail unless you have committed a serious crime?
I. Crab Walk to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person (The government
cannot take away your life, your freedom or violate your security unless there is
a VERY good reason to do so. For example, the government cannot take away
your freedom by sending you to jail UNLESS you have committed a serious
crime).
Q. What right forces the government to give you a fair and
proportional punishment to any crime you may commit?
I. Run to get the puzzle piece and come back.
C. Everyone has the right not to be subjected to cruel or too harsh punishment
(If you commit a crime, the government cannot punish you too harshly. You
cannot be tortured. For example, you cannot be put in jail for 15 years for
stealing one loaf of bread).
Q. What right forces the law to accept all people as equal and to
treat everyone fairly without discrimination?
I. Hop backwards on one leg to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection
and benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without
discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour or physical or
mental disability.
Q. What right gives everyone in Canada the choice of getting
services from the government in either of our two official
languages English and French?
I. Skip to get your puzzle piece and come back.
C. English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status
and equal rights and privileges in their use in government institutions (If you
need services from the Federal government, it must offer you those services in
English AND French).

40

Rainbow of Rights (IO)


Ages: 7-12
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Sets of colourful balloons or laminated rights cards (a set of 10 for

each group playing and a different coloured set for each group), 7 Safety Deposit
Boxes (these could be boxes, pails or envelopes clearly labeled 1 through 7).
Purpose: This activity introduces the concept of universal human needs and

rights. Participants must think about which rights they consider most important and
why. Are some rights so essential to our well being that we should never surrender
them?

Introduce the idea that there are many types of rights in the world. Some are
more important than others for our lives and are essential to humanity. At this
point you may wish to introduce the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or
the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Tell the participants that, in their groups, they are going to decide which
balloons/cards represent the rights they consider to be the most important.
They will then run a relay race to deposit their most treasured rights in the safety
deposit boxes. Introduce each of the 10 rights and privileges to be considered,
discussing each briefly to make sure everyone understands its meaning.
Separate the participants into groups of approximately 5 people and give
each group its set of balloons/cards. Tell participants that they will have 5
minutes to decide amongst themselves which 7 of the 10 balloons/cards they
think are most important. They must rank them from 1 to 5. Everyone in the
group should have a chance to speak and the group should try to come to a
consensus.
After calling Time, line the participants up in their groups at a start line. Place
the safety deposit boxes at a finish line several meters ahead of the children.
This is a relay race: only one member of each group can run at a time with
one balloon/card. The next member of the group can start running when the
previous member returns to the group to tag them. Tell the participants that
since the balloons/cards are very valuable, each member of the group can only
carry one balloon/card at a time across the field to the deposit box.
They are not allowed to carry the balloon/card in their hands but must carry it
wedged between their knees. If that is impossible for some, have them balance
it on their heads (only if they are using cards) or tuck it under their chins.
Each group must drop the balloon/card that their group has decided is MOST
important in Safety Deposit Box #1. Each groups second most important
right goes in Box #2, and so on. Run the relay and congratulate groups not
only for being the fastest group, but also for being the most harmonious, most
cooperative, most careful, etc.

41

Procedure:

Discussion:

Discuss what happened during the decision-making process and selectively ask
certain groups why they ranked their rights in the order they did.
Indicate which balloons/cards represent internationally recognized fundamental
rights (i.e., enshrined in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child).
If they have not done so, connect the rights that children found most important
with basic human needs. Ask: can you identify which balloons or cards
represent basic human needs that are common to all people across the world
and which balloons or cards stand for privileges that exist in Canadian society?
Is there anything else that is so important to humanity that it should be
protected by a right?
Adapted from: Pike, Graham and Selby, David, 1998. A Chapter of Activities. .Educating for a Peaceful Future. Smith, D,C, and
Carson, T.R. Toronto: Kagan & Woo, 1998. 188.

List of Rights
Choose 10 from this list to use in the game. Choose 7 that are childrens rights and
3 that are privileges.
Right to my own bedroom
Right to clean air to breathe
Right to an allowance
Right to love and affection
Right not to be bossed around
Right to be different
Right to have vacations away from home
Right to food and water
Right to play
Right to be listened to
Right to education
Right to watch TV and read the newspaper
Right to be treated fairly and equally by parents and teachers
Right to express my opinion

42

Right to clean air to breathe

Right to an allowance

Right to love and affection

Right not to be bossed around

Right to be different

Right to have vacations away


from home

Right to food and water

Right to play

Right to be listened to

Right to education

Right to watch TV and read the


newspaper

Right to be treated fairly and


equally by parents and teachers

Right to express my opinion


43

Right to my own bedroom

Rights Auction (I)


Ages: 15+
Time: 45 minutes
Resources: A Rights Auction worksheet for each participant, a pair of dice for

every four participants, paper play money, mallet or shoe.

Purpose: This activity raises questions about the relative importance of the

different rights we claim and introduces the idea of basic rights.


Procedure:

Hand out the worksheets. Ask participants, working on their own, to underline
the six rights they find most important in one colour and the six rights they
regard as least important in a second colour. They can also add other rights of
their own choosing.
Divide the participants into groups of four or five. Have groups share and
discuss each others choices (for approximately ten minutes). After the group
discussion, a brief opportunity should be given to individuals to amend their
choices if they wish.
Prepare the participants for the auction. Give participants each an equal
amount of paper play money. Each person then has the opportunity to throw
the two dice once to determine how much more money they receive. Dice dots
have a value of a hundred units. A throw of nine, for instance, would earn nine
hundred extra units. A participant throwing two sixes can have the privilege of
throwing one extra die. Either you or a participant can serve as Banker.
The auction then begins, rights being sold to the person bidding the most
money. As auctioneer, you should be brisk and build up excitement using
typical auction language (Going once, going twice, sold to the gentleman
in the blue ballcap). A deal is sealed by the mallet or shoe being banged
on a table. Each participant keeps a careful record of money spent and must
withdraw from further bidding when s/he has no money left.

Prioritization of Rights: Which rights did you originally underline as most


important, which as least important? What amendments did you make to your
choices after the group discussion? Why did individual participants bid so
eagerly on particular items and not others? Were there certain items for which
most participants bid heavily? Why was that? Were there items which attracted
little interest? Why? On reflection, what rights would you bid higher for next
time? After playing this game, are there other rights you would have included in
the auction?

44

Discussion:

Wealth and the Enjoyment of Rights: How did the amount of currency you
had affect your ability to obtain the rights you value most? How did it feel when
you had the highest or lowest bid for an item? Did buying power affect your
willingness to take risks? To what extent does the auction reflect reality in that
the wealth of a nation, group or individual influences their ability to actually
enjoy and exercise their rights? Did anyone find it offensive that rights were
on auction to the highest bidder? Is the concept of equal rights impossible to
achieve as long as there is disparity in wealth throughout the world?
Perspectives on Rights: To what extent did the different prioritizations of rights
by participants reflect different perspectives as shaped by factors such as
participants gender, ethnicity, ideology, race and religion?
Adapted from: Pike, Graham and Selby, David, 1993. Human Rights: An Activity File. Centre for Global Education: Stanley
Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.

Rights for Auction























The right to work, for payment, outside school hours.


The right to belong to a nation.
The right to see files kept on me by my school or employer.
The right to join a school participants union.
The right to negotiate what type of education I want.
The right to travel where I want.
The right not to have my private correspondence read by others.
The right not to be discriminated against because of my age, gender or race.
The right to a free primary and secondary education.
The right to own private property.
The right to a fair trial if accused of a crime.
The right to speak and write my opinions.
The right to a peaceful, unpolluted environment.
The right to freedom from slavery.
The right to participate in the management of the school.
The right to practice my religion without hindrance.
The right not to be arrested by the police unless there is good cause.
The right to freedom from torture and cruel or degrading punishment.
The right to medical care.
The right to vote in local and national elections.
The right to be consulted on decisions that affect my own future.
The right to voluntarily give up any or all of the above rights.

45

Rights Balloon Game (I)


Ages: 7-12
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: A Players Chart (see following page) for each participant.
Purpose: This activity raises some questions about the relative importance of the

different rights we claim and about the idea of basic rights.


Procedure:

Begin by briefly discussing the rights in the Players Chart.


Ask participants to imagine that they are on their own, gently drifting in a hotair balloon. Lead the participants in an active imagination exercise, vividly
evoking the experience of being in the balloon. (Sun is shining, gentle breeze,
etc.)
On board the balloon are ten rights. Each weighs two kilos. Suddenly, the
balloon begins to lose height. To stop their descent, they must throw a right
overboard.
The balloon then levels out for a while before beginning to lose height again.
Another right must be jettisoned.
The process continues until they have only one right left. Participants are asked
to read the list carefully and think about which rights they are prepared to
surrender and which they want to keep as long as possible. They then make
their decisionswithout discussionby putting a 1 beside the first right to
be thrown overboard, a 2 beside the second and so on. The most important
right that remains at the end is numbered 10.
Discussion:

46

Which right did you choose to throw overboard first and last? Why?
Which rights do we consider more important than others? Why? Is there
any one correct answer to this question? Are there times or places where the
importance of the rights will vary (e.g. for children in a war zone or in an
extreme drought)?
Are some rights so important to our well-being and essential humanity that
we should never surrender them? Which rights can beand aresometimes
surrendered? Under what circumstances?
Can participants suggest any rights that are even more important than the ones
on the list, especially those they kept until last?

Variation: Having made their own decisions (filling in the first column
of the Players Chart), participants move freely around the room
questioning the nine others and entering their scores on the same chart
to compare to their own scoring. The participants can then be asked to
analyze and reflect upon the results they have collected.
Adapted from: Pike G., and Selby, D., 1998. A Chapter of Activities In Smith, D. and Carson, T Educating for a Peaceful Future. Toronto:
Kagan & Woo Ltd., p. 188.

47

RIGHTS

WHEN EACH RIGHT LEFT THE BALLOON (1st 10th)

Right to Education

Right to Food and Water

Right to Be Protected From Violence

Right to Be Heard

Right to Your Own Language, Culture


and Religion

Right to Shelter

Right to Medical Care

Right to Be Raised by Someone Who


Loves You

Right to Play

48

Right to Be Protected from Work that


Damages or Exploits You

Rights Flag Tag/G.R.O.W. (O)


Ages: 6-11
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Poster board with 5 key human rights listed on it, enough flags

(ribbons/kerchiefs/strips of material) for each participant to have 5 different colours


(one for each right).
Purpose: In this game, participants become aware of their rights and must

determine which rights are the most valuable to them. This activity aims to help
children develop cooperative skills.
Procedure:

Separate participants into two groups (or three to four groups if you are dealing
with more than twenty participants). Have all the members of the first team
come up one at a time and select the three rights that they feel are the most
important to them. The second team will then do the same thing and so on.
You will be the Rights Thief.
Playing Field Diagram

Facilitator
Mixed Team

49

Rights thief

Use a soccer or other playing field and have all the children from all the teams
at one end of the field. They should have their flags hanging from their waist.
They can place the flags on whatever side they want in an attempt to keep
their most valuable right.
When you yell Go, the participants must get to the other side of the field with
as many of their rights intact as possible. They must cross the field again 2-5
times. Determine how many times they cross based on how many children you
have and your luck at catching some of their flags.
Once they have finished, participants get back into their groups to see how
many rights they managed to keep. The team with the most rights, wins.
For the discussion, do the follow up activity called G.R.O.W. (Getting
Rights Ollover the World) on page 109 immediately after this
game.

50

Variation: The participants try to collect flags from one another while
crossing the field. This variation makes it clear just how easily any
one of us can violate another persons human rights. Participants
can then be asked about how they felt when they took someone
elses rights or when they had their rights taken by their peers.

G.R.O.W. (O)
(Getting Rights Ollover the World)
This activity is specifically designed to follow the Rights Flag Tag activity on page 49
as the results from that activity are needed to start this one.
Ages: 6-11
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None required.
Purpose: Children imagine what their world would be like without certain rights.

It is hoped that this activity will cultivate compassion and empathy for those without
rights.
Procedure:

Keep children in the same teams they had in Rights Flag Tag. Tell them that you
are going to play a quick imagination game.
Stage 1 (Cultivating empathy, compassion, and a feeling of empowerment)

51

Place the two teams side by side, each in their own circles. Go to each team
and remind them which rights they kept and which rights they lost.
Have them try to imagine what it would be like to live in a society without those
rights. Give them about a minute or two to imagine this. Help them to imagine
by asking questions. How would the world be different without the right to
play? Why do you think children might not be able to play?
Remind the children that not everyone in their circle society has the same rights
(perhaps most of their teammates lost a particular right and only some of them
kept it). Imagine if only half the people in your group had the right to play.
Imagine if you were one of those who did not have the right to play. Imagine
how you would feel watching other children playing.
Now imagine instead that you have the right to play but your best friends do
not. How do you feel now?
Finally, imagine that you convince the people in power in your community to
give everyone in your circle the right to play. Now picture your friends faces
as they receive their right. How do you feel knowing that you helped them get
their right to play?

Stage 2 (Overcoming unreasonable fears and feeling safe around


newcomers and in a diverse society)
Connect all the circles. Tell the children to keep their eyes shut. As you connect
them, tell the children that at first they all feel in danger of someone new
entering their circle and taking their rights away. Now tell them to take a deep
breath in and to feel themselves relax.
Imagine that you just realized that the new people in your circle are NOT going
to take away your rights. Now imagine that you feel happier as you find out
that because they have joined, you now have some new rights. You now have
the right to feel safe and to not be hurt by anyone no matter if you are a boy
or a girl, no matter what colour you are, and no matter where you came from.
Imagine you feel happy because they helped you get that right.
Now imagine yourself smiling at one of the newcomers and imagine him/
her smiling back at you. Imagine yourself being friends with that person and
imagine yourself feeling protective of your new friend and caring enough about
him/her to make sure that no one takes away his/her rights. Open your eyes.
Created by Cheryl Deshaies, Jim Barabash and Patricia Kidziak, forHarmony in the Park, Human Rights, Non-Violence Conflict

52

Resolution and Recreational Learning Activities. John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2001.

Suitcase of Rights (IO)


Ages: 8+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: A copy of the CRC or UDHR (see Appendix A on p. 262), enough

small backpacks for each team of 4-6 participants (the bags must be small enough
that they will NOT hold all of the items below), a set of suitcase of rights cards, or
copies of the UDHR for each team. If using backpacks, use the following items:
A ball - Label: The right to play.
A fake passport or birth certificate - Label: The right to a name and an identity,
the right to belong to a country.
A microphone - Label: The right to express yourself, and to have adults listen to
you.
A box of bandages - Label: The right to be strong and healthy, the right to have
access to medical help.
A bottle of water and a piece of fruit - Label: The right to food and clean water.
A newspaper or magazine - Label: The right to information.
A box of chalk - Label: The right to an education.
Several dolls with different costumes or religious symbols - Label: The right to
choose your own religion and to know your own culture.
Purpose: This game encourages participants to consider the Convention on the

Rights of the Child and apply this to their own lives. Participants will also think about
which rights are most important to them.

If the participants are unfamiliar with rights, begin by explaining what rights are.
Tell the group about the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Place children in groups of 4-6.
Tell the children to imagine that there has been a human rights problem in their
area. They have decided to leave, and they have to do so quickly. They have
been told to pack their bags for a new country. Since they will have to travel far,
they can only take what will fit in their backpacks. The groups job is to decide,
as a team, which rights they will fit in their bags and which they will leave
behind.
Give each team a backpack and the items listed above if playing that variation.
If playing with rights cards, give each team a set of cards to choose from,
similar to the Rainbow of Rights cards. If playing with copies of the UDHR,
give each team a simplified version of the document. Tell groups they have 5
minutes to decide what they will take and what they will leave behind, and to
pack their bag. You can tell teams they can choose their top 8 rights to start
and then eliminate rights until you are down to the top 3 or top 1.
If the group seems restless, have them finish this game by running a relay race
similar to the one described in Rainbow of Rights.

53

Procedure:

Variation: For older groups, hand out a copy of the CRC or UDHR
to each team and ask the teams to choose their top rights by
highlighting them on the sheet.
Discussion:

Begin by asking each group which right is most important to them. If they
cannot choose, have them decide what they chose as their most important
rights in the game. Why are they the most important rights?
Why did groups choose not to pack the rights they left behind?
Have participants imagine what it would be like if they did not have the rights
they left behind. Have a few participants share their vision of what their world
would be like without these rights.
How hard was it to decide as a team which rights to pack? Were there different
values or ideas that came into conflict? Did people feel differently about what
was most important or least important? Was there agreement on certain rights?
Discuss the connection between basic human needs and rights. Often rights
protect those human needs. Have the group connect some of the rights in front
of them with human needs.
Variation: if you would like to add another dimension to the game,
give teams very differently sized bags. One bag should hold almost
all of the rights, one bag will hold half of them, one bag that might
only hold one right, etc. If you have given the children different
sized bags, also discuss with them how it felt to only be able to
pack one right or to be able to pack almost all of the rights. How
did it feel to watch other teams pack more or fewer rights than your
team? Discuss how this may be a metaphor for the difference on the
implementation of rights across the world.
Created by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

54

The Right to an Education

The Right to a Name and an Identity; The


Right to Belong to a Country

The Right to Play

The Right to Food and Clean Water

The Right to be Strong and Healthy

The Right to Express Yourself and to Have


Adults Listen to You

The Right to Choose Your Own Religion and


Know Your Own Culture

55

The Right to Information

Ages: Any age


Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Approximately 12

photographs or other good quality


pictures from around the world of
people in as many situations as
possible (calendars, newspapers and
magazines are good sources for these
pictures), one copy of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and/or
the UN Convention on the Rights of
the Child (see Appendix A on p. 262).
Purpose: This game teaches

the concept that rights are universal


(everyone has them) and indivisible
(you cannot enjoy some rights while
denying others).
Procedure:

Spread the pictures out on the


floor or on a table where everyone
can see them.
Ask the participants as a group to
pick out the three pictures that they
like best.
Remove all the other pictures
so that they do not distract the
children.
Hold one of the three chosen
pictures where everyone can
see it. Ask the participants the
questions from the discussion to
stimulate their imaginations about
the pictures. Be open to all of the
suggestions!
Repeat this imagination exercise
for the other two chosen pictures.
Ask the participants which rights
they think each picture represents.
They can consult the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.

Spread out all of the pictures


again. Ask the participants what
rights they think each picture
represents and which rights are
potentially being ignored. Use
this opportunity to explain that all
rights are universal, i.e., everyone
has them.
Now ask the participants to divide
the pictures into different piles,
each pile corresponding to one
of the points in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights.
The children will soon realize that
this is impossible, as all rights
are linked, so one picture will
represent several rights at once.
Use this opportunity to explain
that rights are indivisible, i.e., you
cannot enjoy some rights while
denying others.
Discussion:

Where do you think this


photograph was taken?
What do you think is happening?
What time of day is it?
Are these people related?
Are they rich/poor? How are they
feeling?
What are they looking at/doing/
saying?
Where are they going? Where
have they been?
Do they know the photographer?
What do they think of her/him?
Variation: Instead of the
Universal Declaration of
Human Rights, you may use the
Convention on the Rights of the
Child.
Adapted from: Human Rights Education Team, 1996. First
Steps: A Manual For Starting Human Rights Education - Part
Three: Younger Children. Amnesty International Secretariat.
[Online]: Available at: http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/
First_Steps/part3_eng.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

56

The Calendar Game


(I)

Treasure Hunt (O)


Ages: 7-12
Time: 25 minutes
Resources:

One right or responsibility paper slip (on the following pages) for each
participant. This game is designed for 20 players (there are 10 rights slips and
10 matching responsibilities slips). If there are fewer players, do not use the last
few rights and responsibilities. If there are more players, make more than one
copy of the rights slips and responsibilities slips you find the most important.
A copy of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (See Appendix A on p. 262) and
possibly a copy of your provincial human rights code/charter.
A large area in which there are many hiding spots.
Purpose: Children begin to reflect on the rights they hold as Canadians.

During the second part of the game, children are also asked to reflect on their
responsibilities as citizens of this country. This game could be adapted to introduce
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Convention on the Rights of the
Child.

Photocopy the rights and responsibilities below. Cut out each individual right/
responsibility, creating 10 rights slips and 10 corresponding responsibility
slips.
Before the children arrive, hide each article in a different place in the room/
field.
Tell the children that there are valuable treasures hidden around the room/
field. You have therefore created a treasure hunt. Each child must search the
room for one slip of paper.
Tell the children that each treasure has two sides to it. When they have found
their slip of paper, therefore, they must next search for their partner with the
other side of their treasure. To do so, they will have to talk to other children,
sharing their slips of paper with other children. When they think they have
found their match, the pair will come to you to see whether they have been
successfully matched. If they have, congratulate them and have them sit down
together. Continue the activity until all pairs have found their match. Reassure
the last groups that some pairs are harder to find than others.
It may take children (especially younger groups) a long time to figure out
that a treasure pair consists of a right and a corresponding responsibility. If
this is the case, when the first pair has matched up and brought their slips to
you, read their matching slips out loud to the group. Follow this up with each
subsequent pair. This offers the children a clue to finding their own match.

57

Procedure:

Discussion:

Ask a few people to read their rights slip out loud. What do you think a right
is? Why are rights important?
Point out the fact that one half of the rights slips are freedoms (religion,
expression, thought, assembly, etc.) and the other half are rights (vote, equality,
not to be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment, etc.). Ask the groups
whether they think there are any differences between freedoms and rights.
Ask the children to give you examples of human activities that are protected by
the rights they have found.
Begin a discussion of responsibilities. Ask a few children with responsibility
slips to read them aloud. Ask the children what they think the differences are
between rights and responsibilities. Can they think of any responsibilities they
have at camp or school? (Hint: often responsibilities are written out in the form
of rules). How do these responsibilities protect the rights of others?
Important: Before the childrens attention wanes, explain that
Canada has two very important ways of protecting the human rights
of all people in Canada:
1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: This Charter is not a law
for how people must treat each other in Canada. What the Charter does do is
set out laws for how the governments in Canada have to treat people. The
purpose of the Charter is to ensure that all people in Canada will have certain
rights and freedoms that their governments cannot take away. Explain that
the Charter is one of the most important laws in Canada - it is supreme. Ask
participants to raise their hands if they are holding a slip of paper on which is
written a right/freedom. Explain that they are holding rights guaranteed in the
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
2. Human Rights Codes: Remind the children that it is also very important to
have rules for how each person in Canada treats other people. Therefore,
each province in Canada has created laws that protect human rights. Many
are contained in human rights codes and the Quebec Charter. These laws
set out responsibilities that each person in Canada has towards other people
in Canada. Ask the children with responsibilities slips to raise their hands.
Tell them that they all have responsibilities that correspond with laws in their
provincial human rights code and the Quebec Charter.
Created by: Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly from the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

58

SLIPS OF PAPER TO BE CUT OUT: RIGHTS


Freedom of conscience and religion
You are free to make choices about the beliefs you want to hold, and you are free to practice your faith.
Freedom of thought, belief, opinion
You are entitled to hold the beliefs and opinions you choose without any danger of the government persecuting you
for your ideas.
Freedom of expression
You can voice your opinion and express your ideas without fear of being punished by the government. This right also
guarantees freedom of the press.
Freedom of assembly and freedom of association
You can hold meetings, reunions, political assemblies, etc. to share ideas, teach, work, etc. without worrying that the
government will punish you.
Every citizen has the right to vote in an election
Anyone over 18 years of age who is a Canadian citizen can vote in a Canadian election.
Every citizen has the right to enter, remain in or leave Canada
You are allowed to come and go in Canada whenever you wish. You also have the right to move around within
Canada and to work anywhere in Canada.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person
The government cannot take away your life, your freedom or violate your security unless there is a VERY good reason
to do so. For example, they cannot take away your freedom by sending you to jail UNLESS you have committed a
serious crime.
Everyone has the right not to be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment
If you commit a crime, the government cannot punish you too harshly. You cannot be tortured. For example, you
cannot be put in jail for 15 years for stealing one loaf of bread.
Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law
without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or
ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, and/or mental or physical disability.
Every person in Canada - regardless of race, religion, gender, national or ethnic origin, colour or physical or mental
disability - is to be considered equal.

59

English and French are the official languages of Canada and have equal status and equal rights
and privileges in their use in government institutions.
If you need services from the Federal government, those services must be offered in English AND French.

SLIPS OF PAPER TO BE CUT OUT: RESPONSIBILITIES


You have the responsibility to respect the religious beliefs and practices of other people. You must not hurt other
people through violence or words because of their religion or unnecessarily prevent them from practicing their
religion.
You have the responsibility to respect the opinions of others and not to be mean to others because of their beliefs. You
may not harm others by acting on your beliefs or opinions in ways that show that you feel hatred towards them or hurt
them.
You have a responsibility to let others express themselves. You MAY NOT express yourself in a way that seriously
harms other people because your expression is full of lies about people or is full of hate for a person or group of
people. In your expression you may not ask others to join you in hurting a person or group of people.
If you take part in a meeting or assembly, you have a responsibility to be peaceful while you do so (not to harm
people or property).
As a citizen, you have a responsibility to take a role in deciding how your country should be run. You also have a
responsibility to ensure that your country respects you and other people.
You have a responsibility to leave and enter Canada through customs agencies, and you must tell the truth about your
Canadian citizenship.
You have a responsibility to ensure that you do NOT act in a way that will threaten someone elses security. You may
NOT take someones life, and you cannot deprive a person of his/her liberty.
You have a responsibility to ensure that you do NOT subject another person to cruel punishment for ANY reason, or
allow another person to do this.
You have a responsibility to ensure that you do not discriminate against another person because of his/her age,
gender, race, origin or disability.

60

You have a responsibility to respect both official languages of Canada and the people who speak either language.

Tug of Rights (O)


Ages: 8-17
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Long tug of war rope, two sets of the 11 rights phrases (each

phrase should be cut out individually and laminated with a hole punched in the
top), two sets of 11 laminated and hole-punched pictures (each picture should
correspond with the 11 rights), binder rings with which you can use to attach the
laminated pictures and phrases to the tug of rights rope.
Purpose: This activity introduces children to the UN Convention on the Rights

of the Child. Participants are asked to consider why different rights are important,
how different rights are interconnected and what happens when children are denied
certain rights.
Procedure:

61

Divide the participants into two teams of equal size. Teams should be matched
evenly for strength. Get each team to sit in a circle.
The aim of the first part of this game is to match pictures with the 11 Rights of
the Child from page 63 .
In each of the 2 circles pass out the 11 rights and the 11 corresponding
pictures. Do this in random order so that they are mixed up.
Have each child who is holding a right read her slip of paper in a loud voice.
Tell the children who are holding pictures to listen carefully so that they can
match their picture with the corresponding right when it is read out loud.
When pictures and rights have been successfully matched, place them in the
centre of the circle so that everyone can see them.
Tell the children they are about to play a Tug of Rights with the rope. The object
of the game will be to preserve as many rights as they can as a team. Each
team will attach their rights to their side of the rope using the binder rings. They
will then pull the rope as a team like a tug of war game. Any team that has one
of its rights pulled across the centre line by the other team will lose that right.
Before teams can play the Tug of Rights, they must make some important
decisions. They will want to protect their most important rights during the tug.
To do so, they should place those rights towards the back of the rope. The
rights they are most willing to risk should be placed closest to the centre of the
rope.
Before attaching their rights to the rope, participants must order their 11 rights
from most important to least important. Through vote or consensus decisionmaking, they must decide the order of their rights.

To have the participants think critically about the order of their rights, ask
questions about each right. Why is the right to freedom of expression so
important? What would happen if children were not protected from dangerous
work? Why do children need adults to care for them? Can you think of
examples of places where children do not have freedom of language, culture
or religion? Do you think all these rights are respected in Canada?
Once groups have ordered their rights, have them attach those rights to the
rope using the binder rings.
Line up each team on their side of the rope. Mark out the centre line through
the middle of the rope. At the beginning of the tug, each team should have all
of their rights safely on their side of the rope.
Lay the ground rules and then have the participants tug two or three times.
As they play, keep track of which rights go across the line.
When the game is done, have the participants assemble for a discussion.
Discussion:

Begin by asking the teams which rights they decided were most/least important
and why.
Talk about the fact that the children just competed for their rights. What
happens when people compete or fight for rights?
Was it hard to put the rights in order from most to least important? Why?
Discuss the fact that all the rights are essential.
Are there places in the world where the order of importance of the rights might
be different? How so? (e.g. Children in hot climates might find shelter less
important than children in winter countries would).
How are some of these rights interconnected? (e.g. If children are not protected
from work that could hurt them, they often lose the right to education and the
right to play as well).
Pick one or two rights each team lost. Ask the children to discuss what life
would be like without these rights.

62

Created by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly from the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

RIGHTS
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO PROPER CLOTHING.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO PLAY.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO BE PROTECTED FROM WAR AND
VIOLENCE.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO FOOD AND WATER.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO SHELTER.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO AN EDUCATION.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO BE PROTECTED FROM WORK WHICH
COULD HARM THEM.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO MEDICAL CARE.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO HAVE PARENTS OR OTHER ADULTS
TO CARE FOR THEM AND THE RIGHT TO BE LOVED.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO THEIR OWN CULTURE AND
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION.
EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION.

63

CELEBRATING DIVERSITY

64

SECTION
3

For more informations visit:


www.unicef.org

Celebrating Diversity
Diversity and similarities are explored in the games in this section. The games
encourage a celebration of diversity and foster attitudes that embrace the
acceptance of all people (for more information on celebrating diversity, visit www.
unicef.org). Aspects of diversity that can be explored include: race, ethnicity, gender,
sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs,
political beliefs, or other ideologies (for more resources on these specific topics,
see the other sections of the curriculum, including: Disabilities, Discrimination,
Stereotypes, and LGBTQ Rights).
Cultural diversity is a main focus of this section and is often brought up in
international human rights documents. Culture provides children and adults with
identity and continuity. Respecting cultural diversity through the promotion of
minority rights is brought up in Article 30 of the CRC (see the full text of the CRC in
Appendix A on p. 262) which protects the rights of children who are from minority
or indigenous groups to enjoy their culture, practise their religion and use their
language together with other members of their group. Article 27 of the UDHR also
promotes cultural diversity by guaranteeing the right to freely participate in the
cultural life of the community.
Canadian society is increasingly diverse and multiculturalism has become an
integral part of the Canadian identity. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act is a
legal instrument used to promote cultural diversity and equality in the economic,
social, cultural and political life of the country. The Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedoms is also a source of multiculturalism policy. Section 27 of the Charter
specifies that the courts are to interpret the Charter in a manner consistent with
the preservation and enhancement of the multicultural heritage of Canada.
However, in some cases, diversity poses a challenge in Canada. Tensions over the
reasonable accommodation of cultural and religious traditions, and racism and
discrimination persist.
Games in this section include:
Children from Around the World
Diversity Welcome
Early Contact
Sets
Step with Me
The Amoeba Race
The History of Your Name
Zombies

See the full text of the UDHR in


Appendix A.

65

Factoid: Celebrating Diversity


Definitions:

Diversity: the recognition of differences; that each individual is unique.


Differences can include race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation,
socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs,
or other ideologies.
Multiculturalism: the idea that several different cultures can live together
peacefully and equitably in a single country.
Understanding the Concept:

Diversity is an integral aspect of human rights. Human rights promote the equality
of all people and provide a framework for respecting and celebrating diversity.
Human rights guarantee the right to culture, to religion and to other aspects of
diversity such as non-discrimination based on sex, race or language. Promoting
multiculturalism is a way of embracing diversity in Canada. Multiculturalism ensures
the ability of all to practice their own religion, keep their identity and take pride in
their ancestry.
Did You Know?
There are around 21 major religions in the world today and hundreds of
smaller religions.
Around 196 countries exist in the world, many with people of more than
one culture or national group within them. That means that there are a huge
number of different and diverse cultures and peoples in the world.
Canada is home to over 200 different ethnicities.3
The first country in the world to adopt multiculturalism as a policy was Canada
(1971).
May 21st is the World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and
Development.
May is Asian Heritage Month and February is Black Heritage Month in
Canada.
3. Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2010. Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act 20102011. [online]: Available at: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/multi-report2011/index.asp. [Accessed on 22

66

July 2012].

Children from Around the World (I)


Ages: 6-10
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: Approximately 15-20 photos of children from your local area and

around the world. Choose pictures which show as many different sorts of food,
climate, physical types and ways of life as possible.
Purpose: This activity helps participants explore the similarities between the

children of the world regardless of nationality, gender or ethnic group and helps
them understand that rights are based on the similar needs of different people.
Procedure:

Show the children the picture collection.


Ask the children to help you sort the photos by obvious attributes. For example,
boys and girls, hair colour, older or younger and so on. Include a mixture of
attributes that mix up the pictures from around the world. For example, group
together children who are talking, or playing, or who are older or younger than
the group. Repeat this sorting activity several times with the same photos and
different criteria.
Hint: Try pairing this activity with an activity from the Games From
Around the World Section.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Human Rights Education Team, 1996. First Steps: A Manual For Starting Human Rights Education - Part Three:
Younger Children. Amnesty International Secretariat. [Online]: Available at: http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/First_Steps/
part3_eng.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

67

What was the same about the children?


What was different about the children? (It is critical to emphasize that
differences between individuals are just as important to acknowledge
as similarities. It is crucial to respect each others differences, as well as
similarities, which is promoted by the UDHR, CRC, and Canadian Charter of
Rights)
Were there any things in the pictures that you didnt recognize?
What do you think children in the pictures would think if they came here?
What would it be like to live in their country?
Imagine that some children from the pictures are coming to visit. What would
you say to other children about how to treat the visiting children?
Do all children in the world have the same needs? The same human rights?
(Every child has the same human rights as stated in the CRC).
How do human rights promote and protect diversity?

Diversity Welcome (I)


Ages: 15+
Time: 5 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This opening tool aims to illustrate and address the range of diversity

in the room while setting a positive tone for the session. It is very adaptable to the
group.
Procedure:

The leader begins by saying: Id like to welcome and then includes some
or all of the following:



















Women, Men, Transgender People & Spirits


Your bodies
*(Specifically name provinces or countries represented)
Those living with a chronic medical condition, visible or invisible
People of all shapes and sizes
Your dreams and desires and passions
Languages spoken by people here (try to know as many as possible ahead
of time): Spanish, English, German . . .
Survivors
People of Hispanic descent, African descent, Asian descent, European descent, Aboriginal descent
Anyone who is gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, queer
People who identify as activists, and people who dont
Those in their teens-20s -30s - 40s - 50s - 60s- 70s - 80s (depending on
group)
Single, married, partnered, dating, celibate,
Your emotions: joy & bliss, grief, rage, indignation, contentment, disappointment
Those who support you to be here
Your families
Mystics, seekers, believers of all kinds
Those dear to us who have died
Our elders: Those here in this room, in our lives, and those who have
passed away
Anyone else who would like to be welcomed?

diversity_welcome [Accessed on 16 July 2012].

68

Adapted from: Training for Change, 2012. Diversity Welcome. [online]: Available at:. http://www.trainingforchange.org/

Early Contact (IO)


Ages: 12 +
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: 12 Plastic Knives and 12 Kerchiefs (or other trading items), culture

cards (mounted and laminated).

Purpose: Early Contact helps participants realize that not all peoples share

the same values, customs, and social norms. Fascinating historical accounts
tell of the first contact between peoples of widely divergent cultures. At times,
these encounters were simply humorous, but more often they resulted in serious
misunderstandings, with sometimes tragic consequences. These early contacts
sowed the seeds of prejudice (See Background Information following the Debriefing
Section).

Any number of people can take part in this exercise as long as they are divided
into two distinct groups, ideally with males and females present in each. These
groups are the two tribes that will trade with each other, the Alcans and the
Bumbas.4
Consider beginning the activity by introducing cultural difference. You may want
to share the background information found below.
The object of the game is to engage in trading. However, this can be tricky
with no common language and very different social values between the two
groups. This means that the groups cannot talk with each other, they may only
use sounds and gestures to make their intentions clear.
A dozen kerchiefs and a dozen butter knives or plastic knives make good trade
items.
Assign each group a private village or trade-ship location where the members
may speak freely amongst themselves without being overheard by the other
group.
Give each group an index card with the name of their group and a set of
cultural values they must abide by. The culture cards can be found on the next
page. Hand out the trading items to each group.
Give the tribes 5-10 minutes to devise their trading strategy before welcoming
them into the trading arena for the first of two to three trading sessions.
After a few minutes, close the trading sessions and ask the teams to return to
their trade-ship location or village. Give them 5-10 minutes to come up with
a revised trading strategy after evaluating how their first trading session went.
They now know some traits of the other culture and should use that information
in their planning.
Repeat the trading session.

69

Procedure:

Once trading is done, have both groups sit opposite one another. Have the
Alcans describe what they think the values of the Bumbas were then switch.
More often than not, each group developed a dislike for the other and
considered their counterparts stingy, ruthless, and somewhat barbaric. On rare
occasions, a level of understanding may emerge, with some successful trading
completed and both parties satisfied.
Once the two groups have stated what they thought the values of the other
were, have a person in each group read out loud their actual values.
4. These tribal names are fictitious but the sets of cultural values closely parallel some real world cultures.

Discussion:

What did you think about the game? How did you feel towards members of the
other culture? Were you frustrated at any time? Why?
What methods could you have used to allow you to understand the members of
the other culture better?
What characteristics of each culture made it harder to communicate and trade?
Discuss cultural differences that exist in the real world. What are some
common reactions to cultural differences (uncomfortable feelings, fear,
stereotypes, discrimination, celebration)? What are some advantages to a
world with different cultures? What would be lost if we did not have differences?
What are some other differences that exist amongst cultural groups? Perhaps
discuss some inequalities that have resulted from differences that exist amongst
humans.
Which human rights protect difference and diversity?
Background information:

When Natives on the eastern American seaboard first encountered Europeans


taking their lace handkerchiefs from their pocket to blow their noses, then carefully
folding them back into a breast pocket near the heart, they naturally assumed
that mucus was something white men cherished. The Natives simply cleared their
sinuses by pressing against one nostril and snorting the other toward the ground.
Other encounters were far more serious. Violation of social customs could
wittingly or unwittingly produce conflict. A classic case occurred on Haida Gwaii
in 1789, when a Boston trader, Captain John Kendrick, returned to trade for furs
with the Haida. Although the first visit by Kendrick resulted in amicable trade,
a minor incident on the second visit triggered years of bloody conflict. Cultural
misrepresentations and misunderstandings can have serious impacts on social
interaction.
Adapted from: Henley, Thom 1996. Rediscovery: Ancient Pathways New Directions; Outdoor Activities Based on Native Traditions:

70

pp. 114- 116.

Group A- Alcans

1) You are aggressive traders, very clever, always out to get the best possible deal.
Men are usually dominant in the trade negotiations.
2) Knives are a hot commodity; all of the tribes people in this region want them.
3) You show your straightforward willingness to trade using direct eye contact, and
a good firm handshake and possibly a friendly pat on the back.
4) Each of you looks out for yourself, trying to acquire as much cloth as you can,
because people back home value it.
5) Get as much as you can from the Bumbasafter all, they are uneducated savages in your mind, their culture certainly is not as advanced as your own.
Group B-Bumbas

71

1) Your society is a matriarchal societythe eldest woman is the leader, and only
she can engage in the direct act of trading. Others in your tribe can only bring
traders to her.
2) The matriarch signals her willingness to trade by waving her hand at the person
that she is willing to trade with as if shooing away a dog.
3) You do not look strangers directly in the eye and no one outside your tribe must
touch you. To break this taboo is to be banished from the tribe. It is important
that your matriarch not be contaminated by the touch of others.
4) You always do everything as a groupeven tradingand no one works toward
personal gain.
5) You could use some knives for cutting up food, but you are reluctant to trade
too much cloth, for it is sacred among your people because it is all handmade.
6) You are peaceful people, slow to anger, but you have great pride and expect to
be treated with utmost respect.

Sets (IO)
Ages: 6-12
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This game can be used to show the differences and similarities that

exist between us. It can also be used as an indoor warm-up activity.


Procedure:

This game works best with a group of 10 or more players.


The leader begins by explaining that sets of players are going to be asked
to stand up or come to the front. These players all have common traits. Those
who arent chosen have to guess what unites them. See examples below.
Once you have played several rounds and chosen everyone (if possible) to be
part of a set, initiate a discussion on similarities between people.
Discussion:

How does this game relate to reality? Do similarities exist between all people?
What makes us human?
How did it feel to be part of a large set? A small set?
Did you ever wish you were part of a set when you werent chosen? Does this
happen in real life?
Sometimes we think that all people from a group are the same. What is this
called? (stereotypes) What are the consequences of making such assumptions?
Was everyone in the set the same in all respects?
In this game we discussed similarities, what about differences? Why are
differences between people important? What rights do we have that protect us
on the basis of our differences?
How can we show respect to different groups or sets of people in our
community?
Which human rights protect diversity?

hair colour
eye colour
type or colour of clothing
height
pattern on clothing
type of shoes

glasses
bracelet
necklace
watch
gender
age

72

Examples of sets:

Step with Me (O)


Ages: 12+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This activity addresses and highlights the diversity present within the

group.

Procedure:

Have the group stand in a large circle.


Explain that in this activity, someone will step forward into the centre of the
circle when they feel motivated to do so and then will say: Step with me if you
_______. They finish the sentence with something that is true about them.
For example, Step with me if you speak Spanish or Step with me if you are
female or Step with me if you like rollerblading.
Everyone who feels that the statement is also true for them joins the person in
the circle by stepping forward.
Everyone then returns to the circle.
This exercise can be done in complete silence or with speaking allowed,
depending on the group dynamics.
Begin by asking for a volunteer to start or by sharing something true for you as
an example.
From time to time, you may want to step in and redirect the group with higher
level statements.
Discussion:

Did you enjoy this game? Why or why not?


Was this activity hard or easy? Why?
Were any of your reactions or the groups reactions surprising to you?
How did it feel when you stepped in? When you did not?
Were you the only person in the centre of the circle at any point of the game?
If yes, how did it make you feel?
In this activity, we highlighted diversity. Why is diversity important?
What would the world be like with no diversity?
How is diversity related to human rights? Which rights protect the diversity
present amongst people?
Adapted from: Hunter, Daniel, 2012. Step with Me. [online]: Available at: http://www.trainingforchange.org/step_with_me.

73

[Accessed on 17 August 2012].

Ages: 9-14
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: A large open space, a

group of at least 15 participants.

Purpose: This game demonstrates

the idea that people have different


strengths and can come together
to use each persons individual
strengths to achieve a goal. It builds
cooperation between participants and
shows how important it is to respect
both similarities and differences.
Procedure:

Explain to the group that an


amoeba is a single celled
organism made up of a nucleus
(the control centre), cell wall
(barrier to the outside world), and
cytoplasm (the body of the cell).
Tell the participants that they are
going to make their own amoeba.
Begin by assigning positions. One
person will be the nucleus, many
people will be the cytoplasm, and
enough people to go around the
whole group will be part of the
cell wall.
Tell the different cell parts about
their traits. The nucleus acts as the
eyes of the cell and is responsible
for directing it; the cytoplasm must
be comfortable squishing very
close together to make up the
body of the cell; and the cell wall
must be strong and rigid to act as
a barrier to keep the cell together.

Now that the participants know


their jobs, have them form a cell
with the wall around it and the
nucleus at the front on someones
shoulders (or alternatively in the
centre).
Ask them to try to move around
together as a cell. Try timing their
sprints.
Hint: You may have to suggest
a method of counting or singing
to coordinate the participants so
they move as a unit.
Discussion:

How did it feel when you were


assigned a role? Did you like your
role? Did you like being part of
the majority? The minority?
Was it hard to co-ordinate at
first? Was it difficult to coordinate
everyones individual goals to
achieve the groups goal? What
made it easier?
If all of the people in your group
had the same position (for
example, all cytoplasm) would the
game have been harder/easier?
Would it have been more/less fun?
Would it have been harder/easier
to stay together or direct yourself
as an amoeba?
Variation: If the group gets
very good, try splitting them
into two amoebae and running
an amoeba race.
Adapted from: Kreidler, W.J., 1984. Creative Conflict
Resolution: More than 200 Activities for Keeping Peace in the
Classroom. Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company. p.65.

74

The Amoeba Race


(O)

The History of Your Name (I)


Age: 12-25
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: For a group with a lot of diversity, this game is a great way to

acknowledge the diversity in the room and allow people to slowly realize the
importance of cultural difference in how people operate.
Procedure:

Have everyone sit in a circle and explain that we are going to share the history
of our names.
Set the tone by modelling a full disclosure of your name and its meaning
(taking five minutes to tell its story is a good way to model that its not to be just
a light tool).
Have participants share where their names come from, how people pick/give/
get names, what the meaning of their name is, etc. You may ask Does your
name have a meaning in your culture?
Discussion:

75

What does this activity teach us about diversity?


Were you surprised by any of the responses? Did you learn anything about
another culture?
What do human rights teach us about diversity?
Why is diversity necessary in our world?
Is diversity adequately recognized and celebrated in Canada?
How can we promote cultural understanding and acceptance at home? In our
community?

Zombies (O)
Ages: 6-10
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This game shows participants that diversity is valuable.
Procedure:

Explain to the group that they will all become zombies in a few minutes. As
zombies they must all do the same things, though not necessarily at the same
time.
Have the group decide what three things a zombie can do. If the group is
having trouble coming up with three things, suggest walking around stiff
legged, holding your arms straight out in front of you, dragging one leg behind
you, groaning, etc. Be sure that whatever they choose are zombie-type actions
(lethargic, dreary). No skipping and jumping.
Designate a certain area the zombie zone. All zombies must remain in this
area. You are the zombie patrol. If you catch someone who is not doing one or
a combination of the three zombie actions, pull them out of the game for 10
seconds.
Continue the game until participants begin to appear tired of doing the same
things over and over again.
Discussion:

How does it feel to be able to do only three things/always having to do the


same things?
Were you bored from always doing the same thing? What might the world lose
if everyone was the same?
How does diversity make life more interesting? What kinds of differences exist
amongst the people of the world? How do these differences add variety to life?
Which human rights protect diversity and differences?
Adapted from: Kreidler, W.J. 1984. Creative Conflict Resolution: More than 200 Activities for Keeping Peace in the Classroom.

76

Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company. p. 65.

SECTION
4
CHILDREN AND WAR

Children and War


This section focuses on children and war and the games explore how conflict and
war violate childrens human rights. The use of child soldiers is one such example
(for more information on children and war, refer to www.unicef.org and/or www.
amnesty.org).
Children may be recruited as soldiers during a conflict for many reasons. In
countries that are already poor, children may participate in the conflict to secure
food and water resources. War also disrupts schools. This may lead children with
few other alternatives to be more easily swayed to join in the conflict. In prolonged
conflicts, children may also be recruited to replenish the ranks. Lastly, in some
areas, urban gangs, and the children they involve, can morph into militias and
become involved in larger scale conflicts.
Child soldiers are forced into appalling situations. Sometimes they are drugged
before fighting and forced to commit atrocities against their families and friends.
Girls often become victim to sexual abuse and violence. Since 2002, the enlistment,
recruitment or use of children under the age of 15 in hostilities is defined as a war
crime. The Optional Protocol on the Convention of the Rights of the Child, in effect
since 2002, outlaws the use of children in armed conflict until they are 18. Despite
strong efforts, ending the use of child soldiers is very difficult as they are often
recruited by non-government groups.
A long-lasting effect of war is the threat of landmines that remain in areas postconflict. For example, in Cambodia, landmines are buried in almost half of the
villages. Other contaminated countries include: Colombia, Afghanistan, Iraq,
Nepal and Sri Lanka. Children may lose fingers, toes or limbs from landmines; most
die before receiving medical attention.
Some children and adults are forced to leave their homes during armed conflicts
due to a reasonable fear of persecution. They may be internally displaced or
become external refugees. The physical and psychological stresses placed on
refugee children are enormous. They may lose their community structures, family,
traditional roles and culture. Children are also highly susceptible to the disease and
malnutrition that accompany refugee outflows.
Games in this section include:

78

Landmine Field Simulation Game


No Place Like Home
Packing Your Suitcase

Factoid: Children and War


Definitions:

Asylum: when a country grants protection to someone who has left their own
country as a political refugee.
Child Soldier: any child under 18 years of age, who is part of any kind of
regular or irregular armed force or armed group, including: cooks, porters,
messengers, and anyone accompanying such groups other than family
members. It includes girls and boys recruited for forced sexual purposes and/or
forced marriage. 5
Landmine: an explosive charge that is detonated by pressure.
Persecute: when a person is caused to suffer because of a belief they hold.
Refugee: a person who has fled his or her country because of a well-founded
fear of persecution.
Understanding the Concept:

Modern conflicts are often characterized by government breakdown and the


subsequent deterioration of social and economic conditions. The children involved
are affected by war in many ways. Some lose their access to basic resources,
education and health care while others become directly involved in the conflict as
child soldiers or are forced to flee their homes and/or countries and seek asylum.
Did you know?
As many as 300 000 children are exploited in conflicts around the world.6
Of the 33.9 million people worldwide who are refugees, asylum seekers or
stateless, around half are children.7
At least 20 percent of the estimated 15,000-20,000 people who are killed
or disabled each year by landmines are children. Remnants of war threaten
children in more than 80 countries, most of which are no longer in conflict.8
Organizations such as UNICEF and Amnesty International actively work to
eliminate the enlistment of children as child soldiers.
5. United Nations Childrens Fund, 1997. Cape Town Principles and Best Practices. In: UNICEF, Symposium on the Prevention
of Recruitment of Children into the Armed Forces and demobilization and Social Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Africa. South
Africa, 1997, Cape Town: UNICEF. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/Cape_Town_Principles(1).pdf
6. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2003. Guide to the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict.
[online] New York: UNICEF: Available at: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/option_protocol_conflict.pdf [Accessed on 9 July
2012].
7. UNHCR, 2012. The UN Refugee Agency. [online] Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c1e8.html. [Accessed 9
July 2012].

org/media/media_32034.html. [Accessed 9 July 2012].

79

8. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2006. Saving Children from the Tragedy of Landmines. [online] Available at http://www.unicef.

Landmine Field Simulation Game (O)


Ages: 10+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Blue tarp measuring approximately 20 by 24 feet; coloured tape

(mark out at least fifty squares on the tarp with the tape, letter off the bottom row of
squares and number off the squares up the left-hand side of the tarp); master copy
of the landmine field, indicating the placement of the hidden mines.
5
4
3
2
1
A

Purpose:

To teach children and youth about the effects of landmines on

communities.

The simulation should begin with an introductory discussion on what a


landmine is and the realities of living in an area where there are landmines. A
landmine is: an explosive charge that is detonated by pressure. They are often
concealed just under the ground and are remnants leftover by wars. At least
20 percent of the estimated 15,000-20,000 people who are killed or disabled
each year by landmines are children9 (thats at least 3,000 children).
The participants are then told that there are 15-20 mines somewhere on the
field. The mines are of different sizes, so that some just injure a person while
others kill anybody who steps on them. The goal is to travel from one location
to the next without hitting a mine.
Participants are then asked to line up behind the beginning of the landmine
field. They can begin on any square at the edge. The game begins. Up to six
players can be on the board at a time. The participants choose a number and
call it out as they step on it (e.g., A1, B2, etc.).

80

Procedure:

Keep a master list that indicates where all the mines are found. If the participant
has hit a mine ask him to sit down at the side. The participant is not able to
jump over any squares the square you choose has to be directly connected to
the previous square chosen.
At the end of each simulation there is a pause to discuss the placement of the
land mines in the field and how they have affected the lives of the people in
that area.
Once a mine goes off, that square is safe for the rest of the game.
The following three simulations have been suggested by the UN Association in
Canada:
9. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2006. Saving Children from the Tragedy of Landmines. [online] Available at http://www.unicef.
org/media/media_32034.html. [Accessed 9 July 2012].

Simulation 1: This field represents a community: the numbers indicate your


home, the market place or the community school the places you would go to
and from every day. Be aware that the market is the most heavily mined area. Have
props to indicate each place. You have to walk from your home to school and then
from school to the market and back home.

Simulation 2: The field has natural resources and materials for your basic daily
needs. The purpose of this exercise is to make a trip to gather water at the well and
return home. Be careful because the area around the well is heavily concentrated
with small explosives.
Simulation 3: The purpose is to cross the field from one side to the other where
you can gather water from the river and wash your clothes. You then have to return
across the field by a different route.
Discussion:

Adapted From: Lennox, Corrine and Wildeboor, Ian, 1998. Action Guide: A Human Rights Resource Manual for Secondary
Schools. Ottawa: United Nations Association in Canada. pp. 36-37.

81

How did it feel to cross the landmine field? Were you nervous? What kinds
of things would be dangerous or impossible for children living in areas with
landmines? What human rights are harder to meet in an area with landmines?
Why do you think that landmines are particularly devastating for the civilian
population? Discuss with the group reasons why landmines might strategically
be placed in such a way that they block community services or resources or the
delivery of aid.
At the end of the simulation, look at the participants who safely crossed the
field and look at the participants who stepped on a landmine. Are any of
them your friends? How does it make you feel that some of your friends were
the ones who stepped on a landmine?
Which human rights protect children from the effects of war and landmines?
You may want to hand out a copy of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

No Place Like Home (O)


Ages: 10-17
Time: 60 minutes
Resources: A large space divided into five territories (skipping ropes make

good borders), five sheets of large paper, five thick felt pens, five sets of coloured
cards (one colour per territory and one card per participant), ten units each of
five different currencies for a total of fifty units, furniture, equipment and materials
(e.g. chairs, tables, gym mats, boxes, newspaper) in each territory with which to
improvise homes. Some groups will be given luxury goods such as gym balls
and beanbags.
Purpose: This activity provides a springboard for a discussion about the rights

denials involved in the arbitrary deprivation of homeland or nationality and the


plight of refugees.

The participants form five equal sized groups. Each group is given a territory,
ten units of currency and enough cards of a particular colour so there is one
for each member. Groups are asked to choose a name for their homeland.
The countrys name is written in big bold letters on paper and prominently
displayed.
Individual group members prepare their own passports by writing their name
and the name of their country on their coloured card.
Groups are also given time to discuss how they wish to make decisions. During
this time a president (to represent the country) and a treasurer (to look after the
units of currency) can be appointed if a group wishes.
Ask the groups to make their land agreeable to live in by building houses, etc.,
out of the materials available in their territory. They can also use equipment for
enjoyment purposes.
After sufficient time has been given for the development of the homeland,
announce that one group has been so successful that it needs more room to
continue its building program. It is therefore taking over an adjacent land. The
people in the annexed territory have to leave and must not return. They must
find a new place to live.
At regular intervals thereafter, announce that countries with extra people
(people who have been forced off their land and who have different coloured
passports) must pay two units of currency per extra person to the international
bank (facilitator) to cover the costs of extra food, housing and education. Each
group is left to decide what to do.
It is probable that the refugees will sooner or later have nowhere to go and will
call for their land back. At a suitable moment a United Nations conference is
called at which each group/country explains how it sees the problem and puts
forward its suggestions for a solution. Debate follows.

82

Procedure:

Discussion:

How did it feel to be a refugee? How did it feel as a member of another


country to see those without a homeland wandering around?
Ask the participants how they felt towards those who had not dispossessed
them. How did the group that dispossessed the refugees feel?
Ask participants, at any point in the game, whether they tried to put themselves
in another players position to consider what he/she was experiencing.
Did countries take in refugees? If not, why not? If so, why? How did it feel to
have newcomers? Did attitudes change as the refugees became a burden on
the countrys finances?
Now that the game is over, what do participants think the solution should have
been? Discussion can then be broadened to consider examples of arbitrary
deprivation of nationality or homeland in todays world.
Which human rights are important in this situation?
Adapted from: Pike, Graham and Selby, David, 1993. Human Rights: An Activity File. Centre for Global Education: Stanley

83

Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.

Packing Your Suitcase (IO)


Ages: 12-17
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Several copies of the scenario below.
Purpose: This activity simulates the emotional and practical decisions a refugee

must face and the unforeseen consequences of these decisions. The activity also
helps develop an understanding of the difficulties experienced by refugees.
Procedure:

Read the following scenario:


You are a child in a country at war. Your brother disappears and your mother
is fearful for your brothers life. Your familys name appears in a newspaper
article listing suspected rebels. Later, you receive a threatening letter from an
unknown sender. You decide you must flee to a new country.

PACK YOUR BAG. You can only take five things, and only what you can
carry. You dont know what will be provided at your destination. List what you
would take.

After the participants have had time to absorb this information, have them
(alone or in teams) write down a list of things that they will try to take with them
as they ask for refugee status in Canada. Tell them that they will read out
this list and you will either deny or grant them their refugee status. For some
groups, a worksheet with options allows the children to know what types of
things they can choose from. A sample is on the following page.
After a few minutes, call on participants to read their lists aloud. For every list
participants who do not include the newspaper article or the threatening letter
and a form of identification, say, Asylum denied!
Discussion:

Read the legal definition of a refugee.


a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group
or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to
or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that
country or return there because there is a fear of persecution...

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(1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees)

Discuss how this definition is applied in real life and that most participants were
denied asylum because they had no proof of well-founded fear of persecution
to qualify for refugee status.
What are some reasons that people are forced to flee their homes? Can you
think of any examples you have heard about in the news?
What would it feel like to be a refugee? What would you be forced to leave
behind? How would your life change? Which human rights would be most
important to you in this situation? Discuss making decisions under pressure,
reasons for personal choices, and emotions evoked by the decision-making
process.
Discuss the hardships faced by refugees. What kinds of human rights violations
do refugees face in their home country? What kinds of potential human rights
violations do refugees face when they flee their country?
Adapted from: Donahue, David and Flowers, Nancy. 1995. The Uprooted: Refugees and the United States. Alameda, CA: Hunter
House Publishers. p. 24.

Scenario
You are a child in a country at war. Your brother disappears and your mother is
fearful for your brothers life. Your familys name appears in a newspaper article
listing suspected rebels. Later, you receive a threatening letter from an unknown
sender. You decide you must flee to a new country.

OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO
OO

one set of clothing


a picture of your family
your favourite toy
a brush
a toothbrush
the newspaper article listing rebels
food
water
a book
a notebook
your birth certificate
your identification card or passport
soap
the threatening letter sent to you
your savings ($)
a blanket
a pillow
other:______________________

85

PACK YOUR BAG. You can only take five things, and only what you can carry. You
dont know what will be provided at your destination. List what you would take.
Choose from the following items:

CHILD LABOUR AND POVERTY

86

SECTION
5

For more informations visit:


www.unicef.org
www.fao.org
www.wfp.org

Child Labour and Poverty


The games in this section explore child labour and poverty from a human rights
perspective. According to the UDHR, everyone has the right to a standard of living
adequate for the health and well-being of him/herself and of his/her family (Article
25). However, poverty is a widespread problem affecting many people in both
developing and developed nations. Children living in poverty have the full range of
civil, economic, political and cultural rights but may have difficulty in having their
rights enforced and respected.
Poverty-related hunger and undernutrition have lasting effects on the health and
development of individuals. Many people living in poverty spend a disproportionate
amount of their income on food but still do not manage to eat enough and instead
become undernourished. Nearly a billion people were undernourished in 2010; 10
many of them were children.
Increased susceptibility to disease is also common when poverty is present. For
example, when poverty is combined with inadequate services, such as in slums,
high urban child mortality rates are common. Moreover, overcrowding, lack of
ventilation, and inadequate natural light often lead to chronic ailments for children
who are living in urban poverty poverty.11 Today, the locus of poverty is gradually
shifting to urban areas and illuminating these problems.
Child labour is a large problem in extremely impoverished areas where children
must contribute to the familys resources. Children may work on the streets, in
homes, stores or factories. Some are forced into bonded work, armed combat or
other illicit activities. Often, child labourers do not attend school or have adequate
time to play and rest. This violates their rights as guaranteed by the CRC.
Games in this section include:




Whats in a Name?
Building a House
Understanding Our Rights
The Urban Poor
TaoBahayLupa

10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2010. [online]:
Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdf [Accessed on 16 July 2012]. p. 10
11. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2012. The State of the Worlds Children 2012. [online]: Available at: http://www.unicef.org/

87

sowc2012/pdfs/SOWC%202012-Main%20Report_EN_13Mar2012.pdf [Accessed on July 3 2012]. p. 14

Factoid: Child Labour and Poverty


Definitions:

Child Labour: work that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous


and harmful to children and interferes with their schooling.
Homeless: a person who lives on the street or in a shelter or someone without
access to shelter that meets the basic criteria considered essential for health,
human, and social development.
Hunger: when the body signals it is running short of food and needs to eat
something.
Malnutrition: when the body can no longer maintain its natural capacities.
Poverty: the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard
of living.12
Undernourishment: when caloric intake does not give the amount of energy
needed for light activity and to maintain a minimum acceptable weight for
attained height.
Understanding the Concept:

Poverty affects many people in the world as well as in Canada and worsens
problems such as child labour or malnutrition. Children living in poverty have the
full range of civil, political, social, cultural and economic rights; however, many
poor children have a difficult time realizing their rights and having them protected.
Solving poverty is essential if everyones rights are to be realized.
Did You Know?
Over one third of children in urban areas globally and half of children in urban
areas in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia go unregistered at birth.13 This
increases trafficking and exploitation.
Urban children living in poverty often suffer from respiratory infections, asthma,
and lead poisoning due to air pollution. Polluted indoor air is responsible for 2
million deaths annually of children under five years old.14
In Canada, around 9 percent of the population lives on a low income.15
Globally, around 215 million children aged 5-17 were engaged in child labour
in 2008, 115 million of them in hazardous work.16

12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty.
[online]: Available at: http://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/312/povanlys_defpov_004en.pdf [Accessed on 16 July 2012]. p. 1
13. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2012. The State of the Worlds Children 2012. [online]: Available at: http://www.unicef.org/
sowc2012/pdfs/SOWC%202012-Main%20Report_EN_13Mar2012.pdf [Accessed on 3 July 2012]. p. 13
14. Ibid. p. 22

www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?lang=eng&id=2020802. [Accessed on 16 July 2012].


16. United Nations Childrens Fund, 2012. The State of the Worlds Children 2012. [online]: Available at: http://www.unicef.org/
sowc2012/pdfs/SOWC%202012-Main%20Report_EN_13Mar2012.pdf [Accessed on 3 July 2012]. p. 32

88

15. Statistics Canada, 2012. Table 202-0802 Persons in low income, annual, CANSIM database. [online]: Available at: http://

Building a House (I)


Ages: 8-15
Time: 45 minutes
Resources: A table, art paper, crayons/colored pens, paste.
Purpose: This activity shows how distribution of wealth in a given society or

community (as symbolized by ones house) affects the well-being of an individual.


Procedure:

Ask participants to list 20 important materials used in building a house. List


them on the board.
Divide participants into 5 groups. From the above list, ask each group to make
drawings of 4 important materials used in constructing a house. Before the
groups start, each group must specify the 4 materials they are going to work on
to avoid duplication of materials.
After the groups are finished, collect all the materials and place them on a
table.
Randomly assign the groups numbers 1 through 5.
Remind the groups that their objective is to construct a beautiful house using
materials on the table. Ask members of Group # 1 to come to the table and
pick 10 materials they think are important in constructing a house.
Ask members of Group 2 to choose 6 materials.
Ask members of Group 3, 4 and 5 to choose one material from the 4
remaining on the table.
Ask the groups to start constructing their houses.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: How to Build a House Activity. [Online]:
Available at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

89

How do you feel about the activity?


For the groups that had enough materials, did you encounter problems in
constructing your house?
For groups that did not have adequate materials, did you encounter problems
in building your house? What did you do to solve these problems?
At any point during the game, did you consider another groups situation and
what hardships or luxuries they may have had over your group?
How does this activity relate to the situation of the urban poor?
Based on the discussion, ask participants to express their insights/learning on
the activity.
Which human rights may be especially important to those living in poverty?
Which human rights are often violated in situations of poverty?

Tao Bahay Lupa (O)


Ages: 10-17
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: Chalkboard or flipchart paper.
Purpose: To demonstrate the problems of the urban poor (displacement).
Procedure:

Ask participants to stand in a large circle and to form groups of three and stand
shoulder to shoulder. The participant at the center will be the tao and those on
both sides, form a bahay.
Instruct participants that when you say tao, the participants in the center will
have to transfer to a different bahay. When you say bahay the participants on
both sides, with hands together, will transfer to a different tao. When you say
lupa ALL the participants will have to find a new partner or group.
After one trial, directly after calling lupa, the facilitator will pull two people from
the circle. Now add on another instruction: the person caught without a bahay
will have to state a PROBLEM presently faced by urban poor communities.
Remind participants that the problem mentioned previously by other
participants cannot be repeated by succeeding participants. This participant will
then also sit on the side with the other people for the remainder of the activity.
As participants state the problems, write them on the board or paper.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: TaoBahayLupa. [Online]: Available
at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [Accessed on 20 August 2012]

90

Review the problems stated by the participants. Ask them if there are still
problems that were missed
Draw a circle on the board, at the center draw a symbol of women. Ask
participants to cite problems that specifically affect women. List these in the
circle.
Draw an outer circle. Based on the problems of urban poor communities
discussed in the preceding activity, ask participants to write them in the outer
circle.
Ask for their observations on the situation or problems faced by women in
comparison to men in urban poor communities.
Based on their observations, synthesize key differences in the situations of men
and women.
How are human rights related to poverty? Which human rights violations are
often present in impoverished areas?

The Urban Poor (I)


Ages: 10-25
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Several bundles of bamboo skewers, role cards (see following

page).

Purpose: Highlight the reasons for the differences in status of people in a society

as given by the participants. Provide a definition of who the urban poor people are.
Procedure:

Pass each participant a card, asking them not to show others. Ask them to form
a circle. At the center, place the bundles of bamboo skewers.
Explain that the goal of the activity is to determine the features of urban poor
people.
Instruct participants that you are going to say something, if it is true for the role
on their card, they will get one bamboo skewers.
Start the game by asking the following:
Who among you comes from this province?
Who among you owns numerous goods, i.e., furniture, stereos, cars?
Who among you owns a house?
Who among you has a regular job?
Who among you has income that adequately meets daily needs?
Who among you has access to health services?
Who among you has adequate electricity and water at home?
Who among you has access to proper waste disposal?
Who among you goes to school?
Who among you lives in a clean environment?
Instruct the participants to count the number of sticks they have.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: The Urban Poor Activity. [Online]:
Available at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

91

What reactions or insights can you draw from the activity?


What assumptions did you make about the role you had? Looking at the
questions asked, why did you choose to pick up a stick or not?
How do you define who the urban poor are?
How does poverty relate to human rights? (basic needs, dignity etc.)
Does poverty affect children differently in comparison to adults? If yes, why and
how? If no, why not?
How many children in your community live in poverty?
What can we do?

REFUGEE WHO HAS JUST ARRIVED AND DOES


NOT SPEAK THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE

YOUTH LIVING IN A YOUTH HOME

SINGLE PARENT

HOMELESS YOUTH

20 YEAR-OLD, IN A WHEELCHAIR

SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS OWNER

LAWYER

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UNIVERSITY STUDENT

Understanding Our Rights (I)


Ages: 8-15
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Chalk board, white board or chart paper, chalk or markers,

housing issues identified by facilitator.

Purpose: Understanding the rights of urban poor people.


Procedure:

Start by explaining that people who are considered poor are often in situations
where others have been unfair to them. Ask for some examples of such
situations. List them on the left side of the board.
Ask participants how they reacted to or felt about each particular situation. List
their associated reaction on the right side of the board.
Explain that in such situations, we can react in three ways:
We can do nothing. (Passive)
We can get angry and make the other person angry too. (Aggressive)
We can explain our concern and try to resolve the situation. (Assertive)
Divide participants into 3 groups.
Ask each group to prepare a skit depicting a situation relating to a particular
issue identified in advance by the facilitator in an urban poor community.
Each group performs a skit for the larger group. Move into discussion.
Discussion:

What kind of behaviours were presented in each situation?


What was the result?
Would another type of behaviour have resulted in better outcomes?
Is it good to be passive? To be aggressive? To be assertive? Why? Why not?
What are the outcomes resulting from each kind of behaviour?
What are some effective ways to deal with someone who is unfair to you?
What ideas can you suggest to secure your individual rights?
How do human rights protect people living in poverty?
Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: Understanding Our Rights Activity.
[Online]: Available at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [20 August 2012].

93

Whats in a Name (I)


Ages: 12-17
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: A page of myth vs. reality statements.
Purpose: The urban poor issue is a social problem that has its roots in the

unequal distribution of resources or the unequal access and control over societys
resources. This activity examines words/phrases which describe the urban poor. It
challenges participants to uncover the truth about the reality that the urban poor
face.
Procedure:

Divide one side of the room into 2 parts. On the left side, post the word
MYTHS and on the right side, post the word, REALITIES.
Instruct the participants to walk quickly to the side (Myths or Realities) that they
think best responds to your statement.
Ask the individuals from each side to explain to the individuals
on the other side their reasons why the statement is a myth or a
reality. After the discussion, if the whole group is convinced that it is:
1. MYTH - they will provide a counter-statement that will correct the myth.
2. REALITY - they will provide reasoning for their beliefs.
If the whole group is still divided, have them provide an explanation for each.
Suggested Myth Statements (please add your own myths to the list):



Homeless people choose to live on the street


Youth who dont finish school didnt apply themselves enough
Poor people drink and abuse drugs often
People who have low paying jobs arent willing to put in the effort to get ahead.

Suggested Reality Statements (please add your own realities to the list):

94

Many poor people in Canada have a poor quality of healthcare


Children from poor families may not do as well in class because they do not
have proper nutrition.
Females are more affected by poverty than males.

Discussion:

What is your reaction to the activity?


What are the names or words used to denote urban poor people? What did
you notice about the words used?
What kinds of stereotypes are being used to represent the urban poor?
How do you define homelessness?
Based on the discussion, ask participants to express their insights/learnings on
the activity.
What would you say are the realities of the urban poor? What are your
realities?
Do males and females experience poverty differently? (Access to employment,
assets, housing, transportation etc.).
What are some underlying reasons that people remain in poverty?
Are people who are homeless discriminated against by mainstream society?
How? (Discrimination often stems from myths and stereotypes).
Which human rights protect us from discrimination? Which human rights
violations do people living in poverty often experience?
Have your perceptions of the urban poor changed? If yes, how?
Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: Whats in a Name Activity. [Online]:

95

Available at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [Accessed on 23 June 2006].

This alternative activity will be done if the participants are not


familiar with urban poor conditions.

Alternative Activity: Whats in a Name


Relay Game
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Photos depicting urban poor conditions, paper, pens, masking

tape.

Procedure:

In one corner of the room, mount several pictures/photos depicting conditions


in urban poor communities. These can often be found in magazines or
newspapers. Let participants examine the pictures/photos for 5 minutes.
Divide participants into two equal groups and have them stand in two lines.
The participants on the left side become members of Group 1 and those on the
right become Group 2.
Divide the board into 2 parts (or 2 large pieces of chart paper). Ask the groups
to face the board.
Present the rules of the game:
1. The first member will write one problem that they see in the pictures on the
paper.
2. After s/he has finished, s/he will pass the pen to the next person and move
to the end of the line.
3. The next person will write another problem and so on.
4. Participants should not repeat problems that have already been stated.
Ask the groups to start writing when they hear you call Start. Once both
groups have had everyone write and are running out of ideas, stop the game.
The group who has come up with the most problems wins.

Review the answers. Ask them to add the problems that were missed. Compare
the lists of the two groups. Was there anything written on the lists that you
disagreed with? If yes, explain.
Do males and females experience poverty differently? (Access to employment,
assets, housing, transportation etc.).
What are some underlying reasons that people remain in poverty?
What kinds of stereotypes are used to represent the urban poor?
Are people who are homeless discriminated against by mainstream society?
How? (Discrimination often stems from myths and stereotypes).
What human rights are important in this situation?
Have your perceptions of the urban poor changed? If yes, how?

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Discussion:

SECTION
6
COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION

Communication and Cooperation


Communication and cooperation are closely tied with human rights themes and
form an important section of the curriculum. The games in this section help to
develop communication and cooperation skills and explore how human rights,
communication and cooperation are interdependent and interrelated. Cooperation
entails working together to meet shared goals and to seek mutually beneficial
outcomes; it promotes greater self-esteem, empathy and social competence.
Communication involves an exchange of information and enables cooperation.
Article 28 of the UDHR states that everyone is entitled to a social and international
order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully
realized. Everyone also has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of others
are respected (UDHR Article 29).The full realisation of human rights goals for
everyone within a rights respecting social and international order requires effective
cooperation and communication on individual, state and global levels. The CRC
also reiterates the need for global cooperation to achieve childrens rights goals
(see the preamble and Articles 4, 17, 22, 24 and 45).
Cooperation and communication are also important in situations of conflict
resolution and vital to the fulfillment of human rights goals. Cooperation and
communication demand an awareness of differences and the ability to listen to
others and respect their opinions regardless of those differences. This is a vital skill
in conflict resolution.
Games in this section include:
Active Listening
Ankle Walk
Bears in the Air
How Do You See It?
One-Way, Two-Way Communication
Talking Circle
The Smarties Game

98

Factoid: Communication and Cooperation


Definitions:

Altruism: selfless concern for the well-being of others that can be distinguished
from feelings of duty or loyalty.
Cooperation: working together.
Collaboration: mutual engagement of participants in a coordinated effort to
solve the problem together.
Communication: the exchange of information between people through a
common system of signs, symbols, speech or behavior. 17
Understanding the Concept:

Cooperation, listening, communication and conflict resolution all share ties with
human rights. Through cooperation and communication, a rights respecting society
can be achieved. Active rather than passive listening is an essential aspect of
effective communication.
Did You Know?
One of the most prominent examples of global cooperation is the United
Nations (UN) which officially began in 1945 after WWII. The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights was signed by the countries of the UN in 1948,
only three years after the UN was created and is a great example of global
cooperation.
Historically, democratic countries have been less likely to go to war with each
other than non-democratic countries and more likely to cooperate and remain
at peace. This is called The Democratic Peace Theory.
Humans have many techniques for communication including body language,
drawing, speaking and showing. Long-distance communication techniques
have improved vastly over the last centuries. Today, the computer and the
internet have become strong contenders for the most popular means of longdistance communication.
Empathy may be a root cause of human cooperation. For example, when
many infants are together, if one of them starts crying and communicating their
discomfort, often, the others start crying too.

17. Adapted from Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2012. Communication. [online]. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/

99

dictionary/communication. [Accessed 8 August 2012].

Active Listening (I)


Ages: 10 +
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: One copy of What helps us to listen? and What prevents us

from listening? from the next pages.

Purpose: This listening activity helps participants to improve their listening skills,

to think about what makes good and bad listening and why some conflicts or
misunderstandings arise.
Procedure:

100

Form the group into pairs.


Explain that in a moment one person in each pair will have to speak without
stopping while the other person listens as carefully as s/he can. The speakers
can speak about anything they want. For example, the speakers can talk about
themselves, their family, or an interesting experience.
Allow a moment for the pairs to decide who will talk and who will listen.
Give the signal for the speakers to begin speaking.
Allow the speakers a minute or two of uninterrupted speech. Then, before they
begin to run out of things to say, clap your hands and ask them to stop.
Ask the listeners to repeat back to their partner the last two sentences that
person said. This request is usually a big surprise - few people will be able to
remember the two sentences perfectly!
The pairs exchange roles, the listener now speaks and the speaker listens.
After a couple of minutes, stop the speakers again. It is likely that the listeners
this time will have been listening more carefully - so ask them to repeat the last
THREE sentences which their partner said!
Use the questions below to draw out the learning points.

Discussion:

Could you remember the sentences?


Was it easier to remember them the second time? Why?
What did you do to help you to listen? Did you do anything special with your
body? Or with your face? What about your mind?
What prevented you from listening?
Now show the class the information in the boxes What helps us to listen? and
What prevents us from listening? from the next pages. Is there anything in
these boxes which they did not think of? Why?
Listening is an important skill for respecting and protecting human rights. It is
especially important for Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
and Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, but also for all
of the other Articles. Why is this so? What do we gain from listening to each
other? Have you ever been in a situation where no one would listen to you?
How do we feel when our opinion is ignored? Do you agree with the idea that
we can improve our listening skills by practicing?
Variations: If you wish, you can continue the game, maybe swapping
partners or increasing the number of sentences that the listener
must remember each time. It can be fun to repeat the game,
making it harder every time. If you repeat the game, over several
days or weeks, the students can see their listening improve.
Author unknown.

On-off Listening
People think faster than they talk. This means that when you listen to someone,
you have a lot of spare time for thinking. Often, we use this time to think about
lunch, or what we did last night, instead of thinking about what the other person is saying!
Prejudice Listening
In every part of the world, there are words or phrases which cause people to
stop listening. Words like capitalist, communist, and fundamentalist are
examples. When people hear these words, they stop listening and start to plan
their defence, or a counter-attack.
Closed-Minded Listening
Sometimes, we decide quickly that the person or the subject is boring, wrong,
or not relevant, or that we know what the speaker is going to say. Then we stop
listening.
Distracted Listening
Noise, lights, temperature, other things in the room, or what you ate for breakfast can all prevent us from listening to what people are saying. However, with
practice, we can still listen well in these circumstances.

101

What prevents us from listening?

What helps us to listen?

We listen with our bodies as well as with our minds.


Face the speaker.
Have good eye contact.
Have an open posture (dont fold your arms, turn your back, etc.).
Lean towards the speaker.
Relax.
Listen to what is being said.
Listen for the central theme, not just the facts.
Keep an open mind.
Think ahead.
Analyze and evaluate.
Dont interrupt.
Listen to how it is being said.
Non-verbal signs (e.g., facial expressions, body posture, etc.).
Tone of voice.
Listening is important because:
It shows people that you value their experience and what they say.
It encourages people to talk honestly and freely.
It can help you to identify areas where people agree or disagree, and helps
you to think of solutions to these disagreements.

102

Ankle Walk (O)


Ages: 10+
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This activity aims to strengthen teamwork, decision-making and

communication skills.
Procedure:

This activity is best-suited to a group of no more than 25 people.


The goal is for the group to walk from one place to another in one line with
their feet touching their neighbours feet the whole time.
Explain where the starting and finish lines are going to be and that if their feet
dont stay together the whole time, they must return to the start and try again.
Give the group a few minutes to strategize and practice.
For younger groups, divide them into smaller teams of up to four people and
have each team cross the space.
Discussion:

You can debrief this activity for problem-solving, communication and group
decision-making.
How challenging was it to decide how to proceed as a team? Did everyones
ideas get heard?
In real-life, when do we have to work as a team? When can it be difficult to
work as a team?
How are communication and teamwork related to human rights?
Adapted from: Hunter, Daniel, 2012. Ankle Walk. [Online]: Available at: http://www.trainingforchange.org/ankle_walk.
[Accessed on 24 July 2012].

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Bears in the Air (O)


Ages: 10-17
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: A stuffed bear or another object that is soft and easy to catch and

throw, a stop watch.

Purpose: In this activity, participants experience a situation where they must

formulate improved methods of accomplishing a goal. The activity demonstrates the


value of thinking outside the box and the assumptions that drive behaviour.
Procedure:

This game is more effective with many participants.


Ask the participants to stand in a circle shoulder to shoulder, with yourself
included in the circle, and show them the bear.
Explain that there are only two rules to the game:
1. Everyone must touch the bear
2. They must touch the bear in the same order each time.
Have everyone hold their hands out and toss the bear to anyone in the circle.
That person will then pass the bear and drop his/her hands. Everyone must
have a chance to catch the bear. The last person will pass the bear back to
you.
Practice once more so that everyone becomes comfortable with the sequence.
Tell the group that now you will time them to see how fast they can do it.
After each run, tell the group that you are sure they can do it faster. The group
should be able to speed up until they reach a certain point. At that point they
may in fact get slower if they are less careful because they are trying to throw
more quickly.
Stop the group and ask them if they could do the activity differently. Repeat the
two rules.
Continue until the group figures out a new system.

104

Hint: Systems may include standing next to each other in the correct
order and passing the bear down a line or lining up their hands
vertically in the right order and cascading the bear down vertically.

Discussion:

What happened the first few times you went through the activity? Did you go
faster? Why?
Was there anyone who had ideas to improve the system who did not speak up?
What kept them from sharing their ideas? Were there any solutions suggested
that were ignored? Why?
Were there any assumptions about unstated rules that limited your ability to
succeed in reaching the goal?
Can you think of any real world situations where success is limited by only
thinking in terms of going harder and faster?
Do you have any ideas as to how to change some of the systems in our society
to achieve greater success?
Adapted from: Facing the Future, 2006. Engaging Students Through Global Issues: Lesson 8 Bears in the Air. [Online]:
Available at: http://www.monroecounty.gov/Image/8.Bears.in.the.Air[1].pdf. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

105

How Do You See It? (I)


Ages: 11+
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: A model design of any sort the facilitator can create, the supplies

necessary for groups to redesign the model, a space large enough that groups can
build a model without other groups seeing.
Purpose: This game gives each participant an opportunity to contribute ideas

to the group. It also demonstrates the different perceptions that people may have
of the same object and how we must work to communicate and understand each
other.
Procedure:

Find a spot where you will set up the model design and divide the participants
into groups of approximately five people. Send them to different areas so that
they cannot see each others model.
Tell the group that using the supplies that they have, they will recreate the
model design that you have. However, they cant look at the model while they
are creating their design.
Tell them that each person from their group may only come up and see the
model once and that group members must view the model individually. Each
participant is to instruct the group on the design the group is to create. When
the group is unsure what to do, the next participant should go look at the
model.
Once all of the participants have seen the model design, declare that the game
will end in two minutes.
Have the groups share their designs with the rest of the participants and
compare it to the model design.
Hint: This game can be done using a picture, shapes or even Lego;
just make sure each group has enough supplies to recreate the
original design.

What did you think of this game? Was it hard for you to take directions on
how to create or change your design if you didnt know what the original
looked like, or if you had a different idea of what it looked like?
Did you learn anything about communicating effectively when two people had
different opinions? Did you notice that different people see things differently?
How did you work through a solution to this problem?
Can you relate this type of problem solving to situations in the real world?
Adapted from: Neil, James, 2005. The Wilderdom Store: Gear for Adventurous Learning. [Online]: Available at: http://www.
wilderdom.com/games/descriptions/AmoebaRace.html. [Accessed on 23 June 2006].

106

Discussion:

One-Way, Two-Way Communication (I)


Ages: 10+
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Copies of Chart 1 (One-way Communication) and Chart 2 (Two-

way communication) on the following pages, a sheet of paper and a pencil for
each participant, large copies of each of the diagrams (hidden until the end of the
game), a watch.
Purpose: This activity not only effectively demonstrates the concepts of one-way

vs. two-way communication, but more importantly, it provides an experimental base


for participants to analyze past communication situations encountered in schools,
society and the home. Participants can easily grasp concepts such as Paulo Freires
idea of people as objects (passive receivers with little sense of efficacy) and
subjects (full participants in the communication and social process resulting in an
enhanced sense of competency and efficacy) after experiencing the two situations.
They can begin to see how people can be rendered powerless through a social
process.

Procedure:

107

Ask for a volunteer from the group who feels he/she is effective at giving
instructions.
Seat the Instructor at the front of the group with his/her back to them.
Participants should have their paper and pencils ready.
Instruct participants to label one side of their paper one-way and the other
two-way.
The group is told that the instructor will give instructions on how to draw a
figure using rectangles. The participants are to draw the rectangles exactly as
the instructor directs them.
The first drawing will be made on the side marked one-way. During
this phase, participants are not to ask questions or give any audible
expression - this includes grunts, groans and laughter. They are in a one-way
communication situation.
The Instructor is given a copy of Chart 1 (One-way Communication) and is
asked to study it. He/she is to instruct the participants as to how to draw the
figure so that their rectangles will look exactly like the ones on the Instructors
sheet. The size of the rectangles is not a factor. Remind the instructor to give
his/her directions as quickly and accurately as possible. Before beginning,
caution the participants against asking questions and place the time on the
board. Tell the instructor to begin.
After completing this phase, place the elapsed time on the board.

Repeat the process with the following modifications: the Instructor uses Chart 2
(Two-way Communication) and sits facing the group while describing the figure
to the group. In addition, group members are allowed to ask questions and the
Instructor is allowed to respond.
After completing this phase, place the elapsed time on the board.
After both phases are complete, ask the participants to guess how many
rectangles they drew correctly in each phase.
Discussion:

Did the participants perform better during the one-way or two-way phase of the
exercise? Why?
Which took more time? Why? Which generated the most confidence? Why?
Which situation did the participants prefer? Which situation did the Instructor
prefer?
Which figure placed more responsibility on the participants? On the Instructor?
What are the implications of this?
What might be the long-term effects of being caught in a one-way situation?
Two-way?
What are the advantages of one-way communication? Of two-way
communication?
Which situation have you experienced most in school? In your family? Which
predominates in our society? Why? What disadvantages does one-way
communication create for people who experience it?
Can you think of other situations when people are more likely to be forced into
one-way communication? (Discuss the powerlessness this creates)
Note: This game can also be used effectively to demonstrate the
importance of good communication in conflict resolution. The
discussion would then focus on communication in conflicts, how
different types of communication can escalate conflict, etc.
Adapted from: Sawyer, Don & Lundeberg Wayne, 1993. The NESA Activities Handbook for Native and Multicultural Classrooms.
Vancouver: Native Education Services Associates.

108

Chart 1: One-way Communication


Instructions:

109

Study the figures shown here. With your back to the group, you are to instruct the
participants on how to draw the figures. No questions from the group are permitted.

Chart 2: Two-way Communication


Instructions:

Face the group. Instruct the participants on how to draw the figure above. Answer
all questions from participants and repeat if necessary.

110

Talking Circle (I)


Ages: Any age
Time: Variable
Resources: A stick, stone, or feather as a special object.
Purpose:

A Talking Circle gives participants an opportunity to check in


with one another in terms of how everyone is feeling. It also introduces a cultural
aspect of First Nations culture to those who have not been part of it or have not
seen it. Finally, a Talking Circle provides comfort and openness and therefore, the
opportunity to be genuinely listened to by peers as well as adults. This activity can
also be used as a wrap-up to a session.
Background
The Circle is the philosophical foundation of Aboriginal culture. It is also a
forum or tool for group sharing and learning.
The Talking Circle is a time-tested technique for clearing issues and
allowing people the opportunity to express themselves in a safe and healthy
environment. It can also be fun!

When holding a Talking Circle, it is important that the physical setting be an


actual circle. Everyone is equal when sitting in the Circle.
If this is the participants first experience with the Circle, begin by asking them
to introduce themselves to you, say where they are from, etc. The purpose at
this stage is to have the participants feel comfortable speaking in the Circle.
Explain to the youth that, culturally, this is a very old and important activity that
can be beneficial for everyone.
Give them a reminder that whatever is said in the Circle stays there.
Start the session with some kind of brief activity, prayer or moment of silence to
center the group, establish the intention and set the mood. There must also be
closure for the Circle. This would characteristically take the form of a prayer or
moment of silence with everyone holding hands and may even include a song.
A special object is designated to focus the Circle. This object is something
which has been recognized culturally and represents principles of safety,
strength and truth.
Everyone in the Circle has a chance to hold the object. The only person
to speak is the one holding the object. The person holding the object also
understands that it is ones privilege to do so. When each speaker is complete,
s/he signifies completion with a recognized phrase. Many people use the
expression All My Relations to signify completion.
The Circle teaches that sometimes, the most important learning we can do is
just about being human.

111

Procedure

Ground Rules For The Talking Circle:


The person with the feather, stick or stone is the only person talking. The
Creator gave us one mouth and two ears so that we can listen twice as much
as we speak.
What is said in the circle stays in the circle. You may not share stories from
within the Circle with others unless given permission to do so.
When someone is speaking there are to be no negative remarks about what is
being said.
When you speak it is NOT a time for you to put anyone else down.
If you have nothing to say, you can pass to the next person. Sometimes silence
is stronger than words.
Protocol
When using an eagle feather as the special object, it is important to understand
that in many cultures, the eagle is the animal that can get closest to the
Creator. The eagle feather was given to the Circle as a gift that needs to be
respected because it serves as a microphone to the Creators ears.
When stones are used, it is important to understand that stones are known as
the grandfathers of the earth who were here long before us and will be here
long after we are gone.
When we use a stick, it is important to understand that whatever tree it came
from had a life of its own and that we are privileged to hold it in the Circle.
Discussion:

It is very important that you acknowledge the fact that all took part in the Circle.
If some were unable to share something with the group it is helpful to point out
that it is just as important to be a good listener. Silence is very powerful. These
participants can be encouraged to share in the next Circle.
Adapted from: MacPherson, S. & Tigchelaar, M., 2004. New Horizons: Human Rights Education for Families. Edmonton, AB: Indo
Canadian Womens Association.

112

The Smarties Game (IO)


Ages: 7 12
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: A large box of Smarties or other candy.
Purpose: This activity encourages cooperation and competition.
Procedure:

Participants are asked to form pairs and to sit facing one another at a table.
They each rest their elbows on the table and link hands (an arm wrestling
position).
Hold up the box of Smarties and tell the children that each time their partners
hand touches the table they will win a Smartie, until the box is empty.
When the signal to begin is given, some pairs will struggle to force each others
arm down. Others will realize that a cooperative approach, in which each
person in turn allows the other to press his or her arm to the table, will enable
the pair to quickly accumulate a high score.
Variation: Use rock, paper, scissors instead of arm wrestling.
Discussion:

Identify games and activities that are competitive and cooperative. Ask children
how they experience each. Which do they prefer? What are the advantages
and disadvantages of each?
When in real life is it better to cooperate?
What advantages are there to paying attention to the needs of other people?
How does it help you to protect the human rights of other people (i.e., making
sure their needs are met)?
Discuss the way in which rights are accompanied by responsibilities.
The dilemma should also be posed as to whether the Smarties should be
re-distributed. Are those with the largest totals (gained through cooperation)
entirely happy with an uneven distribution?
Adapted from: Pike, Graham and Selby, David, 1998. A Chapter of Activities. .Educating for a Peaceful Future. Smith, D,C, and
Carson, T.R. Toronto: Kagan & Woo, 1998. pp 173-174.

113

SECTION
7
CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Conflict Resolution
Conflicts often arise because of differing needs. They can exist between individuals,
groups, organisations or states. Effective conflict resolution is an important aspect of
meeting human rights goals and the ability to handle conflict and take cooperative
action is at the core of human rights education. The games in this section explore
the many facets of conflict resolution and promote critical thinking and teamwork.
Many strategies for resolving a conflict exist. These include: compromise,
avoidance, accommodation, collaboration, and competition. The effective
resolution of a conflict can lead to increased cohesion, self-knowledge, cooperation
and understanding, as well as promote a rights respecting environment.
Human rights violations are both symptoms and causes of conflicts. Cruel acts
including: indiscriminate attacks on civilians, the starvation of entire populations
and massacres are symptoms of conflicts. On the other hand, human rights issues,
such as limited access to resources, limited political participation, exploitation,
and discrimination may form the root causes of conflicts. Practitioners of conflict
resolution and human rights advocates often share similar goals. In conflict
situations, in the short run, both seek to end violence and minimize suffering as
quickly as possible. Post conflict, both assist societies in preventing a recurrence of
hostilities and promote human rights.18
The CRC states that children have the right to be protected from being hurt and
mistreated, in body or mind (Article 19) and have the right to protection in times of
war (Article 38). The successful resolution of conflicts helps to prevent human rights
and childrens rights violations.
Games in this section include:
5 Pictures
Doctor Harper and Doctor Gagnon
The Ambassadors

18. Lutz, Ellen L., Babbitt, Eileen F., Hannum Hurst, 2003. Human Rights and Conflict Resolution from the Practitioners
Perspectives, The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs. Vol. 27:1. [Online]. Available at: http://heller.brandeis.edu/academic/coex/

115

pdfs-docs/humanrights/lutz4.pdf [Accessed 22 July 2012].

Factoid: Conflict Resolution


Definitions:

Compromise: in conflict resolution, when a dispute is settled by each side


making concessions.
Conflict: a struggle resulting from differing needs, ideas, wishes, or demands.
Conflict Resolution: solving a dispute or the methods and processes used to
come to a peaceful ending to a social conflict.
Understanding the Concept:

Successful conflict resolution is important as it can lead to increased cohesion,


self-knowledge, cooperation and understanding, as well as promote a rights
respecting environment. Human rights violations can be both symptoms and causes
of conflicts. Try to brainstorm a few examples of when human rights violations cause
conflicts and when they are symptoms of conflicts and why.
Did you Know?
Conflict is a healthy part of relationships. It provides opportunities for growth
and development. Calm, non-defensive and respectful reactions are vital.
Even animals deal with conflict. Chimpanzees are known to spontaneously
provide comfort to recent victims of aggression, a behavior known as
consolation.19
Canadian politician and former Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson championed
the idea of peacekeeping during the Suez Crisis of 1956. He earned the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1957.
Increasingly, Canadian peace efforts are concerned with nurturing stable
governments and promoting human rights.

19. Romero, Teresa, Castellanos, Miguel A., de Waal, Frans, B.M., 2010. Consolation as Possible Expression of Sympathetic
Concern among Chimpanzees, PNAS. Vol. 107:27. [online]. Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/27/12110.full.

116

pdf+html [Accessed 23 July 2012].

Ages: 10-18
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Nothing specific is

required, although teams may be


permitted to use the objects around
them as props if they wish.
Purpose: This game allows

participants to work creatively through


a problem as a team. It offers an
alternative to the traditional role-play.
Procedure:

This game can be used to


complement any section of this
activity book. Often, it can be
used by a skilled facilitator as an
impromptu way of dealing with a
problem or issue that has surfaced
during a presentation, such as
bullying, discrimination, something
the participants have seen in the
news, etc. It is up to the facilitator
to pick a problem that can be
dealt with using the five pictures.
Some sample situations could
involve: bullying that occurs on the
school playground, discrimination
towards a new student in the class
who is from overseas, a child
who sacrifices school to partake
in laborious work in a developing
country, etc.
Divide the group into teams of 4-6
members.
Give them each a problem that
they must act out. They can all
be given different problems, or
it can be interesting to give them
the same problem if there are
only 3 or 4 teams. Each team will
interpret it differently.

Tell the teams that they have 1015 minutes to create 5 different
pictures that depict how the
problem developed, the problem,
what could happen if the problem
is not dealt with properly, one or
several solutions to the problem.
They have complete flexibility
to decide what they want each
picture to reflect, but they have
only 5 pictures with which to
create their message.
The pictures are still tableaus.
Each participant takes up one
position and maintains it long
enough for the audience to get a
sense of the whole picture.
Groups may have a narrator who
interprets each tableau, or they
may choose to enact their situation
silently and then discuss it with the
audience after they are done.
After 10-15 minutes of planning,
each group returns to the
presentation area. Each group
takes a turn presenting their 5
pictures. Each explains what the
problem was as they saw it, how
they interpreted it and how they
resolved it.
Discussion:

Discussion can be done either


after each individual presentation
or after all the presentations. The
nature of the discussion will vary
greatly depending on the problems
that were depicted.
Relate the 5 pictures to human
rights using the human rights
documents found in Appendix A
(p. 262) of the Curriculum.
Created by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly for the John
Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

117

5 Pictures (I)

Doctor Harper and Doctor Gagnon (I)


Ages: 14+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Role descriptions for Dr. Gagnon and Dr. Harper.
Purpose: In this activity, participants experience a conflict situation, and must

find a creative way to resolve it. Participants are also asked to make important value
judgments.
Procedure:

Divide the group into 2 (or 4) sub-groups of 4-5 persons. Half of the group will
receive a copy of Dr. Gagnons role, and the other half will receive a copy of
Dr. Harpers role.
After all participants have read their roles, teams will have 5 to 10 minutes to
define a strategy for the debate that will take place between Dr Gagnon and Dr
Harper. They must decide how they will convince the other sub-group (holding
the opposite point of view) that they should be the ones to get the veginot
cultivation.
Bring the Dr. Gagnon team and the Dr. Harper team together. The groups
have 20 minutes to resolve the conflict.
In reading both role descriptions, you will notice that there is a solution to the
conflict: one group needs the peel of the fruit, and the other needs the seeds.
However, the participants dont know that. At the end of the 20 minutes, stop
the discussion, even if the groups were unable to find the solution. Start the
debriefing by giving the group some clues as to the solution.
Discussion:

Were you able to agree on a solution? If so, what is it?


What made it difficult to resolve the conflict? What helped you to find a
solution?
In a cross-cultural context, what are the factors that can make conflict
resolution more difficult?
What factors can facilitate conflict resolution?
How did you feel during the activity?
What were your reactions during the discussion? How did you react to the
conflict?
How is effective conflict resolution related to human rights?

118

Adapted from: Canada World Youth educational materials.

Doctor Gagnons Character


You are a scientist doing research on a vaccine that prevents stache, an infantile
disease that can permanently disfigure a victim and cause cerebral lesions. The
disease is usually so rare that your research was considered to have no particular
value. At this moment, however, there is an epidemic in a small community and a
lot of children are in danger if they dont receive the vaccine. Not administering the
vaccine creates the risk of a national or even global epidemic.
If the company for which you are working is able to produce enough vaccine to
control the epidemic, the vaccine will be well known and will receive a government
grant. You will be able to continue your research. Even better, you will be worldrenown for your contribution to humanity. You will be a star!
Unfortunately, the veginots that you use for the vaccine are very rare. The
veginot is a kind of melon that has a toxic peel when it is ripe. It takes 4 months
to produce the toxin. You need this toxin for your vaccine. Your latest crop was
destroyed by an early frost just before the outbreak of stache. You need to have
the peel of the veginots immediately, if not, it will be too late to prevent the
epidemic.
Your research has shown that only one other crop of ripe veginots exists. This
crop is large enough to produce the quantity of vaccine you need to prevent the
epidemic, but you wont have any to spare. The owner of the veginots crop will
only sell to the best offer.
Doctor Harper, a scientist researching for a rival company, also needs the
veginots. You are not sure of the type of research he is doing, but you know that
it is related to national security. Doctor Harper is competing for the same crop of
veginots as you.

119

Your company has authorized you to bid for the veginots crop and gives you a
budget of 3 million dollars. However, you have decided to talk to Doctor Harper
before approaching the owner of the veginots with a purchase offer. You hope to
be able to convince Doctor Harper to give you priority over the crop.

Doctor Harpers Character


You are a scientist that does research on a top-secret project for national security.
By accident, you and your group have discovered zeno, a substance that has the
power to neutralize the radioactive particles emitted by a nuclear explosion. By the
time you made this discovery, you had almost run out of zeno. The ingredients
necessary to recreate zeno are not too difficult to obtain, except for the seed of
the veginot. The veginot is an experimental melon that takes four months to
produce.
There has been confirmation that there is a nuclear threat within the next few
days in a conflict zone. Even though you dont know exactly where the bomb will
explode, you have narrowed it down to a particular region. If you have enough
zeno, you can create zeno clouds to protect these countries. Your research is
conclusive: the clouds will produce rain that will protect an area from radioactive
particles. Obviously, the knowledge of this project must be kept top secret.
Your research has shown that only one crop of ripe veginots exists. This crop
is large enough to produce the quantity of zeno you need to protect the entire
conflict zone, but you wont have any to spare. The owner of the veginot crop will
sell to the best offer.
Doctor Gagnon, a scientist working at a rival company, also needs the veginots
for his research into a very rare disease. Doctor Gagnon knows of the existence of
the crop and also wants to buy it.

120

The federal government is not totally convinced of the value of zeno. It has
authorized you to spend 3 million dollars to obtain the veginots. However, you
have decided to speak with Doctor Gagnon before approaching the owner of the
veginots with a purchase offer. You hope to be able to convince Doctor Gagnon
to give you priority over the crop.

The Ambassadors Modified Version (I)


Ages: 15+
Time: 60 minutes
Resources: Small rooms or separate areas in a larger room for team

meetings, a large room for the meeting of the whole group, copies of the lists of
characteristics of each culture represented on the following pages, large sheets of
paper (flip chart), markers in various colours, tape.
Purpose: Participants come to identify the difficulties in an intercultural meeting.

They identify the emotions experienced during such meetings and are encouraged
to confront their own values.
Procedure:

121

This activity simulates a diplomatic encounter between Canadian


representatives and those of other countries. Divide the participants into 5
teams: each team will represent one country at the meeting. Give every team a
copy of its countrys cultural characteristics (which include their instructions for
the activity). Provide 15-20 minutes at the beginning of the activity for teams to
meet separately and plan their strategies according to their instructions.
The Canadians, who have created international computer programs, had
the idea to invite a few of their partners to discuss the possibility of working
together to design an interactive world map for the Internet. This map would
make it easier for everyone to learn about world geography. The meeting is
organized by the Canadian delegation and is held in Canada.
Before the meeting, each delegation is asked to draw a diagram of its design
for the world map. This way, an initial draft would be made; discussions
would not be as long and an agreement might possibly by reached during the
meeting.
Once teams have had the chance to create their vision of the world map, each
delegation attends the meeting chaired by the Canadians and discussions
begin.
It is not necessary for a decision to be made but it is important for each
delegation to play its role as described in the sheet of characteristics.

Discussion:

What made it difficult to create the map? What helped you to find a solution?
In a cross-cultural context, what are the factors that can make conflict
resolution more difficult? What factors can facilitate conflict resolution?
How did you feel during the activity? What were your reactions during the
discussion? How did you react to the cultural characteristics of the other
groups?
How is conflict resolution related to human rights?
What methods can we use in solving conflicts?
Why is conflict resolution an important aspect of achieving human rights?
Adapted from: Canada World Youth Handbook, Intercultural Adaptation and Communication, Netcorps 2003.

The Canadians

You have decided to create an interactive world map for the Internet and have
therefore invited partner countries to help you create this map. You will be hosting
delegations from these countries and chairing a meeting to discuss the look of the
map. You wish to reach an agreement and get the project underway as quickly as
possible.
The delegations will soon be arriving.

122

You must decide who will be responsible for greeting them.


You must decide how the meeting will progress.
You must decide what questions to ask them and what information you will or
will not provide about your ideas for the world map.
You must make a rough diagram of your design for the map.
You must meet the representatives from all of the delegations.

Delegation from Lanivia

Lanivians like to live in harmony. You are very attached to traditions. It is important
for you to create good interpersonal relations. You have enormous respect
for older people. You like to talk but dont need to use many words since your
non-verbal language is very expressive and you know how to use it very well. You
dont care much for people who seem to have too many personal interests. You like
human interaction to be smooth, and any type of negotiations bother you. You do
not talk with people with whom you disagree.
You value touching a great deal. Usually, you hold a persons hand
for as long as possible when meeting them for the first time. All of
your conversations are interspersed with touching.
You have a tendency to ask people what their family rank is, and when you learn
that someones rank in his family is lower than yours, you immediately lose interest
in the person. For example, if you are the second child in your family, you would not
be interested in a person who is the third child in his/her family.
You see the world map with a lot of circles and a lot of red.
You will soon be meeting the other delegations.



You must determine how your team will present itself to the others.
You must decide how you will present your idea for the map.
You must make a rough diagram of your design for the map.
You must meet the representatives from all the delegations.

* It is very important not to mention the characteristics of your culture to others

123

Delegation from Montza

Montzans prefer decentralized work. You never hesitate to consult your


subordinates. On the other hand, you are very task-oriented. You like things to
be accurate and precise. You are innovative. You dont like being ordered to do
something. Nor do you like formalities which lead to a waste of time. You hate it
when emotions get mixed up in work discussions, but you are an open and friendly
people. You talk a lot and use a great deal of hand gestures.
In addition, to show the person with whom you are speaking that
you are really listening, it is considered polite in your culture to
begin speaking before he has completed his sentence. You often talk
instead of the other person because in your country this indicates
respect.
You see the world map with a lot of white spaces.
You will soon be meeting the other delegations.



You must determine how your team will present itself to the others.
You must decide how you will present your idea for the map.
You must make a rough diagram of your design for the map.
You must meet the representatives from all the delegations.

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* It is very important not to mention the characteristics of your culture to others.

Delegation from Syrabia

You Syrabians are a people of nature. You like to rely on what life gives you, which
you always consider a gift (be it good or not so good.) You deem that life is a
passage during which you are always in a learning situation. You are people who
see the positive side and have great faith in life and human beings, since they come
from nature. You are people who like to be close. You think this is a good way to
grasp the ideas of the person you are speaking with.
Therefore, you stand very close to someone when you are talking to
her. In your country, it is a sign of respect to listen very carefully to
each word of the person who is speaking to you while remaining just
a few centimeters away from her. It is also a great sign of respect to
move closer when the other person moves back a little during the
conversation.
You see the world map with soft lines, close together, with a lot of green
and blue.
You will soon be meeting the other delegations.



You must determine how your team will present itself to the others.
You must decide how you will present your idea for the map.
You must make a rough diagram of your design for the map.
You must meet the representatives from all the delegations.

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* It is very important not to mention the characteristics of your culture.

Delegation from Zhabori

You Zhaborians like rules of conduct, even those that dont work. You are a very
proud people and are certain that you hold the truth. In short, according to you,
you are always right. You also know that you can predict things. You are always
very emotional when you speak.
You dont like anything that is not familiar to you. The environment in which
people live is very important to you and gives you some indication
about that person. You never hesitate to ask others about this type
of information. You are bothered by people who are flexible and change their
mind. You like things to be very clear and ambiguity disarms you.
In your country, it is impolite to look others in the eye. You always look at the
ceiling or the floor, never at the person with whom you are talking.
You see the world map with a well defined outline, straight lines,
contrasting colours.
You will soon be meeting the other delegations.



You must determine how your team will present itself to the others.
You must decide how you will present your idea for the map.
You must make a rough diagram of your design for the map.
You must meet the representatives from all the delegations.

126

* It is very important not to mention the characteristics of your culture.

SECTION
8
CONSTRUCTING PEACE

Constructing Peace
A culture of human rights is a prerequisite for achieving peace (for more information, visit www.msf.org and/or http://www.nobelprize.org). Definitions of the exact
nature of peace vary with culture, background or beliefs. In political terms, peace
is the absence of war and hostilities. In international relations, peace is also the
presence of positive and respectful relationships between states and cultures. Peace
can refer to a state of being within a country (as opposed to civil war) or between
countries (as opposed to international war). It can mean general disarmament or
the dissemination of the concept of peace itself. Peace can refer to local or global
situations and involve one person (inner peace), a small group, or everyone.
The quest for peace has had many manifestations over time. One of the best known
is the Flower Power movement of the late 1960s where Flower Power was a
symbol of passive resistance and non-violence. Another example is Mahatma Gandhis non-violent resistance to British rule in India during the early to mid 1900s.
His philosophy of peace is said to have influenced Martin Luther King, Jrs civil
rights movement in the United States. In Canada, foreign policy is often associated
with the practice of peacekeeping and peacemaking, as supported by Lester B.
Pearson.
Establishing peace and respecting human rights are overlapping goals. The UDHR
was signed after World War II with the intention of preventing future atrocities.
Meeting the goal of peace is one way to prevent the violence of war. The most renowned prize for peace is the Nobel Peace Prize, which is often awarded for human
rights triumphs. Cherished people such as Martin Luther King Jr., Desmond Tutu, the
Dalai Lama, and Aung San Suu Kyi have won the prize in recognition of their commitment to human rights goals and peace.
The activities in this section are mainly crafts. For more ideas on peace-related
activities, see the Conflict Resolution and Cooperation section.
The activities in this section include:
3 Things I Can Do
Cooperative Bridge Building
Human Rights Collage
Imagining Possible Futures
Rights Magnets
The Promise of the Peace Dove
What Characterizes Human Beings?

128

Factoid: Constructing Peace


Definitions:

Pacifism: the opposition to any forms of war or violence as a means of solving


conflicts.
Peace: in a state of harmony or tranquility.
Understanding the Concept:

Peace is defined in many ways. It can refer to: the lack of war or hostilities, a positive relationship between states and cultures, a global or local situation, or the
state of an individual (inner peace). Peace has been sought after throughout the
ages. Many people have become strong symbols of non-violence and promoters
of peaceful conflict resolution. Mahatma Gandhi is amongst their ranks. Peace
and human rights are intricately linked. The realisation of human rights goals is an
important step on the path towards peace.
Did You Know?

129

The word peace is originally a translation of the Hebrew word shalom.


Shalom also means justice, good health, well-being, prosperity, equity, security,
good fortune and friendliness.
The Nobel Peace Prize has been given out since 1901. Henry Dunant, founder
of the Red Cross and Frederic Passy, a leading international pacifist were the
first recipients. The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded for a wide range
of peace-related acts such as human rights promotion, mediation and arms
control.
In some languages the word peace is used as a greeting or as farewell. The
Hawaiian word Aloha and the Arabic word Salaam are examples.
Many different peace symbols exist. These include the modern peace sign, the
olive branch, the dove, a white poppy, a broken rifle, a paper crane, or the
rainbow peace flag.
The International Day of Peace is celebrated on September 21 each year.

3 Things I Can Do (I)


Ages: 6-14
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Many pre-cut strips of paper with human rights promoting actions

on them, one piece of construction paper for each child, felt-tip pens and other
items, such as stickers and sparkles, for decorating the contracts.

Purpose: This activity shows children several concrete things that they can do

to help promote human rights. At the end of a session, the participants will feel a
sense of empowerment that they can do something to improve the world they live
in.
Procedure:

130


Children are asked to choose three strips of paper which describe three things
they will do to promote human rights.
The children glue these 3 Things I Can Do to their piece of construction
paper. They may then colour and decorate their contracts.
When everyone has completed the craft, have them all sign the bottom of their
contracts demonstrating that they will do these three things. In so doing, they
will help promote human rights around the world!
Tell the children that it would be good to try very hard to follow their contracts,
but if they are unable to, remind them that they can find other ways of
promoting human rights.
If the children are very young and cannot read, have them think of one or two
things they can do to promote human rights and have them draw these things
out. If you are working with older youth, use more complicated human rights
actions and skip the contract decorating.
Some examples of possible actions (for more ideas, see the What Now?
section at the end of this curriculum):
I will write letters to Amnesty International to protest against peoples rights
being violated.
I will visit hungersite.com every day for a week and click to end world hunger (www.hungersite.com: hit the click here button to give a cup of rice).
I will tell five adults about what I learned today.
I will tell five friends about what I have learned.
One time this week, I will stop kids from teasing someone else or I will hang
out with someone I do not normally talk to.
Tomorrow, I will compliment three people.

Discussion:

As this is usually the last activity of a presentation, very little discussion is


needed. Instead, focus on how this activity is only the beginning. There are
many other things people can do to promote human rights. Thank them for
taking part in the day and congratulate them for making a promise.
Troubleshooting: If the children can think of things they would like to
do to promote human rights other than those provided, allow them
to write these things into their contracts. However, if their ideas
seem too unrealistic or big, perhaps say Good for you for thinking
of such an important human rights action! Why dont you pick two
other things from the possibilities for your contract, and then put
your idea down at the bottom as a special project that you would
like to see happen. You want to minimize the possibilities of children signing on to something they cannot do.
Created by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

131

Cooperative Bridge Building (IO)


Ages: 8-17
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: 3 large pieces of newsprint per group, 12 inches of masking tape,

1 ruler.

Purpose: This activity will teach children about the benefits of cooperation. This

activity is very useful as part of a bullying session.


Procedure:

Place participants into groups of 3.


Have each participant write a peace message or one thing s/he can do to
promote human rights on a piece of newsprint.
Give each group 5 minutes to discuss a plan of action for building a bridge
with a span of at least 9 inches long using only the supplies they have.
Have participants carry out their plan of action without speaking. Give them
15 minutes to complete the task. The level of difficulty of this exercise should
increase or decrease depending on the participants ages, providing more or
less supplies with which to build the bridge.
Discussion:

Ask the children what problems they encountered while building the bridge.
How did they feel while building the bridge? How important is cooperation in
achieving a goal? How does lack of communication cause problems?
Tell the children that they have now built a bridge towards human rights
promotion. The image of a bridge is often used as a way of describing how to
overcome a problem. All the bridges are powerful, since hidden within each
one are important ways to create a better world.
Discuss how peace, human rights, cooperation and communication are all
very closely linked. Ask the children why they think effective cooperation and
communication might be important for peace.
Adapted from: Schmidt, Fran. 1997. KPAN: The Kids Action Network and the Peace Reporters. Miami: Peace Education International. p. 36.

132

Human Rights Collage (I)


Ages: 6-10
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Magazines, paper, glue, scissors, markers.
Purpose: This activity helps younger children understand and appreciate human

diversity and asks them to identify the human rights that children have.
Procedure:

This game is a suitable conclusion to a program in which children have learned


about their human rights and why human difference (cultures, skin colour,
languages etc.) is valuable.
Have the children make individual collages or collages in small groups. Tell
them first to pick pictures that show human diversity. Have them cut these
pictures out. Next, have the children pick out pictures that they feel represent
their human rights or show people having their human rights met (i.e. pictures
of food or pictures of children receiving food).
Once they have cut out their pictures, have the children glue them to
construction paper to create their own human rights collage.
Discussion:

To end the activity (and often the session), have the children share their collages
with the group. Have them explain which pictures represent which human
rights. If there is a right that comes up a lot in the pictures, have the children
identify why that right came up so often (for instance, is it more important to
them?).

133

Created by Linda Topacz

Imagining Possible Futures (I)


Ages: 14+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Newsprint, pens, markers
Purpose: Using imagination to free the mind and envisioning possibilities for the

future of the planet. There is no right or wrong answer but this activity invites students to explore and share ideas.

Explain to participants that the group will be entering the world of 2030 by way
of their imagination. To get comfortable in the imaging mode, ask participants
to choose a personal memory to re-experience from their recent past or from
their early childhood. The memory should be a good one, and one that they
enjoy reliving. Ask them to think about all of the details of the setting including
the people involved, the sights, the smells, the sounds and the feel of the place.
Participants can make some notes or sketches about the memory if necessary.
After a few minutes of individual imagining, participants should choose a
partner and share some of the details of the memory. They should share all the
details of the environment and what is happening in the memory. They need
not focus on describing why it is a good memory, only on describing it so that
their partner can also feel what it was like. Each partner takes a turn.
Now it is time to move to the future, the year 2030. First, ask participants to
focus on peace. What would peace look like? What would it feel like? How
would a peaceful society operate? What is their personal hope for peace?
Ask participants to think about peace and write down a goal statement that
expresses their personal hopes for a peaceful future. Statements should be two
or three sentences long.
Next, ask participants to remember the future in the same way they
remembered past memories. Guide them through the exercise saying, Keeping
in mind your goal statements, allow your mind to envision a world in which
your hopes have been realized. You are an observer, stepping into the peaceful
year 2030 to look and see what is there. What do you find?
Some questions that you can ask are:
What are people doing the children, the elderly, men, women, young
adults?
What kind of housing is there?
What do families look like?
What do buildings and structures look like?
How would you describe the physical environment?
What is the government like?
How are local decisions made and carried out?

134

Procedure:

How do people travel or make connections across long distances?


How do people of different ages learn things?
How are local and long-distance conflicts and differences approached and
handled?
Is anyone playing? How do they play?
What kinds of entertainment do people enjoy?
Remember, participants are not trying to predict a realistic or probable world
of 2030 in this exercise. They are envisioning possible alternative futures based
on their hopes and fantasies about peace and justice. Encourage students not
to get stuck on thinking, but this could never happen. Instead, they should
let go of what they think is possible in order to dream.
Organize students into groups of four to discuss what they see. Students
should stay in the future, still observing in the year 2030, while describing
what they see to classmates. Students should listen carefully to each other and
ask questions only to clarify what the speaker has said. Give students time to
discuss their various visions.
Finally, in small groups, students can create a newsprint sheet that depicts their
groups vision of the year 2030. This process can be left largely to individual
groups. They can create one collective vision in the group or represent their
separate ideas on the paper.
Newsprint pages should be presented to the class, still speaking from the
present of 2030, and posted so that all can see. Once all the groups have
presented, discuss commonalties and differences among student visions.
Invite students to return to the present. If desired, continue discussion of the
possible futures in terms of what students could do in the present to begin to
prepare or build their imagined future of peace.

NOTE: The visioning part of this exercise could also be conducted


in small groups. In larger classes, working in small groups may be
advisable.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Boulding Elise 1990. A Workbook for Imagining a World Without Weapons, in Building a Global Civic Culture:
Education for an Interdependent World. Syracuse University Press. pp. 172-176.

135

How did you feel during the imaging activity?


How would you teach a friend or relative about global citizenship? (Make
sure children understand that a global citizen is someone who understands
that their actions have both a local and global impact. Therefore, global
citizenship promotes taking action to build a more just and sustainable world
for everyone)
How would you teach a friend or relative about leadership and vision?
Ask students to describe something they learned in this activity.
Do you think leadership and global issues matter in your life? If so, in what
ways?
How do human rights help protect/shape our future?

Rights Magnets (I)


Ages: 6-11
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Magnet strips (to be cut into pieces for the corners of each craft),

glue, a copy of the Childrens Rights list (see the following page) for every child,
glitter (assorted colours), large cookie sheet to catch extra glitter, stickers and construction paper in assorted colours.
Purpose: This activity invites participants to become familiar with the rights of

children and thus heighten their awareness of their own rights. It also provides children with their own copy of some of their rights as put forward in the Convention on
the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on
November 20, 1989.
Procedure:

Read aloud the rights of children from the Childrens Rights list. After each
point, get the children to call out examples.
Hand out a copy of the Childrens Rights list to each participant. Also give them
the craft materials. Have the children decorate their own copy of their rights.
When the children have finished decorating their copy of the Childrens Rights
list, help them glue the magnetic strips to the back of their paper.
They now have a rights magnet.
Discussion:


Ask children if they know what to do if someone is taking away their rights. Let
them come up with some ideas and give them others. For example:
Tell an adult they trust who will assist them.
Contact an organization that helps children.
Call the police if they are in danger.
Contact a teacher, a social worker, or any other trusted adult if they are not
getting enough food or water, or if denied things like shelter.
Contact a Human Rights Commission and ask them for help.

136

Created by Cheryl Deshaies

Childrens Rights

Childrens Rights

I have the right

I have the right

I have the right

To education.

To education.

To education.

To have a family.

To have a family.

To have a family.

To food and shelter.

To food and shelter.

To food and shelter.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To have a name.

To have a name.

To have a name.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To rest and play.

To rest and play.

To rest and play.

To have views and opinions.

To have views and opinions.

To have views and opinions.

To have protection from harmful


acts

To have protection from harmful


acts.

To have protection from harmful


acts.

Childrens Rights

Childrens Rights

Childrens Rights

I have the right

I have the right

I have the right

To education.

To education.

To education.

To have a family.

To have a family.

To have a family.

To food and shelter.

To food and shelter.

To food and shelter.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To a safe environment and


health care.

To have a name.

To have a name.

To have a name.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To be treated equally and fairly.

To rest and play.

To rest and play.

To rest and play.

To have views and opinions.

To have views and opinions.

To have views and opinions.

To have protection from harmful


acts.

To have protection from harmful


acts.

To have protection from harmful


acts.

137

Childrens Rights

The Promise of the Peace Dove (I)


Ages: 7-14
Time: 40 minutes
Resources: A copy of the guidelines for an origami paper crane/dove on

the following page for each student, pre-cut six-inch (or 31.5 cm) squares of thin,
coloured paper, (there should be sufficient paper for two or three squares per
participant), thin markers, pens or pencils, thick nylon sewing thread and pins.
Purpose: This exercise combines historical information with an exercise to teach

children and youth about making commitments or pledges to change society or


ones life.
Procedure:

Ask the participants if they know about the bombing of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki in 1945. Tell them about the bombing and the suffering of the
Japanese people. You can show a film or tell a story about the dropping of the
bomb. Then discuss the Japanese art of origami, paper folding, and how they
began to make peace cranes as a way to remind the world of peace.
In the West, we associate peace with a different type of bird, the dove. So,
in this exercise we are calling our peace cranes Peace Doves. (Optional:
Discuss the origin of the Dove of Peace in the story of Noahs Ark.)
Have the participants write a commitment or pledge for change in small letters
in the middle of the white side of the paper (or the side of the dove that will be
hidden). Tell them it can be a secret between the peace dove and themselves.
Then help them to fold the peace dove by guiding them step by step.
They should each have a copy of the instructions, but if possible, try to project
the instructions on a screen using an overhead projector. This is not necessary
if the equipment is unavailable or difficult to obtain.
You could use a square double the size so everyone can see the folding you do
to demonstrate. Ensure they are folding their promise on the inside so it is not
visible and remains a secret pledge. Have them poke a hole with a pin in the
top of the doves back so it can hang balanced. Then draw a thread through
the hole and tie it.
Discussion:

Adapted from: MacPherson, S. & Tigchelaar, M., 2004. New Horizons: Human Rights Education for Families. Edmonton, AB: Indo
Canadian Womens Association.

138

Discuss how the children can remember their pledge and act on it by hanging
up their dove. Discuss the importance of honouring pledges and doing our
best to accept responsibility for suffering or unfairness in our own lives and in
the lives of others.

139

What Characterizes Human Beings? (I)


Ages: 8-12
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Craft paper, scissors, pencils, pens, paste, crayons/colored pencils,

masking tape.

Purpose: In order to be a human, individuals must possess all the qualities that

contribute to their human dignity the totality of being human. When any of
these qualities that comprise the totality of human dignity is missing in an individual,
it means there has been a violation of ones dignity as a human being. This craft
encourages participants to think about these qualities.
Procedure:

1. Divide participants into groups. Ask the groups to discuss the following:
1) Their concept of human beings and the qualities of human beings.
2) Important elements that individuals must have and enjoy in order to
enhance the qualities of human beings (e.g. food and nutrition enhances
our health)
After they have had a chance to discuss this, ask each group to draw human
beings at the center of their craft paper, indicate the qualities that characterize
them as human beings and surround them with the elements that they must
have to fully experience these qualities as human beings.
Let each group explain their drawing in a group discussion.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Barrameda, Teresita V. & Espallardo, Lea L. 1996. Learning, Reflecting, and Acting for a Human Rights Future - A
Training Manual for the Education of the Human Right to Housing in Urban Communities: What Characterizes a Human Being?
Activity. [Online]: Available at: http://www.pdhre.org/materials/learning2.html#2.2.1. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

140

After all the groups make their presentations, have further discussion and start
by asking, what is your reaction to the activity?
Deepen discussion on the contents of the drawings. Ask the following
questions:

What does it mean to be a human
being?

What do we need as human beings?
Why have some individuals been denied the elements necessary to be fully
human? What are some of the consequences when individuals are denied
these elements?
How do you define human rights?
Highlight key points in the discussion and briefly provide input based on key
points that surfaced in the discussion.

SECTION
9
DIFFERENT RESOURCES

Different Resources
The world is abundant in resources. The UDHR states that everyone has the right
to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his
family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care (Article 25). However,
with an uneven and inequitable distribution of world resources, this isnt always
possible. The games in this section look at competition and fairness in society in
regards to the distribution of resources (for more ideas, look at the Status, Child
Labour, and Poverty sections).
For many years, economists believed that population growth would soon lead to a
shortage of food in the world, as less space would be available to grow food for an
ever-increasing population. Today, innovation in agriculture has increased productivity and efficiency to a level where an increasing population doesnt jeopardize
food security. However, an unequal distribution of food resources means that in
many areas, people still dont get enough to eat or cant afford the food that is
available. This makes it difficult for countless people to realise their right to food.
Some countries and regions use more of the worlds resources per person than
others. This can be measured and compared using a tool called an ecological
footprint. The United Arab Emirates and the United States are the two countries that
have the largest ecological footprints per person in the world.20 This means that the
amount of biological materials consumed and the carbon dioxide emissions generated by each person per year are the highest in these countries. Canada ranks
ninth, with roughly half the ecological footprint of the UAE. Bangladesh has the
lowest measured ecological footprint per capita (per person) in the world.
The uneven distribution of resources can cause competition over available
resources. Competition is an important aspect of a healthy society as it allows for
peoples talents to shine and often rewards people for hard work. However, competition can also be harmful when it is the source of human rights violations.
Games in this section include:



Jellybeans to Feed the World


Peace Monster
Something to Think About
Unequal Resources

20. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), 2000. Ecological Footprint by Country, Living Planet Report 2000. Gland, Switzerland:

142

2000.

Factoid: Different Resources


Definitions:

Ecological Footprint: A measure of human demand on the Earths ecosystems


and the ability of the Earth to regenerate.
GDP per Capita: a measurement of the total output per person of a country
(or the total income per person). It can be used as a rough estimate of
standard of living.
Understanding the Concept

The UDHR states that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for
the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing,
housing, and medical care (Article 25). The world is abundant in resources. The
uneven distribution of world resources means that while there are excesses of some
resources in certain areas, there are also shortages in other areas. The Earth has
the capacity to provide food and water for all, yet people dont always live where
resources are available; in many areas salt water, or contaminated fresh water are
abundant rather than clean drinking water.
Did You Know?
In 2000, The United Arab Emirates had the largest ecological footprint per
capita (per person) in the world, followed by the United States. Canada ranked
ninth and had an ecological footprint around half the size of the UAEs. This
means that the amount of biological materials consumed and the carbon
dioxide emissions generated by each person per year was the highest in these
countries. Bangladesh had the lowest ecological footprint per capita of the
countries measured.21
Access to resources can be affected by material wealth. Recently, Liechtenstein
had the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the world. This
means that citizens of Liechtenstein on average have the most money per
person in the world to spend on resources. Canada was ranked number 20.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo was number 226.22
The wealthiest 20 percent of the world population in 2005 accounted for
almost 80 percent of total private consumption. The poorest fifth, just 1.5
percent.23 This illustrates a large difference in resources.

21. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), 2000. Ecological Footprint by Country, Living Planet Report 2000. Gland, Switzerland:
2000.
22. CIA World Factobook, 2012. Country Comparison: GDP Per Capita (PPP). [Online]: Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/
publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html# [Accessed on 26 July 2012].

and-stats#src16 [Accessed on 26 July 2012].

143

23. Global Issues, 2010. Poverty Stats and Facts. [Online]: Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-

Jellybeans to Feed the World (I)


Ages: 7-14
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: A bag of jelly beans with enough for at least three per participant.
Purpose: The distribution of jellybeans in this game helps participants real-

ize that there is enough food for everyone in the world, but food is not distributed
evenly. The game also helps children understand how it feels to not have enough
food.
Procedure:

Each participant picks a slip of paper from a hat. Eighty per cent say poor
and twenty per cent say rich.
Divide the group so that the rich participants have two-thirds of the space and
the poor participants are crowded into a corner at the back of the designated
area.
Give the rich group a bowl of jellybeans (more than three per participant)
and the poor group a small bowl with just a few jellybeans (not enough for
each child).
Before the participants begin to eat, they must decide how to divide the
jellybeans
Note: Before the end of the exercise, provide extra jellybeans for the
children in the poor group.
Discussion:

How did the two groups feel about the way the jelly beans were distributed?
Did the rich group share with the poor group? If they did share, how did they
decide to share and how much to share?
Why is food important? Why is sharing important? What happens when you
never have enough to eat and always feel hungry?
Should rich countries share with poorer countries? How can we do this?
Discuss the distribution of space during this exercise. Compare the population
of Canada to other countries that are heavily populated. How did it feel to be
in the space you were in, depending on which group you were assigned?
Which human rights guarantee essential resources to all humans?
Adapted from: Scouting Web, 2006. Jellybeans to Feed the World. [Online]: Available at: http://www/scoutingweb.com/Scoutin-

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gWeb/SubPages/JellyBeansGame.htm. [Accessed on 14 June 2006].

Peace Monster (I)


Ages: 6-10
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: Scissors, popsicle sticks (of various colours), white paper, milk

cartons, egg cartons, coloured markers, glue, tape, toilet paper rolls, googly eyes,
construction paper in various colours, pipe cleaners, pencil crayons, newspaper,
stickers, paint.
Each group gets a different bag of resources.
Group 1: Pencil crayons, newsprint paper, old newspapers, toilet paper rolls
and tape.
Group 2: Pencil crayons, newsprint paper, plain white paper, milk cartons,
toilet paper rolls, tape and scissors.
Group 3: Coloured markers, milk cartons, some coloured construction paper,
scissors, glue, toilet paper rolls, popsicle sticks, tape and newsprint.
Group 4: Many coloured markers/a lot of paint, multi-coloured construction
paper, glue, scissors, pipe cleaners, googly eyes, milk cartons, egg cartons,
toilet paper rolls, sparkles, stickers, popsicle sticks, tape.
Purpose: To provide an opportunity to explore issues of inequality, unequal

resources, and competition or cooperation during conflict.

Divide participants into four groups. The groups should sit far enough away
from each other so that they cannot easily see each others resources.
Explain that the participants must work together in their group to create as
funky, beautiful and impressive a peace monster as they can. The monster
should be a friendly and happy monster if possible.
Tell them that when all the monsters are completed, a contest will be held to
determine which is the best one. The group producing the most artistic monster
will win a prize.
Distribute materials to each group. Tell them not to open the bags until you
have said go. Each groups materials should be in identical bags. Do not
draw attention to the fact that each group is receiving different materials. If
any group notices this and objects to it, reply with, just try to do your best with
what youve been given.
Allow about 15 minutes for the groups to work. Walk around and observe all,
but reserve most praise for Group 4. Allow group members to do any sharing
or bargaining for resources if they so choose, but do not suggest or encourage
it.

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Procedure:

At the end, ask each group to stand at the front and hold up their monster.
Group 4s monster will likely be the most visually attractive. Announce that they
have won the prize for the best monster.
By this time, the inequality of resources should be obvious to most, if not all,
participants and other groups are likely to complain that it wasnt fair. At first,
respond to objections by pointing out how much larger and more impressive
Group 4s work is and how it uses a greater variety of materials. Add that all
the groups had the same directions but Group 4 produced a superior product.
Drop the simulation role of judge and announce that this was an exercise to
see how they coped with an unequal situation.
Discussion:

Was this activity fair? Why or why not?


Did participants have feelings of powerlessness, frustration, and anger? What
did people do about those feelings? How did it feel to have very few resources?
To have all the resources you needed?
How did the groups see each other? Was there mostly competition between
groups or was there some cooperation?
Perhaps discuss how this relates to the distribution of resources among different
peoples/countries of the world. Analogies could be drawn to how minority
groups or developing nations relate to those with more power.
Look at how this helps us to understand the idea of common human needs.
Can you name any groups in society that begin with certain disadvantages,
yet are judged by the same standards as more privileged groups? What are
their reactions to injustice and discrimination? What would the more powerful
groups think of such reactions?
Which human rights guarantee access to basic needs?
What can we do to promote these rights?
Adapted from Morton, T. and McBride, J., 1997. Teachers Resource Book Go Look Again: The Process of Prejudice and Discrimination. Vancouver: Concept Publishing. pp. 35-36.

146

Something to Think About (I)


Ages: 12-17
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Large Lego-style blocks or any stackable item - enough to give

each group 10 blocks.

Purpose: This game encourages participants to think about the inequalities in

the distribution of power and resources in the world. Potentially, they will also be
asked to make some value judgments about the way in which the worlds resources
should be distributed. During the debriefing, these issues are linked back to human
rights.
Procedure:

Divide the participants into groups of 4 or 5 and give each group 10 blocks.
Explain that you will ask a series of questions about the population of the
world and about the distribution of world resources. The groups will be asked
to come up with answers using the blocks. Once every group has come up
with a guess, you will reveal the correct answer and supply some additional
information. Also tell the participants that some of the questions will require
them to make value judgments about the distribution of the worlds resources.
There are many questions below. It would take too much time to go through all
of them. Select those that you feel best suit your theme.
There are several questions in the discussion section of this game that require
participants to link what they have learned back with human rights. These
questions can also be asked at various times throughout the game.
Discussion:

Variation: This game works well if used right after the Scramble for
Wealth and Power. Use the pennies from that game rather than the
blocks.
Adapted from a game developed by Harold Heufeld, Winnipeg #1 School Division.

147

Was there any information that surprised you as you completed this game?
What inequalities surprised you the most?
Do you feel that these inequalities are human rights violations? What do you
think this game has to do with human rights?
What kinds of rights are being violated if humans cannot eat, read or work?
(At this point, talk about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Mention
pertinent articles and discuss how the Declaration came into being).
How might these different statistics be linked? For instance, how might the low
literacy rate be linked to high poverty rates amongst women?
What can we do to combat inequality?

The Questions:
Questions About Demographics:

If these 10 blocks represent the population of the world (10% each), we want you to
guess how many blocks represent each of the following:
1) How many would be children? (3 - children under 18 made up 31% of the total
world population in 2012)
2) How many people would live on less than $2.00 a day? (4 - 3 billion people
live in poverty where 1.2 billion of this population are children)
3) How many do not have clean water to drink? (1 1.1 billion people worldwide
do not have safe drinking water)
4) How many people lack basic sanitation? (4 2.6 billion people worldwide do
not have access to basic sanitation)
5) How many people live without electricity? (2 1.6 billion people live without
electricity in the world)
6) How many do NOT have access to the internet? (7 - approximately 2 billion
people use the internet)
7) If the blocks represented all the people in the world, how many would have a
university degree? (O - Only 1% of the worlds population, 1/10 of a block
have university degrees)
8) How many people were illiterate in the 21st century? (1 nearly 1 billion
people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names)
9) How many blocks would represent the people in the world that are NOT white?
(7 - roughly 30% of the worlds population is Caucasian)
***Other useful statistics that can be turned into questions:
57% of the worlds population is Asian, 21% is European, 14% is from the
Western Hemisphere (both North and South America), 8% is from Africa.

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80% of the worlds population lives in substandard housing.

Questions About Spending Power and Resources:

Now, imagine that each block represents one hundred billion dollars.
1) How many hundreds of billions do you think are spent on the military WORLDWIDE in a year? (17 over $1.7 trillion was spent globally in 2011 on military
expenses! And less than 1% of what the world spent every year on weapons was
needed to put every child in school by 2000)
2) How much do you think North Americans spend on fast food every year? (1 100 billion dollars are spent by North Americans on fast food every year)
3) How many hundreds of billions of dollars do you think North Americans spend
on foreign aid every year? (0 -18 billion are spent every year by the United
States and Canada on foreign aid)
If each block represented 10% of the worlds population again:
1) How many people would consume 86% of the worlds resources/products? (2)
2) How many people would consume 13% of the worlds resources/products? (6)
3) How many people would consume 1% of the worlds resources/products? (2)
4) How many blocks would represent the people that hold 51% of the worlds
wealth?
(1 - 12% of the worlds population controls 51% of the worlds wealth)
HINT: make a pie chart that shows the percentages of resources/
products used.
These statistics were taken from the UNICEF website: www.unicef.org

149

Unequal Resources (I)


Ages: 10 +
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Scissors, rulers, paper clips, glue, black felt-tipped markers, sheets

of coloured construction paper, task sheet for each group (see the following page),
large envelopes to hold each groups resources as shown below:

Group 1: scissors, ruler, paper clips, pencils. Two 4 squares of red paper and
two 4 squares of orange paper.
Group 2: scissors, glue and whole sheets of construction paper (two blue, two
orange, two yellow).
Group 3: felt-tipped markers and whole sheets of construction paper (two
green, two orange, two yellow).
Group 4: whole sheets of construction paper (green, yellow, blue, red,
purple).
Purpose: To provide an opportunity to observe the influence of inequality and

competition on cooperation and conflict.


Procedure:

150

Divide the participants into 4 groups with 1-6 members. The groups should
sit far enough away from each other so that they cannot see each others
resources.
Ask the groups to be seated and distribute an envelope and Task Sheet to each
group.
Ask the groups not to open their materials until you tell them to begin the
task. Explain that each group has different materials but that each group must
complete the same tasks. Groups may bargain for the use of materials and
tools in any way that is mutually agreeable. The first group to complete all tasks
is the winner.
Give the signal to begin and observe as much group and bargaining behaviour
as you can so that you can supply some feedback during the debriefing.
Stop the process when winners have been declared and groups have been
allowed to complete ongoing tasks.

Discussion:

Analogies may be drawn between this experience and how minority groups
or underdeveloped nations relate to those with more power. Comparisons
between marginalized and non-marginalized groups in Canada could also be
discussed.
Observe the way resources were used, shared and bargained for. How did
the groups see each other? How did the groups see their own members (e.g.
did a group member use a bargaining tactic that you wouldve approached
differently?)?
Was there competition between the groups? Was there cooperation between
the groups?
How might this game mimic the distribution of resources amongst and within
countries? Amongst individuals?
How does this help us understand human rights issues? How does this help
us understand prejudice? In what ways are countries or individuals sometimes
measured by the same standards even though they have very different
resources and abilities?
Each group is to complete the following tasks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Make
Make
Make
Make
Make

a
a
a
a
a

3 x 3 square with orange paper.


3 x 2 rectangle with yellow paper.
4-link paper chain, each link in a different colour.
3 x 5 T-shaped piece with green and orange paper.
4 x 4 flag with any three colours.

The first group to complete all tasks is the winner. Groups may
bargain with other groups for the use of materials.
Adapted from Morton, T. and McBride, J., 1997. Teachers Resource Book Go Look Again: The Process of Prejudice and Discrimi-

151

nation. Vancouver: Concept Publishing. pp. 35-36.

SECTION
10
DISABILITIES

Disabilities
Disability is a complex term reflecting the interaction between society and the
features of a persons body. Disabilities come in many forms and can include
physical traits or mental, learning, sensory or developmental aspects. The games
in this section focus on creating understanding and awareness of disabilities within
a human rights context. They aim to foster an atmosphere of inclusion and acceptance.
In 2006, the United Nations drafted the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons
with Disabilities, which Canada ratified in 2010. This document aims to address
the need for greater protection of the human rights of people with disabilities.
Other human rights documents also make special mention of the rights of people
with disabilities. For example, Article 23 of the CRC states that you have the right
to special education and care if you have a disability, as well as all the rights in
this Convention, so that you can live a full life.
Despite human rights protection, people with disabilities still face barriers and
even human rights violations in their daily life. For example, everyone has the right
to equality; they are born free and equal in dignity and rights; yet, people living
with disabilities may face barriers when it comes to finding meaningful employment or education and are in that manner not treated equally. Another example is
the case of health care for people with disabilities. Often, women with disabilities
receive less screening for breast and cervical cancer than other women.24
Accessibility is a very important part of fostering inclusion for people with disabilities and helps people with disabilities to participate in all areas of community life.
Increasing accessibility can involve remodelling physical barriers, such as stairs
and doors that are too narrow for wheelchairs to pass through, as well as making
it easier for everyone to access services.
Fostering inclusion and working towards changing societal attitudes are important
steps towards achieving the full realisation of human rights for people with disabilities. In Canada, Section 15 of the Charter of Rights and Freedom makes it
illegal for the government to discriminate against persons with disabilities. This is
an important article for protecting the rights of people with disabilities in Canada.
Games in this section include:
A City Like No Other
Alligator Pond
Sandpaper Letters
Signals
You and I

24. World Health Organisation, 2011. Disability and Health Fact Sheet No 352. [Online]: Available at: http://www.who.int/
mediacentre/factsheets/fs352/en/index.html. [Accessed on 23 August 2012].

153

Factoid: Disabilities
Definitions:

Accessibility: The ability to use without barriers.


Ableism: societal attitudes that devalue or limit the potential of people with
disabilities.
Disabilities: covers many conditions, some visible and some not visible.
A disability may have been present from birth, caused by an accident, or
developed over time. There are physical, mental and learning disabilities,
mental disorders, hearing or vision disabilities, epilepsy, drug and alcohol
dependencies, environmental sensitivities, and other conditions. 25
Understanding the Concept:

Many people worldwide live with a disability. Disabilities can be emotional, mental,
physical, cognitive, sensory, and developmental or a combination of these. Despite
human rights protection, people with disabilities often face barriers to becoming
fully included in society; this includes access to education and employment. Fostering inclusion, increasing accessibility, eliminating discrimination and promoting understanding of disabilities are important steps towards realising the rights of people
with disabilities.
Did you Know?
Braille is a writing system used by the blind and visually impaired. Instead of
writing traditional letters, words are spelled out using raised dots that can be
felt. Braille was first invented by Louis Braille in 1824.
Today, Braille is used less frequently and electronic screen-readers have
become more popular. These readers speak to the user to identify what is
being displayed on the screen
Guide dogs have been used to help people who are blind or have visual
impairments since the 16th century.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was
written in 2006. Canada ratified it in 2010.
An estimated 14.3% of Canadians live with some form of a disability. 26
Over a billion people in the world live with disabilities. 27
25. Ontario Human Rights Commission, 2011. Disability and Human Rights. Queens Printer for Ontario. [Online]: Available at:
http://www.ohrc.on.ca/sites/default/files/attachments/Disability_and_human_rights.pdf: [Accessed on 20 August 2012]
26. Statistics Canada, 2008. Prevalence of Disability in Canada 2006. [Online]: Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89628-x/2007002/4125019-eng.htm. [Accessed on 23 August 2012]
27. World Health Organisation, 2011. Disability and Health Fact Sheet No 352. [Online]: Available at: http://www.who.int/

154

mediacentre/factsheets/fs352/en/index.html. [Accessed on 23 August 2012].

Ages: 12+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Large chart paper for

each group, markers, list of scenarios.


Purpose: This game is a good way

of getting youth to think about what


having a disability means as well as to
think of the world from another perspective.
Procedure:

Divide the participants into small


teams of 3-6 and give each group
a piece of paper and markers.
Hand out one scenario to each
team. They must imagine and
describe what a city would look
like if all the citizens had a
particular disability. Have each
group draw or list their ideas on
their paper.
Possible scenarios are listed
below:
a city where no one can see
a city where no one can hear
a city where no one can walk
a city where no one uses language to communicate
a city where no one can use
their arms
Guide each group with a few
questions.
What would be different in this
city from the city you live in?
What would be the same in
this city as the city you live in?

If you were to visit that city,


would you be at any disadvantages? Would you be considered to have a disability?
You may also want to ask
specific questions to each
group. For example, the group
that has no language may
have a hard time figuring out
how people communicate.
Ask, How would you know
how someone is feeling without speaking to them; How
would you get directions without talking?
Have each group present their
results.
Discussion:

How would it feel to live in the city


you were given in your scenario?
What would be difficult? What
would be easy?
Would you be at a disadvantage
in your new city? How would that
feel?
Are people who live with
disabilities treated fairly and
equally in society? What obstacles
do they face?
Which human rights protect
people who live with disabilities?
(There are many answers)
Which human rights violations
are people with disabilities extra
susceptible to?
What can we do?
Have you increased your
understanding of what obstacles
people with disabilities are
sometimes faced with? If yes,
how?
This activity was created by Sarah Hamill and is used with
permission.

155

A City Like No Other


(I)

Alligator Pond (O)


Ages: 10+
Time: 40 minutes
Resources: Rubber jar rings (about 40), blindfolds, sponges, bandanas for ear

covers or ear plugs.

Purpose: Participants come to understand that the notion of diversity not only

applies to race, colour, gender and ethnic origin, but also to persons with disabilities. Through this exercise, the participants will develop empathy for persons with
disabilities so that they can develop co-operative skills to overcome obstacles.
Procedure:

156

Set out the jar rings on the floor to represent alligators in a pond. Make sure
that the rings are not too close to each other.
Organize the participants into groups of four. Within each group, assign the
following roles:
Fully blind (visual disability).
Partially deaf (communication disability).
One leg amputated (mobility disability) (Note: They can hang onto their
teammate when they get tired).
Instruction dyslexia (learning disability) (Note: If someone says right they go
left; if someone says forward, they go backward; if someone tells them to
go, they will stop).
Take aside one participant from each group and explain that he will be blind
and that when he is back in their group, he will have to explain his disability to
the others. Blindfold each child and lead them back to their group area.
Next, do the same with the participants from each group who will be deaf.
Send them back with their sponge ear covers or ear plugs on.
Continue until all participants understand their roles. Tell them the object is to
cross the pond without stepping on an alligator.
Once the participants are in their groups, they will have to figure out how to
communicate with one another and overcome some real barriers. Think of
trying to explain to the participant who is deaf about the learning disability of
the participant with information dyslexia.
Teams must line up one team behind the other at the start of the Alligator Pond.
Give them a minute to discuss their strategy for crossing.
Send the first team in. Once that team is about 30 seconds into play, send the
next team, and so on until they are all in the Alligator Pond. Anyone who steps
on an alligator must go back to the start line.

Discussion:

Ask the participants how difficult they found the task of communicating with one
another. Do you have a better understanding of what it would be like to have a
disability?
What kinds of activities might be a lot harder for people who live with these
disabilities? What kinds of extra challenges might they face?
Besides the disabilities highlighted in this game, what other kinds of disabilities
or differences might create extra challenges for people who live with them?
Finally, ask the participants if they are now more comfortable and likely to assist
and be friendly to someone with a disability. Would they be more willing to
take the time to figure out a way to communicate rather than getting frustrated
or irritated with that person?
What special human rights protection do people with disabilities have? Are
these rights always respected?
The original source of this activity is unknown. The idea for this activity came from discussions with social workers who recounted
taking part in a sensitivity exercise in which they were assigned disabilities and had to overcome a difficulty such as getting over
obstacles in their path, building things, etc. This activity was developed by Patricial Kidziak who would like to state that should

157

there be a documented activity similar to this somewhere, she has no intention of claiming ownership of someone elses work.

Sandpaper Letters (IO)


Ages: 6-8
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Sandpaper cut out into letters and numbers, blindfolds for each

player.

Purpose: This activity allows young children to experience one of the challenges

of living with a disability.


Procedure:

Blindfold all the participants. Tell them that they will each have the chance
to feel the sandpaper letters and guess what letter of the alphabet they are
holding.
If a participant guesses incorrectly, tell him to try again once or twice more.
After all the participants have tried guessing several letters, get them to remove
their blindfolds.
Discussion:

How did you feel not being able to see the letters? Was it difficult?
Would you have liked to have someone to help you?
What do you think it would be like to have a disability? Which parts of your
lives might be more challenging? Do you think people who do not have
disabilities might sometimes get frustrated with people who do? How would this
make people with disabilities feel?
How can you help people who have a disability?
Adapted from: Amnesty International Human Rights for Children Committee, 1992. Human Rights for Children.

158

Signals (O)
Ages: 6-10
Time: 30 Minutes
Resources: Blindfoldsenough for half of the group.
Purpose: This game is a good way to get small children thinking about the

challenges faced by people with disabilities. It is also a good game to teach children about the importance of communication. During the debriefing, children can
make connections between the activity and the disadvantages some people must
overcome.
Procedure:

159

Divide the group into pairs and have them stand in their pairs around an area
filled with non-dangerous obstacles. Make sure there is enough space between
each set of pairs so partners are able to hear each other.
One member of each team is blindfolded so that s/he cannot see.
The other team member becomes the guide and must help their partner
navigate the area.
The guides may only use noises and sounds to guide the blindfolded person.
They may not use words or guide the person with their hands - unless the
person who cannot see is in danger of hurting him/herself.
At first, the sounds will not mean anything to the blind people and they will
bump into many obstacles.
After a while, the guide will find that by using the same sounds over and over
(e.g., clicking the tongue to indicate an obstacle straight ahead), they can
begin to communicate effectively with the person who cannot see.
After the teams have had a chance to begin to develop a communication
system, have the members switch places so that the guide becomes the person
who cannot see.

Discussion:

160

Ask the participants whether they were able to develop any kind of
communication system between the person who could not see and the guide.
How hard was it not to use words? (If there is time, discuss how important
words are for understanding the world around us). How hard would it be to live
somewhere where you did not understand what people were saying? What kind
of issues would arise? Do you think the same issues arise even when we speak
the same language?
Ask participants what other senses they used to navigate around the room when
they could not use their eyes.
What kinds of activities might be a lot harder for people who are blind? What
kinds of extra challenges might they face?
Are there other kinds of disabilities or differences, besides being blind or not
understanding the language, that can create extra challenges for people who
live with them?
End by talking with participants about how inclusive society is of people who
are different (e.g. sometimes there are no ramps for people in wheelchairs,
sometimes children who have a speech impediment are mocked). Often during
the activity, the guides will laugh at the people who cannot see as they try
to navigate the area - you can link this back to what sometimes happens to
people who are different. For participants who were blindfolded, ask them how
they felt when they couldnt see.
Ask the group how they think it might feel to be different than other people?
What can we do to make sure people who are different feel welcome wherever
they go? How can we communicate with people who might not understand our
language?

You and I (I/O)

Discussion:

Ages: 10-13

Around how many of the above


statements did you identify with?
Which statements did you not
identify with?
The statements that were read
aloud describe a particular
individual who lives with
disabilities. How does it feel to
learn you have a little or a lot
in common with them? Was it
surprising?
What would it feel like to live with
a disability?
Are people who live with
disabilities treated fairly and
equally in society? What obstacles
do they face?
Which human rights protect
people who live with disabilities?
(There are many answers) Are
these rights always respected?
Which human rights violations
are people with disabilities extra
susceptible to?
What can we do?

Resources: Paper with the words

agree and disagree in large print


to label the sides of the room.
Purpose: This activity encourages

participants to see disability as just


another trait in a person that doesnt
detract from the other commonalities
one shares with that person.
Procedure:

Label the activity area with agree


and disagree on opposite sides.
Have the participants stand in the
middle of the area and explain
that they are now standing on a
large opinion scale. You will read
a series of statements to which
they must respond by standing
by the agree or disagree
signs. These questions describe a
particular individual.
If they strongly identify with the
statement, they should move all
the way and if they only partly
identify, they should move part
of the way. If they feel they are
neutral, they stand in the middle.
The questions are listed below:
I like French fries
I like music
I get bored in class sometimes
I fall asleep in class sometimes
Im hoping to play sports during the summer
I volunteer sometimes
I have friends at school whom I
like to play with
I like summer
I dont like cold weather
I dont speak
I use a wheelchair sometimes

This activity was created by Sarah Hamill and is used with


permission.

161

Time: 20 minutes

DISCRIMINATION

162

SECTION
11

Discrimination
The UDHR states that Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth
in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status (Article 2). Although traditions of discrimination are difficult to
combat and change can be slow, it is necessary to discuss issues of discrimination,
the consequences of discrimination, and the possible solutions. The games in this
section investigate the concepts of power, abuse, minorities and majorities, as well
as discrimination.
Many international efforts have been made to prevent discrimination. These
include:
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
(1948)
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination (1965)
The International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime
of Apartheid (1973)
Globally, different forms of discrimination have occurred for centuries. The racial
segregation imposed by Apartheid in South Africa from the 1940s to 1990s is a
large-scale example. Another example is the widespread discrimination against
women common during the Taliban rule of Afghanistan in the 1990s; women were
forced to wear burqas to leave their houses, not allowed to work outside of the
home, and denied the right to education.
There are also many examples of racial discrimination or racism in Canada. These
include the internment of Japanese Canadians in detention camps during World
War II, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1923, which banned Chinese immigration
from 1923 to 1947, and the segregation of black people in the armed forces
during World War I. Human rights values and knowledge can be useful tools in the
prevention of discrimination to prevent further violations.
Games in this section include:
4 Corners
Backpacks of Privilege
Barnyard
Discriminatik
Exclusion
Unpacking the Privileges
163

Factoid: Discrimination
Definitions:

Discrimination: when someone makes an unjust distinction between people


because of their class or category. Examples include: racial, religious, sexual,
disability-related, ethnic, age and physical appearance-related discrimination.
Racism: the belief that racial differences produce inherently superior and
inferior races. Racist practices often protect and maintain the advantageous
position of the dominant group(s) in society
Xenophobia: a fear of or an aversion to people from foreign countries.
Understanding the Concept:

Discrimination can take many forms and occurs both between individuals and on a
larger scale. Racism is one example of discrimination. Human rights goals aim to
eliminate discrimination; the UDHR states Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status (Article 2). Although traditions of discrimination
are difficult to combat and change can be slow, it is necessary to engage in
conversation regarding discrimination, the consequences of discrimination, and the
possible solutions.
Did You Know?
Over 5 million Canadians (16 percent of the population) were members of a
visible minority group in 2006.28
About 6 in 10 reported hate crimes in Canada in 2006 were motivated by
race/ethnicity. Around half of racially motivated hate crimes are directed
towards Blacks, 13% towards South Asians, 12% towards Arabs or West Asians,
5% towards East and South east Asians, 5% Caucasians, and 3% Aboriginal
people 29
An example of cultural discrimination in Canada was the Aboriginal residential
school system, in place from the second half of the 1800s through the 1970s.
The schools were designed to assimilate Aboriginal children into mainstream
Canadian society. They were known for sexual abuse, lack of sanitation
and overcrowding and left long-term emotional and physical scars on many
Aboriginal people.
Canada celebrates the United Nations International Day for the Elimination of
Racial Discrimination on March 21 each year
28. Statistics Canada, 2008. Hate Crime in Canada. [Online]: Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/

29. Ibid.

164

pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2008017-eng.htm [Accessed on 15 June 2012].

4 Corners (I0)
Ages: 7-12
Time: 10-15 minutes
Resources: None. A minimum of 16 participants (the more the better) are

required for this game.

Purpose: Children experience being treated unequally for arbitrary reasons.

Participants reflect on what it feels like to be rejected because of differences.


Procedure:

Four leaders are chosen from the group, and everyone is told that these four
leaders will pick teams for the game. Secretly, each of these 4 leaders is told
a characteristic that he or she will use when picking people to join her team.
This characteristic should be something semi-obvious (e.g. only people wearing
jeans, only people with blond hair). Also inform leaders that one classmate
may possess multiple characteristics that the leaders themselves are looking for,
but the leader whom the classmate passes by first gets to choose that classmate
to join their team (e.g. a classmate who is blond and is wearing jeans)
Each leader goes to a corner.
The remaining participants (IN SILENCE,) walk around and pass each of the
leaders extending their hands, as if to shake. The leaders shake their heads yes
or no as to whether or not the next person gets to join their group.
When a participant joins the group, that participant must stand behind the
leader so that the leader may see the person who is coming next in line.
Ideally, a few of the people will not be chosen at all. Let the participants pass
all 4 leaders several times so that some participants are rejected by the leaders
twice.
Call an end to the game.
Discussion:

Ask the leaders how it felt to have to reject people.


Ask the chosen people how it feels to be accepted.
Ask the remaining participants how it feels not to be chosen.
Ask each team if they can figure out why they were accepted to the teams.
Before this point, do not tell the group that it is a physical characteristic.
Sometimes the participants can figure it out, sometimes they cannot.
What are some reasons why children (or people in general) might be rejected
by others?
How might this affect the person who is rejected?
How does being rejected affect someones human rights?
Adapted from: Gallagher, Molly, 1999. Games for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts: Games to Teach Values [Online]: Available at:
http://www.oocities.org/heartland/plains/3209/Values.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

165

Backpacks of Privilege (O)


Ages: All ages
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Large backpack, small backpack, fanny pack, small pencil case,

Newsprint on which the rules for the relay are written, the following objects (a
recipe card is to be attached to each of these objects explaining which rights they
represent). Note that there should be 4 sets of each item because there will be 4
groups for this game.









chalk
keys
clothing
boxes of food
a piece of card in a heart shape
a diary
pictures of children from different racial backgrounds
hammers
balls
bandages.

Purpose: This game teaches kids about the inequalities between different groups

of people.

Procedure:

166


Divide children into 4 equal groups of 4-6.
Before the race begins, each team must take a look at all the rights available to
them and decide which one(s) to put in their teams bag (which rights are most
important to their team). Each team has a different sized bag and therefore can
fit a larger or smaller number of rights in their bag.
After all teams have finished putting their rights in their bags, they all run an
obstacle course. The first team to finish the obstacle course wins.
Once all teams have packed their backpacks, have each team line up (for a
total of four lines) at the start of the obstacle race. When you yell Go, the first
member from each team will run out to the first obstacle. Only one person from
each team should be on the obstacle course at a time. Once the first person
from a team has completed all 4 obstacles, they run back to their team and tag
the second person in their teams line and that person then runs the obstacle
course. The first team to have all their members complete the course wins.

Discussion:

Suggest to the participants that the winners of the race were declared before
the race even started (because the team with the largest bag was able to
acquire more rights).
How did you feel about the privileges that you received? How did it feel to
notice that other teams around you were not receiving the same treatment?
The activity demonstrates the inequalities in our society. This can lead to
some people not having the same access to jobs, etc. because they are not in
dominant groups and are not as privileged.
How did you feel when you realized that different teams had different bags and
different rights?
How did the group with the largest bag feel? Did you think about the other
groups who didnt have such a luxury? How did the group with the smallest
bag feel?
Have the groups read out the rights they chose to put in their bags. What
does this activity tell us about the world that we live in? What are some of the
reasons some individuals or groups may have unearned privileges? Is this fair,
why or why not?

167

Developed by Andy Pearcey and Jane Conly for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2005.

The Rights Backpacks:







Right to education (chalk).


Right to food (a box of macaroni).
Right to shelter (keys to a house).
Right to love (construction paper heart). Right to clothing (clothing).
Right to freedom of speech (diary).
Right to freedom from racial discrimination (picture of children from different
racial backgrounds).
Right to work (hammer).
Right to play (ball).
Right to Health Care (bandages).
Team One
Give this team a huge backpack. All the rights should be available to them. They
can fit them all in their bag:
Team Two
This group gets a small backpack.
All the rights are available to them, although they cant fit them all into their bag.
They will have to decide which rights to take in their pack.
Team Three
This group gets a smaller bag.
All the rights are available to them, although they cant fit them all into their bag.
They will have to decide which rights to take in their pack.
Team Four
This team gets a small pencil case.
All the rights are available to them, although they cant fit them all into their bag.
They will have to decide which rights to take in their pack.

168

The Obstacle Course


Create four identical instruction cards, one for each group, to be placed at the
other end of the gym, field, etc.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obstacle one (either these instructions are posted, or someone is there to read
them to the participants):
Your youngest child has fallen out of a tree and possibly broken his arm. Look
in your bag. If you have the appropriate right to help him, run back to the
starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.
If you do not have the appropriate right to help him, crawl back to the starting
line and pass your bag to the next team member.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obstacle two:
Your family does not have enough money to pay the rent. You need to get a
job to help support them. If you have the appropriate right to help them,
hop on one foot back to the starting line and pass your bag to the next team
member.
If you do not have the appropriate right to help them, walk backwards to the
starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obstacle three:
You are really hungry. If you have the appropriate right to fill you up, skip
back to the starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.

169

If you do not have the appropriate right to fill you up, crab walk back to the
starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.

Obstacle four:
Your work week is long, but on Sundays you have time for relaxation. If you
have the appropriate right to enjoy the day, run back to the starting line and
pass your bag to the next team member.
If you do not have the appropriate right to enjoy the day, walk backwards to the
start line and pass your bag to the next team member.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obstacle five (use if there are 5 participants in each group):
You and your brothers and sisters want to finish high school. If you have the
appropriate right to continue your education, do sideways cross over steps
back to the starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.
If you do not have the appropriate right to continue your education, do jumping
jacks back to the starting line and pass your bag to the next team member.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Obstacle six (use if there are 6 participants in each group):
You and your friend are walking to the store and a group of people from
another ethnic background are walking towards you. You feel nervous that they
may tease you. If you have the appropriate right to feel secure, dance back
to the starting line.
If you do not have the appropriate right to feel secure, crawl backwards to the
starting line.

170

Barnyard (IO)
Ages: 6-9
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This is an exercise that both young people and adults enjoy. It allows

participants to experience what it is like to be in a minority group.


Procedure:

Have the participants stand in a circle.


Explain that you are going to whisper an animal in every participants ear.
Have participants as a group make the animal sounds out loud so they know
what sounds to make.
Randomly whisper cow in most participants ears, whisper pig in several
ears, whisper cat in only a few ears, and whisper bird in only two
participants ear.
Ask the participants to close their eyes and make the sound of their animal.
Then ask them to walk around with their eyes closed and try to find and link
arms with other like animals.
Allow them to do this for a few minutes, or until you notice that all like animals
are together.
Discussion:

How did you feel when you found out there were a lot of cows? How did you
feel when you found your first cow? What was it like when you realized there
were only a few other cats or birds?
Explain to the group that being the bird or the cat can be somewhat
representative of being a minority (you may need to explain this term) group
member. Depending on the group, you can choose a particular emphasis
(e.g., skin colour, religion, language). Sometimes people who are different
are tempted to join the majority in order to feel less alone (isolated) and more
accepted. What would it be like to be a minority group?
Discuss what discrimination is. Do you think minority groups are discriminated
against? Are excluded? Did the cats and birds feel discriminated against?
What did all the animals have in common? What do all people have in
common?
What can we do to make sure people do not feel isolated?
for School Staff. [Online]: Available at: http://twood.tripod.com/guide.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

171

Adapted from: Youth Pride Inc. 1997 What Can You Do Creating Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Participants: A Resource Guide

Discriminatik (O)
Ages: 6-12
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: Blindfolds.
Purpose: This activity allows participants to experience what it feels like to be

excluded from a group.


Procedure:

A planning group of about one-fifth of the participants is brought together


and secretly briefed to run around the playground pretending to tag the
other participants. They are to make a noise when they tag (or pretend to tag)
participants.
When the planning is over, the rest of the participants are blindfolded and told
to sit cross-legged on the ground far enough away from each other so that
they cannot touch with outstretched arms. They are asked not to remove the
blindfolds, speak or stand up until tagged by having both their hands held and
squeezed. At that point they can remove their blindfolds and join the tagging
group.
The planning group then runs around pretending to play although they do not
actually tag anyone.
As the game goes on the planning group are to make more and more noise
so it sounds as though the number doing the tagging is increasing. In fact, they
are to touch nobody.
After about five minutes blindfolds are removed and it becomes clear that
nobody has been tagged.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Schneidewind, N. and Davidson, E. 1983. Open Minds to Equality: A Sourcebook of Learning Activities to Promote
Race, Sex, Participants and Age Equity. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

172

Begin by asking the group how it felt to be excluded from the secret planning
group and not to know what was being planned.
What did it feel like not to be tagged when they thought others were being
tagged?
The planning group, for their part, might wish to reflect upon how comfortable
or uncomfortable they felt in their privileged, manipulative role.
Would participants from either group would have wanted to switch roles? Why
or why not?
This discussion can eventually be broadened to compare the experience of the
game with situations in society and the world. What groups have been subject
to discrimination in the world? How might this affect people in these groups?

Exclusion (IO)
Ages: 13-17
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Chairs and a room with a door.
Purpose: This activity helps the participants understand the nature of social

exclusion.

Procedure:

Students sit in a circle on chairs. A group of five students are asked to leave the
room for a while. In their absence, their chairs are removed and the class starts
singing a song.
Those who went out are asked to come back while the class is singing.
Purposely, the rest of the students do not pay attention to them. They are made
to feel excluded.
Discussion:

What happened here? Explain to the five students that the exclusion was done
purposely to provide a learning experience.
How did you feel being excluded? How did you feel when you were excluding
others?
Have you experienced exclusion before? If so when? Can you share your
experience? How did you feel when you were being excluded?
What are some situations where people feel excluded?
Complete the sentence: I feel excluded in school when . . . . Every student fills
in the blank.
Does exclusion violate any human rights?
How do we address exclusion and how do we prevent it from happening?
National Council for Teacher Education. Exclusion. [Online]: Available at: http://www.nctein.org/pub/unesco/ch14.htm.

173

[Accessed on 15 June 2006]

Unpacking the Privileges Game (O)


Ages: 7-13
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: 12-24 participants, a large field or hall, many bean bags or

balloons, four copies of the story below for four facilitators, a baseball diamond or
four markers that can be used to indicate bases, coloured dots (stickers) for all
participants (red, blue and green), red construction paper cut into 20 squares, blue
construction paper cut into 4 or 5 squares, a large piece of paper.
Purpose: To teach children about the unearned privileges and undeserved

burdens that some people in Canada have because of their ethnic background or
other inherent characteristics.
Procedure:

This game works best with smaller groups. Divide the participants into 4 groups
of 3-6 people. Have each of the 4 groups start the game at a different base
in the field.
Within each group of 3-6 children, give every participant a coloured dot.
Ideally, there should be an equal number of reds, greens and blues in every
small group.
Explain to the participants that they live in a world much like our own, except
that people have green, red and blue skin. Their dots represent their skin
colour.
Tell the children that they will progress around the field in their group-as if they
were running between bases in a game of baseball. As they reach each base,
they will encounter a scenario in a regular day for school children.
At each base, a facilitator will tell the children a story of something that
happened during their day. The children will then have to complete an
obstacle.
While all of these events appear to be positive, some children will experience
them differently based on their dot colour.
Each time someone has a negative experience (is unable to complete the
obstacle at a base), that participant must take on a small burden (a bean
bag or a balloon). Some children will collect many of these as they walk. The
burdens will become harder to carry.
When a participant drops one of his/her burdens, he/she is out of the game.

174

THE STORY: (one copy for each facilitator)


Base 1: Facilitators Role
1. Before the game, set up a small pile of Bandages (little pieces of construction
paper) at a spot 20 meters away from your base. In the pile are a lot of red
bandages, one blue bandage and NO green bandages.
2. When participants arrive at your base read them the following story:

Even though its Monday, you wake up excited. You actually want to go to
school today! Your class put on a bake sale for the local animal shelter and
raised $100 last week. Now you are going to have your picture in the town
newspaper! You run to school. On your way in the door you fall and scrape
your cheek. You are embarrassed about being so clumsy. You go to the school
office to get a bandage to cover up the cut on your face.

3. Tell the participants they are going race to the office, a spot in the distance
where they will find bandages. Tell them to get a bandage in their dot colour.
If there are none, have them get a bandage in another colour. They are to run
back to you with their bandage. Line up the participants, and yell Go.
4. The participants will return to you with their bandages.
a) Ask the children who has a bandage in their dot colour. Read the following
to these children: The photographer takes your picture for the local paper.
Fortunately, the bandages at the office match your skin colour and cover up
your embarrassing fall!
b) Ask the children who has a bandage in a colour other than their dot colour.
Read the following to these children: Unfortunately, the stores in your area
dont carry many/any bandages in the colour of your skin. You have to wear
a bright red bandage on your cheek for the picture. You know people will
tease you when they see the paper!

175

5. Give the participants who were unable to get a bandage in their colour a
burden (a balloon or bean bag). This should include all the green dots and
often one participant with a blue dot. Replenish the pile of bandages; repeat
this story to the next group.

Base 2: Facilitators Role


1. Before the participants arrive, prepare a large sheet with the following tongue
twister on it: She Sells Seashells by the Seashore (for older groups you might
want to use a harder tongue twister such as Can you Imagine an Imaginary
Menagerie Manager Managing an Imaginary Menagerie?).
2. When a group arrives at your base, read them the following:

The smartest children in your country are known to be VERY good at tongue
twisters. So each year your country has a national tongue twister competition.
Only the smartest kids get to go! Your school is preparing for the national
tongue-twister competition. You will compete in the school-wide competition. Six
of the best competitors will win the chance to go to the national competition!

3. Have the participants take turns reading the tongue twister. If your group finished
before those at the other bases, you can conduct a Twist-off. Have the children
read the tongue twister 3 times in a row and see who can go faster, who is the
funniest, etc.
4. Award all the children in the group prizes for best/fastest/most improvement they will all be going to the nationals!
a) Tell the reds and blues that all their friends congratulated them!
b) Tell the greens that a few people congratulated them, but as they walked
through the hall they overheard one kid say that the greens got to go to the
competition just because they were green, and the government wants to
see more green people at the competition to encourage racial diversity.
5. Give the green(s) a burden to carry. Send the group to base 3 and wait for
your next group to arrive.
We leave it up to you to develop the other bases. Topics could include:

176

Writing a report on your favorite hero from history (green team members
cannot find people from their cultural group as heroes in the history books they
read).
Auditioning for a role in a town play (no roles for people of green colour or
only stereotypical roles).
The colour of famous movie stars.
Stereotypes about the types of sports in which greens/blues excel.

Discussion:


Explain to the participants that sometimes discrimination doesnt just involve
directly being mean to a person. Many times it can be more subtle.
What about this race made it unfair? How did the different rules affect each
participants ability to compete in the race?
What might the balloons or bean bags represent?
How did you feel when you realized that different teams have different
burdens?
Did you ever put yourself in another players position? Did you ever want to
switch places with another player? Why or why not? How does this relate to
real life situations?
Ask certain group members to tell the others about the obstacles they
encountered. How did it feel to be unable to find a bandage in your colour?
Are bandages available in a variety of skin colours in stores near you?
Can you think of any other invisible obstacles that people may face?
Which human rights help to prevent discrimination and to promote diversity?
Adapted from: Abboud, R., et. al., 2002. The Kit: A Manual by Youth to Combat Racism Through Education. Ottawa: UNACanada, 2002.

177

SECTION
12
GAMES FROM AROUND THE WORLD

Games from Around the World


All cultures have unique games and pastimes but many also share similarities such
as being fond of race games, string games or competitive games. These similar
features can be used as common ground to foster the social inclusion of children
from diverse backgrounds. The activities in this section aim to promote crosscultural awareness and understanding as well as to investigate the importance
of the right to play for children all over the world. Through playing games from
different places, children will begin to develop an appreciation for the similarities
between children around the world.
Article 31 of the CRC outlines the right to play and includes several distinct but
related rights such as rest, recreation, leisure and participation in cultural life and
the arts. It reads:
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure,
to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the
age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the
arts.
2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to
participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage
the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural,
artistic, recreational and leisure activity. 30
Often, Article 31 is dismissed as representing an optional dimension of childrens
lives. Yet, play is an essential element in childrens emotional, physical, social
and intellectual development.31 In modern Canadian society, free play time
is diminishing for some children, often when both parents are working. Today,
structured recreational and sports activities are often favoured over free play. Many
children also spend large amounts of time watching TV or on the computer. Making
time for free play is increasingly important under these conditions as it promotes
childrens health, education and participation. For children, free play is not an
indulgence, it is a necessity.
Games in this section include:





Cover Your Ears (Korea)


My Little Bird (Tanzania)
The Big Lantern Game (Japan)
The Mitten Game (North America)
What is My Bride Like? (Israel)
Who is it? (Chile)

Available at:: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b38f0.html [accessed 7 August 2012]


31. Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children, 2011. Childrens Right to Rest, Play, Culture, Recreation, and the Arts -Working
Document: Right to Play, Background Research. [Online]: Available at:: http://rightsofchildren.ca/wp-content/uploads/workingdocument-on-right-to-play-background-research.pdf [accessed 7 August 2012]

179

30. UN General Assembly, 1989. Convention on the Rights of the Child, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1577. [Online]:

Factoid: Games from Around the World


Definitions:

Play: activities of children that are not controlled by adults and that do not
necessarily conform to any rules. Self-motivation is a key factor.
Rest: the basic necessities of physical and mental relaxation and sleep.
Leisure: having the time and freedom to do as one pleases.
Recreational activities: embraces a range of goal-directed activities.
Understanding the Concept:

Playing games from around the world is a great way to explore the differences and
similarities between cultures and to discuss what unites children all over the world.
The right to play (CRC Article 31) is an important right that is often overlooked as
non-essential. However, free play helps to promote health, education, participation
and development. For children, free play is not an indulgence, it is a necessity.
Did you Know?
There are many types of play, both structured and unstructured. Free play or
unstructured play refers to play that is not an organised recreational or learning
activity. Free play contributes to brain development, creates flexibility,
enhances creativity, and builds resilience to stress. 32
Children from all over the world play games and many of them share
similarities. For example, in Chile children play a game called Corre, Corre la
Guaraca, which is similar to Duck, Duck, Goose.
Sports are one type of play. In Canada, childrens sports participation is highest
when the mother works part-time and the father works full-time (66%). It is
slightly lower when both parents work full-time (58%). Also, children are more
likely to participate in sports if they live in neighbourhoods that are considered
safe for outside play.33
In Canada, physical fitness has declined in recent years and a quarter of
children and youth are overweight or obese.34
Self-reported screen time (computer, video game or TV time) is approximately
6 hours a day on weekdays, and more than 7 hours a day on weekends on
average in Canada.35
32. International Play Association, 2009. Article 31 of the UN Convention. [Online]: Available at:: http://article31.ipaworld.org
[accessed 8 August 2012].
33. Clark, Warren, 2009. Kids Sports. Statistics Canada [Online]: Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11008-x/2008001/article/10573-eng.htm#a6 [Accessed on 15 June 2012].
34. Tremblay MS, Shields M, Laviolette M, et al. Fitness of Canadian children and youth: Results from the 2007-2009 Canadian

35. Active Healthy Kids Canada. Healthy Habits Start Earlier Than You Think The Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on
Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Toronto: Active Healthy Kids Canada, 2010.

180

Health Measures Survey. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2010; 21: 1-14.

Cover your Ears (Korea)(IO)


Ages: 9-12
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: World map (optional).
Purpose: This game allows participants to explore similarities amongst children

in the world and to develop a sense of global understanding and trust. It can also
be used to explore the right to play.
Procedure:

This game is a favourite of both children and adults. Any number of players can
join in the fun.
The players sit in a circle. One player is chosen as the leader and places both
hands over his ears.
The player to the left of the leader places her right hand over her right ear.
The player to the right of the leader does the same with her left hand. (In other
words, the ears nearest to the leader are covered.)
The leader removes both hands and points to another player in the circle.
The new leader puts both hands over his ears. Again, players immediately to
the left and right of the leader cover their near-side ears. The new leader then
points to another player and the game continues as quickly as possible.
Any player who is slow to cover an ear, or who makes a mistake, is out of the
game. The winner is the last player left in the game.
Discussion:

Adapted from: UNICEF 2012. Activity 5 Games From Around the World. [Online]: Available at: http://www.unicef.org.au/
downloads/dayforchange/iv-GAMES-FROM-AROUND-THE-WORLD.aspx [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

181

Ask the participants if they know children from other parts of the world. Find out
if they have ever visited other countries and if so, did they meet any children
there?
Children all over the world play games. This is a similarity that connects
them. What are some other similarities that might connect participants with
children all over the world? Make a list of aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is different about the game(s) just played and
games Canadian children play?
All children have the right to play. This right is written down in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child. Why do you think play is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important for children?
Would it be possible for you to teach children from another country your
games, even if they didnt speak your language? How?

My Little Bird (Tanzania)(IO)


Ages: 5-10
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: World map (optional).
Purpose: This active game allows participants to explore similarities amongst

children in the world and to develop a sense of global understanding and trust. This
game can also be used as a warm-up activity.
Procedure:

Introduce the game and the country it is from. Consider pointing out Tanzania
on the map.
The leader stands at the front and says: My little bird is lively, is lively then
quickly calls out the name of a living thing and says _____ fly For example,
lizards ... fly. If the thing named can fly, the players raise their arms in a flying
motion. If the thing named cannot fly, the players remain still.
Practice a few times and then explain that if any players arms move for
something that doesnt fly, they are out of the game.
Play until most people are eliminated or until its time to move on.
Discussion:

Ask the participants if they know children from other parts of the world. Find out
if they have ever visited other countries and if so, did they meet any children
there?
Children all over the world play games. This is a similarity that connects
them. What are some other similarities that might connect participants with
children all over the world? Make a list of aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is different about the game(s) just played and
games Canadian children play?
All children have the right to play. This right is written down in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child. Why do you think play is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important for children?
Would it be possible for you to teach children from another country your
games, even if they didnt speak your language? How?
Adapted from: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2012. Games Around the World. [online]:
Available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/4h/4h05500.pdf [Accessed on 12 June 2012].

182

The Big Lantern Game (Japan)(IO)


Ages: 8-12
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: World map (optional).
Purpose: This game allows participants to explore similarities amongst children

in the world and to develop a sense of global understanding and trust.


Procedure:

Introduce the game and the country it is from. Consider pointing out Japan on
the map.
Have the players sit on the floor in a circle.
The game is started by having one player put their hands close together and
saying Big Lantern. The next player to the left says, Little Lantern, and puts
their hands far apart. The game continues around the circle and gets more
difficult if played quickly.
You can introduce elimination by having players drop out of the game when
they fail to follow the leader, the winner being the last player to move his or her
hands incorrectly.
The game is over when most people are eliminated.
Discussion:

Ask the participants if they know children from other parts of the world. Find out
if they have ever visited other countries and if so, did they meet any children
there?
Children all over the world play games. This is a similarity that connects
them. What are some other similarities that might connect participants with
children all over the world? Make a list of aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is different about the game(s) just played and
games Canadian children play?
All children have the right to play. This right is written down in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child. Why do you think play is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important for children?
Would it be possible for you to teach children from another country your
games, even if they didnt speak your language? How?
Adapted from: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2012. Games Around the World. [online]:

183

Available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/4h/4h05500.pdf [Accessed on 12 June 2012].

The Mitten Game (Northern Canada)(IO)


Ages: 6-12
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: 1 mitten or moccasin, a map of Canada (optional).
Purpose: This game allows participants to explore similarities amongst children

in the world and to develop a sense of global understanding and trust.


Procedure:

Introduce the game and the region it is from. The Dene people live in the
northern boreal and arctic regions of Canada.
Have the players sit on the floor in a tight circle with their legs in front of them
and their knees bent. Each players legs should touch the legs of the players on
both sides.
One player is chosen to be it and stands in the centre of the circle.
The players pass the mitten around the circle between their legs and the person
who is it tries to guess who has it. The players in the circle can sway back and
forth while they pass the mitten.
Once the person who is it guesses correctly, he/she trades with the player
sitting down who was caught.
Optional: sing a song while the mitten is passed or have the players
clap the ground or their legs with a rhythm.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Heine, Michael, 1999. Dene Games a Culture and Resource Manual. Calgary: Sport North Federation & MACA

184

Ask the participants if they know children from other parts of the world. Find out
if they have ever visited other countries and if so, did they meet any children
there?
Children all over the world play games. This is a similarity that connects
them. What are some other similarities that might connect participants with
children all over the world? Make a list of aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is different about the game(s) just played and
games they usually play?
All children have the right to play. This right is written down in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child. Why do you think play is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important for children?
Would it be possible for you to teach children from another country your
games, even if they didnt speak your language? How?

Ages: 9-12
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Object in room, world

map (optional).

Purpose: This game works on

problem-solving skills. It allows


participants to explore similarities
amongst children in the world
and to develop a sense of global
understanding and trust. It can also be
used to explore the right to play.
Procedure:

Introduce the game and the


country it is from. Consider
pointing out Israel (or Lebanon
if you choose that version see
footnote) on a map.
One player, the groom, is asked
to leave the room. The other
players then choose an object in
the room to describe.
The groom returns and asks one
player, What is my bride like?
The player answers by giving one
characteristic of the object chosen.
(i.e. if the object is a vase, the
answer may be, Your bride is tall
or Your bride sits on a table and
so on).
The groom goes from one player
to another repeating the question
until he successfully guesses the
object that was chosen.

Variation: try playing this game


with human rights and ask the
participants to choose a right
as the bride. Ask the players
to describe it without saying the
word itself.
Discussion:

Ask the participants if they know


children from other parts of the
world. Find out if they have ever
visited other countries and if so,
did they meet any children there?
Children all over the world play
games. This is a similarity that
connects them. What are some
other similarities that might
connect participants with children
all over the world? Make a list of
aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is
different about the game(s) just
played and games Canadian
children play?
All children have the right to play.
This right is written down in the
Convention on the Rights of the
Child. Why do you think play
is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important
for children?
Would it be possible for you
to teach children from another
country your games, even if they
didnt speak your language? How?
Adapted from: University of Florida, Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences, 2012. Games Around the
World. [online]: Available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/
pdffiles/4h/4h05500.pdf [Accessed on 12 June 2012].

36. This game is similar to a Lebanese game where the


question becomes My bride is lost, what is she?

185

What Is My Bride
Like?36 (Israel)

Who is it? (Chile)(O)


Ages: 6-12
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This game allows participants to explore similarities amongst children

in the world and to develop a sense of global understanding and trust.


Procedure:

This is a game for six to thirty players. Players must be very familiar with one
another.
One child is IT. The players stand in a line behind IT. IT should not see who is
behind him/her.
IT takes nine slow steps forward while the other players quickly change places.
One of them takes the place directly behind IT.
The other players ask IT: Who is behind you?
IT can ask three questions before guessing who it is. For example: Is the player
a boy or a girl?, Is she/ he short or tall?, Is she/ he dark or fair?
The other players give one-word answers to the questions. IT must then guess
who is standing immediately behind.
If IT guesses correctly, that person remains IT for another turn. If IT guesses
incorrectly, another player becomes IT.
Discussion:

Adapted from: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2012. Games Around the World. [online]:
Available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/4h/4h05500.pdf [Accessed on 12 June 2012].

186

Ask the participants if they know children from other parts of the world. Find out
if they have ever visited other countries and if so, did they meet any children
there?
Children all over the world play games. This is a similarity that connects
them. What are some other similarities that might connect participants with
children all over the world? Make a list of aspects of culture that are present
everywhere.
What is the same and what is different about the game(s) just played and
games Canadian children play?
All children have the right to play. This right is written down in the Convention
on the Rights of the Child. Why do you think play is especially mentioned in this
document? Why is play important for children?
Would it be possible for you to teach children from another country your
games, even if they didnt speak your language? How?

SECTION
13
GENDER EQUALITY

Gender Equality
Biological and cultural factors affect boys and girls throughout their lives. All
children share the same human rights. However, there is often a discrepancy
between guaranteed rights and boys and girls ability to exercise them. The UDHR
states that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights (Article
1). The games in this section aim to facilitate an exploration of traditional gender
roles and the meaning of equality. These games complement those found in the
Stereotypes section.
Gender-based violence and gender stereotyping, including bullying, harassment
and unwanted sexual comments, occur in schools and in the broader community.
Cat-calling and sexist jokes or comments like: You throw like a girl or Act like a
man are examples. Such acts and remarks disrespect the rights of boys and may
cause long-term consequences in individuals, including lack of concentration, lower
grades, anxiety and depression. Many messages we receive as children stay with
us as we become adults. When children are exposed to gender stereotypes, sexist
attitudes, and gender-based violence, they learn to act in ways that support gender
inequality.
In Canada, inequality between the sexes in terms of access to services, wages, and
power in society has been reduced but remains present. In other places around the
world, boys and girls do not enjoy the same rights and privileges and are subject
to gender discrimination. Working within a rights perspective involves targeting
the underlying causes of rights violations. In the case of respecting boys and
girls rights, a dialogue on the topic must be started with boys and girls, men and
women.
Games in this Section Include:

188

A Fairytale
Advantages and Disadvantages
Definitions of Women and Men

Factoid: Gender Equality


Definitions:

Gender: Socially constructed roles, responsibilities and behaviors, expected


from males and females by society. These roles are cultural, learned, change
over time and vary within and between cultures.37
Gender Equality: an equal level of empowerment, participation and visibility of
both sexes in all spheres of public and private life.36
Gender Stereotype: simplistic generalizations about gender attributes,
differences, and the roles of men and women.
Gender-based violence: any form of violence that is based on gender
stereotypes, including bullying and harassment.
Sex: Being male or female (biologically).
Sexism: Actions based on the idea that members of one sex are less skilled,
intelligent or able than the other sex.
Understanding the Concept:

Boys and girls have the same human rights. However, both are subject to
discrimination and stereotyping based on gender. Boys are sometimes assumed
to be stronger, tougher, and less emotional than girls. Girls are expected to be
sweet, obedient, and kind. These labels are harmful as they teach inequality. This
contradicts a human rights based approach in which equality in dignity and rights is
guaranteed.
Did You Know?
Voting became universal in Canada in 1930. That meant that both men and
women could vote.
In Canada, women earn on average 30 percent less than men (2008).39
Women werent allowed to compete in the Olympic Games until 1928.
In 1967 the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). This is a human rights document that
guarantees the rights of women.

37. United States Agency for International Development, 2009. Doorways I: Student Training Manual On School-Related GenderBased Violence Prevention and Response. USAID Office of Women in Development. p. 182.
38. Brander, Patricia et. al, 2002. Compass A Manual on Human Rights Education With Young People. Council of Europe
[online]: Available at: http://eycb.coe.int/compass/en/contents.html. [Accessed on 9 August 2012].
39. Williams, Cara, 2012. Economic Well-Being. [online] Statistics Canada: Available at: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-

189

503-x/2010001/article/11388-eng.htm#a3. [Accessed 16 July 2012].

A Fairytale (I)
Ages: 7-13
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Flip chart and pens.
Purpose: This activity aims to help children identify traditional gender

stereotypes and explore their validity by reversing the gender of the main characters
in the well-known fairytale Cinderella. The themes of discrimination and equality
are also explored in this activity.
Procedure:

Ask everyone to sit down. Explain that you are going to read aloud a fairytale
to the group. Ask the children to listen carefully and be aware of any unusual
aspects to the story as we will discuss them as a group afterwards.
Begin reading the story found below and stop from time to time to ask Do
you notice anything unusual about the story? Note: you may not need to read
the whole story if the children catch on quickly and may want to jump to the
discussion.
Discussion:

190

How did you like the story?


When did you notice something unusual and what was unusual about the
story? List examples.
Point out that when something differs from our everyday experience, it may
seem unusual to us. In this story, the gender roles were switched which made
the gender stereotypes different than usual.
What is a gender stereotype? (simplistic generalizations about gender
attributes, differences, and the roles of men and women).
Draw a chart on the flip chart to help describe gender stereotypes. Ask the
children for examples of usual activities and characteristics of men and women,
boys and girls to help fill in the chart. A filled-in example is below.

USUAL
CHARACTERISTICS

USUAL ACTIVITIES

MEN/BOYS
Curious
Smart
Bold
Loud
Adventuresome
Aggressive
Ambitious
Have short hair
Like sports
Get in fights
Go to work
Take action
Drive trucks

WOMEN/GIRLS
Polite
Sensitive
Quiet
Thoughtful of others
Timid
Nosey
Obedient
Wear dresses
Have long hair
Stay at home
Do the housework
Cry easily
Gossip
Like pretty clothes
Afraid of bugs

191

Ask the children if the usual version of Cinderella fits in with the gender
stereotypes described in the chart.
Are all the characteristics in the chart true of real men and women, boy and
girls today? Why or why not?
Do any other stories use traditional gender roles? List examples and explain
how they fit in.
Do any other stories not use the traditional gender roles? List examples and
explain how they dont fit into the traditional gender roles.
How are stereotypes unfair to men and boys? To women and girls? Do they
create inequality? (Emphasize that equality doesnt mean the same).
What can you do to act against gender stereotypes?
Can you think of a connection between gender stereotypes and human rights?
(Everyone has the right to be free from discrimination, including discrimination
based on sex or gender stereotypes).
What does equality mean to you?

Story: Cinderella
Once upon a time, there lived an unhappy young boy. His father had died, and
his mother had brought home another man, a widower with two sons. His new
stepfather didnt like the boy one little bit. All the good things, kind words and
special privileges were for his own sons. They got fashionable clothes, delicious
food and special treats. But for the poor unhappy boy, there was nothing at all.
No nice clothes but only his stepbrothers hand-me downs. No special dishes but
only leftovers to eat. No privileges or even rest, for he had to work hard all day, go
grocery shopping, cook, wash clothes, and keep the whole house clean. Only when
evening came was he allowed to sit for a while alone by the cinders of the kitchen
fire.
During these long evenings alone, he used to cry and talk to the cat. The cat said,
Meow, which really meant, Cheer up! You have something neither of your
stepbrothers have, and that is beauty. What the cat said was quite true. Even
dressed in rags with his face grimy from the cinders, he was an attractive young
man, while no matter how elegant their clothes, his stepbrothers were still clumsy
and ugly, and always would be.
One day, beautiful new clothes, shoes and jewellery began to arrive at the house.
The Queen was holding a ball and the stepbrothers were getting ready to attend.
They were continually standing in front of the mirror. The boy had to help them to
dress up in all their finery. He didnt dare ask, What about me? for he knew very
well what the answer to that would be: You? My dear boy, youre staying at home
to wash the dishes, scrub the floors and turn down the beds for your stepbrothers.
They will come home tired and very sleepy.
After the brothers and their father had left for the ball, the poor boy brushed away
his tears and sighed to the cat. Oh dear, Im so unhappy! and the cat murmured,
Meow.
Just then a flash of light flooded the kitchen and a fairy appeared. Dont be
alarmed, young boy, said the fairy. The wind blew me your sighs. I know you are
longing to go to the ball. And so you shall!
How can I, dressed in rags? the poor boy replied. The servants will turn me
away!

Now that we have settled the matter of what to wear, said the fairy, well need to
get you a coach. A real gentleman would never go to a ball on foot! Quick! Get
me a pumpkin! he ordered.

192

The fairy smiled. With a flick of his magic wand, the poor boy found himself
wearing the most beautiful clothing, the loveliest ever seen in the realm.

Oh, of course, said the poor boy, rushing away.


Then the fairy turned to the cat. You, bring me seven mice!
The poor boy soon returned with a fine pumpkin and the cat with seven mice she
had caught in the cellar. Good! exclaimed the fairy. With a flick of his magic
wand wonder of wonders! the pumpkin turned into a sparkling coach and the
mice became six white horses, while the seventh mouse turned into a coachwoman,
in a beautiful dress and carrying a whip. The poor boy could hardly believe his
eyes.
I shall present you at Court. You will soon see that the Princess, in whose honour
the ball is being held, will be enchanted by your good looks. But remember! You
must leave the ball at midnight and come home. For that is when the spell ends.
You will turn back into a pumpkin, the horses will become mice again and the
coachwoman will turn back into a mouse. And you will be dressed again in rags
and wearing clogs instead of these splendid dancing shoes! Do you understand?
The boy smiled and said, Yes, I understand!
When the boy entered the ballroom at the palace, a hush fell. Everyone stopped in
mid-sentence to admire his elegance, his beauty and grace. Who can that be?
people asked each other. The two stepbrothers also wondered who the newcomer
was, for never in a month of Sundays would they ever have guessed that the
beautiful boy was really their stepbrother who talked to the cat!
Then the Princess set eyes on his beauty. Walking over to him, she curtsied and
asked him to dance. And to the great disappointment of all the young gentlemen,
she danced with the boy all evening. Who are you, beautiful young man? the
Princess kept asking him.
But the poor boy only replied: What does it matter who I am! You will never see
me again anyway.
Oh, but I shall, Im quite certain! she replied.

193

The poor boy had a wonderful time at the ball, but, all of a sudden, he heard the
sound of a clock: the first stroke of midnight! He remembered what the fairy had
said, and without a word of goodbye he slipped from the Princess arms and ran
down the steps. As he ran he lost one of his dancing shoes, but not for a moment
did he dream of stopping to pick it up! If the last stroke of midnight were to
soundoh, what a disaster that would be! Out he fled and vanished into the night.

The Princess, who was now madly in love with him, picked up his dancing shoe and
proclaimed that she would marry the man whose foot the slipper would fit. She said
to her ministers, Go and search everywhere for the boy that fits this shoe. I will
never be content until I find him! So the ministers tried the shoe on the foot of all
the boys.
When a minister came to the house where the boy lived with his stepfather and
stepbrothers, the minister asked if he could try the shoe on the young men in the
household. The two stepbrothers couldnt even get a toe in the shoe. When the
minister asked if there were any other young men in the household, the stepfather
told her. No. However, just then the cat caught her attention, tugging at her
trouser leg and leading her to the kitchen. There sat the poor boy by the cinders.
The minister tried on the slipper and to her surprise, it fit him perfectly.
That awful untidy boy simply cannot have been at the ball, snapped the
stepfather. Tell the Princess she ought to marry one of my two sons! Cant you
see how ugly the boy is! Cant you see? Suddenly he broke off, for the fairy had
appeared.
Thats enough! he exclaimed, raising his magic wand. In a flash, the boy
appeared in a beautiful outfit, shining with youth and good looks. His stepfather
and stepbrothers gaped at him in amazement, and the ministers said, Come with
us, handsome young man! The Princess awaits to present you with her engagement
ring! So the boy joyfully went with them. The Princess married him in a few days
later, and they lived happily ever after. And as for the cat, she just said Meow!
Adapted From: Flowers, Nancy, 2007. Compasito Manual on Human Rights Education for Children: Once Upon a Time Activity.
Council of Europe [online]: Available at: http://www.eycb.coe.int/compasito/contents.html. [Accessed on 9 August 2012].

194

Advantages and Disadvantages (I)


Ages: 12+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Pens and paper.
Purpose: This activity helps students to examine their own attitudes and

perceptions about the differences between the way men and women are treated in
society.
Procedure:

Ask the participants to form small groups of all males and all females. Ideally,
there will be an equal number of male and female groups. Explain that each
group will be asked to make a list and that this will be used for a discussion.
Ask each group of males to make a list of the advantages and disadvantages
of being female. Females do the same for males. Allow ten minutes for this.
Tell them that they should have an equal number of advantages and
disadvantages on their lists.
Next, pair each group of males with a group of females. Each female group
reports its list to a male group.
Now each male group reports its list to a female group.
If necessary, use the following questions to start a discussion.
Discussion:

195

Was it easy to think of the advantages and disadvantages of being a male or


female? Why? Why not?
Do you think these sorts of generalizations about people are realistic? Do they
apply to the people you know?
Was it a useful activity? Why? Did you learn anything that you did not know
before?
This activity can also be used to examine other differences apart from gender,
such as ethnicity, social class, religion, etc.
Where do gender stereotypes and roles come from?
What situations prevent women and men from doing certain kinds of work?
Why? Can these circumstances be changed?
What can we learn from human rights about gender roles and stereotypes?
(i.e. all people are equal in rights and dignity).
What does equality mean to you?

Definitions of Women and Men (I)


Ages: 9-18
Time: 30 minutes

Resources: Index cards or laminated occupation cards, white board or large

pieces of paper and pens/markers.

Purpose: By participating in this game and by drawing their own conclusions

based on their observations, youth may begin to realize and understand that there
are gender biases and inequities in the community and understand the detrimental
implications and consequences. With this realization, students can begin to make
their own decision to act and gradually change the situations that are discriminative
and harmful for women and girls.
Procedure:

After asking all the questions, ask for volunteers to give the reasons for their
choices (If possible, call on people who have different answers).
On pieces of paper, present different occupations on laminated cards or small
index cards (see the example on the following page). The occupations should
include jobs traditionally done by men as well as by women. Give each student
a set of cards, and ask them to sort the cards into three columns: one for work
that is for women, one for work that is for men, and one that can be for both
men and women.

196

This game has two parts. To start, assign one side of the room/space as
agree and one side as disagree.
Explain that you will read some statements out loud. If students agree, they
should go to the agree side of the room. If they disagree, they should go to
the disagree side of the room.
Read out the statements. Some examples are provided, but you may want to
choose some of your own.
Boys are stronger than girls.
Girls should do what boys tell them to do.
Girls cant do math.
Girls are more emotional than boys.
Caring for children is a girls job.
Girls want to get married more than boys.
A girl should always do what her boyfriend tells her.
Sports are more important for boys than girls.
Girls need to find a good husband; boys need to find a good job.
A boy who likes cooking and looking after children is not a real boy.
Females are better at sweeping and cleaning.

Discussion:

Where do we get our ideas from?


What reasons did you give why certain jobs can be done by women? What
about men?
What reasons did you give why certain jobs cannot be done by women? What
about men?
Are these reasons valid?
Do you think these reasons are because of the persons sex or because of
society?
What situations prevent women and men from doing certain kinds of work?
Why? Can these circumstances be changed?
What kinds of work have more yes responses? (Replies might include work in
the home, low pay and little education.)
What kinds of work do the no answers have in common? (Replies might
include uses technology, respected by the community.)
What are some examples of occupations women are doing today that they
did not do in the past? (Use this answer to demonstrate that gender roles can
change over time.)
What can we learn from human rights about gender roles and stereotypes? (i.e.
all people are equal in rights and dignity)
Adapted from: United States Agency for International Development, 2009. Doorways I: Student Training Manual On SchoolRelated Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response. USAID Office of Women in Development. pp. 44-45

197

Nurse

Doctor

Sales Clerk

Business Owner

Teacher

Secretary

Financial Advisor

Mechanic

Lawyer

Truck Driver

Plumber

Psychiatrist

Engineer

Social Worker
198

Fireman

SECTION
14
HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Human Rights and the Environment


Several human rights require a healthy environment and ecosystem, such as the
right to the highest attainable standard of health, as guaranteed by the CRC
(Article 24) (for more information, visit www.unep.org, www.greenpeace.org, and/
or www.sierraclub.org). Sustainable development and environmental protection
are essential ingredients for meeting human rights goals. Challenges such as
overpopulation and overuse of non-renewable resources strain the environment but
also impact our ability to provide basic human rights for all. The activities in this
section explore the connections between human rights and the environment.
Today, the world contains enough clean freshwater to meet basic personal and
domestic needs, however freshwater is not equally distributed, leading to insufficient
access for many people globally. In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly
agreed to a resolution declaring the human right to safe and clean drinking
water and sanitation. This resolution aligns with the human rights commitment to
providing for the basic needs of all.
Another link between human rights and the environment exists with the rights to
property, identity and culture found in the UDHR and CRC. In some regions of the
world, global warming and other types of climate change are leading to rising
sea levels. This means that people living in the coastal regions affected may be
displaced and forced to abandon their property if their land disappears. If forced to
relocate, it is often difficult to maintain identity and culture.
International awareness of the linkages between human rights and the environment
has expanded significantly in recent years. The natural and man-made aspects
of mans environment are essential to the enjoyment of basic human rights. The
environment provides mental, physical and spiritual sustenance, elements necessary
for realizing human rights. Everything from the right to life to the right to culture and
shelter can be linked to the environment.
Games in this section include:
Journey of Bottled Water
Needs
Secure the Water
Systems are Dynamic

200

Factoid: Human Rights & the Environment


Definitions:

Climate Change: when long-term weather patterns are altered (for example,
through human activity).
Global warming: a rise in the average global temperature. It is one measure
of climate change.
Overpopulation: when the Earth is unable to support a larger human
population.
Sustainable Development: development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Understanding the Concept:

Human rights and the environment are intricately related. The realisation of many
human rights, especially those referring to basic needs, rely on a clean and healthy
environment. Rights such as shelter, culture, food and water, sanitation, and health
care may be negatively impacted when the environment is not healthy. Climate
change, including global warming, overpopulation, and the overuse of the Earths
non-renewable resources, make it difficult to meet the human rights needs of all.
Did You Know?
In 2006, 1.1 billion people in developing countries lacked access to a basic
supply of water from a safe and clean source.40
In Canada, many communities, including some remote rural communities and
First Nations communities, do not have access to safe and clean drinking water
despite Canada having large freshwater resources.
The idea of privatization of water resources is controversial. Some countries,
such as Singapore, import water from neighbouring countries and have
successfully increased their access to water.
Rising sea levels threaten many island and coastal communities. The main
islands of the Carteret group (Papua New Guinea), home to approx. 2500
people, are being evacuated to the coast, 8 hours by boat away. The island is
expected to be submerged by 2015. This affects the islanders ability to achieve
their rights (i.e. right to a nationality, culture, property, etc.)
Canada agreed to recognize The Right to Water in 2012.
40. UNDP, 2006. Human Development Report 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. [online] New
York: United Nations Development Programme: Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR06-complete.pdf [Accessed 9 July

201

2012]. (p. 2)

Journey of Bottled Water (IO)


Ages: 12+
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: Laminated water journey cards, one ball of yarn or string, copy of

the script.

Purpose: This activity explores human rights and specifically the right to safe

water to drink and a clean and safe environment (CRC Article 24, Article 27,
CEDAW Article 14). It draws attention to the journey of bottled water from source
to store and its contribution to the deterioration of water access. Participants discuss
how active global citizenship can contribute to the access of clean safe drinking
water for everyone.
Procedure:

For this activity a group of 6 or 12 participants is ideal. If you have less,


participants can take on more than one role. If more than 12, some
participants can partner up.
Randomly assign water journey cards to the participants. Each water journey
card indicates a step in the journey of bottled water and therefore each person
will represent one step.
After the roles are picked, explain that we are about to explore the trip water
takes from source to store in the story Journey of Bottled Water that will be
read aloud.
As the story is told you will be passing the ball of yarn to the person
representing the next step in the journey. Hold onto the yarn before you pass
it along. This continues until the ball of yarn has been passed to all 12 people
representing different parts of the journey.
Read the following introduction and script. Variation: You can have the
participants read their own segments of the journey to the group if you cut out
the segments from the story and hand them out with the water journey cards.

202

In the U.S. and Canada, for the most part, we have strong, safe public water
systems. But in much of the world, this is not the case. It means we need everincreasing efforts to understand the root causes of the worlds drinking water
crisis, and efforts to beat the crisis that are based on human rights, care for the
environment, and the common good.

Story: The Journey of Bottled Water


1. Imagine a water source, in any part of the world, where you can see water
flowing. It might be a stream or a river, a well or a tap. However you imagine it,
this is where the journey begins - at the source.
The journey begins with the WATER SOURCE.
2. This water source has recently been bought up by a multi-national bottled
water company, like Coca-cola or Pepsi. What that really means is the land has
been bought where the lake or the spring exists. Now the water will start being
removed, for this water will be used for the manufacturing and sale of bottled
water. The bottled water company has proudly said they plan to make big
profits off the sale of bottled water: From now on, tap water should be used
just for washing clothes and taking showers. With the bottled water company
purchasing the land, the local people have lost access to their water source.
The journey from the water source has made its way into the hands
of the MULTINATIONAL COMPANY.
3. Once the multinational bottled water company has hauled the water out from
the source, the water is funnelled into a large truck, powered by fuel to be
shipped to its next destination, where it will undergo transferring and bottling.
This part of the journey is long, as it means the truck now travels many miles
across countries and in a lot of cases also by container shipping across oceans,
by TRUCK and SHIP TRANSPORT.
The journey now goes to the TRUCK and SHIP TRANSPORT.
4. The truck travels to its next destination - the factory where they produce plastic
bottles. Before arriving at the factory, preparations include the mining and
refining of oil to make the plastic bottles. Each year, the amount of plastic water
bottles used in the U.S. takes enough oil and energy to fuel 1 million cars.
Along with many other chemicals used in manufacturing the bottles, making
the polyethylene plastics releases toxins into the air. All this goes towards the
production of plastic bottles used to contain the water extracted from the water
source.

5. Upon arrival to the bottled water factory, the water is channelled through a
filtration process to be bottled. That means the factory requires an uninterrupted
supply of electricity, something the local utility structure cannot always support.
So the factory often supplies its own electricity, with three big generators
running on diesel fuel. Now the prices are adding up. How much does it cost
for the actual water? It costs $0.13 for 3,000,000 litres of water. Not so much,
but lets get back to the bottle process. This part of the journey all takes place
onsite at the factory, where the water is hooked up to be poured into plastic
bottles.

203

The journey moves on to MAKING THE PLASTIC BOTTLES.

The journey must now go into WATER IN PLASTIC BOTTLES.


6. After the plastic bottles are filled with water, they are loaded onto another truck
and travel from the bottled water factory by sea or train and truck to be shipped
to their next destination. Travelling from the bottled water factory, the outside
temperatures en route range from hot to cold as the water arrives at its next
destination. The water in a bottle is then unloaded onto wooden pallets and
transported into a warehouse where they will sit until they are moved to their
next destination. They may sit there for a while, years even.
The journey of water now moves on to the BOTTLED WATER
WAREHOUSE.
7. An order has come through to the warehouse from a convenience store, so
the water now goes back onto another diesel-fuelled truck travelling from the
warehouse to be sold.
The journey now goes from WAREHOUSE TO STORE.
8. After travelling by truck, the water in a bottle arrives at its next destination
where it gets moved onto the shelves for sale for about $1.50-$4.00. Oops,
there is also marketing that takes place in the journey. $0.30 from the cost
of bottled water is spent on marketing magazines, billboards, and celebrity
endorsements. At $1.50-$4.00 per bottle, thats a huge increase from the
original cost of water at $0.13 for 3,000,000 litres.
The journey passes on to the LOCAL STORE.
9. At the local store, the bottled water is waiting for customers. Someone enters
the local store and pulls $2.50 from their pocket to give to the store owner. This
part of the journey is probably the shortest of them all, where that water in the
bottle has travelled such a great distance, but is now consumed within seconds,
by the consumer.

10. After the consumer purchases and drinks the water in a bottle, they discard
the plastic bottle. If this consumer threw the plastic bottle into the garbage
can, it would end up like 80 percent of all the plastic bottles that end up in
landfills, or in an incinerator where they are burned and release toxins into the
air. Alternatively, if the consumer puts the plastic bottle into the recycling bin it
may be down-cycled into something from the dollar store (turning it into lower
quality products that would be chucked later on) or shipped to another country,
like India, only to end up in a mountain of plastic bottles just outside Madras,
India.

204

The journey continues on to the CONSUMER.

The journey continues on to end up DOWN-CYCLED.


11. In either case, this part of the journey requires transportation, to ship the plastic
bottle from where the consumer discarded it off to the next destination. Once
the plastic bottle has travelled hundreds of miles, it arrives in this place and
finds itself between a river and a landfill site where it could sit for 1,000 years.
This part of the journey can be long or short; the final destination can take on
many paths from here, but for now it sits, and it sits, and it sits.
The journey arrives in the LANDFILL.
12. As the bottle sits between the rivers, it is spotted by a child nearby, who is
one of the 36% of city dwellers living on less than $1.25 a day. Having spent
yesterdays earnings on water for their family, that came from another water
company, they contemplate picking up the empty plastic bottle and filling it
with water from the river. At this final part of the journey, the plastic bottle is at
a cross roads of its own cause and effect, leading the child to decide between
purchasing bottled water using their whole days income, or drinking water
from the river near the land fill, risking exposure to water borne diseases.
The journey follows on to WATER-BORNE DISEASES.
13. And as other plastic bottles remain in the landfill site, through time (A LONG
TIME) the plastic toxins break down and pollute the earth and the surrounding
ecosystems and water sources, like the one from where this journey began.
The journey finds its way back to the WATER SOURCE, where the
beginning and the end of the journey of water meet.

205

Ask participants to step back so the web is taut.


Ask:
What happens if we do not want to support this system? Can we stop it?
Can we change it?
What if we remove the consumer from the web? CONSUMER, can you let
go of the yarn?
What if we protect the water source? WATER SOURCE, can you let go of
the yarn? What happens?

Discussion:

What water source did you imagine at the beginning of the story? Did this
perception of the water source change by the end of the story? Why or why
not?
Where along the journey can the negative aspects be prevented and/or
avoided?
How can we personally make a difference in the journey of bottled water?
Ask participants if they know about the different water sources that bottled
water companies are using. Does bottled water all come from pristine glaciers?
(A third of all bottled water in North America actually comes from the tap).
Remind participants that when we understand the journey of water in a bottle
and the bottled water industry, we can start to turn problems into solutions!
Share success stories of how change is happening: the sales of bottled
water are going down in North America, and people are saying no to the
privatization of water, and creating bottled water free zones in their lives.
Do you think that water should be a right?
How are water and human rights linked?
In Canada, does everyone have access to clean and safe water? Globally?
How does the privatization of water resources affect access to water?
What can we do? (examples: avoid bottled water, conserve water etc.).
Adapted from: The Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peaces Think Fast, 2011. Water for All: Let Justice

206

Flow. (p. 44-48)

Water Source

Multi-National
Company

Truck and Ship


Transport

Making the Plastic


Bottles

Water Into Plastic


Bottles

Bottled Water
Warehouse

Truck to Store

Local Store

Consumer

Down-Cycled

Landfill Site by the


River

Water-Borne
Diseases
207

Water Journey Cards

Needs (O)
Age: 7-12
Time: 20-30 minutes
Resources: Large space (field or gym), one sheet of paper, one pen.
Purpose: This game establishes a connection between people and their

environment. It also highlights the importance of ensuring that resources are


distributed efficiently amongst individuals. The game can be used to start a
discussion about human needs (food, water, shelter, etc.) as human rights.
Procedure:

208

This game requires at least 20 participants.


Divide the participants into two equal teams, and line them up in parallel lines
facing away from each other 25 feet apart (make sure that the two teams
cannot see each other).
Explain to the participants that one team is comprised of the members of a
society called Splunkonia. The other team represents the resources available in
Splunkonia.
For each round, without seeing the Resources, every Splunkonian must decide
whether he is hungry, thirsty or cold. If a Splunkonian is hungry he holds his
stomach, if he is thirsty he cups his hands and if he needs shelter he hold his
hands together over his head (tented).
Without looking at the Splukonians, the Resources also decide whether they
would like to be food, water or shelter and make the appropriate symbol.
The Splunkonians turn back to face the Resources. On the count of three the
Resources turn around revealing their symbol: food, water or shelter.
The Splunkonians run across the space and catch the food, water or shelter that
they need. Only one resource per Splunkonian. If there are more Splunkonians
that need water than there is water, then the Splunkonians who do not find a
matching resource stay on the side of the resources. The Splunkonians that
get what they need reproduce and take their new offspring (the Resource
they found) back to the Splunkonian team. After each round the number of
Splunkonians is counted and recorded.
Play the game about 10 times, so that the participants can see how the
subsequent generations of Splunkonians are dependent on the numbers of the
previous generation.

Discussion:

Draw the participants attention to the ways in which the life of the
Splunkonians was linked with their environment. Have the participants name
other resources to which life on earth is linked.
What human needs do these resources fulfill?
In what way are most of these needs universal?
What kinds of human activities might threaten the fulfillment of human needs?
How would the game have been different if the Splunkonians had been able to
control their resources?
Discuss what else might happen to Splunkonians/humans if they do not get
enough resources to meet their needs (e.g., poor health, cant do well at
school, poverty).
If you have already discussed human rights, link human rights with human
needs. Discuss which human rights are being violated when people do not
have access to the resources they need.
How are human rights dependent on a healthy environment?
What can we do?
Adapted from: Maddin, Jennifer Jane. Needs. 30th Guide Company, Calgary. [Online]: Available at:
http://www.geocities.com/heartland/plains/3209/Values.html. [Accessed May 2005].

209

Secure the Water (O)


Ages: 12-18
Time: 10 minutes
Resources: water balloons, filled - full (enough for 75 percent of

participants).

Purpose: This energetic activity explores human rights and the right to safe water

to drink and a clean and safe environment (CRC Article 24, Article 27, CEDAW
Article 14).
Procedure:

Divide participants into groups of four.


In each group, three people will be water carriers (who represent people
whose water resources are in demand) and one person will be a water chaser
(who represents transnational water companies seeking to privatize water). For
smaller groups, have two water carriers to one water chaser.
Each water carrier receives one water balloon.
The water carriers must keep passing/throwing their water balloon back and
forth within their group.
The goal is to keep the water from the chaser for five minutes or longer.
The water chasers have the task of interrupting the carriers by catching or
grabbing the balloon without touching the carriers. Once they have caught
a balloon they keep it (they can put it on the ground or in a bag so they have
their hands free to catch another).
The game ends when all the balloons have been caught by the chasers or
when five minutes is up.
Discussion:

Who had the harder task the water chasers or the water carriers?
Who do you think is a water carrier in real life? List examples.
Is this situation realistic? Why or why not?
Do you think that water should be a right?
How are water and human rights linked?
In Canada, does everyone have access to clean and safe water? Globally?
How does the privatization of water resources affect access to water?
What can we do? (examples: avoid bottled water, conserve water etc.).

Adapted from: The Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peaces Think Fast, 2011. Water for All: Let Justice

210

Flow. p. 12

Systems are Dynamic (O)


Ages: 10-17
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: A large open space.
Purpose: This game demonstrates how humans are connected to their

environment and how small changes that one person makes can affect everyone
else.
Procedure:

This game is more effective with many participants.


Ask the participants to stand randomly in an open space.
Instruct the participants to select two other people in the group without
indicating whom they have chosen.
Tell the participants to begin moving so as to keep an equal distance at all
times between them and each of the two people that they had chosen.
Allow the group to continue to shift for 3-4 minutes, observing the movement,
and then stop the action.
Discussion:

Ask the participants to explain what they experienced. During this activity were
you focused only on the people who directly affected you or the whole group?
Draw the participants attention towards how one change in position affected
the position of the whole group. Can you think of examples of systems that
are interconnected like the group was during this activity (e.g., human body,
automobile, natural habitat, society)?
How do you think your actions in the real world affect the situations of others?
How are human rights related to systems?
How are human rights related to the environment?
What did we learn?
Variation: Have two participants wait in another area while you
explain and begin the activity. Bring the two participants out and
have them try to guess what is happening.
Adapted from: Facing the Future, 2006. Engaging Students Through Global Issues: Lesson 7 - Systems are Dynamic. [Online]:

211

Available at. http://eo.ucar.edu/workshops/csc2010/images/systems_game.pdf [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

SECTION
15
LGBTQ RIGHTS

For more information visit:


www.egale.ca
www.iglhrc.org

LGBTQ Human Rights


This section of the curriculum focuses on LGBTQ rights within the broader human
rights discourse (for more information, visit www.egale.ca and/or http://www.iglhrc.
org). The activities explore many topics including discrimination, safety, tolerance
and acceptance. Most games in this section are best suited for older youth.
Every human is united in that they share the same basic human rights, however for
certain groups, extra measures have been taken to ensure that their human rights
are respected. LGBTQ rights are often defended by legislation dealing with equality,
such as Article 1 of the UDHR and Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedoms. While Section 15 of The Charter protects LGBT Canadians from
many types of discrimination such as those based on race, national or ethnic origin,
colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability, it does not explicitly protect
them from discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender.
Today, LGBT Canadians have achieved most of the same legal rights as every other
Canadian. Since 1985, when Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms became entrenched, gays and lesbians have gained many rights in areas
such as employment, housing, immigration, adoption and pensions. The Canadian
Human Rights Act was amended in 1996 to bar discrimination based on sexual
orientation, though no mention was made of gender identity. The passing of the
Civil Marriage Act in 2005 defined marriage in gender-neutral terms and was
a large step towards equal rights for all Canadians. Today, many cities in Canada
celebrate Pride week each year and actively combat intolerance. Gay Straight
Alliances (GSAs) are increasingly common in schools throughout the country.
Globally, many people identifying as LGBTQ are denied their rights and are faced
with recurrent discrimination. They may have difficulties finding employment, not
feel safe in educational institutions, or be denied the right to practice their own
religion. In some places, being openly gay or bisexual is illegal and can incur
fines, imprisonment, or death. In other countries, widespread acceptance is the
norm. Internationally, the Scandinavian countries and Canada have made the most
progress in ensuring that the rights of LGBT citizens are respected.

Count Your Losses


Language Lesson
LGBT Trivia
Safe Space
A Dating Dilemma
Standing on the Other
Side of the Fence

15. (1) Every individual


is equal before and under
the law and has the right
to the equal protection
and equal benefit of the
law without discrimination
and, in particular, without
discrimination based on race,
national or ethnic origin,
colour, religion, sex, age or
mental or physical disability.

213

Games in this section include:

Factoid: LGBTQ Human Rights


LGBTQ Definitions:

LGBTQ: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer.


Lesbian: a girl or woman who feels attracted mainly to other girls or women.
Gay: a boy or man who feels attracted mainly to other boys or men. Can apply
to both men and women.
Bisexual: someone who may feel attracted to people of the same sex and of
the other sex.
Transgender: somebody who feels that his/her body is not of the right sex or
whose gender expressions dont fit into the conventional expectations of male/
female.
Queer: Historically, a negative word for homosexuality. Recently it has been
reclaimed and used in positive ways.
Understanding the Concept:

People who identify as LGBT share the same rights as every other human being.
However, their specific rights are not explicitly mentioned in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and they often are the victims of discrimination. In
many countries today, LGBT individuals are not safe and face maltreatment.
Did you know?
Approximately 1 person in 10 is lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, twospirited, or queer.41
One study suggests that three-quarters of LGBT students and 95% of
transgender students feel unsafe at school, compared to one-fifth of straight
students.42
Until 1992, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals were barred from serving in the
Canadian military.
The planet Mercury is a symbol used by the transgendered community. The sign
for Mercury is a crescent shape and a cross, which represents the male and
female principles in harmony in an individual.43
Gay people tend to be left-handed much more often than heterosexuals.
Canada and the Scandinavian countries are world leaders in recognizing LGBT
rights.
41. Challenging Homophobia and Heterosexism. Toronto: Elementary Teachers Federation of Ontario, 2003
42. Taylor, C., Peter, T., Schachter, K., Paquin, S., Beldom, S., Gross, Z., & McMinn, TL., 2008. Youth Speak Up about Homophobia
and Transphobia: The First National Climate Survey on Homophobia in Canadian Schools. Phase One Report. Toronto ON: Egale
Canada Human Rights Trust.

214

43. The National Museum & Archive of Lesbian and Gay History, 1996. The Gay Almanac. New York, NY: Berkeley Books.

A Dating Dilemma (I)


Ages: 15+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This game is a simple way of introducing the everyday challenges

faced by gay, lesbian and bisexual people when discussing dating, partners, or
significant others amongst peers.
Procedure:

Divide the group into partners (an even number is needed for this activity or the
leader can join in).
Each pair will discuss a fictitious last date they went on using non-gender
specific language. The following words are not allowed to be used:
He/She
His/Her
Boy/Girl
Guy/Gal
Man/Woman
Male/Female
Each participant will have about three minutes to describe their date to their
partner.
Switch so the other person has a turn.
Discussion:

How did it feel to complete this activity?


Was it difficult to describe a date with gender-neutral vocabulary?
What was realistic about this activity?
How are freedom of expression and freedom of speech limited in situations like
this?
Which human rights protect people from discrimination?
Adapted from: The University of Southern Californias LGBT Resource Center, 2005. Non-Gender Specific Dating Conversation.
[online]: Available at:. http://sait.usc.edu/lgbt/ [Accessed on 27 June 2012].

215

Count Your Losses (I)


Ages: 14 +
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Pencils and a piece of paper for every participant.
Purpose: Although gay, lesbian and bisexual young people have different

coming-out experiences, many go through the losses described in this exercise. This
exercise will help heterosexual people empathize with their experience.
Procedure:

216

Explain that this activity aims to have the group think about what it would be
like to come-out and how it might affect their lives. This activity is an extreme
example and many people have very different coming-out experiences;
however, there are some people who experience great loss when they comeout.
Give participants a piece of paper and a pen or pencil.
Have the participants write the numbers from 1 to 5 down the left margin of
their paper.
Have them write down the name of their best friend beside number 1.
Have them write down where they like to hang out beside number 2.
Have them write down the name of their closest family member beside
number 3.
Have them write down their favourite possession beside number 4.
Finally, have the participants write down their dream for the future beside
number 5.
In order to illustrate the point of this exercise, read to the participants the
following storyline:
You are at your locker and your best friend comes up to you and confronts
you with the rumors that you are gay. You feel uncomfortable, but you dont
want to lie so you tell your best friend that the rumors are true. Your best
friend tells you that he or she doesnt want to hang out with you anymore.
He or she tells everybody at school that you are gay. Nobody at school
wants anything to do with you.
At this point you have just lost your best friend. Please rip your best friend
off of the list and crumple up this piece of paper.
You decide to go to your favorite hangout spot to find all of your friends.
They tell you that you are no longer welcome to hang out there and you
need to leave.
At this point you have just lost your favorite hangout spot. Please rip it off of
the list and crumple up this piece of paper.

You go home very upset and your closest family member is there. You tell
the family member why you are upset, and tell him or her that you are gay.
When your closest family member has heard you, he /she tells you that he/
she wants nothing to do with you and that you are crazy. He/she then tells
your entire family about you being gay. Your parents tell you that you must
move out.
At this point you have lost your closest family member, and youve lost a
place to live. Please rip the family member off of your list and crumple up
this piece of paper.
As you are moving out of the house, you realize that you cant take your
favorite possession with you as you dont even know where you are going.
At this point you have just lost your favorite possession. Please rip it off of
the list and crumple up this piece of paper.
You are now realizing that your dreams are being destroyed. Since you have
no money or financial support, you now know that you wont be able to
attend the school that youve always dreamed of attending.
You have just lost all of your hopes and your dream for the future. Please rip
it off of the list and crumple up the last piece of paper.
Discussion:

How did it feel to do this exercise? How did it feel to lose so many important
things? Were some things more difficult to lose than others?
Did you gain a different perspective about what some LGBTQ individuals may
face? Why or why not?
What kinds of discrimination do LGBTQ people experience? What other kinds
of things might they lose when they tell others about their sexual orientation?
Which types of human rights violations do LGBTQ people experience?
How can we use the information we gained in this activity?
Adapted from: Youth Pride Inc., 1997. What You Can Do Creating Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Participants: A Resource
Guide for School Staff. [Online]: Available at: http://members.tripod.com/twood/guide.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

217

Language Lesson (IO)


Ages: 12+
Time: 20-25 minutes
Resources: agreement statements printed out and taped to wall (x4).
Purpose: This two-part activity aims to raise awareness about the nature and

extent of anti-LGBT slurs and to increase understanding about the impact of slurs
on others. Participants also explore the relationship between human rights and
language.
Part 1 - Procedure:

I often hear the phrase thats so gay, youre so gay, no homo or the
word gay in general used in a negative way among my peers.
I often hear terms like faggot and dyke used among my peers.
When I hear thats so gay, it is usually aimed at an object rather than a
person.
When people say thats so gay or no homo, they do not mean it as an
insult against actual LGBT people.
Regardless of how it is meant, expressions like thats so gay and no
homo are probably insulting or upsetting to LGBT people and those who
care about them.
I have never thought about how expressions like thats so gay or no
homo might make others feel.
I have personally used expressions like thats so gay, youre so gay or
no homo with my peers.
I have personally used terms like faggot and dyke with my peers.
When expressions like thats so gay or no homo are aimed directly at
me, it bothers me.
Expressions like thats so gay and no homo are okay as long as they
are not used to directly attack an LGBT person.

218

Print out four sheets of paper with the words strongly agree, agree,
disagree, and strongly disagree in large letters. Clear the room/activity
area and tape these to the walls on four sides of the room if inside, or place
them on the ground if outside.
Explain that in this activity, you will read aloud a series of statements that the
participants have to respond to by moving to the corresponding area of the
activity space.
Participants should imagine that the area is a large opinion scale with the
middle being uncertain and the four sides representing that they strongly
agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree.
Choose some statements from the list below or add your own.

Expressions like thats so gay and no homo are never okay to use.
It would be impossible to get kids at my school to reduce or stop using
terms like thats so gay and no homo.
I would personally be willing to limit or curb my use of expressions like
thats so gay and no homo.
Part 1 - Discussion:

Which statements were the easiest/most difficult to respond to? Why?


Did the groups overall response to any of the statements surprise you? Why?
Did you change your mind about any of the issues raised in this exercise as a
result of your peers responses? If so, how did your opinion change?
After participating in this activity, what impact do you think expressions like
thats so gay and no homo, and terms like faggot and dyke have on
others?
How is this activity related to human rights? Is hurtful language a violation of
human rights?
Note: Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety
(UDHR Art. 3) is safety violated when slurs are used?
Everyone is born free and equal in dignity and rights (UDHR Art. 1) is
dignity and equality affected by slurs?
Everyone has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of others are respected
(UDHR Art. 29) what does this mean in the context of slurs?
Do you think that what you have learned today will change your attitude or
behaviour in any way? Why or why not?
Adapted from: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, 2008. Think B4 You Speak Educators Guide Activity 1: Where
Do I Stand? . [online]: Available at: http://www.thinkb4youspeak.com/ForEducators/GLSEN-EducatorsGuide.pdf [Accessed on 8

219

August 2012].

Part 2 - Procedure:

Explain that in the second part of this activity, the group will get a chance
to explore alternatives to the word gay when used in well-intentioned but
inappropriate ways. The scenarios described depict good-natured playfulness
among friends; however, the inappropriate use of the word gay is still not
acceptable and may be hurtful to others.
Either read aloud or have participants read aloud the series of statements and
then have the group offer suggestions to complete them.
Example statements:
Sarah and Christine are at the mall shopping. They see a neon-coloured
light-up scarf in the window. Later, Christine describes it to another friend by
saying: The scarf was so... [INSERT SOMETHING ORIGINAL HERE].
Mark and Nick have tickets to go to a concert and decide to take the bus
there. They wait for 30 minutes and the bus doesnt show up, which means
they will be late. Mark says: This is so... [INSERT SOMETHING ORIGINAL
HERE].
Curtis decides to help out with the community Christmas party. He is
assigned the role of a reindeer and has to dress up in a poufy reindeer
costume with sparkly antlers. He looks at himself and says: I look so...
[INSERT SOMETHING ORIGINAL HERE].
In class, the teacher assigns a project where everyone has to share their
favourite memory. Emma sighs and says: This project is so... [INSERT
SOMETHING ORIGINAL HERE].
Part 2 - Discussion:

Was it difficult to come up with an alternative word to complete the statement?


Why or why not?
Why is it important to be aware of our language even when our friends know
that we have good intentions?
What did you learn from this activity?
Adapted from: Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network, 2008. Think B4 You Speak Educators Guide Activity 4: Lets
Rephrase That . [online]: Available at: http://www.thinkb4youspeak.com/ForEducators/GLSEN-EducatorsGuide.pdf [Accessed on

220

8 August 2012].

LGBTQ Trivia (I)


Ages: 16+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Copies of this questionnaire.
Purpose: This game helps participants to identify their knowledge of LGBT

questions. It can also be used to introduce how human rights address LGBT
questions.
Procedure:

Explain that this game aims to introduce human rights and LGBT questions.
This is a safe space and participants are to feel comfortable.
Hand out the questionnaire to all participants and give them five minutes to fill
it in.
Variation: Try doing this activity in teams.
Discussion:

Ask how many participants felt they knew the answers for the questions.
What makes it difficult to learn the trivia asked for in this exercise?
Discuss the answers to the first four questions.
Go through questions 5 to 7 separately. Do LGBT Canadians face similar types
of discrimination to minorities or to the population as a whole? How can we
combat discrimination?
How do human rights protect the rights of LGBT individuals?
Are there any places in the world where LGBT individuals face persecution or
are unsafe?
What more needs to happen to ensure LGBT rights?
What was the most frustrating aspect of this activity?
What was the most rewarding aspect of this activity?

221

Questionnaire Answers:
1) c - Lambda (). Lambda can signify several things, including liberation, unity,
synergy, or the iconic scales of justice.
2) c - Queer: Note that this term is sometimes used with a negative connotation.
Discuss why.
3) b - A pink triangle attached to their clothing.
4) d - Transgender.
5) Answers may vary. Examples: homophobia, bullying, employment equality,
outing.
6) Answers may vary. Example: In Canada, the right to marry was gained
in 2005 with the passing of the Civil Marriage Act with gender neutral
terminology (Compare Article 16 of the UDHR).
7) Answers may vary. Examples: The Right to Equality (Article 1 - UDHR:
Section 15 - Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms), Freedom of Expression
(Article 19 UDHR; Section 2 Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms).

222

8) Answers may vary. Examples: Start at Gay Straight Alliance (GSA) at your
school, hand out information, etc.

Questionnaire:
1.) Which Greek letter symbolizes gay and lesbian activism:
a Alpha ()
b) Theta ()
c) Lambda ()
d) Delta ()
2) What is a genderless term that can be used to refer to LGBT people?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Asexual
Gay
Queer
Intersex

3) In the Nazi concentration camps of WWII, homosexuals wore which symbol to identify them?
a)
b)
c)
d)

An H on a headband
A pink triangle attached to their clothing
An H attached to their clothing
A pink circle tattooed on their arm

4) Which term is sometimes used to include transsexuals, transvestites and cross-dressers?


a)
b)
c)
d)

Drag Kings/Queens
Asexual
Gender Neutral
Transgender

5) List a form of discrimination faced by LGBT individuals:


__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
6) List a right that Canadian LGBT individuals gained after other citizens in Canada:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
7) List a human right that LGBT Canadians have yet to fully achieve.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
8) What can we do to promote the rights of ALL Canadians? List examples.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Adapted from: The University of Southern Californias LGBT Resource Center, 2005. Gay and Lesbian Trivia. [online]: Available at:. http://sait.usc.edu/lgbt/ [Accessed on 27 June

223

2012].

Safe Space (IO)


Ages: 16+
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: None.
Purpose: This activity helps participants to develop an understanding of how

human rights and safety are interconnected.


Procedure:

Clear the room or play outside and put posters on the wall stating safe,
unsure, and unsafe.
Explain to participants that they will have to imagine that the room is a large
opinion scale with one end labelled safe, the middle unsure, and the other end
unsafe.
Each participant will imagine how safe they would feel/do feel as an LGBTQ
youth in a variety of settings.
Choose some settings from the list below or add your own. For example, ask
How safe would you/do you feel as an LGBTQ youth if you were/are at the
mall?
Settings may include:












At the mall
At the gym
At a movie theater with their partner
Walking holding hands with their partner between classes
At a Pride parade
In a classroom
At a football game
At a restaurant
At a family event
Living in a cabin at summer camp
Hanging out with friends
At work
Visiting their physician

224

Variation: Try using this game to explore other areas such as


homelessness or poverty.

Discussion:

Ask participants to discuss how they felt moving their locations for each setting.
Which settings felt the most/least safe and why? Try to get participants to share
from various points on the continuum -- even the neutral participants.
Were you surprised by any answers? Why or why not?
How might reactions differ for other types of groups (different minority groups
etc.), in other countries, in rural versus urban settings?
Do you think Canada is a safe place for LGBTQ Canadians? Why or why not?
How is safety related to human rights?
Note: Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety
(UDHR Art. 3).
Everyone has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of others are
respected (UDHR Art. 29).
Adapted from: The University of Southern Californias LGBT Resource Center, 2005. Situation Exercise. [online]: Available at:
http://sait.usc.edu/lgbt/ [Accessed on 27 June 2012].

225

Standing on the Other Side of the Fence


(I)
Ages: 18+
Time: 25 minutes
Resources: Flipchart or whiteboard.
Purpose: This game is an intense exploration of discrimination and comfort-

zones.

Note: it may be too sensitive a subject for some groups.


Procedure:

226

Have participants sit in a circle, preferably with no more than 15 in a group.


Have people introduce themselves around the circle.
Explain that for the purpose of the exercise, each person will reintroduce
themselves saying Hi, my name is________, and I am a lesbian or I am gay,
regardless of how they self-identify.
Remind them that nothing said in the room leaves the room, and that
confidentiality is to be respected.
Begin by asking questions which the participants are to respond to as if they
self-identified as either a lesbian or a gay man. Some participants may not
want to participate out loud but rather think about the questions. Depending
on the group you may want to assign roles rather than have participants
answer from their own experience. The leader may also want to answer to help
participants feel comfortable.
Are you comfortable showing affection to your partner in public?
Are you out to your family?
Your friends?
Your roommates/floor mates?
Why or why not?
What is most difficult for you about being out/ not out?
What do you wish could be different?
Other questions may arise during the discussion.
Reserve time at the end for processing, invite people to step out of their roles
and take a few moments in silence to collect themselves.

Discussion:

Ask the group how the experience has affected them.


What, if anything, do they have a better appreciation for?
What behaviors of their own do they take for granted, if any?
What are they most committed to changing?
How is this activity related to human rights?
Do human rights sufficiently protect LGBTQ people in Canada? Around the
world?

Note: It is helpful to have a second facilitator to take notes on a flip


chart or white board, so that the processing has a visual component
as well.
Adapted from: The University of Southern Californias LGBT Resource Center, 2005. Standing on the Other Side of the Fence.
[Online]: Available at:: http://sait.usc.edu/lgbt/ [Accessed on 27 June 2012].

227

SECTION
16
STATUS

Status
Status social, professional or other standing affects us directly and indirectly
throughout our lives in both positive and negative ways. The games in this section
explore how power and status are divided in society and how the concepts are
related to human rights. They ask participants to examine how they may or may
not be discriminated against and how they might be discriminators themselves. The
ideas of dominant groups and privilege are also scrutinized.
Articles 1 and 2 of the UDHR are especially relevant in connection to status. Article
1 states: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit
of brotherhood. Article 2 states: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms
set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth
or other status.
Equality in dignity and rights can be a difficult goal to meet in a society where status
plays a large role in determining power and success. Moreover, although everyone
is entitled to the rights and freedoms listed in the UDHR, people of lesser statuses
or lesser means may have a difficult time realizing their rights. Many groups that are
protected by human rights legislation are also the groups more likely to experience
low economic and social status. These people may be treated differently than others
for arbitrary reasons. They may find it difficult to access basic needs (food, water,
clothing, etc.) or they may face discrimination when applying for employment.
Status can also have positive outcomes and can promote healthy competition and
work incentives, things that are beneficial to have in a society. Status is one form of
difference in society. Human rights protect the rights of people of different statuses
and promote respect for such diversity.
Games in this section include:
Pick Your Card
Power and Privilege
Status Olympics
The Scramble for Wealth and Power

229

Factoid: Status
Definitions:

Status: a position or rank in relation to others.44 Status may be assigned


to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities or achieved,
requiring special qualities and gained through competition and individual
effort. Assigned status is typically based on sex, age, race, family relationships,
or birth, while achieved status may be based on education, occupation, marital
status, accomplishments, or other factors.45
Social Status: the relative rank that an individual holds in a social hierarchy
based upon honour or prestige.46
Socioeconomic Status: the relationship between economic standing and social
status. Those who have a lower level of education and subsequently a lowpaying job, tend to have a lower socioeconomic status.
Understanding the Concept:

Status social, professional or other standing affects us directly and indirectly


throughout our lives in both positive and negative ways and is a concept related
to human rights. Article 1 of the UDHR states: Everyone is born free and equal
in dignity and rights. Article 2 states: Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. The UDHR tells us that we cannot discriminate based
on status.
Did you Know?
There are and have been many cases of discrimination based on status. These
include:
Apartheid in South Africa this was discrimination based on race.
In Saudi Arabia, women arent allowed to drive this is discrimination
based on sex.
Denmark, Japan and Sweden have some of the lowest levels of income
inequality in the world.47 This indicates that they have more equal levels of
socioeconomic status than many other countries.
44. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2012. Status. [online]. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/status.
[Accessed 8 August 2012].
45. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012. Social Status. [online]. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551450/
social-status. [Accessed 8 August 2012].
46. Ibid.

August 2012].

230

47. The World Bank, 2012. Gini Index [online]. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?. [Accessed 8

Pick Your Card (IO)

Discussion:

Ages: 12-25

Did you figure out your status


before checking your card? How
did you figure out which status you
were?
How did it feel to be low/high
status?
What are the characteristics of
a high-card male? (treated with
respect, listened to)
What are the characteristics of a
high-card female? (treated with
respect, listened to)
How does our status affect us in
life?
Do you think gender affects our
status? If yes, how?
Why is it sometimes hard to know
a persons status?
Do you agree or disagree with
how status is assigned in society?
Who does it benefit and who is
disadvantaged?
Is everyones voice heard under
this kind of system of preference?
What examples can you think of
that do not use a status system?
What choices can you make that
will help those who are treated
poorly?
How are status and human rights
related?

Resources: A deck of cards.


Purpose: This activity aims to

demonstrate how gender, status and


peer pressure influence youths actions,
beliefs and perceptions. The results of
this activity may be unexpected and
may lead the youth into a discussion
that is un-anticipated.
Procedure:

Tape a card from a deck of cards


on each participants back without
them seeing which card they have
received. Use a variety of high and
low cards. Girls get red cards and
boys get black cards. Face cards
are high and aces are low.
Instruct youth to walk around as
if they are at a party or event,
greeting people and carrying
on light conversation. They are,
however, supposed to treat people
according to the value of the card
they have on their backs.
Low cards are not cool and
the people wearing them get
ignored or snubbed.
People wearing high cards
are important and are treated
nicely.
Variation: You may want to
hand out fewer high cards to
girls to reflect the composition
of power in society.
End the activity when the youth
have been able to guess where
they stand. Have the youth
check the cards on their back to
confirm their suspicion.

Adapted from: White Ribbon Campaign, 2007. Campaign


in a Box resource Kit Activity 1: Exploring Power Differences
and Individual Responsibility . p. 30-32

231

Time: 20 minutes

Power and Privilege Participant Race (O)


Ages: 14+
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Laminated role cards (optional).
Purpose: This game asks participants to examine how we may or may not be

discriminated against and how we might be discriminators ourselves. It also allows


participants to discover how and when they are part of dominant groups and what
privileges this might give them.
Procedure:

232

Have everyone stand side-by-side in a straight line in the middle of the room
facing one wall.
Explain that this is the starting line for a race to get some well-paying jobs
(located at the wall or finish line), which they need to get in order to take care
of their families. Before the race starts, however, some adjustments are going to
be made to everyones starting positions.
You may choose to hand out role cards to each participant to make the activity
more meaningful and comfortable. Examples are found after the activity.
Ask the participants to take a step forward or backward depending upon the
instructions. If a statement doesnt apply to them, they dont move. Participants
decide for themselves whether or not the statement applies to them. They must
keep their steps the same size throughout the exercise.
Explain that the exercise will be done in silence, and with closed eyes, to allow
participants to focus on the feelings that come up during the exercise and to
make it safer for all participants.
Choose a set of statements suitable for your group. Ensure you have a mix of
forward and backward steps.
Read out each statement one at a time, allowing a few seconds each time for
participants to adjust their positions if the statement applies to them:

Statements

233

If you feel that your primary ethnic identity is Canadian take one step
forward.
If you have ever been called names or ridiculed because of your race, ethnicity or class background, take one step backward.
If you have immediate family members who are doctors, lawyers, or other
professionals, take one step forward.
If you have ever tried to change your physical appearance, mannerisms,
language or behavior to avoid being judged or ridiculed, take one step
backward.
If you studied the history and culture of your ethnic ancestors in elementary
and secondary school, take one step forward.
If, when you started school, you were speaking a language other than English, take one step backward.
If you were taken to art galleries, museums or plays by your parents, take
one step forward.
If you have ever attended a private school or summer camp, take one step
forward.
If your parent(s) encouraged you to go to college/university, take one step
forward.
If you grew up in a single parent household, take one step backward.
If you have ever been taken on a vacation outside of your home province,
take one step forward.
If you have a parent who did not complete high school, take one step backward.
If your parent(s) own their own house, take one step forward.
If you were ever mistrusted or accused of stealing, cheating or lying because
of your ethnicity, age or class, take one step backward.
If you primarily use public transportation to get where you need to go, take
one step backward.
If you have ever felt afraid of violence directed toward you because of your
ethnicity, take one step backward.
If you have ever felt uncomfortable or angry about a remark or joke made
about your ethnicity but it was not safe to confront it, take one step backward.
If you or your close friends or family were ever victims of violence because
of your ethnicity. take one step backward.
If your parent(s) did not grow up in Canada or the United States. take one
step backward.

After you read out the last statement, ask everyone to freeze in place and to
briefly notice where they are in relation to everyone else. Ask participants to
think for a few minutes about what feelings they have and what patterns they
notice.
Then explain that they are in a race to the front wall/finish line for well paying
and rewarding jobs. The participants should imagine that they need one of
those jobs to support themselves and their family. When told to, the participants
are to run towards the finish line as fast as they can. The first few to the front
wall will get those jobs. Quickly say, Ready, set, go, to start the race (and get
out of the way!)
Discussion:

Suggest to the participants that the winners of the race were declared before
the race even started.
How did you feel when you were answering these questions? How did it feel
when you were standing closer to or further away from the wall?
Given where everyone ended up in the room, how did that affect how hard you
ran towards the finish line? Did some people not run at all?
Point out that this exercise works well to demonstrate the power differences
between dominant and non-dominant groups in society.
The activity also serves well to illustrate the concepts of accessibility (some
people do not have the same access to jobs, etc., in our society because
they are in non-dominant groups and/or are not as privileged as others); our
societys lack of a level-playing field; the reasons for affirmative action; and
the different reactions people have to an unequal system.
Adapted from: MacNeil, D., et. al., 1998. People Power: A Youth Diversity Training Manual. North Vancouver: North Shore
Multicultural Society p.207.

234

REFUGEE WHO HAS JUST


ARRIVED AND DOES NOT
SPEAK THE NATIONAL
LANGUAGE

YOUTH LIVING IN A YOUTH


HOME

EMPLOYED SINGLE MOTHER

25 YEAR-OLD MALE GUN


OWNER

20 YEAR-OLD, IN A
WHEELCHAIR

17 YEAR-OLD STUDENT WHOSE


MOTHER IS A PARTNER IN A
SUCCESSFUL LAW FIRM

ABORIGINAL MALE LIVING ON


A RESERVE

15 YEAR-OLD LESBIAN GIRL

NEW IMMIGRANT WHO DOES


NOT SPEAK THE NATIONAL
LANGUAGE
235

2nd YEAR UNIVERSITY


STUDENT WHOSE PARENTS ARE
DOCTORS

3RD YEAR UNIVERSITY ARTS


STUDENT WITH A WELL-PAYING
PART-TIME JOB.

BLIND FEMALE IN HER


THIRTIES

18 YEAR-OLD HOMELESS
YOUTH

YOUNG MUSICIAN WHO PLAYS


GIGS A FEW TIMES A MONTH

18 YEAR-OLD GIRL WITH


STRICT PARENTS WHO WERE
BORN IN ANOTHER COUNTRY

SPONSORED PROFESSIONAL
ATHLETE IN HIS/HER
TWENTIES.

GAY MALE IN HIS THIRTIES


WITH A GOOD JOB.

ELDERLY WOMAN WITH A


WALKER

10 YEAR-OLD SON OF A
SUCESSFUL BUSINESS OWNER
236

TEMPORARY FOREIGN WORKER

Status Olympics (O)


Ages: 12-18
Time: 30-40 minutes
Resources: Six sets of coloured cards (each set should be a different colour

and there should be approximately the same number of each colour), safety pins so
that the cards can be worn on the sleeve (optional), a chart indicating the status of
each of the six colours (e.g., gold=top status, green = second status, etc.).
Purpose: In this game, children question the way in which power and status are

divided amongst human beings.


Procedure:

Participants choose an armband or card and are asked to pin it to their shirts
so it can be seen clearly. The status chart is then revealed.
The participants are told that the object of the exercise is to improve or protect
ones status by challenging someone of a higher status to a short game of their
choice (e.g. arm wrestling, whistling a toon, staring contest, etc.). You may only
challenge a person who has the status directly above your own.
The rules of the competition must be clearly defined and understood by both
parties. Should there be any doubt before or after the competition, an agreed
mediator can be called in. No one can refuse to be a mediator unless involved
in competition. The mediator must attempt to be impartial.
If the person of lower status wins the competition, armbands/cards are
exchanged. If the person loses, he cannot challenge the same person again.
Likewise, a participant who just had to relinquish his armband/card cannot
immediately challenge the person whom he traded armbands with.
Discussion:

237

What happened? How did it feel to be of high or low status? How did it feel
to win or lose a challenge, to rise or fall in status? How did those of constantly
low status feel?
Did your attitude towards the contest change? If so, how and why?
How involved did you become in the game? Why? What devices/strategies did
you employ to promote or defend your status?
In what ways did this activity mirror the real world? Does competitive statusseeking make for a healthy society? In what ways does such a society
promote peoples rights? In what ways can it harm them?
Were some participants more involved than others? Why? In what ways did the
challenges issued reflect the personality of the challengers?

Variations:
1. Halfway through the activity, replace the status chart with a
second chart that reverses the status of the six colours.
2. Employ a group of clearly identified participant mediators who
play no part in the activity.
3. Some facilitators feel that the activity mirrors the power
structures of society more accurately if those of higher status,
when challenged by someone of lower status, determine the
nature of the challenge themselves. This variation can raise
questions about the relative mobility or immobility of elites in
different societies and the ease or difficulty with which the status
quo can be challenged.
Adapted from: Pike, Graham and Selby, David, 1993. Human Rights: An Activity File. Centre for Global Education: Stanley

238

Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.

The Scramble for Wealth and Power (O)


Ages: 9-15
Time: 45 minutes
Resources: 100 pennies (or candies for younger children), mittens, shovels.
Purpose: The distribution of wealth and power within society usually affects a

persons opportunity to achieve full human rights and live his/her life with dignity.
This activity involves the distribution of wealth. It challenges participants to examine
the concepts of fairness and responsibility.
Procedure:

Explain to participants that in this activity they will distribute the wealth and
power of the world amongst themselves. This wealth is represented by the 100
pennies.
Arrange the room so that participants have a fairly large area to play the
game. Have participants stand or sit in a circle and scatter the pennies evenly
in the middle of the circle.
Distribute mittens for most participants to wear but postpone discussion of
reasons for this until debriefing.
Note: To emphasize that some start off with more than others,
consider giving three or four participants five extra pennies to begin
with as well as providing them with special scooping shovels.
There is only one rule: no participant may touch another member of the group
at any time while they gather pennies.
When you say Go, have participants gather as many pennies as possible
without touching one another.
Note: Penalties for violations of this rule may be needed such as
removal from the game or payment to the person touched.
After all the pennies have been collected, have participants report their wealth.
Divide participants into three categories based on the number of pennies they
have collected.

2) SOME WEALTH AND POWER


(those with three to five penniesthe middle group).
3) LITTLE WEALTH AND POWER
(those with two or fewer penniesthe largest group).

239

1) GREAT WEALTH AND POWER


(those with six or more penniesthe smallest group).

Remind the group that these pennies represent their wealth and power in
the world. The amount they possess will affect their capacity to satisfy their
needs (e.g., basic education, adequate food and nutrition, good health care,
adequate housing) and wants (e.g., higher education, cars, computers, toys,
television and other luxury items).
Those participants with six or more pennies will have their basic needs and
most of their wants met; those with three to five pennies will have their basic
needs met, and those with two or fewer pennies will have difficulty surviving due
to disease, malnutrition, lack of education, and inadequate shelter.
Tell participants that they may, if they wish, give pennies to others however, they
are not required to do so. Tell them that those who do share will be honored as
Donors.
Allow a few minutes for participants to redistribute the pennies if they wish.
Then ask for the names of those who gave away pennies and the amount each
gave. List them on a chart entitled DONORS.
Ask if anyone changed categories as a result of giving or receiving pennies and
record these shifts.
Creating Economic Fairness (a possible follow-up activity if time
permits)
Divide participants into groups according to the number of pennies they have.
Give each group the task of creating a plan for the fair distribution of the
pennies (the worlds wealth). Each group should prepare to:
1. show why their plan is fair;
2. explain what needs to be done (if anything); and,
3. describe what the group plans to do and why.
Give the groups ten minutes to devise their plans.
Ask each group to appoint a spokesperson to explain their plan to the others
and answer questions. After the plans have been presented and discussed,
announce that a vote will now be held to decide which plan to adopt.
When participants are ready to vote, announce the following: Participants with
six or more pennies have five votes, those with three to five pennies have two
votes, and those with two or fewer pennies have one-half vote. This strategy
reinforces the fact that the distribution of wealth often reflects that of power.
Have participants vote and tabulate the results. Announce which plan is to be
implemented. Carry out this plan, redistributing the wealth if necessary.

240

Note: Keep in mind the socioeconomic composition of your


participants. Be aware that there is a danger that this game can
make some participants feel very uncomfortable or it can confirm
the existing inequalities in wealth and power amongst participants.
There are some groups for whom this activity is not appropriate.

Discussion:

How did you feel about the way in which the pennies were acquired and
distributed?
Were participants treated fairly? What were some of the advantages/
disadvantages that people faced when collecting pennies?
What about the participants with mittens (and scooping shovels)? What kinds of
people do the mittens (and scooping shovels) represent? What group did they
end up in?
Did some people give pennies away? Why or why not? How did this feel?
What determined whether or not people gave away pennies?
What aspects of this game represented how the worlds wealth and power are
distributed?
How did the members of the different groups feel about their situation? (If you
facilitated the second part of the activity: Did the recommended plan for fair
distribution reflect whether the group had more or fewer pennies?)
After playing this game do you have a better understanding of the situation or
attitude of poor people/nations?
Why were some people given more votes than others? Was this an accurate
representation of those with more or less power in the world?
Are human rights being violated if some people have much more wealth than
others?
Adapted from: S. Lamy, et al., 1994. Teaching Global Awareness with Simulations and Games. Denver: Centre for Teaching

241

International Relations, Universitof Denver.

SECTION
17
STEREOTYPES

Stereotypes
A stereotype is an exaggerated or oversimplified belief of what is typical to a certain
group of people and is often based on images built up over time. Stereotypes may
impede human rights goals such as equality and non-discrimination. Stereotypes
may be based on age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, physical appearance or other
characteristics. For example, various nationalities are stereotyped as being overly
friendly, whereas others are stereotyped as being conservative and others as naturelovers. Stereotypes are often learned through socialisation. The games in this
section explore how stereotypes affect human rights goals and equality.
People use stereotypes in several ways. They can be used as sense-making tools;
they help people to identify, simplify, understand and react to different encounters.
They can also be used to save time and energy. Expanding on those ideas,
stereotypes are often used to justify or explain actions or behaviours or to categorize
people or events. They allow for people to make quick judgments and analyses of
the situation or encounter.
Though stereotypes do help people to make sense of situations and save time
and energy, they are not always true. They are rarely able to account for unexpected
differences or new information about groups or individuals. Sometimes, stereotypes
lead to scapegoating, intensify ignorance, and cause impaired performance. Some
people are negatively affected by stereotypes, especially if they are inaccurately
or hurtfully categorized. They may have difficulty entering or succeeding in certain
activities, groups or fields.
In Canada, gender stereotypes are reflected in occupation patterns. The majority
of employed women in Canada work in traditional womens occupations such as
teaching, nursing, administrative positions or sales and service occupations. When
men enter womens occupations, they are often teased as it doesnt fit in with the
traditional stereotype of men. These stereotypes limit the choices we make in our
daily lives.
Games in this section include:
Cultures Game
Cultural Perceptions
Lollipop Wrapper Game
The Masking Tape Activity
Theyre All Alike

243

Factoid: Stereotypes
Definitions:

Stereotype: an oversimplified or generalised view of characteristics typical of a


person or group of people. Stereotypes can be based on age, gender, ethnicity,
nationality, physical traits or other characteristics.
Understanding the Concept:

Stereotypes can be either positive or negative. They can help a person make
a quick judgement or decision about a situation without a lot of background
information. The weaknesses of stereotypes are often understood by the phrase
dont judge a book by its cover. Essentially, the phrase refers to the inability of
stereotypes to accurately account for the diversity present between people and
within groups. When stereotypes lead to discrimination and inequality, they go
against human rights goals.
Did you Know?
The term stereotype comes from the greek word , which means
solid and , which means type, or form. The word stereotype was
not used in its modern context until 1922 when American journalist Walter
Lippmann used it in Public Opinion.49
Stereotypes that lead to age discrimination are common in the workplace,
with very young and very old people often suffering. Making generalized
assumptions about peoples capabilities because of their age doesnt align with
human rights principles.
A common stereotype or misperception about Canadians is that we all live in
igloos and ride polar bears. Sometimes stereotypes aren`t closely based on
facts and observations.

244

49. Kleg, Milton, 1993. Hate Prejudice and Racism. State University of New York Press, Albany. p. 135.

Cultures Game (O)

Discussion:

Ages: 9 -18

What did your group think of the


game? How did you feel towards
members of the other cultures?
Were you frustrated at any
time? Was there one culture in
particular with whom it was easy
to communicate? Was there
one with whom it was difficult to
communicate?
What methods could you have
used to allow you to better
understand better the members
of the other cultures? Participants
will often name characteristics
of groups which are NOT on
the cards (e.g., the red team is
unfriendly). This can be a good
way to lead into a discussion of
how stereotypes develop.
Discuss cultural differences that
exist in the real world. What
are some common reactions to
cultural differences (uncomfortable
feelings, fear, stereotypes,
discrimination, celebration)? How
can we address these reactions?
What are some advantages to a
world with different cultures? What
would be lost if we did not have
differences?
Which human rights protect
difference and diversity? Why is it
important to protect difference and
diversity?
What does this game teach us
about acceptance?

Resources: Laminated cultures

cards (found on the following pages),


coloured tags or stickers for each
member of the groupthese stickers
or tags must be colour-coordinated
with each of the six culture cards.
Purpose: Through this activity,

participants explore their reactions


when faced with behaviours and
characteristics different from their own.
The game can be used as a tool to
begin a discussion about the way in
which stereotypes and discrimination
develop.
Procedure:


Divide the participants into 6
groups. Hand out the coloured
tags or stickers and the instruction
cards to each culture group.
Participants should be instructed to
wear their coloured tag or sticker.
Give each group time to go over
its cultural instructions. Warn
participants that the groups are
not allowed to tell others about
their cultural characteristics.
Once everyone is ready, ask all
participants to walk around the
room and communicate with the
members of the other cultures
according to the instructions they
have been given.
With larger groups, a structured
meet and greet activity may be
necessary to ensure that people
are interacting.
After ten minutes, or whatever time
feels appropriate, ask everyone to
stop.

Adapted from: Abboud, R., et. al., 2002. The Kit: A Manual
by Youth to Combat Racism Through Education. Ottawa:
UNA-Canada, 2002.

245

Time: 20 minutes

Red Culture

This card tells you which culture you belong to. During the game, you must act
according to the values of your culture.
Trait: You are very self-conscious. You always assume that people dont like you
and are talking about you behind your back.
Salutation (Greeting): Double wink.
Attitude towards members of the Orange Culture: You think they are
funny and strange.
Orange Culture

This card tells you which culture you belong to. During the game, you must act
according to the values of your culture.
Trait: You are very shy. You never make eye contact and your personal space is
very important to you.
Salutation (Greeting): Shake hands with the right hand only.
Attitude towards the members of the Pink Culture: You subtly try to avoid
them.
Pink Culture

This card tells you which culture you belong to. During the game, you must act
according to the values of your culture.
Trait: You are very friendly and like to be extremely close when speaking to
others (often your face is just 6 inches away from another persons face during a
discussion).
Salutation (Greeting): Shake hands with your left hand only.

246

Attitude towards members of the Blue Culture: You think they are
interesting and idolize them almost like a superstar.

Blue Culture

This card tells you which culture you belong to. During the game, you must act
according to the values of your culture.
Trait: You are a true optimist. Everything is just so exciting to you that you cant
stand still youre always moving around while interacting with others.
Salutation (Greeting): Gently touch the other person on the shoulder.
Attitude towards members of the Green Culture: You feel sorry for them
and try to defend them.

Green Culture

This card tells you which culture you belong to. During the game, you must act
according to the values of your culture.
Trait: You are a pessimist you usually see the world as an unhappy and difficult
place to exist.
Salutation (Greeting): Cross your arms.
Attitude towards members of the Red Culture: You feel superior to them.

247

Cultural Perceptions (I)


Ages: 12+
Time: 20 minutes
Resources: Cut-out copies of the Cultural Perceptions questions for each set of

partners, pens.

Purpose: This activity can be used as an opening activity, a way to test

assumptions, and to introduce the concept of stereotyping.


Procedure:

Have participants choose someone they dont know well or they would like to
know better as a partner.
Hand out the Cultural Perceptions sheet to each pair.
Have the first partner share his or her perceptions of how the second partner
would respond to each of the questions.
After the first partner has given his or her perceptions, the second partner gives
his or her responses.
Switch roles and repeat the process.
Discussion:

Reassemble the group and ask for volunteers to share their experiences in
learning about another person.
Which assumptions were accurate? Which were not accurate?
Ask how it felt to have the responsibility for making the perceptions; how it felt
being on the receiving end of the perceptions; and what insight this gives us to
the process of stereotyping.
How does this inform us of the stereotyping that may occur when we face new
teachers, peers, students, and parents?
How are stereotypes helpful? How are they harmful?
How are stereotypes related to human rights? (non-discrimination, equality)
What was the most important thing you learned from this experience?
How will you use this information?
Adapted from: Lindsay, Randall B., Robins, Kikanza Nuri, and Terrell, Raymond D., 2003. Cultural Perceptions in Cultural
Proficiency A Manual for School Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press Inc. pp. 67-69

248

Cultural Perceptions
Use the list below to share your perceptions with your partner then ask your partner
to give you his/her responses. Switch roles and have your partner share his/her
perceptions with you.






Country or area of family origin and heritage


Languages spoken
Interests or hobbies
Favourite food
Types of movies, TV programs preferred, if any
Type of music preferred
Pets, if any, or favorite animals

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cultural Perceptions
Use the list below to share your perceptions with your partner then ask your partner
to give you his/her responses. Switch roles and have your partner share his/her
perceptions with you.






Country or area of family origin and heritage


Languages spoken
Interests or hobbies
Favourite food
Types of movies, TV programs preferred, if any
Type of music preferred
Pets, if any, or favorite animals

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cultural Perceptions

Country or area of family origin and heritage


Languages spoken
Interests or hobbies
Favourite food
Types of movies, TV programs preferred, if any
Type of music preferred
Pets, if any, or favorite animals

249

Use the list below to share your perceptions with your partner then ask your partner
to give you his/her responses. Switch roles and have your partner share his/her
perceptions with you.

Lollipop Wrapper Game (IO)


Ages: 6-10
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: A lollipop or wrapped candy for each participant (the wrappers

should be various colors).

Purpose: This is a great stereotype game to introduce participants to the idea of

appearance versus reality.


Procedure:

Before the game begins, switch the wrappers of the lollipops so that the colour
of the wrappers and the lollipops do not match.
Have the participants sit in a circle and pass out the lollipops. Instruct the
participants NOT to open the wrappers just yet.
Tell the children they have a chance to trade their lollipops with the others.
Tell the participants to get into groups according to the colour of their lollipop
wrapper.
Open the wrappers.
Discussion:

What colour did you want?


What were your expectations?
How does this game relate to individuals?
How does this game relate to groups of people?
What is a stereotype?
What does the common saying Dont judge a book by its cover mean?

250

The Masking Tape Activity (I)


Ages: 13-25
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: Seven pieces of masking tape, each approximately 3 to 4 long.

Each piece has a different one of the following phrases written on it:
Tell me Im right
Tell me Im wrong
Praise me
Ridicule me
Ignore me
Listen to me
Respect me

Purpose: This game provides participants with the opportunity to study their

individual behaviours in a situation where the group members respond to one


another in an unusual fashion. It demonstrates the ways in which the participants
interaction with others influences their self-concept. The game also allows for a
discussion of how stereotyping can affect the way in which people see the world
and themselves.
Procedure:

There are 7 possible roles in this game. If you have less than seven people,
choose a mix of roles from the list.
If you are doing this activity with a larger group, divide them into several small
groups with 7 or less in each group.
Have the groups of seven sit together in a circle. Apply a masking-tape label
to the forehead of each participant, concealing the label from the person on
whose forehead it is being placed.
For best results, each participant should be assigned a label that is
contradictory to his or her general nature, for example the label that reads
Ignore me should be assigned to a participant who is usually accorded the
attention of peers.

The facilitator provides a topic for discussion or a team activity and instructs
each member to interact with the others in a way that is natural for him. Each
is cautioned not to role play, but to be himself. Instruct the group to react to
each member by following the instructions on the speakers headband. The
participants are not to tell each other what their labels say, but simply to react
to them.

251

Note: It is crucial that each participant can read the other six labels
without knowing what is written on his or her own label.

All debaters are further instructed to pay attention only to the maskingtape labels rather than to the individuals who are wearing the labels. Every
comment, reply, rebuttal, or agreement should be phrased in accordance with
the label on his or her forehead. You will probably have to remind the group a
few times about this.
In addition, encourage the participants to use subtlety in their responses.
For example, a participant responding to the individual wearing the label that
reads Respect me should not initiate his or her comment with the phrase
Because I respect you
The activity is allowed to continue either until the issue is resolved or until the
participants become aware of the ways in which their responses to the maskingtape labels influence their interactions.
Discussion:

Can you guess what your label said? What clues made you realize what was
on your label?
Did you like playing your role? Why or why not? How did it feel to be
responded to on the basis of your label rather than on the basis of your
comments and behaviour?
Did this activity have anything in common with stereotyping?
How does stereotyping affect how people see the world and themselves?
Do you agree or disagree with how status and stereotypes are assigned in
society? Who does it benefit and who is disadvantaged?
Did anyone feel discriminated against, that they were treated unfairly? How?
Did your interaction with others influence your self-concept?
How are human rights and stereotypes related?
Do any human rights protect us from negative stereotypes?
Adapted from: Kasschau, Richard A. (1981). A Handbook of Structured Experiences for Human Relations Training, Vol. VIII.
University Associates. Used with permission from the Katimavik Bank of Activities.

252

Theyre All Alike (IO)


Ages: 6-12
Time: 30 minutes
Resources: An apple or a rock for each group member.
Purpose: This game teaches participants that our perceptions of similarities and

differences are very subjective. The activity asks participants to confront stereotypes:
all apples may look alike on first inspection, but a closer look reveals differences.
Procedure:

Ask the participants to sit in pairs in a circle. Ask the group to name some
characteristics of apples/rocks. Are most similar?
Give each participant an item. Allow the participants a few minutes to examine
their items. Tell the children that at the end of 2-3 minutes they will be asked to
introduce their apples to their partner. If I were introducing my apple to you, I
would say: Meet Apply, hes tall with a shiny spot on his left side.
Have the pairs of participants introduce their items to each other.
Take back all the items and put them in a large bag.
Mix them up a little, and then put the items out on the floor/table again.
Have the participants take turns picking out their own items from the pile again.
Discussion:

Were you worried that someone else got your item? How would you have felt if
your item had not appeared?
Did you feel that the apples/rocks looked more different from one another the
longer you studied them? Was it easy to tell them apart?
Sometimes, we think that all people from a group are all the same (look alike,
act alike). What is this called?
Stereotypes can be harmful to people. How do you think stereotypes might
harm people? If you thought all people with brown hair were not smart and
avoided them all without getting to know them, how might this hurt them? How
might this hurt you?
Variation: If you have used rocks, end the activity by allowing the
children to decorate their rocks with markers and take them home
as a reminder of what they learned today.
Adapted from: Amnesty International, 1997: First Steps - A Manual for Human Rights Education Know Your Apple Activity.

part3_eng.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012]

253

London: Electronic Resource for Human Rights Education. [Online]: Available at: http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/First_Steps/

SECTION
18
(UN)FAIRNESS

(Un)Fairness
Human rights ensure that everyone can live with dignity and grow to their full
potential. The concept of fairness is an integral theme in human rights. Fairness is
sometimes expressed in human rights literature as justice or equality and is based
on respect for humanity and the acceptance of social responsibility. The activities
in this section explore the topic of fairness between individuals and groups as well
as the fairness of policies and laws. The connections between fairness and human
rights are discussed and evaluated.
In order for human dignity to be honoured, the fair treatment of people by
institutions and by each other is necessary. Personal and social circumstances such
as socio-economic status, gender, or nationality should not interfere with meeting
potential.
The UDHR does not explicitly refer to fairness; however, the wording of several
individual articles promotes and necessitates fairness. For example, Article 7
of the UDHR states: All are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination to equal protection of the law. This article forwards the notion of fair
treatment.
Games in this section include:
Camouflage
Play a Relay
The Pen Game
Word Game

255

Factoid: (Un)fairness
Definitions:

Equal: The same in importance and deserving the same treatment.50


Equitable: fair and reasonable; treating everyone in the same way.51
Fairness: when actions or decisions are marked by impartiality and honesty,
and are free from self-interest, prejudice or favouritism 52: when people are
treated equally or in a way that is right and/or reasonable.53
Justice: fairness in the way people are treated.
Understanding the Concept:

Fairness is a broad term that encompasses many ideas such as justice, equality,
equity, dignity, and non-discrimination. Fairness is closely related to human rights
and helps people to live lives of dignity and respect each other. The UDHR states
that everyone is born free and equal in dignity and rights. Human rights promote
fairness and equality.
Did you Know?
In Canada, we have public servants, called ombudsmen, who champion
fairness and administrative justice. They act as a liaison between the people
and the government. The term ombudsman comes from Danish, Norwegian,
and Swedish and originally meant representative.
One study suggests that the human brain treats fairness in the same way as it
treats money and chocolate as a reward.54
50. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2011. Equal. [Online]. Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/
equal_1?q=equal. [Accessed 10 August 2012].
51. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2011. Equitable. [Online]. Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/
equitable_1?q=equitable. [Accessed 10 August 2012].
52. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2012. Fair. [Online]. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/fair. [Accessed
10 August 2012].
53. Cambridge Dictionaries Online, 2011. Fairness. [Online]. Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/
fairness_1?q=fairness. [Accessed 10 August 2012].
54. Wolpert, Sturat, 2008. Brain reacts to fairness as does to money and chocolate, study shows. UCLA Newsroom. [Online].
Available at: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/brain-reacts-to-fairness-as-it-49042.aspx?link_page_rss=49042. [Accessed 24
August 2012].

256

Camouflage (IO)
Ages: 5-8
Time: 15-20 minutes
Resources: Two or three balls of wool of different colours (one ball should be

a distinctive colour such as red or yellow, and the others should be neutral colours
which blend with the indoor or outdoor surroundings)
Purpose: Participants learn to identify and question unfairness. They are

encouraged to consider what kinds of differences can lead to unfairness in the


world.
Procedure:

Cut out 20 or 30 pieces of wool of each colour.


Hide them around the facility you are using for the presentation.
Divide the participants into two or three teams. Each team should look for wool
of one colour only.
Give them a time limit.
After the search is over, count how many pieces of wool each team was able to
find. The team with the most pieces of wool wins the game.
The team that is looking for the brightly coloured wool will most likely win
because it is easiest to find.
Discussion:

What did it feel like to be on the winning team? What did it feel like to be on
the other team? Which team found most pieces? Why?
If we played again, which team would you like to be on? Why?
Is the game fair? Can it be made fair? Think of all the games you know:
what makes them fair? (e.g., in football both teams have the same number of
players.)
For older children, use this as a starting point for thinking about global
unfairness. (e.g., the distribution of wealth, water, food, land, etc.)
For many children in the world, their rights are not realized. How would your
life be different if you were one of these children? What can be done about
unfairness?
Adapted from: MacPherson, S. & Tigchelaar, M., 2004. New Horizons: Human Rights Education for Families. Edmonton, AB: Indo

257

Canadian Womens Association.

Play a Relay (O)


Ages: 7+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Something to mark the finish-line of the relay race.
Purpose: This game will help the participants understand how it feels to be

treated unequally for arbitrary reasons.


Procedure:

258

Divide the group into two equal teams. You can use sex, hair colour, eye colour
or any other criterion.
Have the teams stand in two lines behind a starting point. Mark off the finishline several metres away. To play, team members take off their shoes, run to the
finish line, and return. Before the next person on the team can start running, the
first person must put his or her shoes back on laces, buckles and all. Once a
person has put his shoes back on, he goes to the back of the line and the relay
continues.
After 2 or 3 people from each team have finished their runs, stop the game
and announce a change in the rules. Example: Team One is allowed to run
to the line and back, but Team Two has to hop. Or you might shorten the relay
distance for one team, make it okay for one team to start running before their
team member has finished putting on his shoes. The objective is to deliberately
create an unfair situation. If some people start complaining, ignore them or tell
them to stop complaining.
Continue the relay, changing the rules once or twice more. Stop when almost
everyone is complaining that the rules arent fair (or after every person has
run once).

Discussion:

How did it feel to play this game? What was it like to be on the team that
received special privileges? What was it like to be on the other team?
Does it make a difference if the rules arent fair for some people? Why or why
not?
Can you think of some examples from real life where things are unfair for
certain groups of people?
For older children, use this as a starting point for thinking about global
unfairness. (e.g., the distribution of wealth, water, food, land, etc.)
How do human rights promote fairness?
Variation:
Use two buckets as the markers for the end of the relay race.
In the buckets, place cards with certain human needs on them
(clean air, food, water): enough so that several participants on
each team would have to have to run twice to empty the bucket.
Tell the participants that each team is a community. To ensure
everyone in the community is healthy, they need to collect all of
the items out of the bucket.
Proceed with the race, changing the rules to the disadvantage of
one team.
When you see that most of the losing team members have
run once, take several of the additional rights cards out of the
losing teams bucket and hand them out to the winning team
members. This will elicit a lot of complaints from the losing
team. It will also ensure that the race runs smoothly.
Adapted from: MacPherson, S. & Tigchelaar, M., 2004. New Horizons: Human Rights Education for Families. Edmonton, AB: Indo
Canadian Womens Association.

259

The Pen Game (I)


Ages: 11+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: A pen.
Purpose: Participants learn that laws issued without taking people into account

can lead to arbitrary and unfair decisions. Moreover, rules that are applied
arbitrarily breed cynical attitudes toward rules in general.
Procedure:

Get participants to sit in a circle. Tell them only that they are going to play The
Pen Game. Do not explain the rules of the game.
Randomly select someone (the Initiator) and ask her to begin the game by
passing a pen to the person seated next to him/her. You must watch closely
how, to whom, and in which direction the Initiator passes the pen.
Suddenly, announce that the Initiator has made a mistake. The mistake could
be that the Initiator used his/her left hand instead of his/her right, or that s/
he passed the pen to the person on the Initiators right instead of his/her left,
or whatever oddities you have observed. This rule continues for the rest of the
game. If the group is large, you can ask people who break rules to leave the
circle. If it is small, it is best to allow them to continue to play the game.
After the second or third pass, announce another mistake. Perhaps passing the
pen to a person of the opposite sex, or to a person wearing a ring, and so on.
The game continues at least until the pen has been passed back to the Initiator.
In the process, many people have been found at fault.
Discussion:

Adapted from: Action Professionals Association for the People, 1996. Bells of Freedom The Pen Game. [Online]: Available at:
http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/Bells_of_Freedom/index_eng.html. [Accessed on 20 August 2012].

260

Can you identify mistakes that were committed by people around the circle? Do
those who made mistakes accept their faults and why?
Ask the group what feels unusual. Why is it wrong, strange or unfair? Who is
to blame for the faults - the facilitator or the eliminated players? Why?
What would need to happen to make the game fair? What are the similarities
between fair games and fair laws?
Can you name some of the characteristics of good laws? Make the
connection between arbitrary laws and human rights violations. For example,
if laws are arbitrary, people may be punished for doing something they did
not know was wrong. Arbitrary laws and bad laws often require harsher
punishments to be enforced.
How is fairness related to human rights?

Word Game (I)


Ages: 7+
Time: 15 minutes
Resources: Pens and paperseach paper with a letter on it (some very

common letters, some uncommon).

Purpose: This game demonstrates the discrimination and unequal treatment

towards some people who have unseen disadvantages.


Procedure:

Divide the participants into small groups of equal numbers - about 5 people in
each group.
Tell the participants that they will be playing a word game in which each group
will be given a different letter and will have 3 minutes to come up with as many
words that begin with that letter as they can think of.
Pass out the sheets (each with different letters on themsome of the letters
must be difficult to find words for) and pens.
Tell the group to begin finding as many words as possible. After 3 minutes ask
them to stop and have each group count up their words.
Once all of the groups have read out the number of words they have, pick a
number (an approximate average of number of words that the groups found,
e.g., 25 words). Declare that all the groups over that number get candy or
stickers.
As you pass out the prizes, ask them to read out their words. Some participants
may start to complain, which will lead into the discussion. After the discussion,
give the other groups prizes as they read their words.
Discussion:

What did you think of this game? Did you ever feel as if the game was unfair?
The same rules applied to all of the groups, so how was it unfair?
Do you think there are real life situations where the rules seem fair but in reality
some groups are discriminated against because of their resources or other
factors? Will this experience today help you better relate to people in that
situation? Do you think these people are facing discrimination?
What can you do to prevent discrimination?
How do human rights protect people from discrimination?

261

Developed by: Caitlin MacLachlan for the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, 2006.

HUMAN RIGHTS DOCUMENTS

262

APPENDIX
A

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights


A Simplified Version
Article 1: Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way.
Article 2: Everyone is equal despite differences in skin color, sex, religion or
language, for example.
Article 3: Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety.
Article 4: No one shall be held in slavery and slavery is prohibited.
Article 5: No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you.
Article 6: Everyone has the right to be treated equally by the law.
Article 7: The law is the same for everyone; it should be applied in the same way to
all.
Article 8: Everyone has the right to ask for legal help when his or her rights are not
respected.
Article 9: No one has the right to imprison you unjustly or expel you from your own
country.
Article 10: Everyone has the right to a fair and public trial.
Article 11: Everyone is considered innocent until proven guilty.
Article 12: Everyone has the right to ask for help if someone tries to harm you, but
no one can enter your home, open your letters or bother you or your family without a
good reason.
Article 13: Everyone has the right to travel as desired.

Article 15: Everyone has the right to belong to a country. No one has the right to
prevent you from belonging to another country if you wish to.

263

Article 14: Everyone has the right to go to another country and ask for protection if
being persecuted or in danger of being persecuted.

Article 16: Everyone has the right to marry and have a family.
Article 17: Everyone has the right to own property and possessions.
Article 18: Everyone has the right to practice and observe all aspects of his or her
own religion and change his or her religion if he or she wants to.
Article 19: Everyone has the right to say what he or she thinks and to give and
receive information.
Article 20: Everyone has the right to take part in meetings and to join associations in
a peaceful way.
Article 21: Everyone has the right to help choose and take part in the government of
his or her country.
Article 22: Everyone has the right to social security and to opportunities to develop
skills.
Article 23: Everyone has the right to work for a fair wage in a safe environment and
to join a trade union.
Article 24: Everyone has the right to rest and leisure.
Article 25: Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living and medical
help when ill.
Article 26: Everyone has the right to go to school.
Article 27: Everyone has the right to share in his or her communitys cultural life.
Article 28: Everyone must respect the social order that is necessary for all these
rights to be available.

Article 30: No one has the right to take away any of the rights in this declaration.

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Article 29: Everyone must respect the rights of others, the community and public
property.

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child


A Simplified Version
Article 1: Everyone under 18 has these rights.
Article 2: All children have these rights, no matter who they are, where they live,
what their parents do, what language they speak, what their religion is, whether they
are a boy or girl, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they
are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis.
Article 3: All adults should do what is best for children. When adults make decisions,
they should think about how their decisions will affect children.
Article 4: The government has a responsibility to make sure childrens rights are
protected. They must help families protect childrens rights and create an environment
where they can grow and reach their potential.
Article 5: Childrens families have the responsibility to help them learn to exercise
their rights and to ensure that their rights are protected.
Article 6: Children have the right to be alive.
Article 7: Children have the right to a name, and this should be officially recognized
by the government. Children have the right to a nationality (to belong to a country).
Article 8: Children have the right to an identityan official record of who they are.
No one should take this away from them.
Article 9: Children have the right to live with their parent(s), unless it is bad for them.
They have the right to live with a family who cares for them.
Article 10: If children live in a different country than their parents do, they have the
right to be together in the same place.

Article 12: Children have the right to give their opinions and for adults to listen and
take them seriously.

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Article 11: Children have the right to be protected from being taken out of their
country illegally.

Article 13: Children have the right to share what they think with others by talking,
drawing, writing or in any other way unless it harms other people.
Article 14: Children have the right to choose their own religion and beliefs. Parents
should guide their children in the development of their beliefs.
Article 15: Children have the right to choose their own friends and join or set up
groups, as long as it isnt harmful to others.
Article 16: Children have the right to privacy.
Article 17: Children have the right to get information from radio, newspaper, books,
computers and other sources that is important to their well-being. Adults should
make sure that the information they are getting is not harmful and help them find and
understand the information they need.
Article 18: Children have the right to be raised by their parent(s) if possible.
Article 19: Children have the right to be protected from being hurt and mistreated,
in body or mind.
Article 20: Children have the right to special care and help if they cannot live with
their parents.
Article 21: Children have the right to care and protection if they are adopted or in
foster care.
Article 22: Children have the right to special protection and help if they are refugees
(if they have been forced to leave their home and live in another country), as well as
all the rights in this Convention.
Article 23: Children have the right to special education and care if they have a
disability, as well as all the rights in this Convention, so that they can live a full life.

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Article 24: Children have the right to the best health care possible, safe water to
drink, nutritious food, a clean and safe environment and information to help them stay
well.

Article 25: If children live in foster care or in other situations away from home, they
have the right to have these living arrangements looked at regularly to see if they are
the most appropriate.
Article 26: Children have the right to help from the government if they are poor or in
need.
Article 27: Children have the right to food, clothing, a safe place to live, and to
have their basic needs met.
Article 28: Children have the right to a good quality education. Children should be
encouraged to go to school to the highest level they can.
Article 29: Childrens education should help them use and develop their talents and
abilities. It should also help them learn to live peacefully, protect the environment and
respect other people.
Article 30: Children have the right to practice their own culture, language and
religion. Minority and indigenous groups need special protection of this right.
Article 31: Children have the right to play and rest.
Article 32: Children have the right to protection from work that harms them and is
bad for their health and education. If they work, they have the right to be safe and
paid fairly.
Article 33: Children have the right to protection from harmful drugs and from the
drug trade.
Article 34: Children have the right to be free from sexual abuse and exploitation.
Article 35: No one is allowed to kidnap or sell children.
Article 36: Children have the right to protection from any kind of exploitation (being
taken advantage of).

Article 38: Children who are affected by armed conflict must be protected and cared
for. Children under 15 cannot be forced to go into the army or take part in war.

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Article 37: No one is allowed to punish children in a cruel or harmful way.

Article 39: Children have the right to special help to recover if they have been
exploited, neglected or abused.
Article 40: Children have the right to legal help and fair treatment in a justice system
that respects their rights.
Article 41: If the laws of their country provide better protection of their rights than the
articles in this Convention, those laws should apply.
Article 42: Children have the right to know their rights. Adults should know about
these rights and help them learn about them, too.
Articles 43 to 54: These articles explain how governments and international
organizations will work to ensure that childrens rights are protected.

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The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


Guarantee of Rights and Freedoms
Section 1: In Canada, we have laws that give rights and freedoms that we feel all
Canadians are entitled to possess. Being a multicultural country, our laws preserve the
diversity of our races, faiths, and nationalities.
Fundamental Freedoms
Section 2: Canadians have the freedom to believe what they choose, to express their
values, and to form associations.
Democratic Rights
Section 3: Every citizen has the right to vote in public elections.
Section 4:
1) No parliament or legislative assembly can continue to stay in office for longer than
five years.
2) Only under extraordinary circumstances, such as war or a national emergency, may
a government stay in office for longer than five years.
Section 5: There will be a meeting of Parliament and of each legislature at least
once every year.
Mobility Rights

1) Every citizen can enter, stay in, and leave Canada as they wish.
2) Every person who is considered a permanent resident of Canada can:
a) Move to and live in any province.
b) Find a job in any province.
3) Provinces can decide who they give social benefits to.
4) If its employment rate is below the national average, a province can create programs that favour its own residents.

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Section 6:

Legal Rights
Section 7: Every Canadian has the right to life, freedom and personal security.
Section 8: Every Canadian has the right to a reasonable expectation of privacy
(i.e. anyone acting on behalf of the government must have a warrant before entering
someones home).
Section 9: Everyone has the right not to be arrested and held in custody without
good reason.
Section 10: If arrested, everyone has the right to:
a) Know why they have been arrested.
b) Seek legal advice from a lawyer.
c) Challenge the fairness of the arrest.
Section 11: Any person who is charged with an offense has the right to:
a) Be told right away exactly what they are being charged with.
b) Have his/her trial take place in a reasonable amount of time.
c) Not testify in his/her own trial (they cannot be called as a witness).
d) Be considered innocent unless proven guilty beyond reasonable doubt.
e) Not be denied bail without a good reason.
f) Trial by jury if the charges are serious.
g) Not be charged with a crime unless what they did was against the law at the time
they did it.
h) Only be charged with a crime once, whether they are found innocent or guilty.
i) Be sentenced under the more lenient of two laws, if a change of law occurs before
they have been sentenced.
Section 12: No one should be subjected to cruel or unusual punishment (the
punishment must not be too harsh for the crime).

Section 14: Anyone involved in trial has the right to an interpreter if they do not
understand the language, or they are deaf.

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Section 13: Witnesses are protected from having information given in their testimony
used against them.

Equality Rights
Section 15: Every person in Canada (regardless of race, religion, national or ethnic
origin, colour, sex, age, or physical or mental disability) is to be considered equal, and
is not to be discriminated against.
Official Languages of Canada
Section 16: Both French and English are official languages, and given equal status.
Section 16.1: The English and French speaking communities of New Brunswick have
equal rights, and the government must protect those rights.
Section 17: Everyone has the right to use English or French in any debate or
proceeding of parliament.
Section 18: All federal laws and those of New Brunswick must be published in both
English and French.
Section 19: Either English or French may be used in pleadings of federal courts
(including the Supreme Court) and the courts of New Brunswick.
Section 20: Everyone has the right to communicate with the federal government in
either French or English.
Section 21: All language rights in other parts of the constitution must be protected.
Section 22: The government is allowed to offer services in languages other than
French or English.
Section 23: Canadian citizens have the right to have his/her children educated in
either French or English.
Enforcement

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Section 24: Any person who feels that his/her rights or freedoms have been violated
by the government can go to court and ask for a remedy.

General
Section 25: The Charter recognizes the rights of Aboriginal people of Canada in
order to protect the culture, traditions, and languages of Aboriginal people.
Section 26: The Charter is not the only source for protection of individual rights.
Parliament and the legislatures can create laws that protect rights beyond the ones
listed in the Charter.
Section 27: The courts and governments must interpret the Charter in a way that
recognizes Canada`s multicultural diversity.
Section 28: The rights and freedoms in the Charter are guaranteed to males and
females equally.
Section 29: Religious and separate schools have the right to choose their teachers
and students based on their religion.
Section 30: The Charter applies equally to all provinces and territories within
Canada.
Section 31: Nothing in the Charter changes the sharing of responsibilities or the
distribution of powers between the provincial and federal governments.
Application of the Charter
Section 32:
1) This charter must be applied by both federal and provincial governments.
2) Governments were allowed three years to bring their laws into line with Section 15
of the Charter. This meant that this section came into effect on April 17, 1985.
Section 33: The Federal Government and any provincial or territorial government
is able to pass laws that take away some rights in the Charter (with clear reasons and
acceptance of full responsibility for the consequence of its actions).
Citation

Section 35: The Charter is the supreme law of Canada, and all laws in Canada
must follow the terms of the Charter to be valid.

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Section 34: The official name of this part of the Constitution is called the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

SESSION PLANNING RESOURCES

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APPENDIX
B

SESSION PLAN TEMPLATE


Date:

Time:

Ages:

Number of youth:

Location:

Lesson Design
Session Themes

Activity #1:

Activity #2 :

Activity #3:

Activity # 4:

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Resources

SAMPLE SESSIONS

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These sessions demonstrate how games from different sections


of the curriculum can be put together to create a theme.

1. TOPIC: RACISM AND


DISCRIMINATION (AGES 9-12)
This session explores how rights are respected in a multicultural society.

Page Going Dotty

Page Cultures Game

Page Unpacking the Privileges Knapsack

Page 5 Pictures

This game explores the importance and interconnectedness of


rights in The Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Participants are divided into two teams and must match pictures
with their corresponding rights, ordering them from most to least
important. Children then play a tug of rights to try to protect
their rights.
A final discussion how and when rights are lost and what the
world would be like without rights occurs after the game.
This game promotes cooperation, non-verbal communication,
and divides participants into groups
Each participant closes his/her eyes and has a dot placed on
his/her forehead. The participants must then find a way to
organize themselves into teams of the same dot colourwithout
talking!
This game explores stereotypes, cultural difference and
discrimination.
Each team is given a culture complete with its own unique
form of communication that they must adopt. The cultures
then interact.
During the debriefing, discussion focuses on multiculturalism,
stereotypes and the challenges faced when communicating with
people from different cultures.
This game explores the small disadvantages minorities face daily
in Canadian society.
The participants are asked a series of questions (e.g. Can you
find bandages/cover-up that match your skin colour in the local
grocery store?).
This game allows for participants to creatively solve a problem.
Participants perform and narrate five tableaus in which they
identify and solve a situation of discrimination.

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Page Tug of Rights

2. TOPIC: DISABILITIES AND


STEREOTYPES (AGES 6-10)
This active session explores how it would be like to live with a disability and
how to respect the rights of others. Children are given the skills needed to
overcome stereotypes.

Page Barnyard

Page Lollipop Wrapper Game

Page Sandpaper Letters

Page Signals

This game explores the importance of rights and needs and


introduces the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Participants imagine that a human rights crisis has occurred in
their community and they must decide which rights to bring with
them as they flee.
This game explores discrimination and minority dynamics.
Participants are assigned an animal sound and have to find their
groups of animals using only their ears to hear the sounds of the
participants. The majority is cows and only a few of the other
animals are assigned.
The ideas of stereotypes and appearance versus reality are
introduced.
Participants choose a lollipop of their liking and then pull off
the wrapper. Little do they know that the wrappers have been
switched and the lollipops inside are a different colour.
Participants experience one of the challenges of living with a
disability.
The children are blindfolded and each gets a cut-out sandpaper
letter. They must determine which letter it is.
Participants think about the challenges faced by people living
with disabilities and the importance of different means of
communication.
Divide the group into pairs and have one wear a blindfold. The
blindfolded partner is led through an obstacle course by the
other teammate without using words to communicate or holding
hands.

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Page Suitcase of Rights

3. TOPIC: LGBT RIGHTS,


DISCRIMINATION AND FAIRNESS
(AGES 14-25)

This session aims to prepare youth to address discrimination and injustice in


society.

Page The Masking Tape Activity

Page Safe Space

Page The Word Game

Page Bears in the Air

The youth explore the value of their rights and needs through
imagining life without certain rights.
Participants are divided into groups and given a copy of the
UDHR. They must pack a suitcase with their 10 most important
rights and slowly eliminate them until they only have a few left.
Participants discuss stereotypes and labels in society and how
they affect the world.
Each person receives a label to put on their forehead that they
cannot see (i.e. ignore me, praise me, etc.). The group is given
a topic to discuss and must interact with each other according to
the labels.
Participants connect safety and human rights in the context of
LGBT rights.
The room is divided as a large opinion scale with one side
being safe, the middle neutral, and the other side unsafe.
Participants are asked a series of questions about how safe they
would feel as an LGBT Canadian in different places/scenarios.
This game presents an unfair situation that participants must
work through.
Groups are assigned a letter and given three minutes to write
down as many words as possible that begin with the letter. Some
groups will have many words and others only a couple of words.
Cooperation and problem-solving are emphasized in this game.
Participants are timed and must toss a stuffed bear around a
circle in the same order. They are told to go faster and faster.
Once they cant go any faster, they must come up with a new
strategy (i.e. stand in a line, etc).

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Page Suitcase of Rights (Adapted)