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. .

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2011

514.12(075)
22.151.59 73
54
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,

. .

, . .
54

:
.

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. 3.:
, 2011. 544 .
ISBN 978-5-7417-0378-6

.,

),

,
.
.
514.12(075)
22.151.59 73

ISBN 978- 5-7417-0378-6

. ., 2011

), 2011

.......................................................................................
.....................................................................................
1.
...........
1.1. ..............................................
1.2. ..........................................
1.3. .......................
1.4. ..........................
1.5. . ...................
1.6. ................................................................
1.7. ..............................
1.8. .......................................................
2.
......................................
2.1. ...........................
2.2. .............................................................................
2.3. .......................................................................
2.4. .............................................................................
2.5. .......................................................................
2.6. .....................................
2.7. ...................................................................
2.8. ........................
2.9.
..................................................................

8
10
12
12
21
24
28
34
38
44
47
54
54
57
59
61
65
68
70
72
75

3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.
5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.

............................................
.............................................
...............
.....................................
............
......................................................

..................................................
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......
..................
....
...................
...............................
................................................
.
....................................
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..........
........
.....................................................
.........................
.........................................................
.......................................
...................................
...................................................
.........................................................
m n ................................................................
....................
. ...

79
79
84
93
103
107
119
119
124
127
130
138
141
147
147
158
161
169
184
189
191
191
192
199
205
208
213
216
227

7.
.....................................
7.1. ................
7.2. ,
........................................
7.3. .............
7.4. .......................
7.5. ...................
8

........................................................
8.1. .............................................
8.2. ...................
8.3. .......................................................................
8.4. ..
8.5.
...................................................................
8.6.
.................................................................
8.7. .......................................
9.

..................................
9.1. ....................................
9.2. ................................
9.3. .............................................................................
9.4. ...........................................................................
9.5. .................................................................
9.6. ...............................
10. ...................................
10.1. ....................
10.2. .
...................................................................

235
235
239
244
251
254
267
267
269
275
283
296
303
317
325
325
329
339
348
353
354
356
356
360

10.3. .............................................................
10.4. ..............................................................
10.5.
.......
10.6. ..............................................................
10.7. ...........................
10.8. .................................
11. ...................................
11.1. ............
11.2. .......................................................................
11.3. .........................................
11.4. .
..........................
11.5. .....................
12. ..........
12.1.
...........................................
12.2.
12.3. ..........
1.

...................................................
. 1.1
.
. 1.2
................................
. 1.3. ............................
. 1.4. ..............................
2.

.......................................
. 2.1. ............................................................
. 2.2. ...................................................
. 2.3. .......................

362
368
372
378
383
391
400
400
403
405
410
413
415
415
431
435
443
443
445
452
459
465
465
466
467

. 2.4.
. 2.5.
. 2.6.
. 2.7.
3.
4.
. 4.1.
. 4.2.
. 4.3.
. 4.4.
. 4.5.

...................
....................
.....................
.............................
.................................
........

.............................
......
...............................
.......
.....

..................................................................................
.............................................................

469
472
474
475
478
488
488
496
504
515
520
528
529


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( x, y z,
);
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11


: ,

A ;

, ,
,

: ,

a , -

, : ,

det A .

,
,
. . , . . , . .
. . .


1997 , , ,
.

-
www.umnov.ru
, .

12


1.1.
,
,
, .
m n
( ) , 1.1.1.
m n .
, ,
( ), ,
, .
, i - j -
,

i j 1.

1.1.2.

m , n m n -

. ,

i j ; i = [1, m] ; j = [1, n]
:

i j.

13

1 .

11

21

31
...

m1

12
22
32
...
m2

13
23
33
...
m3

...
...
...
...
...

11
21
31
...
m1

1n

2n
3n ;

...
mn
12
22
32
...
m2

11

21
31

...
m1

13
23
33
...
m3

...
...
...
...
...

12
22
32
...
m2

13
23
33
...
m3

...
...
...
...
...

1n
2 n
3n ;

...
mn

1n
2n
3n ,
...
mn

. ,

i j

A .

1.1.3.

m = n , ,
n .
m 1 m - (
m -) .
1 n n - ( n -)
.

, ,

1 j i1 ,

j i .

14

, , ,
: .

.

1.1.4.

ij = ji i, j = [1, n] ,
.
, , .

O .

...

...

...

... ... ... ... ...


0

...

E .

1.1.5.

(:

A = B ),


,
i j = i j i = [1, m] j = [1, n] .

15

1 .

1.1.6.

B (: C = A + B ),

A , B , C
i j = i j + i j i = [1, m] , j = [1, n] ,
i j i = [1, m] , j = [1, n]

1.1.7.

C .

A (: C = A ),

A C

i j = i j i = [1, m] , j = [1, n] .
, .
( )
:
, , ,
, , , .

1.1.8.

,
,
,
(. 1.1.1).

,
T

A , A .

16

. 1.1.1

11
21

12
22

...
...
m1 m 2

13
23

... 1n
... 2 n

... ... ...


m3 ... mn

11
12
= 13
...
1n

21 ... m1
22 ... m 2
23 ... m3 ,
... ... ...
2 n ... mn

iTj = ji

i = [1, m] , j = [1, n] .

, , , 1 m
m 1 .

()
2- 3-
, ( ) -

17

1 .

det A .

n - 6, n = 2 n = 3 .

1.1.9.

() 11 12
2-

21 22

det

1.1.10.

11

12

21

22

= 11 22 12 21 .

() 3-

11

12

13

21
31

22
32

23
33

11
det 21
31

12
22
32

13
23 = 11 22 33 + 13 21 32 +
33

+ 12 23 31 13 22 31 12 21 33 11 23 32 .

:

1.1.1.

3-
2-
:

, , , .

18

11

12

13

det 21
31

22
32

23 =
33

= 11 det
+ 13 det

22

23

32

33

21

22

31

32

12 det

21

23

31

33


.
.


1.1.9 1.1.10.

1.

, 1.1.1,
, .

. 1.1.2

2.

3-
:

1 .

19

1.1.10

, , , , . 1.1.2
, , , ,
.
, 1.1.9
1.1.10
2-

3- .
1.1.1.


.
1.1.2
().

111 + 12 2 = 1 ,

211 + 22 2 = 2
, ,

det

11
21

12
0.
22

.

{1 , 2 } ,

20

1 (11 22 12 21 ) = (1 22 2 12 ) ;
2 ( 11 22 12 21 ) = ( 2 11 1 21 )

1 = 1 ; 2 = 2 ,

= det

2 = det

11
21

12

, 1 = det 1
22
2

12
22

11 1
.
21 2

= 0,
1 = 1 ; 2 = 2
1 0
= 0,

2 0.

( )
= 1 = 2 = 0 ,
{1 , 2 } , ,

111 + 12 2 = 1 .
, 0.

0 , { 1 , 2 } , 11 , 12 , 21 , 22 , 1 , 2
.

1 =

2 =

1 .

21

1.2.

1.2.1.

, A
B, , ,

.
, , .

AB, ,
A , B .
a .

AB a .

1.2.2.

AB CD
, .

, 1.2.2 .

1.2.3.

a b.

b a (
b , b , a ),

22

c ,
a b ,
a b 3.


(. 1.2.1).

. 1.2.1

, :
1)

2)

3)

4)


,
. 1.2.2;
, 1.2.3 (. . 1.2.3);

a b a b
c ,
a =b+c;

,
.

1 .

23

. 1.2.2

. 1.2.3

1.2.4.

a a

:
= 0 ,

24

0 , -

a;

a , > 0 ,

a , < 0 .

1.3.

1.3.1.

, 1.2 :
- (. 1.2.2);
- (. 1.2.3);
- (. 1.2.4),
.

, ,

a.

1.3.1.

o.

1.

a+b = b+a.

25

1 .

2.

a + (b + c ) = (a + b ) + c ;

( a ) = () a .
3.

( a + b ) = a + b ;

( + ) a = a + a

a , b c -


.
.

a b .
ABCD (. 1.3.1).

. 1.3.1

26

CD = a ; BD = b ,
, , ACD
,

ABD , AD = b + CD; AD = a + BD ,

a+b = b+a.


1.

, .
, ,
.

. 1.3.2

(
,
)

,

(
), .

27

1 .

, ( 1.3.1), , . 1.3.2,
500 .
, 1000 -/ ( )

2.

3.

500 2 700 -/. , , (


1.3.1) .
, , 1.3.1 , . ,
. , , , , ; , . , , , ,
.
,
1.3.1
.
, A , ,
. 0

A -

r ( 0 ) , r ().

28

r () r ( 0 ) (

) , 1.3.1.
, ,
. ,
,
, , , .
, ,
, , ,
.

1.4.
.

1.4.1.

, ,
.
, , .

.
.

1.4.2.

1 a1 + 2 a 2 + ... + n a n ,

i ; i = [1, n] ,

a1 , a 2 , ... , a n .

29

1 .

1 , 2 , ... , n -

1 + 2 + ... + n = 0) , .

(

1 , 2 , ... , n

1 + 2 + ... + n > 0 ), -


, , , , :
n

F (k ) + F (k + 1) + ... + F (n) = F (i ) ,
i=k

F (i ) i k n ), i , k , n , , F (i )
(:

1.4.1.

12 + 2 2 + ... + (n 1) 2 + n 2

i2
i =1

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
,
6

30

13 + 2 3 + ... + (n 1) 3 + n 3

i =1

n 2 (n + 1) 2
4

( i) ,

i =1

1
1
1
+
+ ... +
1 2 2 3
(n 1)n

n 1

i(i + 1)

i 1
.
i

i =1

1 a1 + 2 a 2 + ... + n a n

i ai .
i =1

1.4.3.

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n -

,
n

i ai , ,
i =1

1.4.4.

i ai = o .
i =1

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n n

i ai = o i =1

i =1

1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 .

i ai ,

31

1 .

1 , 2 , ..., n ,

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n ,

k =1

a k .

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n

1.4.1.

, .

1 , 2 , ..., n , -

, ,

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n -

k ak = o .
k =1

a1 = (
k =2

1 0 ,

k
) ak ,
1

.
.

a1 = k a k , (1 ) a1 + k a k = o ,
k =2

k =2

| 1 | + | 2 | + ... + | n | > 0 .


, .
.

a1 , a 2 , ..., a n , -

32

.
,

.
1.4.1.

1.4.2.

,
.

1.4.3.

,
.

1.4.1 1.4.2 . 1.4.3.


.

a1 , a 2 , a3

, , , 1 , 2 , 3 , ,

1 a1 + 2 a 2 + 3 a3 = o .
1.4.1 , , , .

, a1 a 2
.

a1 , a 2 , a3 . ,
.

a3 ,

a1 a 2 . b1 b2 ,

a3 = b1 + b2 (. 1.4.1).

33

1 .

b1 -

a1 ,

b2 a2 ,
1.4.1 1.4.2
,

b1 = 1 a1 ; b2 = 2 a 2 ,

. 1.4.1

a3 = 1 a1 + 2 a 2 ,

a1 , a 2 , a3 1.4.1 .

a1 a2 .


1.
2.
3.

,
.
,
.
,
.

1.4.4.

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } -

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } .

34

, k < n ( ),

1 , 2 , ..., k , ,

i ai = o .
i =1

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } , k

i , i = [1, k ] .

,
n

i ai = i ai +
i =1

i =1

0 ai = o .

i = k +1

1.4.1.

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n }

{a1 , a 2 , ..., a n } -

1.5. .

1.5.1.

, .
, .

35

1 .

1.5.2.

,
( ).

1.5.3.

, .

g1 , g 2 , g 3 , {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } . -

{e1 , e2 , e3 } .

1.5.1.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , x

x = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ,

1 , 2 , 3 .

1. .

g1 , g 2 , g 3 x O

O, g1 , g 2 (. 1.5.1).

x ,

36

z , x = z + y , z

g 3 ,

z g 3

z = 3 g 3 .

y O

1.4.3,

y = 1 g1 + 2 g 2

, ,

. 1.5.1

x = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ,

.
2. .

x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 , 1 , 2 , 3 , ,

x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 .

(1 1 ) g1 + ( 2 2 ) g 2 + ( 3 3 ) g 3 = o ,

37

1 .

1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 > 0 .
,

(1 1 ) g1 + ( 2 2 ) g 2 + ( 3 3 ) g 3

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,

,
1.5.1.
.
.

1.5.4.

1 , 2 , 3

x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

( )

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 :

1.

x( 1 , 2 , 3 ),

1

4. 2 ,

3

2.

(1 , 2 , 3 ),

1
5.

2 ,
3

3.

3 ,

38

x {g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

2 x
3

= 2 ,
3

, ,

x
g

x = 2 .
3

x {g1 , g 2 }

x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 ,

1
.
2

1.6.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } -


1 , 2 , 3 ,
,
.
, (), ,
.

39

1 .



:
1.6.1.
1.

x = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

y = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

, :

= y

x
g

2.

1 = 1

2 = 2 .
=
3
3

x = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

y = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

x+ y

3.

= x

+ y
g

.
g

x = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

40

x:

= x

,

.
( 1.3.1)

x+ y

= (1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ) + (1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 )
g

=
g

= (1 + 1 ) g1 + ( 2 + 2 ) g 2 + ( 3 + 3 ) g 3

=
g

1 + 1
1
1

= 2 + 2 = 2 + 2 = x
3 + 3

+ y
g

.
g

1.6.1.

x + y

x y:

41

1 .

1 + 1

2 + 2 = 2 + 2 .
3 + 3
3
3
,
.

1.6.2.

x y
, ,

x
g

1
2

1

2
det

1
2

1
= 0.
2

x y ,

1.4.1

1 = 1 ,

2 = 2 .

x = y

det

1
2

1 2 2 1 = 0, ,

1
= 0.
2

42

det

1
2

1
= 0,
2

1 2
=
1 0 ; 2 0 , 1 2

x y , .

1 2 = 0 .

1.6.3.

x
g

= 2 ,
3

y
g

= 2
3

{ x , y, z}

z
g

= 2
3

, ,

det 2
3

2
3

2 = 0.
3

x , y , z

1 x + 2 y + 3 z = o , -

43

1 .

1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 = 0 .
3
3
3
0
, ,

11 + 2 1 + 3 1 = 0,

1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 = 0,
+ + = 0,
2 3
3 3
1 3
( , 6.4.1)
, .
, , ,
() . ,

det 2
3

2
3

2 0
3

1 = 2 = 3 = 0,

.
,
( 2.6).
.

44

1.7.

1.7.1.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } O, -

()

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } ,

1.7.2.

, ( ) .

{O, g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,


M .

r , O , -

1.7.3.

1.7.4.

r = OM -

M {O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.

- M
M

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }.

45

1 .

1.7.1.

{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } -

M N ,

MN . MN .

. 1.7.1
.

OM = 2 ON = 2 .
3
3

OM + MN = ON

MN = ON OM .

MN = 2 2 .
3 3

. 1.7.1

1.7.2.

1 1

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

M 1 M 2 ,
1

OM 1 = 2
3

M, ,

OM 2 = 2 .
3

M 1 M = MM 2 .

46
.


, , 1 , M
(. 1.7.2). - M . OM 1 M OMM 2

OM1 + M 1 M = OM ; OM + MM 2 = OM 2 ,

M 1 M = MM 2 ,

OM OM 1 = (OM 2 OM )

OM =

OM 1 +
OM 2 .
1+
1+
- M

. 1.7.2

1 + 1
1+

2 + 2
OM =
.
1+
3 + 3
1+

: 1.7.2

1 .

1.8.

47

,
. , ,
, .
:

{O, g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } {O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } (. 1.8.1).

, OO . 1.5.1
:

g1 = 11 g1 + 21 g 2 + 31 g 3 ,
g 2 = 12 g1 + 22 g 2 + 32 g 3 ,

(1.8.1)

g 3 = 13 g1 + 23 g 2 + 33 g 3 ,

OO = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 .

1.8.1.

1 = 111 + 12 2 + 13 3 + 1 ,
2 = 211 + 22 2 + 23 3 + 2 ,
3 = 311 + 32 2 + 33 3 + 3 .

(1.8.2)

48

{O, g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } 2 ,

3
1
{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } 2 .
3


M .

OM = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

O M = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 =

= 1 (11 g1 + 21 g 2 + 31 g 3 ) +

+ 2 (12 g1 + 22 g 2 + 32 g 3 ) +
+ 3 (13 g 1 + 23 g 2 + 33 g 3 ) .

OM , O M OO

OM = O M + OO
. 1.8.1

49

1 .

1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 = o ,

1 = 1 + 111 + 12 2 + 13 3 + 1 ,
2 = 2 + 211 + 22 2 + 23 3 + 2 ,
3 = 3 + 311 + 32 2 + 33 3 + 3 .

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,

o , , 1 = 2 = 3 = 0

1 = 111 + 12 2 + 13 3 + 1 ,
2 = 211 + 22 2 + 23 3 + 2 ,
3 = 311 + 32 2 + 33 3 + 3 .
.

1.8.1.

(1.8.2)

{O, g 1 , g 2 , g 3 }

{O , g 1 , g 2 , g 3 } .


, (1.8.1) (1.8.2)
.
, (1.8.2),
,

S ,

50

1
,

2
3

11

12

13

S = 21
31

22
32

23 33

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

1.8.2.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

1.8.2.

11

12

13

det 21
31

22
32

23 0.
33

11

12

13

21
31

22
32

23
33

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

1.6.3 .
.

51

1 .

1.8.1.

{O, g 1 , g 2 } {O , g 1 , g 2 } (. 1.8.2).
, ,

1
g1 = O O g 2 = g1 .
2

, :

2 g 2 ,

g1 =

g 2 = g 1 + 2 g 2 .

S =

. 1.8.2

1
1
0 1
,
=
.
2
0
2 2

2 + 1,
1 =

2 = 21 + 2 2 .

{O, e1 , e2 } {O , e1 , e2 } . ,
. 1.8.3.

52

e1 = e1 cos + e2 sin e2 = e1 sin + e2 cos


:

S =

1
cos sin
, OO =
,
2
sin cos

1 = 1 cos 2 sin + 1 ,

2 = 1 sin + 2 cos + 2 .

. 1.8.3

OO O .
,
, , .

. 1.8.4.

e1

e1 ,

. 1.8.4

e2

1 .

53

, .

1 = 1 cos + 2 sin + 1 ,

2 = 1 sin 2 cos + 2 .
, . 1.8.3 . 1.8.4,
,

1.8.3.

b ,

a b

.

.

,
,

S , -

det S = 1 , det S = 1 ,

(
),
.

det S = 1

54


2.1.

2.1.1.

b .

b l.

2.1.2.
. 2.1.1

M ,
l,
,
M l

M , M .
, , .

2.1.3.

a l -

Prl a , l, -

55

2 .

a l,

a.

b , -

e=

{e}

|b|
l (. 2.1.1).
-

2.1.4.

a l

Prl a { e} 4.

a b , .

2.1.5.

a l

a . . 2.1.2 ,
l

l a = a cos , a e .

. 2.1.2


, : , , , ..

56


1.1.
:

Prl (a1 + a 2 ) = Prl a1 + Prl a 2 .


. 2.1.3.

. 2.1.3
1.2. , :

Prl ( a ) = Prl a .
, 1.1 1.2
:
:

Prl ( 1 a1 + 2 a 2 ) = 1 Prl a1 + 2 Prl a 2 .


1.1 1.2 .

57

2 .

2.1.

l (a1 + a 2 ) = l a1 + l a 2 ;

2.2.

l a = l a .

, 2.1 2.2,

l ( 1 a1 + 2 a 2 ) = 1 l a1 + 2 l a 2 .
,
.

2.2.

2.2.1.

b ,
.
,
,
.

a b

( a , b ) . , a b :

( a , b ) = | a || b | cos ,

-.
2.1.5, 0 .

b o ,

( a , b ) = b a .
b

58

1.

( a , b ) = 0 a o b o ,

a b .

2.

( a , b ) = ( b , a ) ().

3.

(a1 + a 2 , b ) = (a1 , b ) + (a 2 , b ) ().


.

b = o , 3 . b o ,

(a1 + a 2 , b ) = b (a1 + a 2 ) =
b

= b a1 + b a 2 = (a1 , b ) + (a 2 , b ).
b

4.

( a , b ) = ( a , b ) .

5.

(a, a ) = | a |2 0 a ; | a | = ( a, a )

( ,
).

6.

a o b o cos =

(a, b )

| a || b |

a b.

( a , a ) = 0 a = o -

59

2 .

2.3.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } a b , -

a = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 b = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 .

3 4

(a, b ) = ( 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 , 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ) =

= 11 ( g1 , g 1 ) + 1 2 ( g1 , g 2 ) + 13 ( g1 , g 3 ) +

+ 2 1 ( g 2 , g 1 ) + 2 2 ( g 2 , g 2 ) + 2 3 ( g 2 , g 3 ) +

+ 3 1 ( g 3 , g1 ) + 3 2 ( g 3 , g 2 ) + 3 3 ( g 3 , g 3 ) =

= ( j 1 ( g j , g1 ) + j 2 ( g j , g 2 ) + j 3 ( g j , g 3 ) ) =
j =1

= j i ( g j , g i ).
j =1 i =1

{e1 , e2 , e3 } -

,


1, i = j ,
(ei , e j ) = ij =
0, i j ,

ij .

(a, b ) = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 ,

60

a = 12 + 22 + 32

ao bo

cos =

1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3
12 + 22 + 32 12 + 22 + 32

cos 1 :
i ; i , i = [1, 3]
1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 12 + 22 + 32

12 + 22 + 32 .

2.3.1.

, .

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } - OM 2 = 2

OM 1 = 2 . ,
3

1.7.1,

M 1 M 2 = (1 1 ) e1 + ( 2 2 ) e2 + ( 3 3 ) e3

| M 1 M 2 | = (1 1 ) 2 + ( 2 2 ) 2 + ( 3 3 ) 2 .

61

2 .

2.4.

2.4.1.

{a , b , c } , (

b c .

{a , b , c } .

2.4.2.

a b c , ,

1)

| c | = | a | | b | sin ,

a b;

2)

c a -

b;

3)

{a , b , c } .

, (
, ),
.

a b

[ a , b ] . 2.4.2 ,

62

1)

[ a , b ] ,

a b;

2)

a b , .

1.

[ a , b ] = [ b , a ] (, 2.4.2 sin ).

2.

[ a , b ] = [ a , b ] (

[ a , b ]

[ a , b ]

3.

a b 0 ).

[ a + b , c ] = [ a , c ] + [b , c ] ().

2.4.1.

a b ,

l .

a b

l .

63

2 .

2.4.1

, l ( a + b ) = , l ( a ) + , l ( b ).
. 2.4.1.

. 2.4.1

2.4.2.

e = 1 p o , [ p, e ] -

p ,

e , e

O p e , e ,

p e.

p , -

e ,
,
(. 2.4.2):

64

[ p, e ] = p e

sin = p cos ( ) ,
2

e = 1. ,

[ p, e ] = (Pr e p ) , Pr e ( p) 2

,e

p , -

e.

. 2.4.2
.

.
3.

c = o , 3 . c o ,
2.4.1, 2.4.2 1.1 2.1

65

2 .

[a + b, c ] = | c | [a + b,

|c|

= | c | Pr
2

,c

= | c | ( [ a,

,c

b =

a ) + (Pr

|c|

] + [b ,

,c
2

a + Pr

= | c | (Pr

] = | c | Pr ( a + b ) =

,c

b) =

] ) = [ a , c ] + [ b , c ].

|c |

2.5.

g1 , g 2 , g 3 )

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ( , -

a b

a = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

2 3

[a, b ] = [ 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 , 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ] =

= 11[ g1 , g1 ] + 1 2 [ g1 , g 2 ] + 13 [ g1 , g 3 ] +

b = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 .

+ 2 1[ g 2 , g1 ] + 2 2 [ g 2 , g 2 ] + 2 3 [ g 2 , g 3 ] +

66

+ 3 1[ g 3 , g1 ] + 3 2 [ g 3 , g 2 ] + 3 3 [ g 3 , g 3 ] =
3

= j i [ g j , g i ].
j =1 i =1

f1 , f 2 f 3

[ g i , g j ] :

f 1 = [ g 2 , g 3 ] ; f 2 = [ g 3 , g1 ] ; f 3 = [ g 1 , g 2 ] .

[a , b ]
, 2- 3-
(. 1.1.1),

[a, b ] = ( 2 3 3 2 ) f1 (13 3 1 ) f 2 + (1 2 2 1 ) f 3 =
= det

2
2

f 1 det 1
3
1

f1

f2

f3

= det 1
1

2
2

3 .
3

f 2 + det 1
3
1

2
f3 =
2

{e1 , e2 , e3 } , , 2.4.2

f 1 = e1 ,

f 2 = e2 ,

f 3 = e3 .

67

2 .

e1

e2

e3

[a, b ] = det 1
1

2
2

3 .
3

2.5.1.

det

2
2

2.5.2.

a b , ,

= det 1
3
1

= det 1
3
1

2
=0,
2

1 2 3
=
=
.
1 2 3

S = det 2

2
2

+ det 2 1
3
1

+ det 2 1
3
1

S = det

a b , -

2
,
2

68

2.6.
( -) -

2.6.1.

a , b c ,

( a , b , c ) , ( [ a , b ], c ) .

2.6.1.

( a , b , c ) ,

a , b c .

a , b , c , ,
, .
.

a b , .

b ,

( a , b , c ) = | [ a , b ] | c ,
[ a,b ]

S = | [ a ,

b ] | ,

a b ,

| c | = | c | | cos |
[a ,b ]

69

2 .

S,
(. . 2.6.1)

V = (a , b , c ) .
,

(a, b, c ) =

= | [ a , b ] | | c | cos ,

.

. 2.6.1
.

1.

( a , b , c ) = ( c , a , b ) = (b , c , a ) =

= ( b , a , c ) = ( c , b , a ) = ( a , c , b ) ;

2.

( a , b , c ) = (a , b , c ) ;

3.

( a1 + a 2 , b , c ) = ( a1 , b , c ) + ( a 2 , b , c ) ,

2.6.1.

70

, , ,
.

2.7.

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } a , b c ,

a = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 , b = 1 g 1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3

c = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 .

[a, b ] = det

2
2

f 1 det 1
3
1

f 2 + det 1
3
1

2
f ,
2 3

f 1 , f 2 , f 3 2.5.


( g , g , g ), k = j ,
, ( g k , f j ) = 1 2 3
0,
k j,

( a , b , c )

(a, b, c ) = ([a, b ], c ) = 1 det

+ 3 det

2
2

2 det 1
3
1

1
( g 1 , g 2 , g 3 ) = det 1
1

2
2
2

3
+
3

3

3 ( g1 , g 2 , g 3 ) ,
3

71

2 .

, ,
3- . (. 1.1.1.)
. 1. 2.6.1 1.6.3.
2.

( e1 , e2 , e3 ) = 1 ,
1 2 3

(a, b, c ) = det 1
1

2
2

3 .
3

3. 2.5

f1 , f 2 , f 3 -

2.7.1.

{ f 1 , f 2 , f 3 } (

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ).

f 1 , f 2 , f 3 .
1 , 2 , 3 , ,

1 f1 + 2 f 2 + 3 f 3 = o .

g j , j = [1, 3] ,

1 ( f1 , g j ) + 2 ( f 2 , g j ) + 3 ( f 3 , g j ) = 0 , j = [1,3] .
(2.7.1)

72

( f i , g j ) , i = [1, 3] , j = [1, 3]


, i = j ,
( fi , g j ) =
, 0 . , 0, i j ,

( f i , g i ) , i = [1, 3] -

g1 , g 2 , g 3 -

( f i , g j ) , i j -

, .
(2.7.1),
, i = 0 , i = [1, 3] ,

f1 , f 2 , f 3 .

2.8.

2.8.1.

c [ a , [ b , c ]] .

2.8.1.

[ a , [ b , c ]] = b ( a , c ) c ( a , b )

a, b

a, b, c .

73

2 .
.

, a , b , c ,
,

( a , b ) ( a , c ) .

x = [ a , [ b , c ]]. -


1.

x [ b , c ] , a .

( x , [ b , c ]) = ( x , b , c ) = 0 ,

{ x , b , c } 1.4.1

x = b+ c ,

2.

( x , a ) = 0 ,

( b + c , a ) = 0 ( b , a ) + ( c , a ) = 0 .

3.

r , -

r ( x ) ,

b c;

( r , b ) = 0 ( r , c ) > 0 . (. . 2.8.1.)

( a , r , [ b , c ]) = ( a , [ r , [ b , c ]]) . ,

( r , b ) = 0

74

. 2.8.1

( a , r , [ b , c ]) = ( r ,a , [ b , c ]) = ( r , [ a , [ b , c ]]) = ( r , x ) =

= ( r , b + c ) = ( r , b ) ( r , c ) = ( r , c ).

[ r , [ b , c ]] b ,

> 0 , [ r , [ b , c ] ] = b .

( a , r , [ b , c ] ) = ( a , b ) .

b = [ r , [ b , c ] ] = r b c sin sin({ r ; [ b , c ]}) =



= r b c cos( ) = ( r , c ) b
2

= (r, c) ,

75

2 .

r [ b , c ] . ,

(a , r , [b , c ] ) = ( a , b ) ( r , c ) .

( a , r , [ b , c ] ) ,

( r , c ) = ( a , b ) ( r , c ) = ( a , b ) .
, , . 2, ,

= (a, c ) .
.

4 (. . 4.5).

2.9.


, ,
. , ( )

.

a b,
1

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } 2
3

76

1
2 , 3

k i ; k , i = 1, 2, 3 , -

11

1 2

1 3

2 1
3 1

2 2
32

2 3 .
3 3

(2.9.1)

, ,
.
, k i ; k , i = 1,2,3 , ( ) ,
.
, 2.9.1,
,
.

11

12

13

{e1 , e2 , e3 } S = 21

22
32

23 .
33

31

{e1 , e2 , e3 }

1.8,

et = pt e p ; t = 1, 2, 3 , p =1

77

2 .

s = si i ;
i =1

s = 1, 2, 3; s = st t ;

s = 1, 2, 3.

t =1

it (. 2.3),

{e1 , e2 , e3 } {e1 , e2 , e3 }

(ei , et ) = it = ( si e s , pt e p ) = si pt (es , e p ) =
s =1

p =1

s =1 p =1

= si pt sp = si st ; t = 1, 2, 3 .
s =1 p =1

s =1

s =1

si

st = it , i, t = 1, 2, 3,

11 + 2 2 + 3 3 {e1 , e2 , e3 } ,
:
3

= (
i =1

i =1

s =1

si

i )( st t ) = i t si st =
t =1

i =1 t =1

s =1

= i t it = t t .
i =1 t =1

11 + 2 2

t =1


+ 3 3

78

,
.
,

2 3 3 2 ,
3 1 13 ,
1 2 2 1 .
, .

79

3 .


,
-. ,
-, , .
3
. 3, 4 5 x , y z , .

3.1.

{O, g1 , g 2 } -

L,

r0 , -

a.

3.1.1.

a
L.

80

3.1.1.

L -

r = r0 + a ,

.
.

r L . a
L ,

r r0 (. 3.1.1) r

r = r0 + a

r r0 = a .

(, + ).

. 3.1.1

L . r
g

a
g

x
y

ax
, .
ay

r0
g

x0

y0

81

3 .

3.1.2.

Ax + By + C = 0 ,

A + B > 0.

r r0 a -

det

x x0
ax

y y0
=0.
ay

a y ( x x 0 ) a x ( y y 0 ) = 0 ,

Ax + By + C = 0 , A + B > 0 ,

A = a y ; B = a x , C = a y x 0 a x y 0 , ,


. ,

A + B >0

a o.

3.1.3.

Ax + By + C = 0, A + B > 0 ,
.

Ax + By + C = 0 , A + B > 0 .
x0 y 0 , Ax0 + By 0 + C = 0 .

82


,
A( x x0 ) + B( y y 0 ) = 0 .

r0
g

x0
a
y0

3.1.2 , ,

r0 -

a ,
A( x x0 ) + B( y y 0 ) = 0 .

, .
.

: 3.1.13.1.3 ,


, , , :
?

3.1.4.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0,

A1 + B1 > 0

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0,

A2 + B2 > 0

, , 0 ,
,

A1 = A2 ; B1 = B2 ; C1 = C 2 .

83

3 .
.


A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 .

1
1
1
A1 x + B1 y + C1 =

1
= ( A1 x + B1 y +C1 ) = 0 ,

0 , A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 .
A2 x + B2 y +C 2 =

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 ,

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0 .
.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0
. ( 3.1.2) 0 , ,
A1 = A2 ; B1 = B2 .
,

A2 x + B2 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0
, , C1 = C 2 .
.
:

. , (. 4.6)

= P sec( + 0 ) .

84

3.2.

{O, g1 , g 2 } . .
1.

r1 =

y 2 y1

r = r1 + ( r2 r1 )

r = (1 ) r1 + r2 .

y1

, , :

x 2 x1

x1

r2 =

a = r2 r1 =

x2

x x1
y y1
=
; ( x 2 x1 )( y 2 y1 ) 0;
x 2 x1 y 2 y1

y2

y = y1 x, y 2 = y1 ;
x = x1 y, x 2 = x1 .
,

x
det x1
x2

y
y1
y2

1
1 = 0.
1

3.2.1.

r1

r3 =

x3
y3

x1
y1

, r2

x2
y2

85

3 .

x1
det x 2
x3

y1

y2 1 = 0 .
y3 1

2.

(
,

r0 =

x0
y0

. 3.2.1

nx
n=
)
ny

r =

a = r r0 =

x x0
,
y y0

x
y

(. 3.2.1).

n r r0

( n , r r0 ) = 0 ,

( n , r ) = d , d = ( n , r0 ) .

86

( n , r ) = d ( n , r r0 ) = 0

d
r0 , , r0 = n .
( n, n )

{O, e1 , e2 }

n x ( x x0 ) + n y ( y y 0 ) = 0,

n x x + n y y = d , d = n x x0 + n y y 0 .
Ax + By + C = 0 , ,

n , n
g

A
B

, -

n -

3.2.1.

L .

3. -

{O, e1 , e2 }

Ax + By + C = 0, A + B > 0

A2 + B 2 .

87

3 .

cos =

A
A +B
2

; sin =

B
A +B
2

;=

C
A + B2
2


x cos + y sin + = 0 .
. 3.2.2.

. 3.2.2


,
,

Ax + By + C > 0 , A + B > 0
( ,
x y ),

Ax + By + C = 0 ,

A + B > 0.

L : ( n , r ) = d P ,
P+ P (. . 3.2.3).

88

. 3.2.3

3.2.2.

M -

R P+ ( P ),
> 0 ( < 0 ), ,

M M = n , M M L .

3.2.1.

M P+ ,

( n , R) > d .

89

3 .
.

M P+ , > 0 ,

M M = n . ( n , R) . M L ,

( n , OM ) = d ,

( n , R) = ( n , OM + M M ) = ( n , OM ) + ( n , M M ) =

= d + ( n , n ) > d

M M = n , ( n , OM ) = d

( n , R ) > d

( n , R) = ( n , OM + M M ) =

= ( n , OM ) + ( n , M M ) = d + ( n , n ) > d .

n o , > 0 , , M P+ .

3.2.1.

{O, g1 , g 2 }

L ( n , r r0 ) = 0 . -

, -

r1 =

x1
y1

90

1.

MK = n , r = r1 + n (. 3.2.4).
2.

K ,

( n , r1 + n r0 ) = 0 .

( n ,r1 r0 )
2

|n|
3.

MK ,

. 3.2.4

| MK | = | (r1 r0 ,

) |.

|n |
4. .

Ax + By + C = 0, A + B > 0 , ,

n=

A
B

| MK |=

A( x1 x0 ) + B( y1 y0 )
A2 + B 2

,
,

r0 L , -

Ax0 + By 0 + C = 0 ,

| MK | =

Ax1 + By1 + C
A2 + B 2

91

3 .

3.2.3.

3.2.2.

,
, .

, ,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0 .

1) , ,

( A1 x + B1 y + C1 ) + ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0
,
2) ,
,

( A1 x + B1 y + C1 ) + ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0
.
.

1.

r =

x
,
y

= A2 x + B2 y + C 2 , = ( A1 x + B1 y + C1 ) .
,

+ > 0 , r

. ,

( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 )( A1 x + B1 y + C1 )
( A1 x + B1 y + C1 )( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0

r , ,
, .

92


2. A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0
,
,
( A1 x + B1 y + C1 ) + ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0 .

(A1 + A2 ) x + (B1 + B2 ) y + (C1 + C 2 ) = 0


,

A1 + B1 > 0 ,
,

A2 + B2 > 0 + > 0

A1 + A2 + B1 + B2 > 0 .

, :

A1 + A2 = 0,
(3.2.1)

B1 + B2 = 0.
A1x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C 2 = 0 , , .
, . 3.1.4
, 0 ,

A1 = A2 B1 = B2 .

1.6.2

det

A1
B1

A2
= 0.
B2

det

A1
B1

A2
0
B2

1.1.2 3.2.1 . ,
,
= = 0 ,

+ > 0.

93

3 .

A1 + A2 + B1 + B2 > 0.
.

3.2.4.

( A1 x + B1 y + C1 ) + ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 ) = 0

.

3.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

S , - r0

p q S .

3.3.1.

3.3.1.

p q.

- S

= r0 + p + q ,

.
.

r S . p , q S , (. 3.3.1)

r r0

94

p q

r r0 = p + q ,

, ,

r = r0 + p + q ,

(, + )
(, + ).

. 3.3.1

S .

r
g

= y , p
z

= py
pz

qx

px

q
g

= q y , .
qz

3.3.2.

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ,

A + B + C > 0.

r r0 ,

p q -

1.6.3

95

3 .

det

x x0

y y0

z z0

px
qx

py
qy

pz
qz

= 0.

A( x x0 ) + B( y y 0 ) + C ( z z 0 ) = 0 , Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, A , B C -

1.1.1

A = det

py
qy

pz
p
; B = det x
qz
qx

C = det

px
qx

py
,
qy

pz
;
qz

D = Ax0 By 0 Cz 0 , , , ,

.
A , B

C p q 2.5.1.
.

3.3.3.

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ,

A + B + C > 0 .

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ,

A + B + C >0

96

C 0

x+
det

DA
A + B2 +C2

y+

DB
A + B2 + C 2

z+

det

DA
A + B2

y+

DB
A + B2
2

z+0

p
g

= C
B

= 0,

p q

= 0,

C = 0
x+

DC
A + B2 + C 2
2

0 C 0 , , C = 0 ,
A

p
g

A
0

q
g

= 0 .
1

, ,
.
.

97

3 .

3.3.1.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , , :

x1

x2

x3

r1 = y1 ; r2 = y 2 ; r3 = y 3 .
z1
z2
z3
. ,

r2 r1 r3 r1 .
, -

r r r1 .

{ r r1 , r2 r1 r3 r1 }
,

( r r1 , r2 r1 , r3 r1 ) = 0 ,
( 2.7)

x x1

y y1

z z1

det x 2 x1
x3 x1

y 2 y1
y 3 y1

z 2 z1 = 0.
z 3 z1

3.3.2.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } ,

r0 = x0

y0

z0

n = nx

ny

nz .

98

. -

r ,

, ..

r r0 n -

( r r0 , n ) = 0 .

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 }

n x ( x x0 ) + n y ( y y 0 ) + nz ( z z0 ) = 0
,

A = n x ; B = n y ; C = n z -

D = n x x0 n y y 0 n z z 0 ,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .

3.3.1.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 }

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, A + B + C > 0,

n = B .
C

3.3.2.

3.3.3.

( r r0 , n ) = 0 .

A B C

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, A + B + C > 0.

99

3 .

3.3.3.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } M -

r = y ( r r0 , n ) = 0 .
z

1.

K M

, MK = n r = r + n .
(. 3.3.2.)
2. K ,

( n , r r0 )
2

|n|

| MK | =

= | ( r r0 ,

)|.

|n |
. .

( n , r + n r0 ) = 0 , ,

. 3.3.2

100

n = A B C
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .
T

| MK | =

| A( x x0 ) + B( y y 0 ) + C ( z z 0 ) |
A2 + B 2 + C 2

r0 ,
Ax0 + By 0 + Cz 0 + D = 0 ,

A + B + C > 0 , -

| MK | =

3.3.4.

| Ax + By + Cz + D |
A2 + B 2 + C 2

A1 + B1 + C1 > 0

A2 + B2 + C2 > 0 ,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,
A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D 2 = 0

,
.
.

. ,
0 ,

A1 = A2 ; B1 = B2 ; C1 = C 2 ,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0

101

3 .

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D2 = 0.

D1 D2 ,
D1 = D2 ,

.
.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

. .
, x = 0 z = 0 .
, ,

x = 0,
x = 0,

B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0.

,

B1 = B2 ; C1 = C 2 .

z = 0 ,

z = 0,
z = 0,

A1 x + B1 y + D1 = 0
A2 x + B2 y + D2 = 0,
B1 = B2
, A1 = A2 .
.

102

3.3.2.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0, A1 + B1 + C1 > 0
A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0, A2 + B2 + C 2 > 0
, , 0, ,

A1 = A2 ; B1 = B2 ; C1 = C 2 ; D1 = D2 .

3.3.4.

,
.

3.3.5.

,
,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,
A1 + B1 + C1 > 0

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0,
A2 + B2 + C 2 > 0,

( A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 ) +
+ ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 ) = 0,
+ > 0.

3.3.6.

,
.

103

3 .

3.3.7.

P ,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,
A1 + B1 + C1 > 0,

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0,
A2 + B2 + C 2 > 0

A3 x + B3 y + C 3 z + D3 = 0,
A3 + B3 + C 3 > 0,
,

( A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 ) +
+ ( A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 ) +
+ ( A3 x + B3 y + C 3 z + D3 ) = 0,
+ + >0
, P .
, 3.2.1 .

3.4.


1.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

r = x

104

ax

x0

a = a y r0 = y 0 , az
z0

a r r0 ,

2.

r = r0 + a .

r = r0 + a
x = x 0 + a x ,

y = y 0 + a y ,
z = z + a ,
0
z

x x0 y y 0 z z 0
=
=
,
ax
ay
az
.

a x a y a z = 0

, 3.2 (1).

3. ,

x 2 x1
r2 r1 = y 2 y1 ,
z 2 z1

105

3 .

r = r1 + (r2 r1 )

x1

r1 = y1
z1

x2

r2 = y 2
z2

r = (1 ) r1 + r2 .

x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
,
x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1

( x2 x1 )( y2 y1 )( z 2 z1 ) 0 .
4.
1

(n1 , r ) = d 1

(n2 , r ) = d 2 ,

n1 n2 ,
, d1 d 2 .

, r0 , , -
:


(n1 , r r0 ) = 0,

(n2 , r r0 ) = 0.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,

A2 x + B2 y + C 2 z + D2 = 0.

106

5.

2- - a

r r0 ,

[ a , r r0 ] = o

[ a , r ] = b , b = [ a , r0 ] .
,

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 }

e1
det a x

e2
ay

a y z a z y = b x ,
e3

a z = b a z x a x z = b y ,
a y a x = b .
z
y
z
x

,
, .
, a x , a y

a z , 0 = 0 , a x , a y a z

bx = a y z 0 a z y 0 ,

b y = a z x 0 a x z 0 ,
b = a y a x .
x 0
y 0
z

107

3 .

, d

r = r0 + a , , S
, ,
. . 3.4.1

. 3.4.1

d=

[ R r0 , a ]

3.5.



.
, ,
, , ,
/ .

3.5.1.

( r r01 , n1 ) = 0

( r r02 , n2 ) = 0

n1 n2 .

108

3.5.2.

( r r0 , n ) = 0

r = r0 + a ,
2

n a.

3.5.13.5.3

.
3.5.1


1.

r = r01 + a1

r = r02 + a 2 .

0 , ,

a1 = a 2 .

2.

[a1 , a2 ] = o .

(a1 , a 2 ) = 0.

r = r01 + a1

r = r02 + a 2 .

1.

r = r0 + a

0 , ,

a = [n1 , n2 ] .

(n1 , r ) = d1 ,

(n2 , r ) = d 2 .

2.

[ a , [n1 , n2 ]] = o .

109

3 .

( a , n1 , n2 ) = 0.

r = r0 + a


(n1 , r ) = d1 ,

(n2 , r ) = d 2 .

1.

r = r01 + a1

0 0,

r = r02 + a 2 .

a1 = a2

r01 r02 = a1 .

2.

[ a1 , a 2 ] = o

[r01 r02 , a1 ] = o .

r = r01 + a1

[ a1 , a 2 ] o

(r01 r02 , a1 , a 2 ) = 0.

r = r02 + a 2 .

r = r01 + a1

r = r02 + a 2 .

[ a1 , a 2 ] o

(r01 r02 , a1 , a 2 ) 0 .

110


3.5.2

1.

r = r01 + p1 + q1

[ p1 , q1 ] = [ p 2 , q 2 ]

(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0 .

0, ,

r = r02 + p 2 + q 2 .

2.

[[ p1 , q1 ],[ p2 , q 2 ]] = o

(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) 0.

1.

r = r01 + p1 + q1

(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) = 0 .

r = r02 + p 2 + q 2 .

r = r01 + p1 + q1

r = r02 + p 2 + q 2 .

[[ p1 , q1 ],[ p2 , q 2 ]] = o

2.

r = r01 + p1 + q1

(r01 r02 , p1 , q1 ) = 0 .

[ p1 , q1 ] = [ p 2 , q 2 ]

r = r02 + p 2 + q 2 .

0, ,

( [ p1 , q1 ], [ p 2 , q 2 ]) = 0 .

111

3 .

r = r0 + p + q



( p , n ) = 0
( n , r0 ) d .

( q , n ) = 0

( n, r ) = d .

r = r0 + p + q



( p , n ) = 0

(
n , r0 ) = d .

( q , n ) = 0

( n, r ) = d .

1.

r = r0 + p + q

[ p, q ] = n .

( n, r ) = d .

0, ,

2.

[[ p, q ], n ] = o .

3.5.3

r = r01 + a

r = r02 + p + q .


1.

; ; + > 0,

a = p+ q

(r01 r02 , p, q ) 0 .

112

2.

1.

0,

a = [ p, q] .

r = r01 + a

r = r02 + p + q .


( a , p, q) = 0,

(r01 r02 , p, q) = 0.

2.

[ a ,[ p , q ]] = o .

( a , n) = 0

r = r01 + a

( n , r0 ) d .

( n, r ) = d .

( a , n) = 0,

(r0 , n) = d .

r = r01 + a

( n, r ) = d .

1.

r = r01 + a

0, ,

a =n.

( n, r ) = d .

2.

[a, n] = o .

1.

; ; + > 0, ,

(n1 , r ) = d1 ,

(n2 , r ) = d 2

( n, r ) = d .

2.

n = n1 + n2 .

[ n ,[ n1 , n2 ]] = o .

113

3 .

, 3.5.13.5.3
.

5. , , ,


(n1 , r ) = d1 ,

(n2 , r ) = d 2 ,

r = r0 + a .

a = [ n1 , n2 ] , - r0

n1 n2 .

r0 = n1 + n2 ,

(n1 , r0 ) = d1 ,
=
=
,

(n2 , r0 ) = d 2

= det

(n1 , n1 )

(n1 , n2 )

(n2 , n1 ) (n2 , n2 )

= det

d1

(n1 , n2 )

d2

(n2 , n2 )

5
, ,
, , . (., ,
3.5.2.)

114

= det

(n1 , n1 )

d1

(. 1.1.2).

(n2 , n1 ) d 2
,

n1 n2 0 .

r = r0 + a ,

r0 a . -

n1 = [ a , r0 ] n2 = [ a , n1 ] . ,

(. 2.8),

n2 = [ a , n1 ] = [ a , [ a , r0 ]] = ( a , r0 ) a ( a , a ) r0 = ( a , r0 ) a a r0 .

d 1 d 2 , , d1 = (n1 , r0 )

d 2 = (n2 , r0 ) . r0 a
.

.

3.5.1.

( n , r ) = d 0 -

r = r0 + a . - -

3 .

115

. 1. ,

( n , a ) = 0 , ,

(n, a ) 0 .

r = r0 + n , r

2.

-
,
(. 3.5.1).

,

. 3.5.1

( n , r0 + a ) = d 0 .

d ( n, r0 )

( n, a )

d ( n , r0 )
, , r = r0 +
a.

( n, a )

3.5.2.

r = r0 + a .

, .

. 1. -

, (. 3.5.2).

rx - -

= | R rx | .

116

2.

rx

( a , R rx ) = 0

rx = r0 + a , , , -

. 3.5.2

( R r0 , a )
rx = r0 +
a

2
|a|

( R r , a ) ( R r0 , a )
( R r0 0
a ,R r0
a)
2
2
|a|
|a|

| R r0 |
2

( R r0 , a ) 2

| a |2
,
2 2

= ( p, q ) 2 + [ p, q ]

[ R r0 , a ]
3.4

|a|

3.5.3.

r = r02 + a 2 .

r = r01 + a1

117

3 .

1. a1 a 2 ,
. 3.4.1

| [r02 r01 , a1 ] |

| a1 |

| a1 |

2. a1 a 2 ,
,
,

r01 , -

r02 (. 3.5.3).

. 3.5.3

a1 , a 2

r02 r01 , , -

,
,
,

(r02 r01 , a1 , a 2 )

. ,

| (r02 r01 , a1 , a 2 ) |

| [a1 , a 2 ] |

118

3.5.4.

( n , r ) = [ p, r ] = q .

R - .
.

n , [ n ,[ p, r ]] = [ n , q ] .

R 2.8,

p ( n , R) R ( n , p ) = [ n , q ] .

( n , R) = ,

( n , p ) 0

R=

p [ n, q ]

( n , p)

4 .

119



4.1.



).

4.1.1.

{O, g1 , g 2 } -

, (, -

r
g

r = F () (

Fx ()
,
F y ( )

Fx (), Fy () ,
, ),

1)

r = F () -

L;

2)

r0 , L, -

0 , ,

r0 = F ( 0 ) .

120

G ( x , y ) = 0 , x = Fx ()

, .
y = Fy ()

4.1.1.

1.

r = r0 + a , a , r0

x = x 0 + a x ,
(,+ ) ,

y = y 0 + a y ,
Fx () = x0 + a x ,
(, + ) ,

(
)
,
F

=
y
+

a
y
0
y

Ax + By + C = 0 , A + B > 0 ,
G ( x , y ) = Ax + By + C .

2.

x = x0 + R cos ,
[0,2) ,

y = y 0 + R sin ,
Fx () = x0 + R cos ,
[0,2) ,

Fy () = y 0 + R sin ,

( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 = R 2 ,
2
2
2
G ( x , y ) = ( x x 0 ) + ( y y 0 ) R .

x0
y0

4 .

4.1.2.

121

,

m

k =0

pk

qk

= 0 , p k q k -

k -

4.1.3.

N = max { pk + q k }
k =[ 0 , m ]

, 4.1.2, k ,

k 0 . -

, ,
.

4.1.2
( ).

4.1.1.

x + 3y + 2 = 0

( N = 1)

y x2 = 0

( N = 2)

xy 1 = 0

( N = 2)

x 3 + y 3 xy = 0

( N = 3)

{O, g1 , g 2 } G ( x , y ) = 0 N .

{O, g1 , g 2 } . , (1.8.2),

122

x = 11 x + 12 y + 1 ,

y = 21 x + 22 y + 2 ,
L

G (11 x + 12 y + 1 , 21 x + 22 y + 2 ) = 0.
4.1.2, N N ,
.

{O, g1 , g 2 } {O, g1 , g 2 } , N N
N = N .
.

, .

4.1.4.

1.

x 0,


y 0,
x + y 3 0

,
3.
2.

x + y 4 0 2
.
2

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .

4 .

4.1.4.

123

r = F () (

Fx ()

y = Fy () ,
z
Fz ()
Fx ( ), Fy ( ), Fz ( ) ,

, ),

1)

r = F () -

L,

2)

r0 , L, -

0 , ,

r0

= F ( 0 ) .

G ( x, y, z ) = 0,

H ( x, y, z ) = 0,

x = Fx (),

y = Fy (),
z = F (),
z

, ,

G 2 ( x, y , z ) + H 2 ( x, y , z ) = 0 .

4.1.3.

1.

x 2 + y 2 = 0 z .

124


2.


R 2a
:

x = R cos ,

y = R sin , (,+) ,
z = a

x = R cos a ,

z
y = R sin .
a

4.2.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , ,
: , .

4.2.1.

,
-

r = F (, ) (
Fx (, )

r
g

= Fy (, ) ,
Fz (, )

Fx (, ), Fy (, ), Fz (, )
, , , ),

4 .

1)

125

, r = F (, ) S,

2)

r0 , S,

0 , 0 , ,

r0

= F ( 0 , 0 ) .

G ( x , y , z ) = 0 ,

x = Fx (, ),

y = Fy (, ), , .
z = F (, ).
z

4.2.1.

x0
R

y0
z0

x = x0 + R cos sin ,

y = y 0 + R sin sin ,
z = z + R cos ,
0

0 < 2,
0 ,

( x x0 ) 2 + ( y y0 ) 2 + ( z z0 ) 2 = R 2 .

126

4.2.2.

,

m

k =0

pk

y kz

rk

= 0 , p k , q k rk

4.2.3.

N = max { pk + q k + rk } k =[ 0 ,m ]

, ( 4.2.2), k,
k 0 . , , .

4.2.2
( ).

4.2.1.

x2 + y2 1 = 0

( N = 2)

x2 + y2 + z2 R2 = 0

( N = 2)

4.1.1.
: , -

4 .

127

4.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 , g 3 }

r = F () , , .
, ,

4.3.1.

a.
,
, .

r = F () + KM (. . 4.3.1),

KM = a ,
, ,

r (, ) = F () + a , , (, + ).

Fx ()

F ()
g

= Fy ()
Fz ()

ax

a
g

= ay ,
az


x Fx () y Fy () z Fz ()
=
=
.
ax
ay
az

128

4.3.1.


,
-

3, , , ,
- , , c

3 cos
0
x = 3 cos ,

y = 3 sin , F () = 3 sin ; a = 0 .
z = ,
0
1

,
, x + y = 9
z , ,
N =2.
2

. 4.3.1

. 4.3.2

4 .

129

( ), , , A (

) - r0 .
,
,
.

4.3.2.

r = F () + KM ,
(. . 4.3.2)

KM = (r0 F ()) ,
, ,

r (, ) = (1 ) F () + r0 , , (, + ).

x0

r0
g

= y 0 , z0


y Fy ()
x Fx ()
z Fz ()
=
=
.
x0 Fx () y 0 Fy () z 0 Fz ()

4.3.2.

,

-

3, , , ,

130

r0 = 0 0 1 ,
T

(. 4.3.1):

x 3 cos y 3 sin
z
=
=
, [0,2) .
3 cos
3 sin
1
,

= 2.

x2 y2
+
( z + 1) 2 = 0 ,
9
9

4.4.

{O, e1 , e2 } L .

4.4.1.

4.1.2 4.1.3
, L ,

Ax 2 + 2 Bxy + Cy 2 + 2 Dx + 2 Ey + F = 0, (4.4.1)
A , B C ,
x y - , L .
4.4.1 ,

4 .

131

{O , e1 , e2 } ,
.

4.4.1.

(
a b > 0, p > 0 ) ( ) :
4 .4 .1

>0

x 2 y 2
+
= 1
a2 b2

x 2 y 2
+ 2 =0
a2
b

<0

=0
y 2 = a 2
x

y2 = 0
x

x 2 y 2
y2 = a 2

=
0
a2
b2
x

x 2 y 2
+ 2 =1
a2
b

x2 y2

=1
a2 b2

y 2 = 2 px

132

= det

A B
= AC B 2 .
B C

1. , : B 0 A C .
, B < 0 , 4.4.1. A < C , ,
,

e1 = e2 ; e2 = e1 ; OO = o , ,
x = y ; y = x 1.8. ,

,
C B
A B
det
= det
=.
B A
B C

B = 0 , 4 . 135.
B > 0 , -

2.

{O, e1 , e2 } ,
O 0 < / 4, ,
x y

. . (. 1.8):


e
=
e
cos

+
e
1
1
2 sin ,

e2 = e1 sin + e2 cos ,

O
O
=
o,

{O, e1 , e2 } {O, e1 , e2 }

4 .

133

x = x cos y sin ,

y = x sin + y cos .
, 4.4.1

A( x cos y sin ) 2 +
+ 2 B( x cos y sin )( x sin + y cos ) +
+ C ( x sin + y cos ) 2 + 2 D( x cos y sin ) +
+ 2 E ( x sin + y cos ) + F = 0,

A x 2 + 2 B x y + C y 2 + 2 D x + 2 E y + F = 0 .
,

A = A cos 2 + 2 B cos sin + C sin 2 ,


2 B = 2 A sin cos + 2 B cos 2
2 B sin 2 + 2C sin cos ,
C = A sin 2 2 B sin cos + C cos 2 .

B = 0 ,
2 B cos 2 ( A C ) sin 2 = 0,

tg 2 =

2B
1
2B
; = arctg
, A > C ,
AC
2
AC

A = C , . 4
,

tg 2 +

AC
tg 1 = 0, B 0,
B

B = 0 , .

134

3. ,
A + C . ,

1 + ctg 2 2 = 1 + (

sin 2 =

0<

AC 2
1
=
)
2B
sin 2 2

2B
4B 2 + ( A C ) 2

; cos 2 =

AC
4B 2 + ( A C ) 2

A C
1 + cos 2
1 cos 2
A = A
+ B sin 2 + C
=
2
2
A+C AC
A+C
=
+
cos 2 + B sin 2 =
+
2
2
2
AC
AC
2B
+
+B
=
2
4B 2 + ( A C) 2
4B 2 + ( A C ) 2

A+C 1
+
4B 2 + ( A C ) 2 .
2
2

C =

A+C 1

4B 2 + ( A C ) 2 .
2
2

= det

A+C
2

1
(4 B 2 + ( A C ) 2 ) =
4
A B
= AC B 2 = det
= ,
B C
= AC =

4 .

135

. ,
A + C = A + C .
4. , B = 0 , 0 = 0

Ax 2 + Cy 2 + 2 Dx + 2 Ey + F = 0 .
0 . , A 0 C 0

D 2
E 2 D2 E 2
+C y+
=
+
F.
A
C
A
C
D2 E 2
+
F , , P =
A
C
A x+

e
=
e
D

1
1,

x
=
x

A
e2 = e2 ,

E
y = y ,

D E
C
OO = e1 e2 ,
A
C

2
2
Ax + Cy = P , ,

x2
P
| |
A
2
x
| C |2

) (
2

y2
| A |2

y2
P
| |
C

= 1 ;

P 0,

= 0;

P = 0,

, ,
:

136

x2 y 2
+ 2 = 0;
a2
b
2
x
y2
2 = 0;
a2
b

x2 y2
+ 2 = 1;
a2
b
2
x
y2

= 1;
a2 b2

x 2 y 2
+ 2 = 1 > 0,
a2
b
2
x
y2

= 1 < 0.
a2 b2

(. 4.4.1),
1 x y .
5. = 0 . , AC = 0 , A = 0 ,
C = 0 ( !). A = 0 ( ,
x y ),

Cy 2 + 2 Dx + 2 Ey + F = 0
E
C

C y+

E2
F 2 Dx, C 0.
C

D = 0

C y+

E
C

E2
F,
C

y 2 = a 2 ; y 2 = 0; y 2 = a 2 .
D 0 ,
E 2
2D
1 E2
y+
=
x
F ,
C
C
2D C
2
2
, , y = 2 px , y = 2 px ,
p > 0.

))

4 .

137


(. 4.4.1), :


e
=

e
1
1,
x = x ,

e2 = e2 ,

y = y .

O
O
=
o
,

.
.

1. 4.1.1 , , 4.4.1 , .
2. ,


,
4.4.1, . ,
(. 5.4),
,
4.4.1, .
3.
,
.
4. 4.4.1
, ,
,
.

138


1.

4.5.

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } .

4.5.1.

4.2.2 4.2.3
, S
,

A11 x 2 + A22 y 2 + A33 z 2 +


+ 2 A12 xy + 2 A13 xz + 2 A23 yz +

(4.5.1)

+ 2 A14 x + 2 A24 y + 2 A34 z + A44 = 0,


A11 ; A22 ; A33 ; A12 ; A13 ; A23
, x, y z - , S.
, (4.5.1)
,
, .

4.5.1.

{O , e1 , e2 , e3 } , :

4 .

x2 y 2
+ 2 +
a2
b
z2
+ 2 = 1
b

x 2 y 2
+ 2 +
a2
b
z2
+ 2 =0
b

x2 y2
+ 2 = 1
a2
b
z

x 2 = a 2
y , z

x2 y2
+ 2 =0
a2
b
z

x2 y 2

=0
a2 b2
z

x 2 = a 2 y , z
x 2 = 0 y , z

139

x2 y2
+ 2 =1
a2
b
z

x2 y 2

=1
a2 b2
z

y 2 = 2 px
z

x 2 y 2
+ 2
a2
b
2
z
2 =0
c

140

x 2 y 2 z 2
+
+
=1
a2 b2 c2

x 2 y 2
+
= 2 z
a 2 b2

x 2 y 2

= 2 z
a 2 b2

a >0, b>0, c>0,

x 2 y 2 z 2
+

=1
a2 b2 c2

x 2 y 2 z 2

=1
a 2 b2 c2

p > 0.


, ,

4.4.1,
, 4.5.1 , 12.2.


2.

4 .

141

4.6.

, .

{, } ,

= OM , = ( OM , OP ) ,

0, 0 < 2 .
O ,
OP .

. 4.6.1

(. 4.6.1). .

:

x = cos ,

y = sin ,

cos =

= x2 + y2 ;
x
; sin =
x2 + y2

y
x2 + y2


, .

142

, , -

x 2 + y 2 = 1 ,
= 1 .

, 1 , ,
(1 cos ) p = 0 , > 0 p > 0 ,
, p :
0 < < 1 , = 1 > 1 . 4.6.2.

. 4.6.2.

4 .

143

, (1 cos ) p = 0 . ,

= x 2 + y 2 cos =

x
x +y
2

x 2 + y 2 (1

x
x + y2
2

) p = 0,

>0

p > 0 (1 ) x + y = 2 px + p .
2

= 1 , .
:

(x

1,

p 2
1
p2
2
)
+
y
=
.
1 2
1 2
(1 2 ) 2

, 4 4.4.1,
, 0 < < 1 ,
.

> 1 -

(1 cos ) p = 0 , ( ) , , , 4.4.1.

= 0 p 0 , = 0
p = 0 , p = 0 cos = 1
,

144

. 4.6.3.

4.6.1.

(1 cos ) p = 0 p 0 , 0,

.
, ,
, , 4.6.3.


, ,
.

4 .

145

{, , } (. 4.6.4),

= OM , = (Ox, OP) , = (OM , Oz ) ,


0 ; 0 < 2 ; 0 .


,

. ,


= 1 .

x = cos sin ,

y = sin sin ,
z = cos ,

. 4.6.4

146

2
2
2
; sin =
= x + y + z ; cos =
2
2
x
y
+

z
cos =
.

2
x + y2 + z2

y
x + y2
2


, ,

.

{, , h}
(. 4.6.5),

= OM , = (Ox, OP) ,
. 4.6.5

0 ; 0 < 2 ; h (, + ).

:

x = cos ,

y = sin ,
z = h,

cos =

= x2 + y2 ;
x
x2 + y2

; sin =

y
x2 + y2

; h = z.

147

5 .


5.1.

5.1.1.

C m n
ji i = [1, n] , j = [1, m]

m l
jk j = [1, m] , k = [1, l ]

B l n
ki k = [1, l ] , i = [1, n] ,

l

ji = jk ki i = [1, n] , j = [1, m] .
k =1

C -

m n l ,
C = A B .


. 5.1.1.

5.1.1.

, .
1.

A 2 2 , B

2 1 , C 2 1 .

148

C = A
=

B =

11

12

11

21

22

21

1111 + 12 21
2111 + 22 21

11 12

...

1i

...

1n

21 22

...

2i

...

2n

11 12

...

...

...

...

...

1l

21 22

...

...

...

...

...

2l

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

jl

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ml

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

li

...

ln

...

...

j1 j2
...

...

m1 m2

l1 l 2

11 12

...

1i

...

1n

21 22

...

2i

...

2n

...

...

...

...

...

ji

...

jn

...

...

...

...

...

mi

...

mn

...

...

j1 j2
...

...

m1 m2

ji =jk ki
k=1

. 5.1.1

2.

C = B

A 2 2 , B 1 2 ,

C 1 2 .
A = 11

12

11
21

= 1111 + 2112

12
=
22
12 11 + 22 12 .

149

5 .

3.

A B 2 2 ,

C 2 2.


,
:
1)

2)

B B

A ( B
3)

A ,

C )=( A

B ) C ,

A ( B + C )= A

B + A

C .

, ,
.
, ( , )

(. 1.1)

5.1.2.

A .

A ,
A

A = A

= E .

150

A ,

. ,

det A 0 6.

5.1.3.

A , det A = 0 ,

, ,

det A 0 ,

5.1.1.

, .

A -

1
1

1
1

= E

1
2

= E

1
1

= E E = O .

1
1

, -

1
1

, ,

A ( A
A

1
1

1
1

1
2

)= A

1
1

O = O

A = E ,
A

1
1

1
2

= O .

.
6

n 6.

151

5 .

A =

det A 0 , A

11

12

21

22

22 12
1

.
(5.1.1)
11
det A 21
n 7 A

B ) = det ( A ) det ( B ) ;

det ( A

det A

5.1.2.

1
det A

, det A 0 .

111 + 12 2 = 1 ,

211 + 22 2 = 2

x =

1
;
2

x = b ,

b =

1
2

; A =

x = A

5.1.3.

11
21

12
,
22

b .

(1.8.2)

n = 2 1.1.9, n 6.

152

g1

g2 = S

5.1.1.

2 = S
3

g3

g2
g3

1
1
2 + 2 ,
3
3

g1

( A

B )T = B

A B ,

, ,
.

ik , kj , i j A , B

C = A

B . , -

5.1.1,
l

ij = ik kj .
k =1

, , 1.1.8
l

k =1

k =1

k =1

iTj = j i = j k k i = Tk j iTk = iTk Tk j ,


, 5.1.1,
.
.

153

5 .

g1

g1

g2 = S

g 2

g 3 = g 1

g3
g1

g2
g3

g2

g3 S .

5.1.2.

n -

n - ,

Q .
.

11
21
Q =
...
n1

12
22
...
n2

... 1n
... 2 n
.
... ...
... nn

0
...

1 , i.
...
0

154

1i
0
0
...
...
...
1 = ii = 0 i ...
...
...
ni
0
0

.
.

5.1.2.

A B

B ) 1 = B

( A

1.

B ) 1 -

( A

n-

x c . -

B ) 1 x = c

, ,

( A

x = A

(. 5.1.1 5.1.2).

2. , ,

1
1

x = B
A

x = c .

3.

( A

B ) 1 x = c

x = c ,

155

5 .

B ) 1 B

(( A

) x = o ,

5.1.2

x ,
( A

B ) 1 B

.
.

5.1.1.

( A

1 T

) = ( A T ) 1 .

5.1.4.

Q , -

= Q , .

, , .

5.1.3.

Q -

det Q = 1 .

= Q

Q , 5.1.2 T

Q = Q Q

det 2 Q = 1 ,

= E . ,

156

det E = 1 .

5.1.4.

Q ,

det Q = 1 ,

cos sin
, , sin
cos

cos
sin

det Q = 1

sin
.
cos

Q =

11
21

12
22

Q Q

11
21

12 11
22 12

21
= E
22

, ,
2
2
11
+ 12
11 21 + 12 22

1 0
11 21 + 12 22
=
.
2
2
0 1
21 + 22

5 .

157



2
2
11
+ 12
=1,

11 21 + 12 22 = 0 ,
2 + 2 = 1 ,
22
21

,
5.1.3, ,

det Q = 1 .

det Q = 1 .


11 22 12 21 = 1 ,
2
2
(11
+ 12
) + ( 221 + 222 ) 2(11 22 12 21 ) = 0

(11 22 ) 2 + (12 + 21 ) 2 = 0 , ,

11 = 22 ,

12 = 21 .
2
2
11
+ 12
= 1 ; 221 + 222 = 1
2
2
0 11 1 ; 0 21 1 ,

Q ,

11 = cos
,

21 = sin
2
11
+ 221 = 1 .

det Q = 1 .

158

5.1.1.

1.8 ,

cos sin
cos
sin

,
sin
cos
sin cos

S 5.1.4.

5.2. .

(
, ,
, ,
)
,
.

5.2.1.

, , A
, ,

.

159

5 .

y = A x,

A :

x ,

y . y
x , x y .

5.2.2.


, ,
.

, : , y = ( x ), x .

5.2.1.

1.

y ,

x l ,
,

y = Pr l x l .

,
2.

A = Pr l .

[, ]

f () f () ,

d
f () ,
d
= d .
A
d
f () =

160

3.

. ,
, .

4.

[, ] f ()

f ()d ,

( f ) = f ()d

5.2.3.

[, ] .

, (
A
) P
Q, ,
P
Q .

A : P Q . M P M

M ( Q, M = A

M = A ( M ) ), M -

M , M M .

5.2.4.

A : P Q , Q

161

5 .

5.2.5.

5.2.6.

P
P.

M = A M M = B M
( )
.

M.
M = B A
, ,
.

5.2.7.

A : P P ,
A : P P , , M
P
A 1 ( A M ) = M .

5.2.8.

P ,

A ,
A . P ,
, A .
A

P , A
,

A .

5.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 } M
M , 5.2.6

162

M . M = A
-

rM
g

x
y

, x y

rM
g

x = Fx ( x , y )
x y
, y = Fy ( x , y )
Fx ( x , y )
x

=

Fy ( x , y )
y

rM = A rM {O, g1 , g 2 } .

, Fx ( x , y ) Fy ( x, y ) .

5.3.1.

rM = A$ rM -

{O, g1 , g 2 }
x = 11 x + 12 y + 1 ,

y = 21 x + 22 y + 2 .

x
= A
y
A

x
+ 1 ,
2
y
11
21

12
22

163

5 .

A$ ( -

A$ ) {O, g1 , g 2 } .

5.3.2.

rM = A$ rM -

, 5.3.1 , , 1 = 2 = 0.

1 + 2 > 0 , A

5.3.1.

:
-

$ ,
A
-
,
, ,

1
0

0
,
2

1 2 ;
-

5.3.1.

- ,
;

.

A$ -

164

1.

A (r1 + r2 ) = A r1 + A r2 r1 , r2 .

2.

A ( r ) = A r r , .

, . , 1

A (r1 + r2 ) = 11
21

12

x1

22

y1

11

12

x1

21

22

y1

x2

)=

y2
11

12

x2

21

22

y2

= A r1 + A r2 .

5.3.2.

1.

A$

A (r1 + r2 ) = A r1 + A r2 r1 , r2 ,

$ ( r ) = A$ r r , ,
2. A
.
.

$ r = x g + y g r = x g1 + y g 2 A
1
2
,

x g1 + y g 2 = A$ ( x g1 + y g 2 ) = x A$ g1 + y A$ g 2 .
1.5.1 11 , 12 , 21 , 22 ,

A g1 = 11 g1 + 21 g 2 A g 2 = 12 g1 + 22 g 2 .

165

5 .

x g 1 + y g 2 = x A g 1 + y A g 2 =

= (11 x + 12 y ) g1 + ( 21 x + 22 y ) g 2 .

x
= 11

21
y

x = 11 x + 12 y
,

y = 21 x + 22 y

g1 g 2

12
22

x
.
y

a , a
g

ax
ay

{g1 , g 2 } ,

A a

a x
a

11

12

ax

21

22

ay

A a

5.3.1 5.3.2 .

5.3.1.

A$ {g1 , g 2 }

5.3.2.

A$ g1 A$ g 2 .

,
.

166

5.3.1.

, ,
:
1. -

A B

= A

A$ 1 ,
$ ,
A
1
A$ 1 = A$ .

2.

,
.

5.3.3.

{O, g1 , g 2 }

A$

{O, g1 , g 2 }

A$

= S

A$

S ,

S .

A$ r

= A
g

= A

, g

{O, g1 , g 2 } {O, g1 , g 2 } , ,

167

5 .

= S

= S

.
g


1.8.2

), -

= A

r = S

.
g

= A
g

(
g

5.1.2)

= S

S .
g

5.3.3.

det A

.
g

, 5.3.3

det A

= det ( S

= det S
=
.

1
det S

1
1

S )=

det A

det A

det S =

det S = det A

168

5.3.2.

, -
x + 3y 2 = 0 .

-
M

r0 =

x0
y0

M

M

r0 =

x0
.
y 0

. 5.3.1

. 5.3.1 , M
x + 3y 2 = 0 ,

M.

x + 3y 2 = 0
,

x
x
1
= 0 +
.
y0
y
3
, -

3
1
9
x0 = x 0 + ,
x0 = x0 y 0 + ,


10
10
5

y 0 = y 0 + 3,
3
1
3
x + 3 y 2 = 0
y 0 = x0 + y 0 + .
0
0
10
10
5

169

5 .

,
,

9
x0
= 10

3
y0

10

3
10
1
10

1
x0
+ 5 ,
3
y0
5

9
= 10
3

10

3
10
1
10

5.4.
, (

$ : P P )
A
, .

5.4.1.

x
= A
y

x
+ 1 , 2
y

P ,

A
det

11
21

11
21

12
,
22

12
0 , 22

170

5.4.1
(
).

det A$

,
.

5.3.3 , ,

det A$

0 -

.
.

5.4.2.


, .

det A

0 ,

,
g

(. 5.1), 1.1.2

x
x
= 1
2
y
y
x

x
. ,
y

171

5 .

, A
,

x
= A
y

1
g

1
1
x
+ , = A
2
2
y

1
g

1
2

5.4.1.

,
5.3.2, .
, ,
?

5.4.3.

,
,
.

x = 11 x + 12 y + 1 ,

y = 21 x + 22 y + 2 ,

g 1 = 11 g 1 + 21 g 2 ; g 2 = 12 g1 + 22 g 2 .

det A = det

11
21

12
0,
22

172

g1 g 2 ( 1.6.2)
.
1.8.2 5.3.1, ,

{g1 , g 2 }

{g1 , g 2 } A ,

{g1 , g 2 } {g1 , g 2 }
S = A .
g

, , ,
, ,
.
.

,
.

5.4.4.

x = x0 + p
, p q

y = y0 + q

, -

x
= A

y

x
+ 1 .
2
y

173

5 .

x = (11 x0 + 12 y 0 + 1 ) + (11 p + 12 q) ,

y = ( 21 x0 + 22 y 0 + 2 ) + ( 21 p + 22 q) .
,

11 p + 12 q + 21 p + 22 q > 0 ,

. ,

11 p + 12 q = 0,

21 p + 22 q = 0,

det

11
21

12
0
22

1.1.2 () p = q = 0 , .
.

5.4.5.

,
-
.

,
.
, . , -.
, - . , .

174


- ,


.

5.4.6.

xi
M , i = 1, 2, 3,

yi

(. 5.4.1)

M i , i = 1, 2, 3

. 5.4.1

xi
x2 x1
. ,
=
x3 x 2
yi

y 2 y1
= , 1 , ,
y3 y 2

175

5 .

x 2 x1
y 2 y1
=

= .
y3 y 2
x3 x 2

x = 11 x + 12 y + 1 ,

y = 21 x + 22 y + 2 ,

x 2 x1 11 ( x 2 x1 ) + 12 ( y 2 y1 )
=
=
x3 x 2 11 ( x3 x 2 ) + 12 ( y 3 y 2 )
=

11 ( x3 x 2 ) + 12 ( y3 y 2 )
= .
11 ( x3 x 2 ) + 12 ( y3 y 2 )

y 2 y1
,
= .
y 3 y 2
, ,
.
:

M 1 M 2

M M
=

( x 2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2
( x 3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2

( x 3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2
( x 3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2

= =

( x3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2
( x3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2

( x 2 x1 ) + ( y 2 y1 )
2

( x3 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 3 y 2 ) 2

M 1M 2

M 2M 3

176

, 5.4.6 ,
.

5.4.7.

, ,
.

M 1M 2
,

= . M 3 M 3 ,

M 3M 4
M 4 M 2 . ,
5.4.6

M 4 M 2 M 3 M 3 M 4 M 2 M 3 M 3 -

(. 5.4.2). ,

M 2 M 4

M 3 M 3

. 5.4.2

177

5 .

, 5.4.7

M 1 M 2

M M

M 1 M 2
=

M M

M 1M 2

M 1M 2

M 3 M 2

= .

M 3M 4

,
.

5.4.8.

. 5.4.3

{g1 , g 2 } O . 5.4.3
.

O ,

{O , g1 , g 2 } .

178


- M
x y ,

M x y (. 5.4.3),
5.4.6

x =

OM 1

O M 1
=

g1

y =

OM 2

= x ;

O M 2
=

g2

= y .

.
.



1.8.3 , .

5.4.2.

n P , .

a b , > 0 ( ,

< 0 ) , [ a , b ] = n .

179

5 .

1.

5.4.9.

S
S

S = det
2.

11

12

21

22

S .

det

11
21

12
>0,
22

det

11
21

12
< 0.
22

. ,

g1 g 2 ,

g 1 = A g 1 = 11 g 1 + 21 g 2 g 2 = A g 2 = 12 g1 + 22 g 2 ,

11 , 12 , 21 22
$ ,
A
, 5.3.2,

11
21

12
.
22

180


(. 2.4)

S = [ g1 , g 2 ] , , -

S = [ g , g ] .

g1 g2 ,

[ g1 , g 2 ] = [11 g1 + 21 g 2 , 12 g1 + 22 g 2 ] =

= (11 22 12 21 )[ g1 , g 2 ] = det A
S = det A

det A$
det A$

>0

<0.

S , ( 5.4.2)

[ g1 , g 2 ] ,

{g1 , g2 }

, , , , .
.

5.4.10.

, 4.4.1:
-

, .

5 .

181

.
1. 5.4.6 5.4.8
, , ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
2. ,
, , ,
.

.
5.4.5.
3. . ,

.
4. ,
, 5.4.4 5.4.5 , .
.
4.4.1 5.4.1 ,
,

:

x 2 + y 2 = 1 ; x 2 y 2 = 1;
x 2 y 2 = 0 ; y 2 1 = 0 ; y 2 2 x = 0 ; y 2 = 0.

(5.4.1)

182


,
, (5.4.1),
.

.
:

5.4.11.



" ". 9.4 ( 9.4.1).

,

.

p
e

p q

q
e

, ( )

11
21

12
+ 12
= 11
,
22
21 + 22

183

5 .

11
21

12
12
= 11
22
21 22

p q

{e1 , e2 }
(11 + 12 )(11 12 ) +
+ ( 21 + 22 )( 21 22 ) = 0

2
2
(1112 + 21 22 ) 2 + (11
12
+ 221 222 ) +

+ (1112 + 21 22 ) 2 = 0,

U 2 + 2V + U 2 = 0 .
:
1) U = V = 0 ,
.
2) U = 0 V 0 ,
.
3) ,

= 0 ,

U 0 ,

p q

2V
( ) 2 U ( ) 1 = 0 ,

U.
.

V
V2
=

( )1,2 U U 2 + 1 -

184

5.5.

5.5.1.

x
+ 1 ,
2
y

x
= Q
y*

Q$

11
21

12
22


.
,
, 5.1.3

det Q$

= 1 , det Q$

= 1 . -

5.4 ,
. .
, ,

5.5.1.

,
.

{e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 } S . 5.1.1, -

= S

{e1 , e2 }, Q

= Q

Q$ -

185

5 .

Q$ , 5.3.3,

Q
Q

e
1
e

= S

1
e

S .

. 5.1.1 5.1.2, -

S Q$ e ,

{e1 , e2 } ,

=( S
= S

=( S

Q
Q

Q
1
e

S ) 1 = S

S = S

( S

1 1

S ) T = Q e .

T
Q e ( S ) T =

S )T = ( S

= Q

Q {e1 , e2 } .

5.5.2.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

1.

186

{O, e1 , e2 } . , 2.3,

a b

1
b =
2
e

a
e

1
2

( a , b ) = 11 + 2 2 = 1

1
= a
2

b .
e

a b,

Q e , -

(Q a , Q b ) = Q a

Q b

= ( Q

= a

a ) T Q

T
e
T

= a

b
e

b
e

= a

= a

= ( a , b ).

b
e

a , Q b ) = ( a , b ) a , b ,
(Q
.

187

5 .

2.

,

Q a = (Q a , Q a ) = ( a , a ) = a

a.

3. 2
,
.
.

, , .

5.5.3.

1. 5.3.2,
5.3.1 5.3.1 ,

{e1 , e2 }

.
2. 5.4.11 (,

, )

{1 , 2 } ,

188

A -

{e1 , e2 } . 1 2 , ,

e1 = 1 ; e2 = 2 ;
1
2

1 = 1 ;

2 = 2 ,

{e1 , e2 } .

3. ,

{e1 , e2 } -

Q ,

{e1 , e2 } , , .
Q

= 1
0

e1

0
2

e2

e1

= Q

e2

e1

e2

= A

T
e

e1

e2

T
e

T
e

e1

o .
=
o
e2

{e1 , e2 }

T
e

1
0

0
2

189

5 .

A = Q
e

1
0

0
.
2

,
" " (. 5.3.1).
.

5.6.

5.6.1.

G
,
x y , xy , :
1)

x ( yz ) = ( xy ) z ;

2)

3)

xG

e , ,
xe = ex = x ;

x x 1 , x 1 x = e .

, , xy = yx
, .

5.6.1.

x, y G , -

, :
1) ,
e 0 ;

190


2)


,
e 1;

3)


;
.

4)

6 .

191


6.1.
,
1, 2, 3, ... , n . (
)
{k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n } . ,
n! .

6.1.1.

, k i k j ( , ), i < j k i > k j .

{k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n }
( k1 , k 2 ,..., k n ) . , (3, 1, 4, 2) = 3 .

11
21
A = 31
...
n1

12
22
32
...
n2

13
23
33
...
n3

...
...
...
...
...

1n
2n
3n = ij ; i, j = [1, n].
...
nn

192

6.1.2.

( )

n n

det A ,

det A =

(1)

( k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,...,k n )

1k1 2 k 2 ... nk n ,

{ k1 , k 2 , k3 ,...,k n }

{k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n }
,

A .

,
, n!.
6.1.2 , .

6.1.1.

6.1.2

1.1.9 1.1.10.

6.2.

6.2.1.
.
.

( 1)

B = A

( m1 , m2 ,...,mn )

1m 2 m ... nm ,
1
2
n

193

6 .

, ,

det A

k mk = mk k ,

(1)

( m1 , m2 ,...,mn )

{ m1 , m2 ,...,mn }

m11 m2 2 ... mn n .

(1) ( m1 , m2 ,...,mn ) 1k1 2 k 2 ... nk n , 1, 2, 3, ... , n


,

k1 , k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n .

, : k m = i i
i


( m1 , m2 ,..., mn ) = (k1 , k 2 ,..., k n ) .

mi m j ,

mi > m j i < j ,

k mi k m j ,

i : k mi = i ,
, ,

k mi = i < j = k m j

mi > m j . , .

det A

(1)

( k1 , k 2 ,...,k n )

1k1 2 k 2 ... nk n = det A .

{k1 , k 2 ,...,k n }

6.2.1.

6.2.1 .

A , -

6.1.2, -

194


,
.
6.2.1.
,
iki

jk j -

11
21
31
K
n1

12
22
32
K
n2

13
23
33
K
n3

K
K
K
K
K

1n
2n
3n
K
nn

,
, . 6.2.1

.
,
, 6.1.2, , , .

6.2.1.

, , ,
.

6.2.2.

,
.

(1)

( k1 , k 2 ,...,k n )

1k1 2 k 2 ... nk n ,

{ k1 , k 2 ,...,k n }

,
.

6 .

195

{k1 , k 2 , ... k i , k i +1 , k i + 2 ... , k n } .


ki ki+1, , {k1 , k 2 ,...k i 1 , k i + 2 ,..., k n } , ,
ki ki +1 .
, , , .
, ,
l ,
l + l + 1 = 2l + 1 , 2 l +1

= 1 ,
( 1)
.
.

6.2.2.

, , .

, , , , ,
. .
.

6.2.3
(

).

k -
"" ,

, k - "" .

196

k -

ik = ik + ik , i = 1, 2, K , n .

(1) ( k1 ,k 2 ,...,k n ) 1k1 2 k 2 ... ik ... nk n =


= (1) ( k1 , k 2 ,...,k n ) 1k1 2 k 2 ...( ik + ik )... nk n =
= (1) ( k1 , k 2 ,...,k n ) 1k1 2 k 2 ... ik ... nk n +
+ (1) ( k1 ,k 2 ,...,k n ) 1k1 2 k 2 ... ik ... nk n .
n!
k - -

det A
,

det A

= det A
A

+ det A

k e

ik ik , i = 1, 2, K , n .

6.2.3.

6.2.4.


,
.

, , , ( 6.2.3)
, . 6.2.2.
.

197

6 .

6.2.4.

nn

det ( A B ) = det A det B .


.

1.

C = A

B .

A ,

ij , kl pq .

5.1.1

pq = pj jq ,
j =1

det C =
1111 + 12 21 + ... + 1n n1
= det

... 111n + ... + 1n nn

2111 + 22 21 + ... + 2 n n1 ... 211n + ... + 2 n nn


.
...
...
...
n111 + n 2 21 + ... + nn n1 ... n11n + ... + nn nn

1, 2, 3, ... , n , . [i1 , i 2 , i3 ,..., i n ] .


( 6.2.3)

det C

i2 2 ... in n det

i1 1
[ i1 ,i2 ,...,in ]

i1 1
[ i1 ,i2 ,...,in ]

1i1

1i2

... 1in

2i1

2 i2

... 2in

...

...

ni1

ni2

i2 2 ... in n det A

[ i1 ,i2 ,...,in ]

...

...

... nin
.

198

[i1 , i 2 , i3 ,..., i n ] (

{i1 , i 2 ,..., i n } ) ,
n

n , 6.2.2 n! .
2. ,
,

{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

A , -

, 6.2.2
.

{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

ik ; k

,
= [1, n]

.
,
,
{i1 , i2 ,..., in } , , ,

{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

det A

{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

= ( 1) ( i1 ,i2 ,...,in ) det A

3.

det C , -

det C = det A

(1)

( i1 ,i2 ,...,in )

{i1 ,i2 ,...,in }

= det A det B ,
T

i11 i2 2 ... in n =

199

6 .

6.2.1

det ( A

B ) = det A det B .

6.3.

n - A j1 , j 2 ,..., j k ,

i1 , i 2 ,..., i k
1 k n.

6.3.1.

k , ,
i1 , i 2 ,..., i k j1 , j 2 ,..., j k ,

k -

j , j2 ,..., jk
M i 1, i ,...,
.
ik
1 2

6.3.2.

n k ,
,

i1 , i 2 ,..., i k

j1 , j 2 ,..., j k , ,

2 ,..., j k
M i j1, i, j,...,
,
i
1 2

j , j ,..., j
M i 1,i 2,...,i k .
1 2
k

A i - j - , -

ij .

(n 1) (n 1) .

A
A+

200

6.3.3.

A+

M i ij .

6.1.2

(n 1)! , ij ,

det A = ij Dij + K .

6.3.4.

Dij

ij .

, 6.1.2
n

j =1

k =1

det A = ij Dij = kj Dkj j = [1, n] , i = [1, n], (6.3.1)


, ,


6.3.1.
.

Dij = (1) i + j M i .
j

1. 6.1.2

det A = 11

(1)

(1, k 2 , k 3 ,...,k n )

2 k 2 ... nk n + K

{1, k 2 , k3 ,...,k n }

D11 =

(1)

( k 2 ,...,k n )

2 k 2 3k3 ... nk n ,

{ k 2 ,...,k n }

(1, k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n ) = (k 2 , k 3 ,..., k n ) ,

201

6 .

D11 -

n 1 ,

A -

. ,
1

D11 = M 1 .
A , ij -

2.

A , i-
, i 1 , j- , j 1

det A = ( 1) i 1+ j 1 det A = ( 1) i + j det A .


( 6.2.3)

, , (6.3.1)
Dij .

.
Dij = (1)i + j D11

3. , ,

j

ij A ,

M i = M 1 .
4.
j

M i = M 1 = D11 = (1) i + j Dij ,


j

ij -

Dij = (1) i + j M i .

202

6.3.1.

i -
n

det A = (1) k +i ki M k
i

k =1

det A = (1) k +i M ki M k .
i

k =1

6.3.2.

i =1

ij

Dis = js ,

1 , j = s,
= det A js =
0
,
j

(. 2.2).
.

6.3.4

det A = 1 j D1 j + 2 j D2 j + K + nj Dnj , j = s .

j s .
1 j D1s + 2 j D2 s + ... + nj Dns

s- , s- j- . 6.2.2.
.

203

6 .

6.3.2.

A ,

(1) i + j M j
; i, j = [1, n] .

ij =

A B ,

i j i j ; i, j = [1, n] . pq

B , , 5.1.1

6.3.2,
n

pq = pj jq
j =1

(1) j + q M q 1 n
= pj
= pj Dqj =

j =1
j =1
j

1
pq = pq ; i, j = [1, n] .

A 1.1.4

B = B

A = E ,

, 5.1.2 5.1.1,

B = A

(5.1.1).

I = i1 + i2 + ... + ik J = j1 + j 2 + ... + j k ,

6.3.1

204

6.3.3
().

j1 , j2 ,..., jk

det A =

(1)

I +J

j1 , j2 ,..., jk

2 ,..., j k
M i1j1,i,2j,...,
ik M i1 ,i2 ,...,ik .

{i1 ,i2 ,...,ik }

, i1 , i 2 ,..., i k .

6.3.1.

n- :

a ... a

a
n = det a

x
a

a ... a
x ... a .

... ... ... ... ...


a a a ... x
.

1.

,
x + a ( n 1) . ,
,
(.
6.2.4 6.2.3):

...

... a

n = ( x + a (n 1)) det a a x ... a .


... ... ... ... ...
a
2.

...

, , , a ,

205

6 .

...

xa

...

x a ...

n = ( x + a (n 1)) det 0

...

...

...

...

... x a

...

n 1
6.3.1
,

3.

n = ( x + a (n 1))( x a ) n 1 .

6.4.

:

n n -

11 1 + 12 2 + ... + 1n n = 1 ,
+ + ... + = ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
n1 1 + n 2 2 + ... + nn n = n
n

ji i = j ;

(6.4.1)

j = [1, n] -

i =1

x = b ,

ji , x b i j .

6.4.1.

{ 1 , 2 ,..., n }

,
.

206

6.4.1
(
).

(6.4.1)
, ,

= det A 0 , -

i =

i
; i = 1,2,..., n ,

i , -

A i - b :

11

i = det 21
...
n1

12
22
...
n2

... 1
... 2
... ...
... n

... 1n
... 2 n
.
... ...
... nn

i -
.

1. ,

1
2
(6.4.1) x =
, ...
n

n

i =1

ji

i = j ; j = [1, n] .

207

6 .

j = [1, n]
D jk j ,

j =1

i =1

j =1

D jk ( ji i ) = j D jk

k = [1, n].

( ) :
n

(
i =1

j =1

ji

D jk ) i = j D jk .
j =1

ik (

6.3.2), , ,
n

j =1

i =1

j D jk = k ik i = k k ,

k = k , k = [1, n] .
k =

k
k = [1, n] .

(6.4.2)

, ,

k = k , k = [1, n]
0 , ,
(6.4.2), .
2. ,

{ i =

k
, i = [1, n] }

. , i
(6.4.1):

208

ji
i =1

n
n
i 1 n
1 n
= ji ( k Dki ) = k ( ji Dki ) =
i =1
k =1
k =1
i =1
n
1
= k kj = j , j = [1, n].
k =1

6.3.2.
.

6.5.

A m n .
1 k min{m, n} .

A k ,
k .
k k - ,
, k ,
( k + 1) - k (c. 6.3.1).

6.5.1.

A , rg A .

6.5.2.

,
, .

6.5.3.

() , , .

209

6 .

n m -

11
12
1n

a1 = 21 ; a2 = 22 ; ... ; an = 2 n
...
...
...
m1
m2
mn
1
0
2
0
b =
; o =
.
...
...
m
0
( )
, , ,

a1 , a 2 , ... , a n

1, 2 , ... , n ,

b = i ai .

i =1

6.5.1
(
).

()
() .

1. r .
,

A .

i -
j - .

210

11
...
= det
r1
i1

... 1r
... ...
... rr
... ir

1 j
...
,
rj
ij

r + 1
r.
2.

i1 D1 + i 2 D2 + ... + ir Dr + ij M = 0 ,
M 0 , D1 ,..., Dr
, i . , ij = 1 i1 + 2 i 2 + ... + r ir ,
s =

Ds
, s = [1, r ] i .
M

6.5.4.

i =1

6.5.1.

ai = o ,

( i > 0 ).
i =1

() , ,
.

6.5.2.

a1 , a 2 ,..., a n

,
1 , 2 ,..., n , ,

1.4.1.


, .

211

6 .
.

, k , , :

11
12
1k
0

2k
0
1 21 + 2 22 + ... + k
=
.
...
...
...
...
m1
m2
mk
0
,

11
1

1k

1, k +1

1n

2, k +1
21
2k

+ ... + k
+0
+ ... + 0 2 n
...
...
...
...
m,k +1
m1
mk
mn

.
.

6.5.2.

, , () .

,
n .

6.5.2 .
.

212

. 6.5.1
.
n 1

a n = i ai . i =1

( i

= 1, 2, K , n 1 ) i -

i .

an ,
, .
.

6.5.3
(
).

1. ,
.
r > 0 . , r .
r - , , .
2.

k > r ,
.

A . R r ,

A .

213

6 .

, R r

< k

, ,

A 6.5.2.

6.6. m
n

m n

11 1 + 12 2 +... + 1n n = 1 ,
+ +...+ = ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

..............................................
m1 1 + m 2 2 +... + mn n = m ,

(6.6.1)

i =1

ji

i = j ,

j = [1, m] ,

x = b , A -

m n ji , x b -

6.6.1.

i , i = [1, n] , j , j = [1, m] .

{10 , 02 ,..., 0n }


(6.6.1),
.

214

10
02
0
x =
.
...
0n
(6.6.1)
(6.6.1).

6.6.2.

(6.6.1)
, , .

6.6.3.

11
21
A =
...
m1

12
22
...
m2

... 1n
... 2 n

... ...
... mn

(6.6.1),

11

A b = 21
...
m1

12
22
...
m2

... 1n
... 2 n
... ...
... mn

1
2
K
m

6.6.4.

(6.6.1) ,
j = 0 j = [1, m] ,
.

215

6 .

(6.6.1) ,

6.6.1
,
( .
).
.
(6.6.1)

{1 , 2 ,..., n } ,

1 a1 + 2 a 2 + ... + n a n = b ,

a i = 1i

2i

L mi , i = [1, n] .

, , . , 6.5.3 ( )

rg A = rg A b .

r . ,
, 6.5.1 (
r

b = i a i ,
i =1

i =1

i = r +1

b = i ai +

0 a

, (6.6.1) {1 , 2 ,..., r ,0,...,0} , .


.

216

6.6.1.

Ai x + Bi y + Ci = 0 , i = [1, n]
,
,

rg

A1

B1

A2

B2

...

...

An

Bn

= rg

A1

B1

C1

A2

B2

C2

...

...

...

An

Bn

Cn

6.7.
6.6 ,
(6.6.1) , . , (6.6.1)
.
(6.6.1)
.

6.7.1.

(6.6.1)
.

1i
i
xi = 2 ,
...
in

i = [1, k ]

A xi = o

i = [1, k ] .

217

6 .
k

y = i x i .
i =1


n
n
i
y = A i x = i ( A
i =1
i =1

xi ) = o .

6.7.2.

(6.6.1) (6.6.1).

x , y

x = o ,

y = b .

A ( x + y )= A x + A

y = o + b = b .

6.7.3.

(6.6.1)
(6.6.1).

x y ,

x = b , A

y = b .

A ( x y )= A x A y = b b = o .
.

218

1.

6.7.16.7.3. ,

,


.

2. , , ,
, , , .
3. , ,
,
, 6.7.1,
6.5.4.

6.7.1.

(6.6.1)

n rg A

1. (6.6.1)

111 + 12 2 +...+ 1n n = 1
+ +...+ =
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................

m1 1 + m 2 2 +... + mn n = m
,

A | b , r min{m, n + 1} , -

219

6 .

6.5.1 ( ) m r r , , , , r .
,
r +1 , r + 2 ,..., n .

1 ,..., r (, , ), r +1 ,..., n

(, , ).

111 + 12 2 + ... + 1r r = 1 1r +1 r +1 ... 1n n ,


+ + ... + = ... ,
21 1
22 2
2r r
2
2 r +1 r +1
2n n

......................................................................................
r11 + r 2 2 + ... + rr r = r r ,r +1 r +1 ... r , n n .
r +1 = 1 ,..., n = n r ( 6.4.1)
:

j -

nr

11 ... 1 1, r + k k
1
j =
det
M

k =1

...

...

nr

...

r1 ... r r , r + k k
k =1

j = [1, r ] , M .

... 1r
...

... ,

... rr

(6.7.1)

220

2. , (6.7.1),
k = 0 ; k = [1, n r ] ,
(6.6.1).
. ( 6.2.3)
:
nr

j = jk k , j = [1, r ] ;
k =1

(6.7.2)

r +i = i , i = [1, n r ] ,

jk

11 ... 1,r + k
1
=
det ... ...
...
M
r1 ... r ,r + k

... 1r
... ... ,
... rr

j = [1, r ] , k = [1, n r ] .

j -
, (6.7.2)

11
1
21
2
=
L
L
r1
r

12
22
L
r2

L 1,n r r +1
L 2, n r r + 2
L L
L
L r ,n r n

(6.7.3)

221

6 .

1
11
2
21
L
L
r

= r1

r +1
1
r +2
0
L
L
n
0
3.

12
22
L
r2
0
1
L
0

L 1,n r
L 2, n r
1
L L
L r ,n r 2
.
L
L
0
nr
L
0
L L
L
1

1 = 1 , 2 = 3 = ... = n r = 0 ,

{11 , 12 , ... , 1r , 1, 0, ... , 0} .


1 = 0 , 2 = 1, 3 = ... = n r = 0
{1 , 2 , ... , r , 0 , 1, ... , 0} . , ,
2

1 = 2 = 3 = ... = n r 1 = 0, n r = 1

{1n r , 2n r , ... , rn r , 0, 0, ... , 1} .

.
4. , n r
(6.6.1) . , ,

11
12
...
1n r

12
22
...
n2 r

... 1r
... r2
... ...
... rn r

1
0
...
0

0
1
...
0

...
...
...
...

0
0
.
...
1

(6.7.4)

222


, , , ,
n r , , , , ,
, n r ,
n r, .

6.7.1.


(6.6.1)

n rg A

(6.6.1),
(6.6.1),

. (6.7.4) .

6.7.2.

(6.6.1)
, .

{1 , 2 ,..., n }
(6.6.1). ( n r + 1) n

1
11
12
...
1n r

2
12
22
...
n2 r

... r
... 1r
... r2
... ...
... rn r

r +1
1
0
...
0

r +2
0
1
...
0

... n
... 0
... 0 , (6.7.5)
... ...
... 1

223

6 .

, , , ,
n r . , r
( (6.7.3)) n r . ,
,
, (6.7.5), r n r . ,
n r , , , n r .
, 6.5.1 , r ,
(6.7.5) , , ,
(6.6.1)

1
2
...
r
r +1
r +2
...
n

= 1

11

12

1n r

12
...
1r
1
0
...
0

22
...
2r
0
1
...
0

n2 r
...
nr r ,
0
0
...
1

+ 2

+ ... + n r

i i = [1, n r ] .

6.7.1.

(6.6.1)

224

11

12

2
...

r
= 1
r +1
r +2
...
n

1
2

...
1r
1
0

+ 2

...
r2
0
1

1n r

10

nr
2

02
...

2
2

...
+ ... + n r

rn r
0
0

0r
0r +1
0r + 2

...

...

...

...

0n

10
02
...
0
r
0r +1
0r + 2
...
0n
(6.6.1), i i = [1, n r ]
.
.

x 0 (, , ) -

(6.6.1),

x -

. 6.6.3 (6.6.1)

y = x x 0 . x = y + x 0 .
.

225

6 .

6.7.1 6.7.2

6.7.2.

(6.6.1) n < m
, ,

rg A < n .

, (6.6.1) ,

det A = 0 .

6.7.3
().

(6.6.1) ,
,

y = 1

... m

111 + 21 2 + ... + m1 m = 0,
+ + ... + = 0,
12 1
22 2
m2 m

..........
..........
..........
..........
.......

1n 1 + 2 n 2 + ... + mn m = 0

(
m


i =1

y = o ) -

= 0 ( -

y = 0 ).

(6.6.1) ,

x b = A

x .

226

A
T

y = o .
y = ( A x )T y = x

y = x

o = 0.

y = 0

y = o . A

y = o
T

y = o ,

y =0

, . , 6.7.1
6.7.2,

m rg A

A
= m rg
b

rg A

A
= rg
b

rg A = rg A | b ,

6.6.1

x = b .


10 (. 10.6.4 10.6.5).

227

6 .

6.8. .
6.7.3 6.7.4 ,
, , , .

( ) .
,
(6.6.1),
, .
,
.

(.. , ij = 0
i > j ),
.
m n ( n > m) ,

a11

a12

a13

... a1, m 2

a1, m 1

a1, m

a1, m +1

...

a1n

a 22

a 23

... a 2, m 2

a 2, m 1

a 2, m

a 2, m +1

...

a 2n

0
...

0
...

a 33
...

... a 3, m 2
...
...

a 3, m 1
...

a 3, m
...

a 3, m +1
...

...
...

a 3n
...

...

a m 1, m 1

a m 1, m

...

a mm

a m 1, m +1 ... a m 1,n
a m, m +1

...

a mn

:
( );
( );

228

( ,
);
(
);


(
, ).
(
) .
,

. :
-

i j

m n -

S 1 n n ,
n E i -
j - ;

i -

S 2 , -

m m E -

i - ( ) ;

229

6 .

i j A -


S 3 m n , -

, i -
j - , (

A ).

i - -

(. 8.4.3) , S -

S A ,
rg ( S A ) = rg A .

det S

= 1 , det S

= 0 det S

= 1 ,

A .

, .

6.8.1.

, , .

6.8.2.

A ,

A , .

230

. , ,

E A , E = S
A
E

= S

= S

E .

B
A | B ( ,

B A ),

A .

B .


.
:
6.8.1.

1
3
1

51

+ 2 2

3 5

= 2,

2
+ 4 2

+ 2 3
+ 3 3

+ 2 4
+ 3 4

+ 6 5
5

=
=

7,
23,
12.

231

6 .
.

1.

1 1 1 1

3 2 1 1 3 2
.
0 1 2 2 6 23
5 4 3 3 1 12
2.

.
)

,
, . , , , , , ( 3 ),
. : ( 5 ) 1 .
, , : .

1 1
1
1
1
7
0 1 2 2 6 23
;
0 1
2
2
6
23
0 1 2 2 6 23
)


, .

, .

232

0 1 2 2 6 23
;
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
)

, ,
,
.

3.
, .
. ,
) , 2 ( 6.6.1 );
)
6.7.1

n rg A = 5 2 = 3 -

.
4.
,

- .
,
, ,
:

+ 2
2

= 7 3
= 23 2 3

4
2 4

5 ,
(6.8.1)
6 5 .

233

6 .

(1 ) ,

.
(6.8.1) -

16
23
,

0 .
0
0

+ 2
2

= 7,
= 23.

+ 2
2

= 0 3
= 0 2 3

4
2 4

5 ,
6 5

, 6.7.1.

1
2

1
0
0

+ 2
2

= 1,
= 2.

234

1
2

0
1

5
6

0
0

.
:

1
1
2
2
3 = 1 1
4
0
5
0
:

+ 2

1
5
2
6
0 + 3 0
1
0
0
1

16
23
+
0
0
0

1 , 2 , 3 .


, , ,
, , .

235

7 .


7.1.

7.1.1.

, x, y , z ,K ,
8, ,
1.

x, y

, x + y , ,
) x + y = y + x ;
) x + ( y + z ) = ( x + y ) + z ;
) o , , x
x + o = x ;
) x ( x ) , ,

x + ( x ) = o .

( x = y)

( x y)

x y

236


2.

3.

x ,
x , :
) 1x = x ;
) ( ) x = ( x ) .

:
) ( + ) x = x + x ;
)

1.

2.

7.1.1.

( x + y ) = x + y x, y ;
, .



.
, (. 5.6).

9:
1. .
2. .
3.

n - .

4. ,
n .
5.

m n .

, .

237

7 .

6.

C[, ] ,
[, ] .

7.
n .

7.1.1.

, ( n , r ) = ,
. ,

.

7.1.2.

, ,
, .

7.1.3.

R+ ?

.
1. .

,
.
2. ,
, ,
1.

238

7.1.1.

o1 o2 .

, 1() 7.1.1
,
o1 + o2 = o1 o2 + o1 = o2 .

o1 = o2 .
.

7.1.2.

x
0 x = o .

x = 1x = (0 + 1) x = 0 x + 1x = 0 x + x.
x = 0 x + x y ,
x , , 0x = o .
.

7.1.3.

x y1 y 2 . , 1()

x + y1 = o x + y 2 = o .
y 2 ,

239

7 .

y 2 + ( x + y1 ) = y 2
. , ,
y 2 + ( x + y1 ) = ( y 2 + x ) + y1 = o + y1 = y 1 ,

y 2 = y1 .

7.1.4.

x
( 1) x .

7.1.2
7.1.3
o = 0 x = (1 1) x = 1x + (1) x = x + (1) x .
, x
( 1) x .
.

7.2 ,

n

7.2.1.

1.

i =1

xi

x1, x2 ,..., x n -

.
2. x1 , x 2 , ... , x n ,
1 , 2 ,..., n , n

, ,

i =1

xi = o .

240


3.

x1 , x 2 , ... , x n -

, n

i =1

xi = o ,

1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 .

7.2.1.

, ,
.

1.4.1, .

7.2.2.

x1 , x 2 , ... , x n ,
x1 , x 2 , ... , x n .

,
k < n
x1 , x 2 , ... , x n .

1 , 2 ,..., k , ,

i =1

i =1

i = k +1

i xi +

0x

=o,


x1 , x 2 , ... , x n .
.

xi = o .

241

7 .

7.2.2.

7.2.3.

n ,
1)
;
2)
,
n + 1 , n , .

n-

, , n . n n

7.2.1.

dim( n ) .

n -


.
n


{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

x . {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n , x} 7.2.1 x


g1 , g 2 ,..., g n . , , .
. ,

n

i =1

i =1

x = i gi x = i gi .
,
n

(
i =1

i )gi = o ,

242


,
g1 , g 2 ,..., g n .
.

.
, , , . 7.2.1
.
7 .2 .1

,
.

n -

n c
1
0
0
0
1
0
0 ; 0 ; 1 ; ...
... ... ...
0
0
0

0
0
0 .
...
1

243

7 .

n +1

n + 1

P1 () = 1 ; P2 () = ;
P3 () = 2 ; P4 () = 3 ;

... ;
Pn () = n1 ; Pn+1 () = n .


m n

[, ]

m
n

,
r

nm

nr

n m
m n ,
, , 1.
10.

10

( 7.2.2)
n ,

n + 1 . ,
{ 1, , 2 , K, n } .

244

7.3.

7.3.1.

,

, ,
x , y
1) x + y ,
2) x .

7.3.1.

7.3.1 ,
, ,
, .
1. - , ,
,
- .
2. ,
n , C[, ] .
3. n -

n r
n r .
4.
:
) ;
) ,
.

245

7 .

7.3.2.

1 2

1 2 x , ,
x 1 x 2 .
1 2
1 2 .

1.

1 2 x , 1 2 . 1 2 1 2 .

2.

1 2
x1 + x 2
, x1 1 x 2 2 .
1 2
1 + 2 .

3.

4. 1 2

x1 + x 2 , x1 1

x2 2 1 2 = {o} .
1 2 .
,

246

7.3.1.

7.3.2.

2 .

1 2

dim(1 + 2 ) =

= dim(1 ) + dim( 2 ) dim(1 2 ).


.

1.

1 2

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } k. {g1 , g 2 ,..., g l }


} 2 .
1 {g1, g 2 ,..., g m
x 1

+ 2

}.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m

2.

{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m } .


, , :
l

i =1

j =1

p =1

~
x = i g i + j g j + p g p = o .
m

g
p =1

2,

(7.3.1)

247

7 .

, ,
m

p =1

i =1

j =1

p g p = ( i g i + j g j ) 1 .
x 1 2 , , , ~
(7.3.1)
i = 0 , i = [1, l ] ; p = 0 , p = [1, m] .

{g1, g 2 ,..., g k } 1 2 ,
j = 0, j = [1, k ] , ,

(7.3.1), . ,

{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m }

.
3. 2 ,

{g1, g 2 ,..., g k , g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2 ,..., g m }

1 + 2 .

1 + 2
dim(1 + 2 ) = l + k + m = (k + l ) + (k + m) k =

= dim(1 ) + dim( 2 ) dim(1 2 ).


.

7.3.1.

dim(1 2 ) = dim(1 ) + dim( 2 )


x (1 2 )
x1 + x2 , x1 1 x 2 2 ,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g l , g1, g 2,..., g m }


1 2 .

248

7.3.3.


{ x1, x 2 ,..., xk }

L {x1 , x 2 ,..., x k } .

, n,

7.3.2.

{1, , 2 ,..., n } C[, ] .


{x1 , x 2 ,..., x k } ,

L{x1, x2 ,..., xk } , k

x = i xi
i =1

7.3.3.

,
L{x1, x 2 ,..., xk } , m , m

{x1, x2 ,..., xk } .

1. , k

x = i xi ( ,
i =1

249

7 .

7.1.1, .
2.


{x1 , x2 ,..., xk } m k .

x1, x2 ,..., xm .
m

x j = ji xi ;

j = [m + 1, k ]

i =1

x1 , x 2 ,..., x m .
3. , l ( l > m )
.
l y1 , y 2 ,..., y l ,
,
x1 , x 2 ,..., x m ,
m

y j = ji xi ;

j = [1, l ].

i =1


y1 , y 2 ,..., y l :
l

j =1

j =1

i =1

i =1

j =1

j y j = j ji xi = ( ji j ) xi = o .
x1 , x2 ,..., xm ,

i -

j =1

ji

j = 0 , i = [1, m].

r.

250


( 6.7.1)

lr lm >0

, , , r m . , l m
,
l m 1,

y1 , y 2 , ..., y l , o.
.

7.3.4.

,
x0
, x
,
x + x0 ,

( ) .
.

1.

2.

7.3.1.


.
dim()
.

= k , k - -

x y

, -

z = x + (1 ) y ,

251

7 .

7.4.

7.4.1.

1 , 2 ,..., n
n

x = i gi
i =1

( )

x n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

, 7.2.1

x -

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n

n - , x {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } :
1

x g= 2 .
...
n

n

n -

n : {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

i =1

i =1

x : x = i g i x = i g i .

252

, , :
n

g j = ij g i ; j = [1, n].

(7.4.1)

i =1

7.4.2.

S , j - (j = [1, n])

ij -

,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

,
1.8.2

7.4.1.

1 , 2 ,..., n 1 , 2 ,..., n -

i = ij j i = [1, n] , j =1

ij

S .

(7.4.1)
n

j =1

j =1

i =1

i =1

j =1

i g i = x = j g j = j ij g i = ( ij j ) g i
i =1

(
i =1

j =1

ij

j ) g i = o .

253

7 .

(
) ,
. ,
n

i = ij j

i = [1, n] .

j =1

, -

,
n

i1 = ij j1

i = [1, n] ,

j =1

= S

(. 5.1).

, (7.4.1)

g1
g 2
...

g1
= S

g n

g1

g 2

... g n = g1

g2
...
gn

g2

... g n S .

,
.

254

i =1

i =1

x = i g i y = i g i ,


:
1. :
n

i =1

gi = x = y = i gi ,
i =1

x= y

= y

2. :

x + y = ( i + i ) g i ,
i =1

x+ y

= x

+ y g.

3. :
n

x = i g i = ( i ) g i ,
i =1

i =1

= x

, (), .

7.5.
:
P2 () , 2,
.

255

7 .

(1 + 1 + 1 2 ) + ( 2 + 2 + 2 2 ) =
= (1 + 2 ) + (1 + 2 ) + ( 1 + 2 ) 2 ,
( + + 2 ) = ( ) + () + () 2 .

:

1 + 2

1 + 2 = 1 + 2 ;
1
2
1 + 2

= .

, ,
, , ,
.
.

7.5.1.

1 2
,

F : 1 2 , ,

x, y 1 ,
F ( x + y ) = Fx + Fy ;
2. F ( x ) = F x.
F$ 1 2 .
1.

256

,
(),
)
)

F$

1 2 ( F$
);
2

7.5.1
(
).

1 ( F$ ).

2 ,
.

dim( 1 ) = dim( 2 ) . ,
x 1 2 , ,


, 1 2 .
, n = dim( 1 ) > dim( 2 ) = m , 1 2
. n
1 n 2 ,
. ,
n 1 .
n < m
, , , n = m .
.

257

7 .

7.1.2.

R R ( ,
7.1.3)
x = ln( y ) y = e x ; x R; y R + .

7.5.1 n -
n - , n

, 6.56.7
,

7.5.2.

n .


,
.
n

n- ,
6.5.3 ( ).
n

7.5.1.

7.5.2.

k n , ,
, , min{n , k } .
,

det S 0 .

det S = 0 , rg S < n

258

g1 , g 2 ,..., g n ,
, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

, , -

= y

= S

T = S

7.5.3.

= x

, -

S ,

g1
g2
= T
...
gn
g1

g1
g 2

...
g n

g 2 K g n = g1

= T

g2 K gn S ,

= S

7.4.1.

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n

x = i g i .
i =1

259

7 .

7.5.4.


n
n

i =1

ji

i = 0 , j = [1, m]

n .

,
6.7.2
n

i =1

ji

i = 0 , j = [1, m] , n -

n-

... n

,
,
.
n

7.5.5.


m n
n

i =1

ji

i = j , j = [1, m]

n .

, 7.5.4.

260

7.5.1.

g1 , g 2 , g3


, :
3

x = 3 , g1 = 1 , g 2
1
1
.

1.

2
= 1
0

g3

3
= 0 .
1

g1 , g 2 , g3 -

,
( 7.2.2), . 7.5.1 3

3
1 2 3

rg 1 1 0 3 ,
1 0 1
,

1 2 3
det 1 1 0 = 4 0 .
1 0 1
2.

1 , 2 , 3 . x = 1 g1 + 2 g 2 + 3 g 3 ,

3 = 1 1 + 2 1 + 3 0 .
1
1
0
1

261

7 .

3.

1 + 2 2 + 3 3 = 1,

= 3,
1 + 2
+
3 = 1,
1
(,
6.4.1 6.8),
1 = 2, 2 = 1, 3 = 1 . ,

x { g1 , g 2 , g 3 },

2
x

7.5.2.

1 .
1

,
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , {g1, g 2, g 3} ,
:
3

1
g1 = 1 ,
1

2
g 2 = 1 ,
0

16
g 2 =

5 g 3 =
9

22
7 .
8

7
3
g 3 = 0 , g1 = 3 ,
1
3

262
.


1.

x ,

x : , {g1, g 2 , g 3 } {g1, g 2, g 3} .
( 7.4.2 7.4.1)

x = G

x = F

x ,
g1, g 2 , g3

g1, g 2, g3 ,

16

G = 1
1

1
0

0 F = 3
1
3

5
9

22
7 .
8

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } {g1, g 2, g 3} ,

x = S

x . x = G

x = F

x ,
x = G

x ,

G , , -

x = G

x , 5.1.2 ,

S = G

F .

263

7 .

2.

1 2 3
1 1 0
1 0 1

16

3
3

5
9

22
7 ,
8

, , , 6.8,

F ,

2 3 4
S = 1 2 3 .
1 3 4

7.5.3.

,
3, :

x1 () = 1 + 2 + 2 + 3 3 ,
x 2 () = 1 + 8 6 2 + 5 3 ,
x 3 ( ) =

10 5 2 + 8 3

y1 () = 1 + 4 2 + 5 3 ,

y 2 () = 3 2 + 6 2 + 3 3 ,
y 3 ( ) = 4 + 2 + 5 2 + 8 3 .

1.

7.4.1 . 1
x = 1 x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 ,

264

2
y = 1 y1 + 2 y 2 + 3 y3 .

,
(. 7.5.4).

1 2 3 4

1
2
= 0.
3
4

, 1

1
2
= 1
3
4

1
1
0
2
8
10
+ 2
+ 3
,
1
6
5
3
5
8

1 , 2 , 3 , -

1
1 2 3 4

2
3

4
1

1
= 1 2 3 4 ( 1

2
1
3

+ 2

8
6
5

0
+ 3

10
5
8

)=0,

265

7 .

1 , 2 , 3 ,

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 -

1 + 2 2 + 3 + 3 4 = 0,

1 + 8 2 6 3 + 5 4 = 0,

10 2 5 3 + 8 4 = 0.

, , ,
6.8,

1
4
7
2
1
4
= 1
+ 2
1 , 2
3
2
0
4
0
5
,
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , , , ,
1

= 0,
4 1 + 2 + 2 3

+ 5 4 = 0.
7 1 4 2

, 2 :

221 + 9 2 +14 3

111 6 2
,

= 0,
+ 7 4 = 0.

1 2 -

266

41 + 2 + 2 3
7 4

1
2

221 +9 2 +14 3
111 6 2

= 0,
+ 5 4 = 0,
= 0,
+ 7 4 = 0,

1
2
2
6 ,
= 1
3
7
4
2
,

1 2

dim( 1 2 ) = 1 ,
2
6 .

7
2

8 .

267



8.1.

8.1.1.

y . ,
,

,
y = A x .
y
x , x y .
5.2, ,

, , . , , ,

, , .

8.1.2.

$ ,
y = Ax
x, x1 , x2

$ + Ax
$
A$ ( x1 + x 2 ) = Ax
1
2
( x) = A x .
2. A
1.

268

8.1.1.


1. 2-

1
a
= 11
2
a 21
-

y=

a12 1
,
a22 2
x=

1
2

1
.
2

2.

,
.
3.

Pn () -

8.1.1.

8.1.2.

, 1, 2 3 .

$ ,
A
x a ?

.

a = o , A$ , -

8 .

269

8.2.

8.2.1.

$ B$ ,
A
A x = B x .
= B .
A

x :

$ B$
A
$ + B$ , C$ , A
x $
Ax

8.2.1.

$ .
+ Bx

x, y

; , C$ = A$ + B$ ,
C ( x + y ) = A( x + y ) + B ( x + y ) =
= A x + A y + B x + B y =

= ( A x + B x) + ( A y + B y ) =
= ( A + B ) x + ( A + B ) y = C x + C y.
.

8.2.2.

$ , O
x
.

270

8.2.3.

A$ , -

, , A
x

).
( Ax

,
.
:

A + B = B + A ;
( A + B ) + C = A + ( B + C ) ;
A + O = A ; A + ( A ) = O .

8.2.4.

8.2.2.

A$
,
, A
x
x) .
( A

( A ) = () A ; 1A = A ;
(+ ) A = A + A ;
( A + B ) = A + B .
.

. ,

x : ( + ) A x =
= A (( + ) x) = A (x + x) = A x + A x .

8 .

8.2.1.

271

,
, .

7.1.1, 8.2.18.2.4 8.2.1, 8.2.2.

8.2.5.

8.2.2.

A$ B$ -

A B , x ( B x ) .
A
,

A ( B C ) = ( A B )C ; A ( B + C ) = A B + A C ;
( A + B )C = A C + B C .
.

. , x, y ,

A B ( x + y ) = A ( B x + B y ) =
= A ( B x) + A ( B y ) = ( A B ) x + ( A B ) y.
.

( A ( B C )) x = A ( B C x) = A ( B (C x)) ,
, ,

(( A B )C ) x = A B (C x) = A ( B (C x)) ,
.
.
.

272



(, , ),

A$ B$ B$ A$ .

8.2.6.

A$ B$ B$ A$
$ B$ .
A

8.2.1.

Pn () = k k :
k =0

A$ , , B$
.
.

A$ B$ B$ A$ . Pn ( )

n
d
d n
A Pn () =
Pn () = ( k k ) = k k k 1 ,
d
d k = 0
k =1
n

k =0

k =0

B Pn () = ( k k ) = k k +1 .

n

k =1

k =0

B ( A Pn ()) = ( k k k 1 ) = k k k = k k k
k =1

d
A( B Pn ()) = ( k k +1 ) = (k + 1) k k ,
d k = 0
k =0

8 .
n

k =0

k =0

273

( A B B A ) Pn () = ( (k + 1) k k ) ( k k k ) =
n

= k k = Pn ().
k =0

, .

8.2.1 , -

B B A A
. .

8.2.7.

E$ ( ) , x
,

E x = x x .

A E = E A = A A , E .

8.2.8.

8.2.1.

B$ A$
$ 1 , AB
$ $ = BA
$ $ = E$ .
A

f ( ) ,

[, ]

f ( k ) () = 0 ; k = 0,1, 2, ... ,

df
A f =
B f = f () d
d

274



.
,

d
A B f = f ()d = f () = E f
d

df
B A f =
d = f () f (a) = f () = E f .
d

1.


. ,

O$ . ,
O x = o x , B$

( B O ) x = B (O x) = o x ,
= E , , B O
B$ .
2.

, ,
. ( , 5.1.1.)

3.

A B = E
= E ,
B A

, ,
n

Pn () = k k
k =0

$ B$ , B$ A
-

8 .

A$

k =0

k =1

275

k 1 .

8.3.

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

A$ m { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f m } .

x n
1
n
2
. m
x = i g i , x g =
...
i =1
n

7.2 ,

y = A x , -

A
n

i =1

i =1

y = A x = A ( i g i ) = i A g i .

m

m -

A g i = k i f k i = [1, n] , , ,
k =1

k =1

i =1

y = ( k i i ) f k .

276

= 2
...
m

y = k f k . , k =1

k = k i i ; k = [1, m] .
i =1


. ,

A : n m
m n k i .

8.3.1.

m n , g :
A
i

fg

11

= 21
...
m1

12
22
...
m2

... 1n
... 2 n
,
... ...
... mn

A$ -

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f m } m .

8 .

277

k = k i i ; k = [1, m]
i =1

= A

fg

(8.3.1)

,
:
n

k 1 = k i i1 ; k = [1, m] .
i =1

8.3.1.

A : n m
m n .

:
A
8.3.1 m n .
n

1
11
2

= 21
...
...
m
m1

12
22
...
m2

... 1n 1
... 2 n 2
... ... ...
... mn n

: , A
.
n

278

8.3.1.


1. c ,
-
Oxy .

A g1 = 1 g 1 + 0 g 2 + 0 g 3

A g 2 = 0 g1 + 1 g 2 + 0 g 3 ,

A g = 0 g + 0 g + 0 g
3

1 0 0
A$

= 0 1 0 .
0 0 0

A : n n ,
n
,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , , n .

1.1 5.1
.

A = B

1. :

A
g

.
g

A = B ,

8.2.1

x n : A x = B x ,
A
x = B
x x n .
g

5.1.2

A
g

A = B
A = B .
g

,
g

8 .

2. :

A$ + B$

A$

+ B$

279

k =1

k =1

A g i = ki g k B g i = ki g k

( A + B ) g i = A g i + B g i =
n

k =1

k =1

k =1

= ki g k + ki g k = ( ki + ki ) g k .

3. :

= A

A g i = ki g k ,
k =1

(A ) g i = A (g i ) = ( ki ) g k .
k =1

4. :

$$
AB

A$

B$

( A B ) g i = A ( B g i ) = A ( ki g k ) =
k =1

k =1

k =1

j =1

j =1

= ki A g k = ki jk g j = ji g j ,
n

j i = jk k i , k =1

5.1.1.

280

A$ 1

5. :

A$

1
g

, .
8.2.8 ,

A$ 1 A$ = A$ A$ 1 = E$ ,
3, ,

A$ 1

A$ 1

A$

A$ 1 g

= A$

A$ 1

= E$
A$

n
m
8.3.1.
m n .
.

8.3.1
m n . 7.5.1 (
) .
n

fg

A : n m . n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

8 .

281

G , m

{ f 1 , f 2 ,..., f m } { f 1, f 2,..., f m }

fg

f g

F . ,

8.3.2.

f g

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } { f 1, f 2,..., f m }


fg

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n }

{ f 1 , f 2 ,..., f m }
A

fg

= F

fg

G .

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } x , y


, A
7.3.1

= G

= F

1
x g=

2
...
n

; x

1
2
...
n

282

y f = 2 .
...
m

= 2 ;
...
m

= A

fg

= A

f g

= F

= F

= F

fg

A
g

fg

f g

fg

G ) x

= o ,
x

5.1.2 .
.

8.3.2.

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n

= S

S .

8 .

8.3.3.

283

n .

8.3.2

det A

= det ( S

S ),

det ( S

S ) = (det S

det S

)(det A g )(det S )

1
det S

det S 0 , ,
det A

= det A g .

, , 8.3.2 ,
.

8.4.
, , .

$
A
x ,
$ . ,
Ax
.

284

: ?

8.4.1.

A$ , .

1.

A x x -

= n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

2. , ,

rg A

$
Ax

y1 , y 2 . x1 x 2 , ,
$ = y Ax
$ = y .
Ax
1

A$

y1 + y 2 = A x1 + A x 2 = A ( x1 + x 2 ) .
x = A ( x)
y = A
.
= n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .
x

, -

A$ g , A g ,..., A g ,
A
1
2
n

g }.
{ Ag , Ag ,..., A

8 .

285

{ A g1 , A g 2 ,..., A g n }

,
k.
, 7.4.1, ,
* k, 7.5.2 ,

rg A$

=k.

8.4.1.

$
A
.

8.4.1.

rg A = rg A

A$ rg A .

n -

8.4.2.

A$ , -

, -

dim( ) .

, 8.4.1.
.

8.4.2.

$
A
.

B$

286

$ $ .
AB
8.4.2
,
,

$ $ AB

A$ , , , -

B$ .

$ $ AB

A$ .

A ,


8.4.3.

rg ( A

B ) = rg ( B

A ) = rg B .

A B
$ B$ A

det A 0 ,

8.4.2 , ,

rg B = rg ( A

rg( A

rg ( A

B ) rg B ,

B ) rg ( A

B ) = rg( B

A ) = rg B .

B ).

8 .
. 1.

det A 0

A ,

B ) = rg B

rg ( A

A ) = rg B .

rg ( B

287

B -

B -

A , ,
rg B

= rg B .

2. . :

1 0

0 0

0 0

0 1

0 0
0 0

8.4.2.

ker A .

$ = o.
x , , Ax

A$

288

8.4.4.

= n rg A = r , ker A$ ) = n r .
dim( ker A

,
7.4.1.

ker A$

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } A
$ = r
. 8.4.1 rg A
g

= ij

x n x

A$

j =1

ij

= 2
...
n

j = 0 ; i = [1, n].

,
n

j =1

ij

j = 0 ; i = [1, n]

$ ,
A

, , 6.7.1,

n rg A$

= nr.

8 .

289


8.1, ,
,
.
7.5 , . . .

8.4.3.

y = A x ,

x ,

),

y = A x ,

x1 = x2 ,

x1 , x2 .

x ,

8.4.4.

( -

A x1 = A x 2

y .

y = A x , x , y
(
), .

, , , . 8.4.1
.

A$ {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
, ,
n

, 8.3.1.
n

290


8.4.1

8.4.5.

n , -

A g1 , A g 2 ,..., A g n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , $ {g , g ,..., g }.
A
1
2
n
, -

A : n m = m ,
= { o } . , ker A

8 .

8.4.5.

291

,
, ,

.

1.

A : m

rg A
A

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f m } -

fg

fg

= y

fg

6.6.1 ()
f

m ,

rg A y = m . , A$


2.

= m .

rg A

fg

A$ .

= n . , 6.4.1 (), -

fg

= o

, .

A$ .

, ,
, , (. 5.2.4).
, , , . ,

292

7.5.1 ( ), , .

8.4.1.

1. Pr ,
, , ,
, , ,
.
3

, ,

, .
,

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } , ,

e1

= 1 1 1 .
T

, -

r =

( r , e )
2

r -

= y
z

e ,

8 .

293

x+ y+z
3
x
x + y + z ,
y =
3
z
x+ y+z
3

Pr Pr
e

1 1 1
1
= 1 1 1 .
3
1 1 1

, ,

e1

1 , , 8.4.5,

Pr

Pr
e e

1
1 1 1 .
3

2.

11
21

12
22

11 + 12
.
21 + 22

11 + 12
21 + 22

0
.
0

294

8.4.1.

A : 3 3
1 2 3

A = 2 3 4 .
3 5 7

. , .

1
. 1.

x = 2 y = 2 3
3

y = A x . x , ,
x = o ,
A

A x = o

1 + 2 2 + 3 3 = 0,

21 + 3 2 + 4 3 = 0,
3 + 5 + 7 = 0,
2
3
1

2 = 2 .
3
1
,

2 ,
1

,
.

8 .

295

, ,

1 2 3

1 2 3

rg 2 3 4 = rg 0 1 2 = 2 < 3
3 5 7
0 0 0
.
2.

A
x x . y , , y = A
y

1 2 3

2 3 4
3 5 7

2 = 2 ,
3
3

, ,
1 , 2 , 3 . , , 6.6.1 (), .

1 2 3 1
rg 2 3 4 2 =
3 5 7 3
1 2 3
= rg 0 1 2

1
21 2

0 0 0 1 2 + 3

1 2 3
= rg 2 3 4 = 2
3 5 7

296


, ,
1 + 2 3 = 0 , , , ,

A$ -

2 = 1 1 + 2 0
3
0
1

1 , 2 ,
1 + 2 3 = 0 .

, ,

y = 3 = 3 , .

8.5.

8.5.1.

A$ ,
x : A x .

8.5.1.

1. -

Oxy ,

. 8.5.1

8 .

297

-
Oz (. . 8.5.1).

2.
f () ,

(, ) , n -

{e

,e

, ... , e

},

1 , 2 ,..., n ,

8.5.1.

A$ , -

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

11
...
r1
0
...
0

... 1r
... ...
... rr
... 0
... ...

1,r +1
...
r ,r +1
r +1,r +1
...

... 1n
...
...
... rn
,
... r +1,n
...
...

...

n,r +1

...

nn


{g1 , g 2 ,..., g r }

A$ .

298

$
. A
.
{g1, g 2 ,..., g r } , 8.3.1
.
r

k =1

g k ,

A ( k g k ) =
k =1

= k ( A g k ) = k ik g i =
k =1

k =1

i =1

k =1

i =1

= ( ik k ) g i = i g i .
i =1

. -

7.4.1 ,
.

$ , A
{g1, g 2 ,..., g r } . .

, , ,

,
,
r

i =1

i = r +1

A g k = ik g i +

0g

. -

; k = [1, r ]

8.4.5 .
.

8 .

8.5.1.

299

$
A

A$ 1 .
.

x ,
$ , y = A x .
A

A$ , $ 1 x, y
A
$ 1 y , x = A

A$ 1 .

" ", .

8.5.2.

f
$ ,
A
f = f .
, , A
$ , A

f.

f E ,
A
f ker( A E ) .
, , ,

300

A$ ,

n , n
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

A g1 = 1 g1 ;

A g 2 = 2 g 2 ; ... ;

A g n = n g n .

,
:

A g k = 0 g1 + 0 g 2 + K + k g k + K + 0 g n ; k = [1, n] .
, 7.2.1, , ,
8.3.1, ,

A$ :

0
...
0

2
...
0

...

... 0
,
... ...
... n

8.5.2.

A$ -

f , f

$$
A$ 2 = AA

2 .

8 .

301

A f = f , -

A 2 f = A ( A f ) = A (f ) = 2 f .

n

n {g1, g 2 ,..., g n }, n

f n f = i g i ,
i =1

A$ A

= k j .

A f = f n

= f

111 + 12 2 + ... + 1n n = 1 ,
+ + ... + = ,
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
.

n11 + n 2 2 + ... + nn n = n ,

(11 )1 + 12 2 + ... + 1n n = 0,
+ ( ) + ... + = 0,
21 1
22
2
2n n

........................................................
n11 + n 2 2 + ... + ( nn ) n = 0.

(8.5.1)

302

,
(8.5.1), ,
6.7.2,
(8.5.1). , ,

:

det kj kj = 0

11
12
21
22
det
...
...
n1
n2

8.5.3.

det A E

det A E

8.5.2.

...
1n
...
2n
= 0.
...
...
... nn
g

= 0 -

,
g

(8.5.2)

A$ , n .

n .

A E , ,
E . ,
A
,

8.3.3, .
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } :
det A E
.

= det A E

8 .

303

n - , 6.1.2 (8.5.2).
,
:
n

(8.5.2), (8.5.1) , ,
.

8.6.1 8.6.2. ,
, . , ,
,
f () = e ( ) n

, -

df

=f .
d

8.6.

8.6.1.



.
n

304

n - , 11
, ,
.
.

8.6.1 . , Oxy k . ,
(. 5.5):

det

cos

sin

sin

cos

= 0 2 2cos + 1 = 0 ,

= cos i sin . , k .

8.6.2.


, .
n

,
(8.5.1) .
= + i, , (8.5.1),

f = u + w i , u w n , n - .

11

, , .

8 .

305

u w . :
u = w . A f = f ,
A (( + i ) w) = ( + i )w , A w = w , -

, .
:

A f = f .

A (u + wi ) = ( + i )(u + w i ) ,
$
A

( A u ) + ( A w) i = (u w) + (u + w) i,
,

A u = u w,

Aw = u + w.
$ , A
,
u w,

A (u + w) = A u + A w = (u w) + (u + w) =
= ( + )u + ( ) w.
.

8.6.1.

$ , A

1 2 2
2 1 2 .
3 2 3

306

$ 1. , A
.
(8.5.1) (8.5.2). (.
1.1.1),

1
2
2
det 2
1
2 =
3
2
3
= (1 + )( 1) 2 + 2(2 6 + 6) + 2(4 3 3 ) =
= 3 + 2 + 1 = (2 + 1)( 1).
,

12.

1 = 1

2 = i 2 = i -

2. .
(8.5.2)

2 2 2 1

= 1 = 1 , ,

2 2 2 2 = 0 .
3 2 2 3
0
, 1 , 2 3

12

. 3.

1
0

1
0

2 = 0 .
3
0

8 .

307

, f 1 , 1 = 1 ,

2 = 1
3
1
3.
(8.5.1)

= 2 = i ,
1 i
2
3

0 .

1 i
2
2 3i

2 = 0
3
0

, 13
1 + i . ,

1 1+ i 1 i

2 1 i
2
3 2 3i

2 = 0
3
0


.

,

1 1+ i 1 i
0 1 + 3 i 2i

13

2 = 0 .
3
0

3.

308


,
( i )

1 1+ i 1 i
0 3+i 2

2 = 0 .
3
0

3 = 3 + i ,

f2 = 2 = 2
3
3+i

0 .

4. , , , 3 = i ,

f3 = 2 = 2
3
3i

0.

( , f 2
f 3 , 2 3 ,
f 2
f 3 .)

$ 5. A
$ , 8.6.2 A

0
1 , 1 = 1 ,
1

8 .

309

, -

2
0
u = 2 w = 0 , 3

2 = 1 2 + 2 0 ; 1 , 2 .
3
3
1
,

1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 = 0
(., , 8.4.1).

8.6.3.

,
-

$ ,
A
, -

$.
A
.

A f 1 = f 1 A f 2 = f 2 . , :
A ( f 1 + f 2 ) =
= A f 1 + A f 2 = f 1 + f 2 = ( f1 + f 2 ),

.
.

310

8.6.1.

, , ,
, ( )

$.
A

8.6.4.

A
B ,

B .
A
.

, A f = f f .
A
f = B (f ) , B A

$ B$
A

A ( B f ) = ( B f ) f .

B f f ,

B$ .
,

8.6.5.

, ,
.

.
m

f 1 , f 2 , ... , f m A$ , .

8 .

311

,
m + 1 f 1 , f 2 , ... , f m , f m+1 ,
.
:
f 1 , f 2 , ... , f m , f m +1 :

1 f 1 + 2 f 2 + ... + m f m + m +1 f m+1 = o , (8.6.1)

, m +1 0.

(8.6.1):
A

A ( 1 f1 + 2 f 2 + ... + m f m + m+1 f m+1 ) =


= 1 1 f1 + 2 2 f 2 + ... + m m f m + m+1 m+1 f m+1 = o.
(8.6.2)
, (8.6.1)
m+1 (8.6.2),

1 ( 1 m+1 ) f 1 + 2 ( 2 m+1 ) f 2 + ...

K + m ( m m +1 ) f m = o .
,
f1 , f 2 ,..., f m ,

1 = 2 = ... = m = 0.
(8.6.1)

m+1 = 0 , -

,
f1 , f 2 , ... , f m

f 1 , f 2 , ... , f m , f m+1 .
.

312

8.6.1.

8.6.6.


A$
( ) n , .
n

$ , ,
A
n , , n

$ , A
,
$.
A
.

8.6.5 8.5.

8.6.7.

$ ,
A

0 k.

1 dim( ) k .
.

n {g1, g 2 ,..., g m , g m +1,..., g n } ,

m = dim( ) .

A g i = 0 g i ; i = [1, m] ,

A E

, -

(. 8.5),

8 .

A E

0
=

313

...

1,m +1

...

1n

0 ...
...
...

0
...

2, m+1
...

...
...

2n
...
mn
...

0
...
0
...

0
...

... 0 m, m+1 ...


...
...
...
...

...

n ,m +1

... nn

det A E

= ( 0 ) m Pnm ( ).

( 0 )

Pnm ( ) , m k , k

0 det A E g .
1 m ,
( ).

, -

, 0
k , k ,

8.6.2.

1 1

0 1

314

det

1
1
= (1 ) 2 = 0,
0 1

1, 2 = 1

k = 2 . :

0 1
0 0

1
0
=
2
0

x=

1
0

0 .

, ,

( m = dim(

) = 1 ), -

2.

=1

8.6.2, 8.6.5 8.6.6 ,


,
, -
.

8.6.8.

n $
, A

$
A

.
.

$ , A
, , n

det A$ = 0 .

8 .

1
11
2

= 21
...
...
n
n1

12
22
...
n2

315

... 1n 1
... 2 n 2
.
... ... ...
... nn n

6.4.1 () , - ,
-, ( ),
6.7.1 (-
).
.

8.6.2.

Q
k 2 k Q . ,

8.6.9
(
).

= Q Q

= E .

$ A
.
n

n { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f n } .
A

A

k =0

k = 0 .

316

f , A
, (. 8.5.2)
n

( k A

) f = k ( A
f

k =0

f )=

k =0

= k ( A

k =0

( A

...( A

k =0

k =0

)...) ) =

= k (k f ) = ( k k ) f = 0 f = o .
,
x .
5.1.2 ,
n

k =0

= O f .

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n

k A
k =0

k
g

= k ( S
1

= k ( S

k =0
n

= k ( S
k =0

k =0

= S

k
f

S )= S

S = O g .

S )k =

A
1

S ... S

f
n

( k A
k =0

k
f

) S =

S )=

8 .

317


,
.

8.7.
,
,
. , , 5.2,
.

8.7.1.

x
, f ( x ) . ,

f ( x) .

8.7.1.

1. n-

1
2
,
...
n
n


i =1

i , i = [1, n] -

.
2. ,

f ( x) = | x |.
3. x ( ) ,

[1,1] , f ( x) = x(0)

318


-, ( x) ,
x ( )
.
4. x ( ) ,

[, ] ,

f ( x) = p() x()d , p ()

[, ] .
5.

11
21

12

22
det

8.7.2.

11
21

12
= 11 22 12 21 .
22

f ( x ) ( ),
x, y :
1. f ( x + y ) = f ( x ) + f ( y ).
2. f ( x ) = f ( x ).

8.7.1.

, 1, 3 4 , 2 5
.

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -

x =

i =1

gi .

8 .

319

i =1

i =1

i =1

f ( x) = f ( i g i ) = i f ( g i ) = i i ,
i = f ( g i ) , i = [1, n] , .

8.7.1.

f ( x )

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } -

= 1

2 K n , -

n -

2 K n

f ( x) = i i

i =1

f ( x) = f

( !) 8.4.5,
n


.
n

n -

.
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , n

S = ij , g j = ij g i j = [1, n] .
i =1

320


x =

i =1

g i = i g i , i =1

f ( x )
n

i =1

i =1

f ( x) = i i = i i .

i i . -

,
n

k =1

k =1

k =1

i = f ( g i ) = f ( ki g k ) = ki f ( g k ) = k ki ,
.

8.7.2.

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -

= 1 , 2 , ... , n

= 1 , 2 , ... , n

k = i ik ; k = [1, n] , ik
i =1

= f

S , , -

, (. 7.3).
n

8 .

321

() .
()
, , .

8.7.2.

, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } p( x ) q ( x )

n

p+q

= 1 + 1
p

2 + 2

... n + n

= 1

= K 1

... n

= 1

... n .

... n ,

p
q

, 8.2,

8.7.3.

,
, .

8.7.3.

, , ( )

+ .

8.7.1
n-
, n- -

322

. , n- , n

8.7.4.


n .

n n+ .

n+ , n ,

n- ,

n+

{r1 , r2 ,..., rn }; ri

n+

i = [1, n] . f n+


, f =

r ,
i =1

i i

f ,

= 2 .
L
n

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n {r1 , r2 ,..., rn } n +

n ,

ij = ri ( g j ) ; i, j = [1, n]

ri g j .

rg

, -

8 .

8.7.3.

323

{r1 , r2 ,..., rn } n+ ,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n ,
f

8.7.4.

=(

rg

) 1 f

rg

= f

rg

= E ,

1, i = j ,
ij = ij =
i, j = [1, n] ,
0, i j
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {r1 , r2 ,..., rn } ().

{r1 , r2 ,..., rn } n+

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } n , -

f ( x)

n n+ -

( )

n+ n - ,
n
, ,

n+ + , n+ . n+ + n
.
n
n+
n+ +
, ,
n , , . n+ +

,

.
n

324

x n , X ( f )
n+ , , X ( f ) = f ( x) f n + .
n+
, X ( f ) ,
n+ +
. ,

X ( 1 f 1 + 2 f 2 ) = 1 f 1 ( x ) + 2 f 2 ( x ) =
= 1 X ( f1 ) + 2 X ( f 2 ) 1 , 2 ;
,

f1 , f 2 n + .

X ( f ) f n + , ,

8.4.1,

n+ + .

X ( x) : n ,
n
y = X ( f ( x )) x ; y . ,
() X ( f )
f ( x) , , , , . , y = X ( f ( x )) ,

n ,
n
7.5.1 dim() = dim ( ) = n .

, ,

dim (n++ ) = n = dim() n+ +


n++
.
, ,

y = X ( f ( x)) x n ; y n + +

n n+ + , n

n
n+
, ,

x( f ) = f ( x) ; x n ; f n + .

9 . 325



9.1.

9.1.1.

x y -

B ( x, y ) ,
1) B( x1 + x 2 , y ) = B( x1 , y ) + B( x 2 , y )

x1 , x 2 , y ; , ,
2) B( x, y1 + y 2 ) = B( x, y1 ) + B( x, y 2 )
x, y1 , y 2 ; , ,
,
( ).

9.1.1.

1.

F (x )

G ( y ) , ,
B ( x, y ) = F ( x )G ( y )

.
2.

B( x, y ) = K (, ) x() y ()dd =

( K (, ) y()d)d,

= x ( )

K (, )

326


:
,


[, ] .

.

3.

n .

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } B ( x , y ) .

.
n

x = i gi
i =1

y = j g j , , 9.1.1, j =1

i =1

j =1

i =1

B ( x, y ) = B ( i g i , j g j ) = i B ( g i , j g j ) =
n

j =1

= i j B( g i , g j ) = ij i j .
i =1 j =1

9.1.2.

i =1 j =1

ij = B ( g i , g j )
B ( x , y )

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , B

= ij

9 . 327

n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

k =1

i =1

( x, y ) = ki k i = k1 ki i1 = 1Tk ki i1 =
k =1 i =1

= 1

= x

k =1 i =1

11 12
21 22
... ...
n1 n 2

... n

y
y

... 1n 1
... 2 n 2
=
... ... ...
... nn n

x y .
.

9.1.1.

S

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,

= S

S .

n (. 7.3)
n

g k = ik g i , k = [1, n] ,
i =1

328

i =1

j =1

kl = B( g k , g l ) = B( ik g i , jl g j ) =
n

= ik jl B ( g i , g j ) =
i =1 j =1
n

i =1

j =1

= ik jl ij = Tki ij jl
i =1 j =1

k , l = [1, n] .

det
9.1.1.
.

= det B

det 2 S .

9.1.1, ( 6.2.1 6.2.4).


,
.

9.1.2.

8.4.3

9.1.3.

S .
B ( x , y ) ,
x y

B( x, y ) = B( y, x ) .

9 . 329

9.1.2.


n , .

ij = B( g i , g j ) = B( g j , g i ) = ji
i, j = [1, n].

. ,

ij = ji

i, j = [1, n] ,
n

B( y, x) = ji j i = ji i j =
j =1 i =1
n

j =1 i =1

= ij i j = B( x, y ).
i =1 j =1

9.2.

9.2.1.


x
( x) = B( x, x) , B( x, y ) , ,
(
).


, .

330

, (x)
B ( x, y ), x y

( x + y ) = B( x + y, x + y ) =
= B ( x, x ) + B ( x, y ) + B ( y , x ) + B ( y , y ) =
= ( x) + 2 B( x, y ) + ( y ) ,

( x + y ) ( x) ( y )
.
2

B ( x, y ) =

n 1

( ( x + y ) ( x) ( y ))
2

9.2.2.

(x).

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } , n

( x) = ki k i =
k =1 i =1

= 1

= x

T
g

... n

11
21
...
n1

12
22
...
n2

... 1n 1
... 2 n 2
=
... ... ...
... nn n

,
n

x = i g i
i =1

. , ,

9.1.1.

= S

S , -

9 . 331

, (x ) , . , B ( x , y )

1
( B( x , y ) + B( y , x )) , 2
(x ) , B ( x , y ) ..

ij =

ij + ji
2

ji + ij

= ji i, j = [1, n] ,

9.2.1.

B1 ( x, y ) = 11 + 3 2 2 2 1
31 2 + 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 =
= 1

3
3
1

1
1
2

1
2

3
1

1
0

0
1
0

1
2 ,
3

9.1.2 .

3
1 ( x) = 12 + 3 22 41 2 + 21 3 2 2 3 .

332

B2 ( x, y ) = 11 + 3 2 2 21 2 2 2 1 +

+ 13 + 3 1 2 3 3 2 =
= 1

1
2
1

2
1

3
1

2
3
1

1
1
0

1
2 ,
3

1
1 ,
0

3
2 ( x) = 12 + 3 22 41 2 + 21 3 2 2 3 ,

1 ( x)
1 2
1
2
1

1 .
0

3
1

,
.

9.2.3.

(x) -

{g1 , g 2 , ..., g n } n ,

( x) = i i2 ,
i =1

i i = [1, n] .

9 . 333

, ,

i , i = [1, n]

0 1, ,
.


n ,
.

9.2.1
(
).

1.

.
n = 1 (x ) = 11 12 .

11 = 0 ,
, 11 0 , , -

1 =
2.

11 1 , .

, , n 1 ,
n .
, 11 0 . ,
ii , i = [ 2, n] .

ii , i = [1, n] , , 12 0 . ,

1 = 1 + 2 , 2 = 1 2 , 3 = 3 , ..., n = n ,

334

(x) = 212 1 2 2 21 22 + F (1 , 2 , 3 ,..., n ) ,


F (1 , 2 , 3 ,..., n ) 1 2 .
3. ,
1 :
n

( x) = ik i k =
i =1 k =1

= 11 (12 + 2
i=2

n
n
1i
1 i ) + ik i k ,
11
i=2 k =2

,
n

k =1 i =1

i =1

k =1

i = ( k )( i ) = ( k ) 2 =
k =1

k =2

k =2

= (1 + k ) 2 = 12 + 2 1 k + ( k ) 2 =
k =2

= 12 + 2 1 k + k i .
k =2

k =2 i = 2

( x) = 11 (12 + 2
i=2

+ ( ik
i =2 k = 2

n
n
1i

1 i + 1i 2 1k i k ) +
11
i = 2 k = 2 11

1i 1k
) i k
11

( x) = 11 (1 +
i =2

1i 2 n n

i ) + ( ik 1i 1k ) i k .
11
11
i =2 k = 2

9 . 335

,
, 1 , ,
n

k = ki i , k = [2, n] .
i=2

4.
(x)
n
1i

+
i ) ,

11
1
1
i = 2 11

n
k = ki i ; k = [2, n] ,

i =2

(9.2.1)

.
11 0

11
T =

11

22

...
0

12
11

...

11

...

2n

...

...

...

n2

...

nn

1n
11

, , (9.2.1) .

S = T

(. 7.5.3), -

.
.

336

: , -

, ,

n .

(
) . ( ) .
,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } S

= S

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
-

S .

(. 6.8).

, 6.8.2
,

. -

,
. ,

,
, ,
,

9 . 337

= S

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , .
.

9.2.1.

( x) = 212 22 4 32 81 2 + 21 3 8 2 3 .
.

( x)

4
1

1
4

4 .
4

1.
:
-
;
- ,

5
1

3
0

1
0 .
4

0
0

1
0

0
1

338

0
0

1
1

0
0 .
1

2. , , 5. . :

93

0
3

3
0

3
0
4

5
5

1
1

0
0 .
1

3. ,
, 31.
,

93

0
0

3
0

0
0
3751

5
5

1
1

3
5 .
26

5 ; 1 ; 5
5
1
26

9 . 339

+ 33 ,
1 = 31

2 = 51 + 2 + 53 ,
= 5 + 26 ,
1
2
3
3

:

( x) = 931 2 + 322 3751 32 .

9.3.


,
, ( ) . .
n

9.3.1.

9.3.1.



( x) rg .

n .

9.1.2
.
.
, 8.4.3 9.1.1
.
.

340


.
1.

9.3.2.

() ( x )
rg + .
n

2.

() ( x )
rg .
n

3.

( x) n -

sgn = rg + rg .

9.3.2
(

).


, ( x) n , ()
.

1.

( x)

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n

( x) = ij i j
i =1 j =1

9 . 341

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n} , ( x) :
k

( x) = i i2
i =1

i = k +1

i2 ; m n , i > 0 i = [1, m]

( x) = i
i =1

2
i

i = p +1

2
i

; q n , i > 0 i = [1, q] .

ij ij -

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n }


,
n

j =1

j =1

s = sj j ; s = [1, n] s = sj j ; s = [1, n] . (9.3.1)


2.

( x)
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1, g 2 ,..., g n}

x = k g k = i g i = j g j ,
k =1

i i2
i =1

i =1

j =1

i i2 = i i2

i = k +1

i =1

i = p +1

2
i

i i2 +
i =1

i i2 = i i2 +

i = p +1

i =1

i i2 .

i = k +1

(9.3.2)

342
3.


. , k < p
, x

i = 0 i = [1, k ] ;

i = 0 i = [ p + 1, n] .
, n , k < p .
(9.3.1),

{1 , 2 ,..., n } .
,
, 6.7.1 , , , x
.
, (9.3.2), i ; i = [1, m] i ; i = [1, q ] ,

i = 0 i = [1, k ] ; i = 0 i = [ p + 1, n]
,

i = 0 ; i = [1, p ].

(9.3.1)

n -

s = sj j ; s = [1, n] n j =1

, , x .
, k < p .
4.

,
k > p . ,

k = p.
5.

9.3.1

m = q , k m = p q .

9 . 343

9.3.3.

1. ( x )

+ , ( x) > 0
x + .
2. ( x )

, ( x) < 0
x .
+

3. ( ) , , ( x ) () .
4. ( x ) 0 ( ( x ) 0 ) x ,
, () .

9.3.3.


n ,
() , ()
.

9.3.2 ()

+ ( ).

344

9.3.4
(
).

n , ,

11

det 21
...
k1

12
22
...
k 2

... 1k
... 2 k
; k = [1, n] ,
... ...
... kk

.
.

1. .
k = 1 . ,
k = n 1

n 1
n 1

( x) = i2 .
i =1

2. ,
, n . , n , , n :

9 . 345
n 1 n 1

n 1

k =1 i =1

k =1

( x) = ki k i + 2 kn k n + nn 2n .

( x ) , n 1 ,

( x) n 1 , , , . ,

( x ) ,

n 1

k = ki i ; k = [1, n 1] ,
i =1

n 1

( x) = i2 .
i =1


:
n 1

n 1

i =1

i =1

( x)

( x) = i2 + 2 in i n + nn 2n
:
n 1

( x) = (i2 + 2in i n + in2 2n ) +


i =1

n 1

n 1

i =1

i =1

2n ,
+ ( nn in2 ) 2n = i2 + nn

n 1

= nn in2 ; i = i + in n ; i = [1, n 1] .
nn
i =1

346

1
1
1 0 L 0 1,n
2
0 1 L 0 2, n 2
L = L L L L L
L ,
n1
0 0 0 1 n 1,n n 1
n
n
0 0 0 0
1
,
.
3. , 9.1.1 .

,

11

det 21
...
n1

12
22
...
n2

... 1n
... 2 n
... ...
... nn

n . ( x ) ,

.
( x) nn

> 0
nn

, n = n nn
n

( x) = i2 .
i =1

, ( x ) n , , , .
.

9 . 347

10.3.
, .

9.3.1.

n , , .

( x) , ( x) , ,

.
,
k - , ,

det

11

12

... 1k

21
...

22
...

... 2 k
=
...
...

k1

k 2

... kk

= (1) k det

11

12

... 1k

21

22

... 2 k

...

...

k1

k 2

...

...

> 0 k = [1, n] .

... kk

.
.

348

9.4.


,
4.4.1.
Oxy

{g1 , g 2 } O.

4.4.1

Ax + 2 Bxy + Cy + 2 Dx + 2 Ey + F = 0 , A, B, C, D, F
2

E , A, B C
(

A + B + C > 0 ).

, A, B C , (. 9.1.1).
,

Ax 2 + 2 Bxy + Cy 2 -

( x, y ) = Ax 2 + 2 Bxy + Cy 2
A B

{g1 , g 2 } .
B C
rg
sgn ( x, y )
9.2.2 9.3.1 ,

, ,

rg sgn

. ,
, , , .

9 . 349

D, F E, ,
,
A, B, C, D, F E.

( x, y, z ) = Ax 2 + 2 Bxy + Cy 2 + 2 Dxz + 2 Eyz + Fz 2


A B D
B C E {g1 , g 2 , g 3 } .
D E

3 ,

( x, y,1) = 0 , ,
z = 1 . , z = 1 . ( x, y , z ) .
3

9.4.1.

{g1, g 2 , g 3 }
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 } , z = 1
,

11

12

13

S = 21
0

22
0

23 .
1

Oxy -

x = 11 x + 12 y + 13 ,

y = 21 x + 22 y + 23 ,

350

z = 1 z = 1 ,
x
11 12 13 x
y = 21 22 23 y .
1
0
0
1 1

det

11
21

S -

12
0.
22

, ,
z = 1 . rg sgn
,

rg sgn

. ,

9.4.1.

Oxy rg , rg , sgn
sgn
.

rg , rg , sgn sgn

,
4.4.1, 9.4.1
,
, ,

.

9 . 351

9.4.1

x2 y2
+ 2 =1
a2
b

rg

sgn

rg

sgn

y 2 = 2 px

y2 = a2

y 2 = a 2

y2 = 0

x2 y2
+ 2 = 1
a2
b
2
x
y2
+
=0
a2
b2
x2 y2
2 =1
a2
b
x 2
a2

y2
b2

=0

,
1.
-

352


.
( x, y, z ) ,

z = 1 , , 0
0

1
0

0 .
0

S =

0
1

1
0

0 , , 1


z = 1 , , , . ,

= S

S =
1
0
1

1
= 0
1

0
1
0

0
0

2
= 0
0

0
0
1
0 .
0 2

0
1
1
0 0
0
0 1

0
1
0

1
0 =
1

2. , ,

I 1 = A + C I 2 = det

A B
. B C

4.4.

9 . 353

3. , ,
.

9.5.

9.2.1 ,
( x ) . n

, {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n

( x) = i i 2 1 2 ... n 1 n .
i =1

9.5.1.

( x) n

1 = minn ( x)

n = maxn ( x) , x
x


i =1

= 1.

.
n

( x) = i i 2 ,
i =1

1 2 ... n 1 n

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i i 2 n i 2 1 i 2 i i 2 .

354

i =1

= 1 ,

i =1

i =1

i i 2 n 1 i i 2 .

x = 0, 0, ...,1

x = 1, 0, ..., 0

9.6.
,
,
, ,
.

9.6.1.

k { x1 , x 2 ,..., xk }

,

j = [1, k ]

Q ( x1, x 2 ,..., xk )

Q( x1 ,..., x j + x j ,..., x k ) =
= Q( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x k ) + Q( x1 ,..., x j ,..., x k )
x , x , ,
, , , k - .

9 . 355

9.6.1.

k F1 ( x ), F2 ( x ), K , Fk ( x ) ,

1.

Q( x1 , x 2 , K, x k ) = F1 ( x1 ) F2 ( x 2 ) K Fk ( x k ) ,

k - .

2. .

n -
n
n , -

3.

356

10


10.1.

, , . ,
, .

10.1.1.

x y ( x, y ), , ,
:
1)
( x, y ) = ( y, x );
2)
3)
4)

(x, y ) = ( x, y );
( x1 + x 2 , y ) = ( x1, y ) + ( x 2 , y );
( x, x ) 0 ,
( x, x ) = 0 x = o ,

, E.
: 14 ,

( 2
3) ( 1) ,
, , ( 4) . , , .

357

1 0 .

10.1.1.

1.

,
2.2, .

2.

n-

x= 2 ; y=
...
n

1
2
...
n

,
n

( x, y ) = i i , i =1

.
3.


[, ]

( x, y ) = x() y ()d .

10.1.1.

, , 3 10.1.1.

10.1.2.


1)

( )

x = ( x, x) ;
2)

x y .

x y

358

: -

... - -

,
, , ,
,

.

10.1.1
(

).

x, y E
( x, y) x y .

x, y E
4 10.1.1

x y E .

0 ( x y, x y ) = ( x, x) 2( x, y ) + ( y, y ) 2 =
= x 2( x, y ) + y 2 .
2


, ,

( x, y ) 2 x y 0 .
2

10.1.2.

, ,
x y .

10.1.1
(
).

x, y E
x+y x + y .

359

1 0 .
.

x+ y

= ( x + y , x + y ) = ( x , x ) + 2( x , y ) + ( y , y )
x +2 x y + y
2

= ( x + y )2 ,

x + y x + y -


.
.

,
10.1.1 (2)
n

i i
i =1

(
i =1

+ i ) 2

2j

j =1

k =1

j =1

2
j

2
k

i ,i , i = [1, n] ;

k =1

2
k

i ,i , i = [1, n] ,

10.1.1 (3) :

x() y()d |

2
( x() + y()) d

2
x ()d

()d ;

2
x ()d +

()d .

360

10.1.3.

E
x y

[0, ] ,
( x, y )
cos =
.
x y
( 10.1.1) ,
E .

10.1.4.

E x y , ( x , y ) = 0 .

, .

10.2. .

10.2.1.

E {e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,

(ei , e j ) = ij i, j = [1, n].


10.2.1
.
(
).
.

E n

E n , ,
{g1, g 2 ,..., g n } .

{e1 , e 2 ,..., e n } . -

1.

361

1 0 .

e1 = g1 . e2
e2 = g 2 + 21 e1 , 21 .
21 , (e1 , e2 ) = 0 , ,

(e1 , e2 ) = (e1 , g 2 + 21e1 ) =


= (e1 , g 2 ) + 21 (e1 , e1 ) = 0 ; 21 =

(e1 , g 2 )
.
(e1 , e1 )

e2 o . ,
o = e2 = g 2 + 21 e1 = g 2 + 21 g1
g1 g 2 ,
,

(.
7.2.2).
2. , k 1
, e k
k 1

ek = g k + k j ej .
j =1

(ek , ei ) = 0 i = [1, k 1] ,
(ej , ei ) = 0 ; j = [1, k 1]

k 1

(ei , ek ) = (ei , g k + kj ej ) = (ei , g k ) + ki (ei , ei ) = 0 ;


j =1

ki =

(ei , g k )
;
(ei , ei )

i = [1, k 1] .

, e k o . k 1

ek = g k + k j ej = o . j =1

362

ei , i = [1, k 1] -

g i ;i = [1, k 1] , g i ; i = [1, k ] , . , ek o .

3. g i ; i = [1, n] ,

ei ; i = [1, n] ,

ek =

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,

ek
; k = [1, n] .
ek


, , . ,
, .

10.3.


{ f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k } .

10.3.1.

E { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k }

363

1 0 .

( f 1 , f 1 ) ( f1 , f 2 )
( f 2 , f1 ) ( f 2 , f 2 )
=
L
L
( f k , f1 ) ( f k , f 2 )

L ( f1 , f k )
L ( f2 , fk )
.
L
L
L ( fk , fk )

E n {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

x =

i =1

j =1

i g i y = j g j ,

10.1.1,
n

i =1

j =1

( x, y ) = ( i g i , j g j ) = i j ( g i , g j ) = ij i j ,
i =1 j =1

i =1 j =1

i j = ( g i , g j ) i, j = [1, n]

, -

.
, , (. 1 . 10.1.1),
, . ( . 9.1.2) :

( x, y ) = x

= 1

T
g

... n

( g 1 , g1 ) ( g 1 , g 2 )
( g 2 , g1 ) ( g 2 , g 2 )
...
...
( g n , g1 ) ( g n , g 2 )

... ( g1 , g n )
... ( g 2 , g n )
...
...
... ( g n , g n )

1
2
,
...
n

364

() -

x y {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } . , -

2.3 9.2.
, ,

= E ,

, ,
( x, y ) =

10.3.1.

= i i .

i =1

det

> 0.

10.1.1 ,
, , {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } (

S ) 9.1.1

= S

S ; det

= det

(det S ) 2 ,

det S 0 .

, sgn ( det

) ,

. , ,

det e = 1 , -

, det
.

> 0.

365

1 0 .

10.3.1.

{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f k } E n -

,
.

{ f1 , f 2 ,..., f k } , -

. ,

1 , 2 ,..., k , ,

1 f 1 + 2 f 2 + ... + k f k = o .

f i i = [1, k ] , -

1 ( f i , f 1 ) + 2 ( f i , f 2 ) + ... + k ( f i , f k ) = 0 i = [1, k ] .
, (. 1.1),
,
,
1 , 2 ,..., k ,
, ,
(. 6.5.2
6.5.2).
, { f 1 , f 2 ,..., f k }
,
10.3.1.
.

9.3.4.

9.3.4

n ,

366

(
).

11 12

22
det 21
...
...
k1 k 2

... 1k
... 2 k
; k = [1, n] ,
... ...
... kk

.
.

1. 10.1 , , . , ,
,
.
2. ,
( ) . , ,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
.
n

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } ; k = [1, n] .


( ), 10.3.1 ,

367

1 0 .

det

11

12

... 1k

21

22

... 2 k

...

...

...

k1 k 2

... kk

( g 1 , g1 )
= det

...

( g 1 , g 2 ) ... ( g 1 , g k )

( g 2 , g 1 ) ( g 2 , g 2 ) ... ( g 2 , g k )
...

...

...

...

>0;

( g k , g 1 ) ( g k , g 2 ) ... ( g k , g k )
k = [1, n].
.

10.3.2.

x x E {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

n

1
g

( x , g1 )

( x, g2 )
...

( x, gn )
.
n

x = i g i g k ,
i =1

k = [1, n] .
n

(g , g
i =1

) = ( x, g k ) ,

k = [1, n] ,

368


. 10.3.1 ,

1
g

b g.

.

10.3.2.
n

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } -

E
n

x = i ei E n
i =1

i = ( x, ei ) , i = [1, n] .

i = ( x, ei ) , i = [1, n] -

, x . (. 12.3).

10.4.

5.1.4

= Q

Q , -

, ,

Q = Q Q

= E det Q = 1 .

, .

369

1 0 .

10.4.1.

( ) E
.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } {e1 , e2 ,..., en } E S


n

.
,

= S

= S

S , E = S

= S

S .

, -

E = S

k , l = [1, n] , n = 3

kl = Tki il ;
i =1

2.9.

10.4.2.

, n

E ,
.

= f

T
g

T
g

= f

T
g.

370

T
g

T
g

= 2 f

= 2 f

T
g

T
g

T
g

f
A

, , ,

= E ,

2 = 1 , -

f .

, , ,

10.4.3.

A = Q

A ,
R , Q -

R -

,
.
.

, 14

A = Q1 R1 = Q2

R2 .

A R1

R2 , Q1 Q2

, ,

14


. .

371

1 0 .

Q2

R1

Q1 = R2

R1

R2

R1

. -

, ,
. ,

R2

R1

Q2

Q1

) -

.
,
, -

R1

R2

R2

R1

= E , -

.
.

, 10.4.3 -

x = b -

Q ,

x = Q

b .

372

10.5.

E E1 .

E 2 E x , E1 .

10.5.1.

10.5.1.

E x , , ( x , y ) = 0 y E 1 E E1 .

k - -

E1 E n k .

E1 E n
E 2 E1 .
E1 {g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } . x E 2 E1 , (. 7.4.1),

( x , gi ) = 0 ; i = [1, n]
:

111 + 21 2 + ... + n1 n = 0,
+ + ... + = 0,
12 1
22 2
n2 n

..........................................
1k 1 + 2 k 2 + ... + nk n = 0,

373

1 0 .

1i
2i
g i e =
; i = [1, k ] x
...
ni

1
2
.
e=
...
n

(
x ), -

E 2 , k
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } .
6.7.1 n k , E 2 .

10.5.2.

E 2 E1 E , E1 E 2 .

x E 2 ( y , x ) = 0 ; y E1 . ,
y E1 ( x, y ) = 0 ; x E 2 , E1
E 2 E .

10.5.2.

E y
x

E ,

1. y E ;
2.

( x y, z ) = 0 z E .

374

10.5.3.

E E k - , y x E

E .

E {g1 , g 2 ,..., g k } ,
k

y E y = i g i .
i =1

( x y, z ) = 0 z E y

E , ( x y, g j ) = 0 j = [1, k ] , , ,

i , i = [1, k ]

( x i g i , g j ) = 0 j = [1, k ]
i =1

(g , g
i =1

) i = ( x, g j ) j = [1, k ] .

(
g1 , g 2 ,..., g k , .
10.3.1) , 6.4.1 () .
.

{e1 , e2 ,..., ek } E

,
k

y = ( x, ei )ei .
i =1

x E

375

1 0 .

10.5.1.

1 + 2 3 4 = 0,

=0
21 + 2

E .

E 4 E .

1. E
g1 g 2 ,

{e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 } -

,
,

1
g

2.

1 e

2
;
1
0

E,

1
g

2 e

2
.
0
1

dim E = 2,

E 10.5.1 2.
g 3

g 4 , ,

g3

1
1
;
=
1
1

g4

2
1
=
,
0
0

376

E , .
3.

g1 , g 2 , g 3 g 4 4

E , E

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .

A$ -

E 4 E , ,
A g 1 = g1 ; A g 2 = g 2 ; A g 3 = o; A g 4 = o,
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }

0
0
0

1
0
0

0
0
0

0
.
0
0

4. ,

{e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 }

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }

S =

2
1
0

2
0
1

1
1
1

1
0
0

377

1 0 .

= S

= S

, ,

, , 5.1

6.8, ,

=
1

2
1

2
0

1
1

1
0

0
0

1
0

0
0

0
0

2
1

2
0

1
1

1
0

1 4
11 1
1

8
2

2
6

2
5

: -

, . , E
[, ]

( x, y ) = x() y ()d ,

Pn () = k k , n , k =0

x() E E
[, ]
x() .

12.3.

378

10.6.

, 8
,
.
, .

10.6.1.

$ ,
A
E , -

A$ , x , y E $ , y ) = ( x , A$ + y ) .
( Ax

10.6.1.

,
, ,

( x, y ) =

x() y()d

d
A =
() d
+ = d .
A
d
,

( A x, y ) =

dx()
y ( ) d =
d

= x ( ) y ( )

x ( )

dy ()
d =
d

379

1 0 .

x()(

dy ()
)d = ( x, A + y ) .
d
n

E
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -

A$ A$ + , ,
$ A$ + . A
$
$ + ,
A
A
g
g

x y {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

y g= 2 ,
...
n

$ , y ) = ( x , A$ + y )
( Ax

( A

= 2
...
n

)T

= x

T
g

A +

y
g

, (10.6.1)

E n .

( A B )T = B

T
g

( A

T
g

A + ) y
g

= 0,

x y, ,
,
5.1.2, , , , ,

380

A +
g

= O A +

, ,

T
g

{e1 , e2 ,..., en }

A + = A e .
e

10.6.1.

( x, A y ) = 0 x, y E , A .

x , y E ( x , A$ y ) = 0 .
$ y .
x = A
( A$ y , A$ y ) = 0 10.1.1 ,

A y = o. , y $ = O$ .
8.2.2 , A
.

10.6.1.

E n A$ + ,

A$ ,
T
1

A A$ .
g

A$ + . , A$
$ + A$ . ,
A
x , y E

381

1 0 .

$ , y ) = ( x , A$ + y ) ( Ax
$ , y ) = ( x , A$ y ) .
( Ax
$ + A$ ) y ) = 0 , , ( x , ( A
$ + A$ = O$ .
10.6.1 A
.

10.6.2.


E ,

A$ B$ , -

$ $ ) + = B$ + A$ + .
( AB
.

x , y E

$ $ ) + x , y ) = ( x , ABy
$ $ ) = ( A$ + x , By
$ ) = ( B$ + A$ + x , y ) .
(( AB

((( A B ) + B + A + ) x, y ) = 0 x , y E
$ $ ) + B$ + A$ + = O$ .
10.6.1 ( AB
,

10.6.3.

( A$ + ) + = A$ .

x , y E
$ , y) .
(( A$ + ) + x , y ) = ( x , A$ + y ) = ( Ax

(( A$ ( A$ + ) + ) x , y ) = 0 x , y E $ ( A$ + ) + = O$ .
10.6.1 A

382

10.6.4.

A$ E n A$ + .

A$ + , $ + ,
ker A
$.
A
$ + , ,
, y ker A

1. ,

$ y
A

$ , x E n , = o , b = Ax
$ , y ) = ( x , A$ + y ) = 0 .
(b, y ) = ( Ax
+

$ . ,
2. ker A

8.4.3

dim( ker A + ) = n rg A + =
= n rg (

) = n rg A

= n rg A .

, , 8.4.1

A$ rg A$ , dim( ) = n rg A

10.5.1.

dim(ker A + ) = dim( )
ker A + ker A + .

383

1 0 .

: 1) 10.6.4 -

, 6.7.3 (), -

$ = b , b Ax
$.
A
2) ,
y b

E ,
:

10.6.5
().

x = b

y = o

b .

10.7.

10.7.1.

R$ ,
E , ,
x , y E

( R x, y ) = ( x, R y ) .

10.7.1.

A$ + A$ + ,

$ $ + A$ + A$ AA
$.
A
,
x , y E .

A$ + A$ , , ,

384

$ , y ) = ( Ax
$ , Ay
$ ) = ( x , A$ + Ay
$ ),
( A$ + Ax
.
.

10.7.1.

R$ E ,
.
n

R + =

10.7.1

T
g

{e1 , e2 ,..., en }
T
R R$ = R$
.
e
e

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } .

S ,

T
e

=( S

= S

= S

R
R

= x

T
e

R +

T
e

) = S

T T

( S
e

S = S

= S

R
R

e
T
e

S )T =
S =

S = R e .

R e = R e , x, y E n

( R x, y ) = R x

S )T = ( S

10.4, ,

= ( R

= x

T
e

x e )T y

= x

=
R y = ( x, R y ).
e

385

1 0 .

10.7.1

E , .

10.7.2.

R$ E n .

:
= + i , 0 .

R$

8.6.2 R$
. x y ,

R x = x y,

Ry = y + x.
:
x ,

y ,

( R x, y ) = ( x, y ) ( y, y ),

( x, Ry ) = ( x, y ) + ( x, x).

R$ , ,

( x + y ) = 0 .
, 0 .
2

386

10.7.3.

,
, .

R$ R f1 = 1 f1 R f 2 = 2 f 2 , f 1
$ f 2 A
1
2

.
: f 2 ,

f 1 ,

( R f 1 , f 2 ) = ( 1 f 1 , f 2 ),
( R f 1 , f 2 ) = 1 ( f1 , f 2 ),

( f 1 , R f 2 ) = ( f 1 , 2 f 2 )
( f 1 , R f 2 ) = 2 ( f1 , f 2 ).
,
,
( 1 2 )( f1 , f 2 ) = 0 ,

R$ -

( f1, f 2 ) = 0 .

10.7.4.

E -

R$ , E , E
E E . E

R$ .

R$ ,
$ E . E
x E : Rx
E , x E x E : ( x , x ) = 0 .

387

1 0 .

E R$ ,
$ , x ) = 0 . ( Rx
$ ) = 0 . ,
R$ ( x , Rx

R x E x E ,
E R$ .
.

10.7.1.

R$ E
,
n

R$ .

R$
,

E n ,
1 . 10.7.2

.
(8.5.1) 1 e1 .
,

e1 = 1 .

n = 1 , .
1

E e1 ,

R$ . E n 1 E 1 .
n 1
10.7.4 E

$
R .
R$
E n 1 . , R$ ,

388

E n 1 , E n 1

R$ 10.7.4 , ,
$ , y ) = ( x , Ry
$ ),
x , y E n : ( Rx

x , y E n 1 .

, 2

e2 . ,

e2 = 1 . 2 1 ,
, ( e1 , e2 ) = 0 .
n = 2 , . 2
E { e1 , e2 }

E n 2 , 3
e3 ..

En .

10.7.2.

, 10.7.1,

R$

En .
.

8.5.

10.7.3.

,
, .

389

1 0 .
.

10.7.1.

10.7.4.

R$ E n
, .
n

R$
,

R$

, , -

. 10.7.1
.

R$ -

10.7.5.

R , -

Q , -

D = Q

R Q = Q

R Q

.
.

E n , -

Q -

,
,
10.7.1.
.

390

10.7.2.

A$ B$ n
E
B = B A .
, A

A a = a B a = a ,
B A a = B a = a ; A B a = A a = a ,

B B A ) a = o . , , , ( A
a , , E n , $ $ BA
$ $ = O$ .
. AB
,

A$ B$

A a = a . , $ .
A
, ,

$
b = Ba

A$ . ,

$ $ = BA
$ $
AB

A b = A B a = B A a = B a = B a = b .
$ ,
A
, a b $ , B a = a .
b = a , b = Ba
, a B$ .
.

391

1 0 .

10.8.

10.8.1.

Q$ ,

E , (
), x , y E

$ , Qy
$ ) = ( x, y) .
(Qx

10.8.1 , .
,

Q x = (Q x, Q x) = ( x, x) = x ;
cos =

(Q x, Q y )
( x, y )
=
= cos ;
x y
Q x Q y

x, y E ,

x y ,
$ Qy
$ .
Qx

10.8.1.

$
Q
, ,

Q$ 1 = Q$ + .
.

10.8.1
,

$ , Qy
$ ) = ( x , y ) ,
x , y E (Qx

$ ) = ( x , y ) ( x ,( Q$ + Q$ E$ ) y ) = 0 .
( x , Q$ + Qy
10.6.1 ,

Q$ + Q$ E$ = O$ .

392

Q$ + Q$ E$ = O$ , Q$ + Q$ = E$ .
Q + Q Q + = E Q + , , + Q Q + = Q + E
, Q
$ $ + = E$ . , 8.2.8
QQ

Q$ 1 = Q$ + .
.

Q + Q 1 .

10.8.1.

10.8.2.

E .

Q$ .

Q$ 1 = Q$ + 10.8.1 8.3 (4)

Q$

Q$

= Q$ 1 e = Q$ +

= Q$

T
= Q$ e .

, , -

5.1.4,

Q$ e .

10.8.3.

E n
n

E , , .

393

1 0 .
.

Q$ -

1.

(Q x, Q y ) = Q x
= x

T
e

Q y

1
e

= Q

= ( Q

= x

T
e

x e ) T Q

x, y E n

1
e

e
e

= x

=
T
e

= ( x, y ).

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } .
2.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } -

, . ,

S ,

=( S

= S

=( S

Q
1

T
e

S ) 1 = S

S = S
e

Q ( S

S ) T = Q

T
e

T T

S = S

) =( S

Q
e

T
e

S =

S )T =

10.8.4
(
).

A$ E n det A 0

$ $ , Q$ ,
A$ = QR
R$ -

394

1.

$+

A A$ (. 10.7.1) + A f = f , ,
. , A
+ A f , f ) = ( A f , A f ) > 0 f o ,
, ( A

( A + A f , f ) = ( f , f ) = ( f , f ) ,

( A f , A f ) = ( f , f ) . > 0
f =o
, A
f o ,
A f = 0 f det A = 0 .
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,
$ + A$ . A
$ ; i = [1, n] ,
Ae

2.

( A ei , A e j ) = ( A + A ei , e j ) = i (ei , e j ) = i ij ;i, j = [1, n] .


,

1
Aei ; i = [1, n] ei =
i

Q$ , {e1 , e2 ,..., en } {e1 , e2 ,..., en } , , $ 1 A$ .


R$ Q

3.

, -,
-,

$ $.
A$ = QR

R ei = Q 1 A ei = Q 1 i ei = i ei ;i = [1, n]

1 0 .

395

ei , i = [1, n] -

R$ , i , , R$ e

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } .
10.7.1 R$ .
4. , , .

A$ + A$ = R$ 2 ,

$ $ A$ + = R$ + Q$ + ,
A$ = QR
$ $ = R$ + Q$ 1QR
$ $ = R$ + R$ ,
A$ + A$ = R$ + Q$ + QR
$ + A$ = R$ 2 .
R$ A
, -

R$1 R$ 2 $ + A$ = R$ 2 ; A$ + A$ = R$ 2 R$ 2 R$ 2 = O$ .
, , A

, R$1 R$ 2 (. 2)
, .
, 8.2,

R12 R 22 = R12 R1 R 2 + R 2 R1 R 22 =
= ( R1 R 2 )( R1 + R 2 ) = O .
R$1 R$ 2
8.6.8 R$1 + R$ 2
$ R$ R$ = O$ .
( R$ R$ )( R$ + R$ ) = O
1

, R$ , $ . Q = A R 1 , , A
$.
A
.

396


5.5.2
, ,
, .

. 1.

$ ,
A
10.8.2, -

2.

10.8.1.

R$ , -

A$ A e0 =

E 2
1

.
.

1.

A$ + A$ 0
0
() {e1 , e2 }
10.8.2.

A + A
=

2
1

e0

= A +
0
2

e0

2
0

e0

= A

e0

e0

1
2 2
=
.
2
2
3

397

1 0 .

1 = 1 ; 2 = 4 ; f1

e0

; f2

e0

1
,
2

( , 10.8.2)

{e10 , e20 } , {e1 , e2 } :

e1 =

f1
f1

2
3

1
3

f2

; e2 =

f2

1
3

,
2
3

{e1 , e2 } :

e1 =

1
A e1 =
1

1 2
2 0

1
3
;

e2 =

1
3

1
A e2 =
2

2
3
1
2

2
3

2
3
.
1
3

398
2.

2
3

G =

1
3

1
3

1
3

F =

2
3

2
3

2
3
1
3

()
{e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 }
, 7.5.2, 0

Q$

e0

= F G

Q
{e1 , e2 } {e1 , e2 }
(
)

G 1
{e1 , e2 } {e10 , e20 }
,

e0

= F

{e10 , e20 } {e1 , e2 } .

e0

G 1

e0

, (8.3.1) (7.4.2),

G 1

e0

= G

1
e0

e0

= F G

G ( -

, ),

e0

= F

= F

399

1 0 .

1
3

2
3

2
3

2
3

1
3

1
3

1
3

2 2
3

1
3
,

2
3

1
3

2 2
3

.
3.

e0

R$ = Q$ 1 A$ ,

= Q 1

e0

2 2
3

e0

1
3

1
3

1
=
2

2
0

2 2
3

1
e0

= Q

e0

T
e0

= Q

4
3

e0

2
3
,

2
3

5
3

, ,

e0

= Q

e0

e0

2 2
3

1
3

4
3

2
3
.

1
3

2 2
3

2
3

5
3

400

11


11.1.

11.1.1.

U
a b 15

ab ,

, ,
:
1.

ab = ba ;

2.

a b = a b

3.

a1 + a 2 b = a1 b + a 2 b ;

4.

a a -

a a =0 a =o,
, .
, , .
: 1 ,

15

3.

401

1 1 .

, ,

a b = b a ,

a b = a b , , a = i :

ia ia = (i)(i) a a = (i ) 2 a a = i 2 a a = a a ,

ia ia , a a

4 .

a b = b a -

a b = b a = b a = b a = a b ,
=

= ,

ia ia = ii a a = a a ,
4.

11.1.1.

1. n-

a= 2 ; b=
...
n

1
2
, i , i ; i = [1, n]
...
n

, ,
n

a b = i i ,
i =1

402


2.
[, ]

a b = a ()b()d .

, , , . ,

aa bb ab ba .
,

aa bb ab

= ab ab = ab ba

a, b U .

Un

{g1, g 2 ,..., g n }
.

:

a b = 1

2 K n

1
2
=
K
n

= 1

2 K n

g1 g1
g 2 g1
K

g1 g 2
g2 g2
K

K
K
K

g1 g n
g2 gn
K

g n g1

gn g2

gn gn

1
2
K
n

403

1 1 .

11.1.2.

U n.

g i g j = g j g i , -

A ,

A = A , .
T

A ,

A = E

A A

= E , -

.
,
. ,

det ( A

A ) = det A
= det A

det A = det A det A =


2

= det E = 1 .

11.2.

, 10.
, .

404

11.2.1.

$ ,
A
U , ( ), a , b U
A a A b = a b .
, -

U , .

11.2.2.

$ ,
A
U ,

A$ , a , b U -

A a b = a A + b .

11.2.1.

$ B$ ,
A
U , :

$ $ ) + = B$ + A$ + (A ) + = A + .
( AB

( A B )a b = B a A + b = a B + A + b

a, b U .

11.2.2,

$ $ ) + = B$ + A$ + .
( AB

(A )a b = A a b = a A + b = a A + b a, b U

.

405

1 1 .

U n ,

A$ + , A U , {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }


11.2.2.
n
$

A +

T
g

(10.6.1) .

11.3.

11.3.1.

$ ,
A
, ( ),

A$ = A$ + .

: ,
n

U , ,

E n . :

1.

2.

, , .

3.


,
.

406


4. n

U

.

11.3.2.

$
A
, .

11.3.1.

$ B$ A
, -

B
A
.

= B A , -

A a = a B a = a ,
B A a = B a = a,
A B a = A a = a,
$ $ BA
$ $ ) a = o . , , , ( AB

a , ,
, ,
.

$ $ BA
$ $ = O$ .
AB
.

A$ B$

a = a . , , A
, , .

407

1 1 .

$ A$ . b = Ba
$ $ = BA
$$
, AB

A b = A B a = B A a = B a = B a = b .
$ ,
A
, a b $ B a = a . a
. b = a b = Ba
B$ .
.

$
A

11.3.2

(
B C ,
).

A$ .

A$ ,
. , dim = 1 .
$ B$ ( 11.3.1)
A
$ C$ ,
, B f = f , A
f = f C f = f . A

A B f = B A f = f , C B A f = f ,
A C f = C A f = f , B C A f = f ,
C B ( f ) = ( f ) B C ( f ) = ( f ).

408


, ,

( B C C B )( f ) = o f ,
$ $ CB
$ $ = O$ B$ C$ .
BC
, , ,

11.3.1

( a , b ) = ( a , b )

A$ :
( A a, A b) = (a, b) a, b E

A = E

a b = a b

A a A b = a b

A$ :
a, b U

A = E

U n

409

1 1 .

A$ + :

( A a, b) = (a, A + b) a, b E
n

A +

T
g

T
g

a, b U

A a b = a A b
:

= A

() :

( A a, b) = (a, A b) a, b E

A +

A$ + :
A a b = a A + b a , b U .

= A

U n -

11.3.1 ,
.

410

11.4. .

,
. ,
[, ]
( )

() () -

B((), ()) = () K (, ) () dd .

11.4.1.

( x) = x A x ,

x U , A$ , ( ) U .

11.4.2.

A a = a A a

$ a A
.

. 1. a (

a =

a a = 1)

A$ a= ,
, A

A a = a A a = a a = a a = .
2. ,
, .

A$ + = A$ ,

411

1 1 .

A a a = a A + a = a A a = A a a ,

, .
3. ,

= E , E$ ,
$ A$
A
= 0 . aa

A A a a = a ( A A a )a = a A a a A a a =
= ( A a A a ) a a = 0 .

11.4.3.

A$ = ( A$ A$ a ) 2
a

A
a.
.

11.4.1.

A$

A$ , -

, ,

A = ( A ) 2 a ( A a ) 2 .

== a

A$ a

A a , , ,
. A
$ ( )
A
A a ( ).

412

A = a ( A A a ) 2 a = a ( A A a )( A A a )a =
a

( A A a ) + a ( A A a )a

( A A a )a ( A A a )a

0.

, 11.4.2,

A = ( A A a ) 2 = a ( A A a ) 2 a =
a

= a

(( A ) 2 2 A A a + ( A a ) 2 )a

= a ( A ) 2 a 2 A a a A a + ( A a ) 2 a a =
= ( A ) 2 2 A a A a + ( A a ) 2 = ( A ) 2 ( A a ) 2 .
a

$ , A
11.4.2.
, , , .
.

A a = a ,
2

= a A a a a

A = ( A ) 2 a ( A a ) 2 = a ( A ) 2 a a A a

== a

= a A ( A a) a A a
= a A (a) a a

=
=

413

1 1 .

= a a 2 a a

= 2 a a 2 a a

= 2 2 = 0 ,

a a = 1.

11.5.
, ,

11.5.1
(c
).

$ B$ , A
,

A B
a

1
4

A B B A a .

1.

Q = ( A A a ) + ( B B a ) i (

),

Q + = ( A A a ) ( B B a ) i ,
:

A$ , A$ , B$ , B$ . , Q + Q a

a Q + Q a = Q a Q a 0 Q . (. -

10.8.2, 1.)

414

2.

Q$ + Q$ A$ , A$ , B$ , B$ ,
a

Q + Q = (( A A a ) ( B B a )i)(( A A a ) +
+ ( B B a )i) =
= ( A A a ) 2 + 2 ( B B a ) 2 +
+ (( A A a )( B B a ) ( B B a )( A A a ))i =
= ( A A a ) 2 + 2 ( B B a ) 2 + ( A B B A )i.
C = ( A B B A ) i , , C

3.

Q + Q :

Q + Q a = A + 2 B + a ( A B B A )ia =
a

= B C a + A .
2

Q$ + Q$
a

, . , ,

( C$ a ) 2

4 A$ B$ 0 ,
a

A$ B$
a

1
4

$ $ BA
$$
AB

2
a

1 2 .

415

12



, , ,
, , , ..,
.

12.1.

,
, , , .

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } -

(x).

E
{e1 , e2 ,..., en } , (x)
.

416

9.2.1. ,
, n

E ,
(x ) .
(. 9.2),

n
n

( x) = ki k i = x
k =1 i =1

T
g

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

= S

S .

9.2.1
( ), .
,

12.1.1.

16

,
, , 16.

, ,
.

417

1 2 .
.

1. 9.2, ( x )

= S

S ,

S = ij {e1 , e2 ,..., en }

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,
n

ek = sk e s , k = [1, n] ,
s =1

2.

( x) .

( 10.4),

= S

. ,

= S

S .

3.

{e1 , e2 ,..., en }
,
( 10.7.1)

{e1 , e2 ,..., en } ( 8.3.2)


4.

= S

S .

{e1 , e2 ,..., en }

418


(. 10.7.1)

( ,
(x ) ) ,

, 12.1.1 10.7.4.

12.1.1.




( x) E n .

x) ; x E n .
( x ) = ( x,

12.1.2.

( x, A x)
n
, E
( x, x )
$ , A

( x ) =

.
12.1.1, . (x ) .

12.1.1.

() (x )
() -

$ , A
.

419

1 2 .
.

A$ ( 12.1.1),
n

( x, A x)
( x ) =
=
( x, x )

ij i j
i =1

i =1

2
i


i =1
n

i =1

, ,
9.5.1, , min ( x ) max .
.

12.1.1 .

12.1.1.

E 3
(x) = 21 2 + 21 3 2 2 3 .

1.

1
{e1 , e2 , e3 }

e1 = 0 , e2 = 1 , e3 = 0 . 0
0
1

(x) = 21 2 + 21 3 2 2 3

B( x , y ) ,

420

B ( x, y ) =

1
( ( x + y ) ( x) ( y )) (. 9.2).
2

( y ) = 21 2 + 213 2 2 3 ,

( x + y ) = 2(1 + 1 )( 2 + 2 ) +
+ 2(1 + 1 )( 3 + 3 ) 2( 2 + 2 )( 3 + 3 ),

B( x, y ) = 1 2 + 13 2 3 + 1 2 + 1 3 2 3 ,

= 2 y
3

= 2 .
3

= 1
1

0
1

(x)

1
1 .
0

2. -

E

. 8.5.2:
3

det

1 1 = 0 3 3 + 2 = 0 .
1 1

1 = 2, 2,3 = 1 , -

. ,
, , 10.7.1:

1 2 .

421

( x) = 21 2 + 22 + 32
.
3. ,

,
.

(8.4.1) .
= 2

1 1

1 2 1 2 = 0 .
1 1 2 3
0
, 2, . , , 6.8 ( ),

21 + 2 = 3 ,

1 + 2 2 = 3 .

3 ,

f1 =

1 .
1

= 1 2, 10.7.2 (
) . ,
:

422

1 1

1 1 1 2 = 0 ,
1 1 1 3
0

1 = 2 + 3 . -

2 = 1 + 0
3
0
1

, .

f1 ,

. , = 1 ,

, 2 + = 0 . , , = 1
1
1
.

= 2 , f 2 = 1 f 3 =

0
4.

1
0

1 .
2

{ f1 , f 2 , f 3 } E 3 ,

. , { f1 , f 2 , f 3 } .

423

1 2 .

e1 =

1
3
1
, e2 =
3
1
3

1
2
1
2
0

1
6
1
e3 =
.
6
2

S =

1
3
1
3
1
3

1
2
1
2

1
6
1
6
2
0
6

{e1 , e2 , e3 }

{e1 , e2 , e3 } ), {e1 , e2 , e3 } {e1 , e2 , e3 } ,


,

= S

,
.

1
( 7.4),

1
2 = S
3

1
2 ,
3

2 = S
3

1
2
3

424

1
3
1
1
2 =
2
3
1

1
3
1
2
1
6

1
3
0

2
6

1
2 .
3


,
,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } -

( x ) ( x ) , (, ).
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,
n

( x ) ,
.

( x) -

, ,

.17 ,

( x) = A12 + 2 B1 2 + C 22

, -
.
2

17

, (
), .

1 2 .

425

(. 4.4.1),
( A C ) sin 2 = 2 B cos 2 .

1 ( x) = 12 22 2 ( x) = 1 2

,
2 sin 2 = 0,

0 = cos 2,

, .

( x ) ( x ) , n

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , ,

.
1.

( x) -

,
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , ,
n

(. 9.2.1). - , ,
.
( x ) .
2.

n
n

( x, y ) = k k ,
k =1

n . ,

426

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } = {e1 , e2 ,..., en } ,


( x ) , .
3. ,
{e1, e2 ,..., en} ,

S , ( x)

, 12.1.1.
( x ) ,

= E -

S ,
e

= S

= S

S = S

S = S

S =

S = E .

, ,
(x ) ,

(x) .
, ,

,

12.1.2.

S .

(x) = 12 + 21 2 + 3 22
(x) = 412 + 161 2 + 6 22
.

1 2 .

427

1.

(x ) (x ) . ( 9.3.2)

1 1
4 8
= 2 > 0 ; det
= 40 < 0
1 3
8 6
, (x ) , (x ) det

.
2.

(x ) .

(x) = 12 + 21 2 + 3 22 = (1 + 2 ) 2 + 2 22 ,
,

= 1
1

2 =

1 = 1 + 2

22
2 =
1
2
2 ,
1
2
2

( x) = 1 2 + 22
( x) = 41 2 + 4 21 2 322 .

3.

, {1 ; 2 }
2

{e1 , e2 } ,

428

e1

e2

2 2

2 2

0
1

(x)

. -

2 = 4 ,

f1

2 2
3

f2

1
3
{e1, e 2 } .
4.

1 = 5

1
3
,

2 2
3


{e1, e 2 } ,

{e1 , e2 }

(x) = 1 2 + 2 2 (x) = 51 2 42 2 ,

S =

2 2
1

3
3
.

1
3
,

2 2
3

1 2 .

2 2
1
1 +
2
1 =
3
3

= 1 + 2 2
2
1
2
3
3

429

2 2
1 + 2 2 ,
1 =
3

2 = 1 1 + 2 .


, , ,
( ), .
,

(x) S T

S = E . (x )
S

= S

S .

12.1.1 ( x ) ,

. , -

S .

S
,

S =( S

S = E
) 1 . , -

, ,

430

= S

S =(( S

= ( ( ) 1 ( S
= S

T 1 T

T 1

) 1 ) T

S =

S =

S = S

) S .
-

S .


,
,

8.5

) f = f ,

( )

f = o .

det

f :

=0

, ( x ) .

12.1.2.

1 1
1 3

4 8
, 8 6


( x)

431

1 2 .

det (

4 8
8 3

1 1
1 3

) = 0 det

8 3 3

= 0.

1 = 5 2 = 4 ,
2
2
( x ) ( x ) = 51 42 ,
2
2
, ( x ) = 1 + 2 .

12.2.

E 3 {e1 , e2 , e3 } ,

e1 = 0 , e2 = 1 , e3 = 0 ,
0
0
1

1112 + 212 1 2 + 22 22 + 213 1 3 + 33 32 +


+ 2 23 2 3 + 214 1 + 2 24 2 + 2 34 3 + 44 = 0
3


k =1 i =1

ik

> 0 ).

E .
, 12.1.

1 + 2 24 2 + 2 34 3 + 44 = 0,
1 1 2 + 2 22 + 3 32 + 2 14
1 + 2 + 3 > 0 ,
.

432
I.

1 2 3 0 ,

8.6.8 ,

11

12

13

det 21
31

22
32

23 0 .
33

, ,

= 0,
1 1 2 + 2 2 2 + 3 3 2 + 44
:

0
44
1)
sgn( i )
2)

) , i = 1, 2, 3 ;
= sgn( 44

) , i = 1, 2, 3 ;
sgn( i ) = sgn( 44

3)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 )

=
);
= sgn( 3 ) = sgn( 44

4)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 )

=
);
= sgn( 3 ) = sgn( 44

=0
44
5)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 ) = sgn( 3 ) ;
6)

sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 ) = sgn( 3 ) .

1 2 .

II.

433

1 0, 2 0, 3 = 0 .


= 0 ,
11 2 + 2 2 2 + 2 34 3 + 44
:

34 0 ,
3 = 0 ,
11 2 + 2 2 2 + 2 34
:
7)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 ) ;
8)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 ) ;

0 , :
34 = 0, 44
9)
), i
sgn( i ) = sgn( 44
10)
)
sgn( i ) = sgn( 44

= 1, 2 ;

, i = 1, 2 ;

11)
sgn( 1 ) = sgn( 2 ) ;

= 0 , :
34 = 0, 44
12)
sgn( i ) = sgn( 2 ) ;
13)
sgn( i ) = sgn( 2 ) .

434

III. :

1 0 2 = 3 = 0 .

2 + 2 34 3 + 44
= 0,
11 2 + 2 24

1 = 1 ; 2 =

2 + 34 3
24
+
2
24

2
34

; 3 =

3
34 2 24
2 + 34 2
24

(, ,

O 2 3 ).

2 + 34
2 )2 + 44
=0
11 2 + 2( 24
:

0 34 0 , 24
:
14) ;

= 34 = 0 , :
24
15)
);
sgn( 1) = sgn( 44
16)
);
sgn( 1) = sgn( 44

= 34 = 44
= 0 , :
24
17) .

1 2 .

435

. 1.

.
2.
,
.

12.3.
( ) [ a, b] f ( )
g 0 (), g1 (), g 2 (), ..., g n (), ... ,
( f ( ) )

[a, b] , .

,
,
.

[1,1] f () ,

{g k () = k , k = [0, n]} .

,
n

n , Pn () = k k , -

f ( ) .

k =0

[1,1]

436

g k () , -

{g k () = k , k = [0, n] } (n + 1) -
,

{ g k = g k (), k = [0, n] }.

1

( x , y ) = x ( ) y ( ) d
1

E .
x ( ) y ( )
1

= x y = ( x y, x y ) =

( x() y ())

( x () y () E ),
x ( ) = y ( ) [1,1] .
E ,
f () f E . n

k =0
n

g k E
n

2 = ( f k g k , f k g k ) .
k =0

k =0

k , k = [0, n] , -

.

2

437

1 2 .
n

2 = ( f k gk , f k gk ) =
k =0

k =0

= ( f , f ) 2 k ( f , g k ) + k i ( g k , g i ),
k =0

k =0 i =0

2 k

k = [0, n] ,
n

i =0

( g k , g i ) = ( f , g k ),

k = [0, n] ,

(12.3.1)

k , k = [0, n] ,

. ,
, , .
10.3.2, , 2

k ; k = [0, n]

f {g k = g k (), k = [0, n] } ,

f .

2 :

k =0

k =0

i=0

2 = ( f , f ) k ( f , g k ) + k (( f , g k ) + i ( g k , g i )) =
n

k =0

k =0

= ( f , f ) k ( f , g k ) = ( f , f k g k ).
,
n

f = k g k ,
k =0

438

f .

2
n

2 = ( f , f k g k ) k , k = [0, n] , k =0

12.3.1. ,

.
,

{ g k = g k () = k ,

k = [0, n] }

,
10.2.1,

1
e0 () = 1 ; e1 () = ; e2 () = 2 ;
3
n
3
d
e3 () = 3 ; ... ; en () = n ( 2 1) n ,
5
d
.

{ g k = k , k = [0, n] } , ,
(, , )

{ ek () =

dk 2
( 1) k , k = [0, n] }.
k
d

, , 12.3.1

1 2 .

439

(e , e ) = ( f , e ) , k = [0, n]
i =0

k =

( f , ek )
; k = [0, n] , (ek , ek )

2 :
( f , ek ) 2
= ( f , f e ) = ( f , f )
.
k =0
k = 0 (ek , ek )
n

k k

{ek , k = [0, n] } ,
(ek , ei ) = ki ; k , i = [0, n] ,

, ,

k = ( f , ek ) ; k = [0, n] 2 = f
,

k2 .
k =0

k , k = [0, n] -

:
1)

2)

f ;

,
{ek , k = [0, n] }

(. 10.3.2).
, , , .
.

440

10.7.3,
, , , .
R
[1,1] ,
18 , , ,
. ,
1

d 2x
dx

( Rx , y ) = 2 y ( ) d =
y ( )
d
1 d

dx dy

d d d.

, ,
1

( x, R y ) = x()
1

d2y
dy
d = x ( )
2
d
d

dx
dy
y () = x()
d
d
1

1
1

dx dy
d .
d

R ,

. , ,
1

, ( , ) [1,1].

18

10.7.1 ,

A + A

. A
=

d
d

d ( ),
A + =
d

d2
R = A + A = 2 .
d

1 2 .


R x =

441

R . -

d 2x
= x, 0 ,
d 2

x() = e + e ,

, -

x(1) = x(1)

dx
d

=
1

dx
d

(. 3):

e = 0

sin = 0 .

k = 2 k 2 k = 0,1, 2, ... ,

x k () = k cos k + k sin k .
k k , k .

,
,
[1,1] . ( , ) , .

442

: -

: n ? , ,

lim ( f

k2 ) = 0 ?
k =0

. ,
, E

E , ( E ), E , f E , ,
( f , g k ) = 0 k

( g k

E , -

).
, , 19.

19

{g k , k = 0,1, 2, ...} ,

f E

,
.

. 1 .

443



4.4 , .
.

1.1.

,
4.4.1. .

1.

x2 y2
2 2 = 0 a
b

{O, e1 , e2 } .

y 2 = a 2 a 0 .

. 1.1.1.

{O, e1 , e2 }
2
2
3 x + 4 xy + y = 0. -

444

(2 x + y ) 2 x 2 = 0
(
),

y = x y = 3x .
(. . 1.1.1.)

= 1 < 0 ,

1
arctg 2 .
2

. . 1.1.1

2.

y 2 = 0 y = 0 -

{O, e1 , e2 } . 1
b +0 .

3.

x2 y2
+
= 0 a2 b2

{O, e1 , e2 } .

4.

{O, e1 , e2 } ,

. 1 .

445

x2 y2
+ 2 = 1 y 2 = a 2 .
2
a
b
.

1.2.

. 1.2.1.

x2 y2
+
=1; a b > 0,
a2 b2
.

. 1.2.2.

a2 b2
a

a
.
0
a
x = .

2
b
p =

a


1. : | x | a

| y | b,

446

y=

b
a2 x2 .
a

2. L
Ox Oy ,
.

x
y

x
y

x
L,
y

x
y

L,

. . 1.2.1

( P, Q) P Q , F1 A F2 A .

. 1 .

. 1.2.1.

A=

447

, -

L , ,
:

1)

r1 = | F1 A | = a x ; r2 = | F2 A | = a + x ;

| F1 A | + | F2 A | = 2a ;
( A, F1 ) ( A, F2 )
3)
=
=;
( A, D1 ) ( A, D2 )

2)

4)

( M , F1 )
= M L ;
( M , D1 )

5)

| F2 B | = p , F2 B Ox ;

6)

= .

1. (. . . 1.2.1)

r1 = ( x a) 2 + y 2 ; r2 = ( x + a) 2 + y 2 .
,
, i = 1, 2 :

b2 2
ri = ( x a) + y = ( x a) + 2 (a x 2 ) =
a
2

= ( x a) 2 + (1 2 )(a 2 x 2 ) =

448

= x 2 2 xa + a 2 2 + a 2 a 2 2 x 2 + x 2 2 =
= a 2 2 xa + x 2 2 = | a x | .

,

| x | a 0 < 1 , a x 0 ,

r1 = | F1 A | = a x ; r2 = | F2 A | = a + x.
2. 2 1.
3.

( A, F1 ) a x
( A, F2 ) a + x
=
= ;
=
= .
( A, D1 ) a
( A, D2 ) a
x
+x

4. 4 .
5. ,

| F2 B | =

b
b
b
a 2 a 22 = a 1 2 = b = p .
a
a
a

6.
. 1.2.2.
.

. 1.2.2.

A=

x0
, y0

, ,

. 1 .

449

,
A,

x0 x y0 y
+ 2 = 1.
a2
b
.

A
y y0 = y ( x0 )( x x0 ) .

2 x 2 yy
+ 2 = 0,
a2
b

y ( x0 ) =

y y0 =

b 2 x0
.
a 2 y0

b 2 x0
( x x0 ) , , a 2 y0

x02 y 02
+
= 1 ,
a2 b2
x0 x y 0 y
+ 2 = 1.
a2
b

,
y 0 = 0 ,

x = a.

.
6 . 1.2.1.

A,

450

F2

x0
. d 2
y0
c
0

(.

3.2.1):

d2 =

1 x 0 ( c ) y 0 ( 0)
1 x0 c
+ 2 1 =
+1 =
2

a2
a
b

r
1
=
x0 + a = 2 , =
a
a

x02
a2

y 02
b2

d 1 F1 -

d1 =

r
1 x0 c
1
1 =
x0 a = 1 .
2
a
a
a

,
d
d
1
1
sin = 1 =
sin = 2 =
r1 a
r2 a
= .

6 . 1.2.1 .

. 1.2.1 . 1.2.2 .
: , 2a .

. 1 .

451

: (
) , ()
() .
:
. ( , ,
.)


, , .
A , (. . 1.2.1.),

= r2 = a + x = a + ( cos a) = a + cos a 2 .

(1 cos ) =
= a(1 2 )

p
.
1 cos

(
4.6.)

. . 1.2.2

452

1.3.

. 1.3.1.

x2 y2

= 1 ; a > 0, b > 0,
a2 b2
.

. 1.3.2.

a2 + b2
a

a
.
0
x=

p=

b2

a


1. ,
| x| a,

y=

b
x2 a2 ;
a

. 1 .

453

2. L
Ox Oy , .

x
L
y

x
L
y

x
L,
y

x
L,
y
.

(. . 1.3.1).

. 1.3.3.

y = u x + v y = f (x ) x ,
f ( x)
u = lim
v = lim( f ( x ) u x ) .
x
x
x

3.

y=

b
x . a

b
b
x 2 a 2 = , ,
x ax
a
b
b
b
v = lim (
x2 a2 m x ) =
lim ( x 2 a 2 m x ) =
x
x
a
a
a

u = lim

b
(x2 a 2 ) x2
1
lim
= ab lim
= 0.
x
a x x 2 a 2 x
x2 a2 m x

454

. . 1.3.1.

. . 1.3.1

.1.3.1
.

A=

x
y

, -

L , ,
:
1.

r1 = | F1 A | = a + x ;

r2 = | F2 A |= a + x

( x > a) .

r1 = | F1 A | = a x ;

r2 = | F2 A | = a x
2.

| r1 r2 | = 2a ;

( x < a) ;

. 1 .

3.

( A, F1 )
( AF2 )
=
=;
( A, D1 ) ( A, D2 )

4.

( M , F1 )
= M , M L;
( M , D1 )

5.

| F2 B |= p ;

6.

= .

455

1.

.
1.2.1,

r1 = ( x a) 2 + y 2 ;

r2 = ( x + a) 2 + y 2 ,

. i = 1, 2

ri = ( x a) 2 + y 2 = ( x a) 2 +

b2 2
(a x 2 ) =
a2

= ( x a) 2 + (1 2 )(a 2 x 2 ) =

= x 2 2 xa + a 2 2 + a 2 a 2 2 x 2 + x 2 2 =
= a 2 2 xa + x 2 2 = | a x | .

| x | a > 1 ,

r1 = | F1 A | = a + x ; r2 = | F2 A | = a + x,

456

r1 = | F1 A | = a x ; r2 = | F2 A| = a x.
2 3.
4 .
5. ,

| F2 B | =

b
b
b
a 22 a 2 = a 2 1 = b = p .
a
a
a

6.
6 . 1.2.1,
. 1.3.1.
.

y=

a
x

x=
x

1
y =
x +

1
y ,
2
1
y .
2

. 1.3.1 . 1.2.2 .
: ,
2a .

. 1 .

457

: ,
() () .
:

. ( , , .)

. 1.3.2.

A=

x0
y0

, -

, ,
, ,

x0 x y 0 y
2 =1.
a2
b
.

y y 0 = y ( x0 )( x x0 ) .

2 x 2 yy
2 = 0,
a2
b

y ( x 0 ) =

b 2 x0
b 2 x0
. y y 0 = 2
( x x0 ) ,
a 2 y0
a y0

, ,

458

x02 y 02

= 1 ,
a2 b2
x0 x y 0 y
2 =1.
a2
b
,
y 0 = 0 ,

x = a.




,
Ox (. .
1.3.2).

A ,
,

= r1 = a + x =
= a + ( cos + a) =

. . 1.3.2

= a + cos + a 2 .

(1 cos ) = a( 2 1)
=

p
.
1 cos

( 4.6.)

459

. 1 .

1.4.

. 1.4.1.

y 2 = 2 px ; p > 0 ,
.

. 1.4.2.

p
2

x=

p
2

p -

. . 1.4.1, ,

.


1. ,

x 0;

2. L
Ox ,

x
L
y

x
L,
y

460

. . 1.4.1

3. ,
.

. 1.4.1.

A=

x
, y

L , ,
:

p
;
2

1.

r = x+

2.

( A, F )
= 1;
( A, D)

3.

( M , F )
= 1 M , M L ;
( M , D)

4.

| FB | = p ;

5.

= .

. 1 .

461

1.

r = (x

p 2
) + y 2 ,
2

p2
p
+ 2 px = | x + | ,
4
2
p
x , 2
r = x 2 px +

1 2.
3 .

| FB |= 2 p

p
= p.
2

4.

5.

. 1.4.2.


y = ax ,
, .
. 1.4.1
.
2

: , () () .

462


:

. (
, ,
.)

A=

.1.4.2
.

x0
y0

, -

, ,
,
A ,

yy 0 = p( x + x0 ) .
.

y y 0 = y ( x0 )( x x0 ) .

2 yy = 2 p , y ( x0 ) =

y y0 =

p
, y0 0 .
y0

p
( x x0 ) , ,
y0

y 02 = 2 px0 ,

yy 0 = p( x + x0 ) .
,
y 0 = 0 , x = 0 .
.

463

. 1 .
5 .1.4.1.

y0
p

x0

p
2 .

y0
p
) + py 0
2
=
p 2
2
( x0 ) + y 0
2

y 0 ( x0

cos =

y +p
2
0

, ,

y0
y 02 + p 2

1
0

= x+

p
=
2

. .1.4.2

y0

, .



, , (. .
1.4.2).
A , ,

464

p
p
+ cos + = p + cos .
2
2

(1 cos ) = p
p
=
.
1 cos

( 4.6.)

. 2 .

465



4.5.1
,
. .

2.1.

,
4.5.1.

, - ,
, 1, ,

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } .
,
, ,

x = 0,

y = 0,

, , Oxy .

466

{O, e1 , e2 , e3 } .
, .
, .

2.2.

. 2.2.1.

x2 y2 z2
+
+
= 1 , a > 0, b > 0, c > 0,
a2 b2 c2
.


1. , , | x | a ; | y | b ; | z | c .
2. :
-

3. ,
, . ,

. 2 .

467

z = z 0 , z 0 < c ,

x2
y2
+
= 1,

z 02 2
z 02 2
(a 1 2 )
(b 1 2 )
c
c

z = z0 ,
. (. . 2.2.1.)

. . 2.2.1

2.3.

. 2.3.1.

468

x2 y2
+
= 2 z , a > 0, b > 0,
a2 b2
.


1. , , z 0
.

. . 2.3.1

2.
- Oz ;
-
Oxz Oyz .

. 2 .

469

3. , Oz , , ,
Ox Oy . ,

z = z 0 > 0 ,

x2
y2
+
= 1,

(a 2 z 0 ) 2 (b 2 z 0 ) 2

z = z0 ,

. (. . 2.3.1.) , y = y 0

2
y2
x = 2a 2 ( z 02 ),

2b

y = y0 ,
.

x = x0

2
x2
y = 2b 2 ( z 0 2 ),

2a

x = x0 .

2.4.

. 2.4.1.

x2 y2

= 2 z , a > 0, b > 0,
a2 b2
.

470


1. ,
, z .

. . 2.4.1

2.
- Oz ;
-
Oxz Oyz .
3. , Oz , , , Ox Oy , . (.
.2.4.1.)
, z = z 0 > 0 , :

. 2 .

471

x2
y2

= 1,

(a 2 z 0 ) 2 (b 2 z 0 ) 2

z = z0 ,

z 0 < 0 -

x2
y2

= 1,

(a 2 z 0 ) 2 (b 2 z 0 ) 2

z = z0 .

,
x = x 0 :

2
x2
y = 2b 2 ( z 0 2 )

2a ,

x = x0
.

y = y 0 -

2
y2
x = 2a 2 ( z + 02 ),

2b

y = y0 .
, ,
, ,
, .
4. .

472

( a + b )( a b ) = 2 z ,
, ,

x y
x y
a + b = 2,
a b = 2,

x y
x y
( ) = z ( + ) = z ,
a b
a b
,
,
, .
, ,
,
. (
) .

2.5.
\

. 2.5.1.

x2 y2 z2
+

= 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0,


a2 b2 c2
.


1. ,
,

. 2 .

473

z (, + ) .

. . 2.5.1

2. (. . 2.5.1)
- ;
-
;
- .
3. , Oz , , ,
Ox Oy . .
4. .

474

x z x z
y2
+

=
1

( a c )( a c ) b 2 ,
,
, ,

y
x z
x z
( a + c ) = (1 b ),
( a + c ) = (1 +

x z
y
x z
( ) = (1 + )
( ) = (1
b
a c
a c

y
),
b
y
),
b

,
,
, .
,
.
.

2.6.

. 2.6.1.

x2 y2 z2

= 1 , a > 0, b > 0, c > 0,


a2 b2 c2
.


1. , ,
.

x a

. 2 .

475

. . 2.6.1

2.
- ;
-
;
- .
3. , -

Ox , x > a ,
, Oy Oz , .


(. . 2.6.1.)

2.7.
, Oxz ,
F ( x , z ) = 0 . Oz ,
.

476

. 2.7.1.

F ( x 2 + y 2 , z ) = 0,
.
, , :

. 2.7.1.

1.

2.

x2 + y2 z2
+ 2 = 1.
a2
c
2 2
2
2
k z = x + y .

.
,

z 2 = 2 px -

Ox , , Oz ,

z 2 = 2 p x 2 + y 2 z 4 = 4 p 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) .
, -

. 2.7.1.

z 2 = 2 px Ox .

x0
0 . , z0

Ox x = x0 , -

z 0 y 2 + z 2 = z 02 .

. 2 .

477

z 02 = 2 px0 ,
y 2 + z 2 = 2 px0 .

x0
,

0 ,
z0

, ,

y 2 + z 2 = 2 px .

478


, 20
- , {O, g 1 , g 2 } .
z

g1 =

1
0
g2 =
, 0
1

1
0
z=
+
= g1 + g 2 .
0
1
z=

. 3.1.

z1 =

20

1
1

z2 =

2
2

( 7.5) , ,
, .

479

. 3 .

z1 z 2 =

1 2 1 2
.
1 2 + 21

. 3.2.

{g

1
0

g2 =

0
1

},


. 3.1, ,
z .

1.


, .

2. : z1 z 2

z , ,

z1 = z 2 z .
3. ,

, 0

,
. 3.2 , ,
.

480

, :

z=

1
0
+
= g1 + g 2
0
1

g1 ( ), g 2 i (

).
z z = + i ,
:

z1 + z 2 = ( 1 + 1i ) + ( 2 + 2 i ) = (1 + 2 ) + (1 + 2 )i ;
z = ( + i ) = ( ) + ()i ;
z1 z 2 = ( 1 + 1i )( 2 + 2 i ) = ( 1 2 1 2 ) + ( 1 2 + 2 1 )i .
,
,
,

i 2 = ii = (0 + 1i )(0 + 1i ) =

i 2 = 1 ,

0
1

0
1
=
= (1) + 0 i = 1 .
1
0

i 2 (1) ,

z1 z 2 = (1 + 1i )( 2 + 2 i ) = 1 2 + 1i + 21i + 1 2 i 2 =
= (1 2 1 2 ) + (1 2 + 21 ) i,
. 3.1.
:

481

. 3 .

z1 1 + 1i (1 + 1i )( 2 2 i )
=
=
=
z 2 2 + 2 i ( 2 + 2 i )( 2 2 i )
=

(1 2 + 1 2 ) + ( 21 1 2 )i
22 + 22
=

. 3.3.

1 2 + 1 2 21 1 2
+
i.
22 + 22
22 + 22

z = +i:

1.

Re z .

z Im z .

2.

3.

z z .

4.

cos =
sin =

= 2 + 2 , ,

2 + 2

,
2 + 2
z
arg z , z 0 .
5. i
- z z .

482
:


1.

, 1, 2 5,
, .

2. - ,
.

z , z1 , z 2 :
1.

(z ) = z .

2. z ,
z = z .
3. z z =
.
4.

+ 2 -

z1 + z 2 = z1 + z 2 ;

z1 z 2 = z1 z 2 .

5.

Pn ( z ) = k z k k =0

, ,

n

k =0

k = 0 ,

483

. 3 .
n

k =0

k =0

0 = 0 = k k = k .
: -

,
, ,
, .

. 3.1.

z 2 +1 = 0 .
.

, ,

z = + i =

1
0

0
0

1 = 1 + 0i =

1
0

0 = 0 + 0i =

0
0

0
2 2 + 1
=
.
0
2

, ,
:

484

2 2 + 1 = 0,

2 = 0,
, ,

= 0,

=1

= 0,

= 1.

z1 =

0
0
= 0 + 1i = i z 2 =
= 0 + (1)i = i .
1
1



. 3.3,
, :

z = + i = 2 + 2 (

2 + 2

2 + 2

i) =

= (cos + i sin ) .

, , .

g1 =

1
0


{O, g1 , g 2 } .

485

. 3 .

z -

, ,
-

arg z
, , , . 3.3,
:

z = +i

z = (cos + i sin ) .

. .3.1


, :

e iz = cos z + i sin z z .

486

z = + i = z (cos + i sin )
i
, z = e .
, , 21. ,

z1 z 2 = 1 e

i1

2e

i 2

= 1 2 e

i (1 + 2 )

, ,

i = 0 + 1i = cos

i = (e

+ i sin = e 2 ,
2
2

i i
2

=e

. 3.2.

cos x = 5 .

cos z =

e iz + e iz
2

z ,

21

487

. 3 .

ei

+ e i

= 5 y +

1
10 = 0 ,
y

y = ei x .

ei

= 5 2 6 ,

i x = ln(5 2 6 ),

x = ln 2 (5 2 6 ).

488


4.1.


, , ,
, ,
.., ,
, , , .
,
, .
, , ,
.
,
, ,
. , , -, ,
, ,
-, .
n

489

. 4 .

,
, ( !),
.
. 4.1.1 , , , {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .
n

. 4.1.1


{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

f (x )

= 2
...
n

... n ,

i = f ( g i )

= S

j = ji i
i =1

=
= 1

= f

j = i ij
i =1

490

11

= 21
...
n1

12
22
...
n2

... 1n
... 2 n
,
... ...
... nn

= S

ki =
n

= kj mi jm

A g j = ij g i ; j = [1, n]

j =1 m =1

i =1

B( x, y )

11
=

B
12

21 22
... ...
n1 n 2

... 1n
... 2 n
,
... ...
... nn

= S

ij = B ( g i , g j ); i, j = [1, n]

(x)

11
21

12
22

...
n1

...
n2

... 1n
... 2 n
,
... ...
... nn

ki =
n

= jk mi jm
j =1 m =1

= S

=
T

491

. 4 .

ij =

ij + ji
2

ki =

; i, j = [1, n]

= jk mi jm
j =1 m =1

, ,
n

ij , g j = ij g i ;

S -

j = [1, n] , -

i =1

g j = ij g i ;

T = S

ij ,

j = [1, n] .

i =1

, :
1

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ;

S S

, .


,
. ,
x y ,
n

x = 1

... n

y = 1

... n

492

1 1
2 1
...
n 1

n n ,

1 2
2 2
...
n 2

... 1 n
... 2 n
...
...
... n n

x y
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
,

1 2. ,
n

k = k i i j = jm m
i =1
n
n

m =1

k j = ki jm i m , , ,
i =1 m =1

xy

=( S

1 T

x y

, 1 2.
, , .
, , , ,
.

F ,

xx

xy

xz

Fy = yx
Fz
zx

yy
zy

yz
zz

y ,
z

Fx

r -

493

. 4 .

D -

xx

xy

xz

Ex

D y = yx
Dz
zx

yy
zy

yz
zz

Ey .
Ez

Dx

,
.
, , .
,

x, y z .
27,
(, , -).
,

xx
x
yx

xy

x
zx
x

x
zy

x
yy

xz xx
x
y
yz yx

xy

x
zz
x

y
zy

y
zx
y

y
yy

xz xx
y
z
yz yx

xy

y
zz
y

z
zy

z
zx
z

xz
z
yz

z
yy

z
zz
z

n-
, ,

A$

494

n
.
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } .

A$

= S

A$

A$ n -

ki = kj mi jm ) ,

j =1 m =1

k i
l

= kj mi
j =1 m =1
n

jm
l

T
= k j im

j =1 m =1

jm

j =1 m =1 p =1

= kj mi

p =1

jm p
p l

pl ,

, ,

A$

= S

A$

S .

,
1 2.
, , .

495

. 4 .

1
2
x =
...
n

x . {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
n

= i ,
i =1


{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , ,

= i = ij j .
i =1

i =1 j =1

, ,
:
-

1 2,
.

, ,
, ,

, ( ,
)

( S

1 T

) .

496

4.2.

, ,
, , :
, -

n (q, p ) q p ( ( p + q ) -

n ,
p+ q
n
j1 j2 ... jq i1i2 ...i p ( jm = [1, n] ; m = [1, q] -),

ik = [1, n] ; k = [1, p] -

),
{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

j j ... j ii ...i = ... ... i i i i ... i i


n

1 2

q12

i1 =1 i2 =1

i p =1 j1 =1 j 2 =1

11

j q =1

2 2

p p

j1 j1 j2 j2 ... jq jq j1 j2 ... jqi1i2 ...i p ,

ik = [1, n] ; k = [1, p] jk = [1, p] ; k = [1, m] ,

ij ij

S T = S

. ,
, .

497

. 4 .


1.

,
, ( q + p ) -
(

(q + p ) -

(q + p ) - ), j1, j2 ,..., jq i1, i2 ,..., i p .


- 1 n ,
,
.

. 4.2.1.

2.

i = i ,
i = i i = [1, n] .

.
, : (, ), ,
.

. 4.2.2.

3.

ijk 2 -

111 , 112 , 121 , 122 , 211 , 212 , 221 , 222 .


, . ,
, .

498

. 4.2.3.

4.

i..j.kl m.. .

, , .

. 4.2.4.

S$ ,

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } ,


(1,1) ij

( ), ji
7.3.2
8.3.1.


, , , , :
, . ,
.

.

. 4.2.5.

1.

( x) = ij i j .

499

. 4 .

2.

111 + 12 2 + ... + 1n n = 1
2 1
2 2
2 n
2
1 + 2 + ... + n =

.............................................
1n 1 + n2 2 + ... + nn n = n

ik i = k .

ij ij ( -

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } )

(1,1),

. 4.2.1.

, ( q, p ) , q
p ,
n

n , p +q
n

j1 j2 ... jq
i1i2 ...i p ( j m ; m = [1, q]
ik ; k = [1, p] ), {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

ijij......i j = ii ii ... ii jj jj ... jj iji j......i j


1 2

12

1 2

12

500

. 4.2.2.

(q + p ) ( -

. 4.2.3.

i1ji2j2......i pjq .
1

,
.

. 1. , -

, , .
2. ,
,
(0,0).
. 4.2.1

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }
(
)
(1,0)

f ( x)



{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n }

j = ij i

(
) (0,1) j

j = i ij

501

. 4 .

A$

(

) (1,1)

km = mj ik ij

ij
( ) (0,2) ji

km = kj im ji

( ) (0,2) ji

km = kj im ji

(

) (1,1)

km = mj ik ij

B( x, y )

( x)

1, i = j
ij =
0, i j j
i

. 4.2.1 .
, . 4.2.1
,
, ,
, .
, . 4.2.1

1 , i = j ,
km = mj ik ij = mj kj =
0 , i j.

502

, , ,

mj kj ,
,

mj kj .


, ,
. :
1.

(1, 0) -.

(0,1) -.

2.

, , ,
, 2 " ".
, , 1, .

3.

,
.
,
,
.

1111
2111
1121
2121

1211
2211
1221
2221

1112
2112
1122
2122

1212
2212
.
1222
2222

503

. 4 .

. 4.2.1.

x y f ( x , y ) ,
4

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }
f ( x, y ) = 1 3 + 3 2 4 .
, , , .
.

1. ,
.
.
4

g i = ik g k
k =1

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 }

{g1 , g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .
4

k =1

l =1

f ( g i , g j ) = f ( ik g k , lj g l ) =
4

= ik lj f ( g k , g l ) .
k =1 l =1

S ,

. 4.2.1 (0, 2).

504

f ( g k , g l )

2.

1
g1

0
; g2
0

1
; g3
0

0
; g4
1
0

0
.
0
1

f ( g1 , g 3 ) = 1 ; f ( g 2 , g 4 ) = 3 f ( g k , g l ) = 0
. ,

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 3
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

4.3.

, .

.

. 4.3.1.

i11i2 2...i p q
j j ... j

( q, p )

1 2
q
(q, p ) i1i2 ...i p

j j ... j

iji j......i j
1 2

12

505

. 4 .

i11i2 2...i p q
j j ... j

i11i2 2...i p q
j j ... j

i11i2 2...i p q = i11i2 2...i p q + i11i2 2...i p q .


j j ... j

. 4.3.1.

j j ... j

j j ... j

ij ij , -

(1,1), ,
, (1,1)

ij ,

ij = ij + ij .

.4.3.2.

(q, p ) i11i2 2...i p q .


j j ... j

1 2
q
(q, p ) i1i2 ...i p -

j j ... j

i11i2 2...i p q
j j ... j

i11i2 2...i p q = i11i2 2...i p q .


j j ... j

j j ... j

,
(q, p )

nq + p .

. 4.3.3.

(q, p ) i11i2 2...i p q


j j ... j

506

lk11lk2 2......lskr

(r , s )

i11i2 2...i pl1ql21...2ls

j j ... j k k ... k r

i11i2 2...i p q
j j ... j

(q + r , p + s )

lk11lk2 2......lskr

i11i2 2...i pl1ql21...2ls

j j ... j k k ... k r

= i1i2 ...i p

j1 j2 ... jq

lk11lk2 2......lskr

. 4.3.2.

,
.
. 4.3.3.
n

,
.
, x

x y = k i y y x . ,

= ,
k

-. , .

. 4.3.1.

a ( 0,3)

= a b ,
1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8

( 0,1)

9 10 .

507

. 4 .
.

c ( 0,4) , (
) ijk l , ijk l

a b .

1 9

2 9 1 10

2 10

c
9

18 10 20

3 9 4 9 3 10 4 10
27 36 30 40
=
.
5 9 6 9 5 10 6 10
45 54 50 60
7 9 8 9 7 10 8 10

63 72 70 80

. 4.3.4.

1 2
q
(q, p ) i1i2 ...i p ,

j j ... j

q 1 p 1 . (,
jr ) (, i s )
(, m ). (q 1, p 1)

i11i2 2...i p q11


j j ... j

i11i2 2...is ...r i p q


j j ... j ... j

jr i s , -

i11i2 2...i p q11


j j ... j

i11i2 2...m...i p q .
j j ...m ... j

508

, n
, m , ,
( q 1)( p 1) .

. 4.3.3.

(1,1) ,

, (0, 0) , j
i

, ,

mm = 11 + 22 + ... + nn .
, . ,
, , .

. ,
,

n . , f ( x) = i i . ,

i k .

. 4.3.2.

a (1,1) ij
1 2 3
4 5 6 ;
7 8 9

509

. 4 .

b (1, 0) j

2
3 ;
4

c (0,1) i
2 3 4 .

.

1.

ij j ij i .
ij j

,
3

(1, 0) i = ij j .
j =1

1 = 111 + 12 2 + 13 3 = 1 2 + 2 (3) + 3 4 = 8,
2 = 12 1 + 22 2 + 32 3 = 4 2 + 5 (3) + 6 4 = 17,
3 = 131 + 32 2 + 33 3 = 7 2 + 8 (3) + 9 4 = 26.
2.

ij i (0,1) 3

j = ij i .
i =1

1 = 11 1 + 12 2 + 13 3 = 1 2 + 4 ( 3) + 7 4 = 18,
2 = 12 1 + 22 2 + 32 3 = 2 2 + 5 ( 3) + 8 4 = 21,
3 = 13 1 + 32 2 + 33 3 = 3 2 + 6 ( 3) + 9 4 = 26.

510


, ( ) ,
, , ,
. ,
.
, N ( ) , N! .
, , , N!
.

1 2

. 4.3.3.

ijk

3 4
5 6

7 8
.
.

i j.

1 3
2 4
5 7

6 8

. 4.3.5.


( ) ,

. 4 .

511

,
.

. 4.3.6.

( ) ,
,
,
, .

, N ( , ),
N!
. ,
.
. , , .

. 4.3.4.

N =1

( i1 ) = i1 ,

N =2

( i1 ,i2 ) =

N =3

(i1 ,i2 ,i3 ) = { i1 ,i2 ,i3 + i3 ,i1 ,i2 + i2 ,i3 ,i1 +

1
2!

( i1 ,i2 + i2 ,i1 ),

3!

+ i2 ,i1 ,i3 + i3 ,i2 ,i1 + i1 ,i3 ,i2 }


...

...

512

,
: , .

. 4.3.5.

(i j ) .

, N ( , ),
N! ,

(1) (k 1 , k 2 ,...,k N ) , (k1 , k 2 ,..., k N )


{1,2,..., N } ,

. , .

. ,
, .

. 4.3.6.

N =1

[i1 ] = i1 ,
1

N =2

[i1 ,i2 ] =

N =3

[i1 ,i2 ,i3 ] =

...

2!

{ i1 ,i2 i2 ,i1 },

1
{ i ,i ,i + i3 ,i1 ,i2 + i2 ,i3 ,i1
3! 1 2 3
i2 ,i1 ,i3 i3 ,i2 ,i1 i1 ,i3 ,i2 }

...

513

. 4 .

,
: , .

. 4.3.7.

[ i j ] .

, ,
.

1 2

. 4.3.4.

ijk

3 4
5 6

. -

7 8

.

1.

(ij ) k , i ( jk ) i[ jk ] .

ijk = jik ,

i j ,

1 3
2 4
5 7

(. . 4.3.3).

6 8

ijk = ikj ,

j k ,

1 5
3 7
2 6
4 8

514




.
2.

(ij ) k

1+1

2+3

2
3+2

2
4+4

5
2

5+5

6+7

2
7+6

2
8+8

13

13
2

i ( jk )
1+1

2+5

2
3+3

2
4+7

1
3

7
2
11
2

5+2

6+6

2
7+4

2
8+8

2
11

i[ jk ]

6
8

515

. 4 .
11

25

2
33

2
47

0
0

3
2
3
2

52

66

2
74

2
88

2
3

0
0

4.4.

, ,
, ,
. .
.

{g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } E n x , i .
i
ij = ( g i , g j ) ,

j = ij i = ( g i , g j ) i = ( g i i , g j ) = ( x, g j ) .
,

x -

E -

516

j . j -

x {g1 , g 2 ,..., g n } , -

j = i j i .
, . , x (. 10.3.2).

. 4.4.1.

1 2
q
E n (q, p ) i1i2 ...i p ,

j j ... j

j ... j

2
q
q 1 . (q 1, p + 1) i0i1i2 ...i p -

1 2
q
j1 i1i2 ...i p ,

j j ... j


j ... j

i0i12i2 ...iqp = i0 j1 i11i2 2...i p q .


j j ... j

, , . , .

. 4.4.2.

E n -

517

. 4 .

, , .
, , ,

(2, 0) .

= S

S .

, :

1
g

=( S
= S

E = E

S ) 1 = S

( S

1 T

) =( S

T 1

( S

1 T

) ,

=( S

( S

1 T

1 T

) =( S

T 1

) . ,

ij .

. 4.4.3.

1 2
q
E n (q, p ) i1i2 ...i p ,

j j ... j

0 1 2
p 1 . (q + 1, p 1) i2 ...i p

j j j ... jq


1 2
q
i1 i1 i 2 ...i p ,

j j ... j

0i21...2i p q = i1 j0 i11i2 ...2 i p q .


j j j ... j

j j ... j

518

. 4.4.1.

E 2
2 3
i
jk
ij =
3 5

3 4
5 7
2 5

1 3

.

1.

ijk ijk .

ijk = im mjk .

2
111 = 11111 + 12 11
= 2 3 + 3 5 = 21,
2
112 = 11112 + 12 12
= 2 2 + 3 1 = 7,

121 = 11121 + 12 221 = 2 4 + 3 7 = 29,


122 = 11122 + 12 222 = 2 5 + 3 3 = 19,
2
211 = 21111 + 22 11
= 3 3 + 5 5 = 34,
2
212 = 21112 + 22 12
= 3 2 + 5 1 = 11,

221 = 21121 + 22 221 = 3 4 + 5 7 = 47,


222 = 21122 + 22 222 = 3 5 + 5 3 = 30.
,

21 29
34 47
7

19

11 30

ijk

519

. 4 .

2.

ij k = imk mj , ij -

, ij

2 3
3 5

5 3
3

11
= 111 11 + 1 21 21 = 3 5 4 3 = 3,
1
12
= 111 12 + 121 22 = 3 3 + 4 2 = 1,
1
211 = 211 11 + 221 21 = 5 5 7 3 = 4,
221 = 211 12 + 221 22 = 5 (3) + 7 2 = 1,
11
= 112 11 + 1 22 21 = 2 5 3 5 = 5,
2
12
= 112 12 + 122 22 = 2 (3) + 5 2 = 4,
2
212 = 212 11 + 222 21 = 1 5 + 3 (3) = 4,
222 = 212 12 + 222 22 = 1 (3) + 3 2 = 3.
,

ijk
3

i j = i j = ij ,

520

= S

, .

4.5.


,
.
,

. . , , .


3

E .
ijk ,

ijk = (1) (i , j ,k ) , i , j , k ,
ijk = 0 .
(l , m, n), , {l , m, n} (. 6.1).
ijk , ,

27 , : 1
1.

. 4 .

521

ijk
3

E . :

lmn = li mj nk ijk = l1 m 2 n 3 + l 2 m 3 n1 + l 3 m1 n 2
l1 m3 n 2 l 2 m1 n3 l 3 m 2 n1 =
l1

l 2

l3

= det m1
n1

m2
n2

m3 ,
n3

lmn = (1) (l ,m,n ) , l , m, n ,


lmn = 0 ,

11

12

13

21
31

22
32

23
33

(
) 1.
ijk
( )
, , ,
.

522

E ,
(. 2.2 2.4). - .
i k ,
( )

a b . i k , 9 ,
:

11

1 2

1 3

2 1
3 1

22
3 2

2 3 .
3 3

,
:

i k =

1
1
( i k + k i ) + ( i k k i ) ,
2
2

11

1 2

2 1

2 2

3 1

3 2

1 3

11 + 11
1
2 3 =
2 1 + 1 2
2
3 3
3 1 + 13
0
1
+ 2 1 1 2
2
3 1 13

1 2 + 2 1

13 + 3 1

2 2 + 2 2

2 3 + 3 2 +

3 2 + 2 3

3 3 + 3 3

1 2 2 1

13 3 1

2 3 3 2 .

3 2 2 3

523

. 4 .

-, , , .
, ,
.
, , i k ,

S , -

k k = ki i kj j = ikT kj i j = ij i j = i i ,

.
: ()

a b , i k E 3 , -

i i = 11 + 2 2 + 3 3 . (. 2.9.)
,

( a , b ) = ki i k . a b , ,

b cos

0
0

b sin ,
0

524

a b .

( a , b ) = a b cos , , .
. ,

1 2 2 1

1 3 3 1

2 1 1 2
3 1 13

0
3 2 2 3

2 3 3 2
0

, ,

a b E 3

[ a , b ] ,

2 3 3 2
3 1 13 .
1 2 2 1
. -, ,

(n 1)n
,
2

E 3
3
, E -

. ,

525

. 4 .

-, ,

[ a , b ]i = ijk j k .
, ,

i = 1:

1 jk j k = 11111 + 112 1 2 + 113 13 +


+ 121 2 1 + 122 2 2 + 123 2 3 +
+ 131 3 1 + 132 3 2 + 133 3 3 =
= 2 3 3 2 .
-,

i = ijk j k
3

E .

i = ijk j k ,

is s = ijk jm kl m l .

qi i,
qi is s = qi jm kl ijk m l ,

qi is s = qs s = q , qml = qi jm kl ijk , -

ijk

. ,

i = iml m l , -

, ,

,
3

[ a , b ] . -

a b -

E ,

526

a
0

b cos ,

b sin

a b .

[ a , b ] a b sin ,

,
, .
, , ,
.
,
. :
1.

(. 2.6)

(a , b , c ) = ( a , [ b , c ] ) = i [ b , c ]i = i ijk j k = ijk i j k .
2.


(. 2.8) :

[a , [ b , c ] ]i = ijk j [ b , c ] k = ijk j klm l m =


= ijk klm j l m .

527

. 4 .


ijk klm = il jm im jl ,

[a , [ b , c ] ]i = ijk j klm l m = ( il jm im jl ) j l m =

= i m m i j j = i (a , c ) i (a , b ) ,
, ,

[a , [ b , c ] ] = b (a , c ) c (a , b ) .

528

1. . .
. 10- ., . .: , 2005.
2. . .
. .: , 2005.
3. . . . .: , 1976.
4. . . . .: , 1979.
5. . . .
.: , 1983.
6. . . . .:
. - - , 1956.
7. . . : . .: ,
1976.
8. . ., . ., . . . .: , 2001.

4.1.
4.2.
6.3.
. 4.3.
12.3.
5.4.

1.5.
1.5.
7.2.
1.5.
1.5.
6.5.
6.5.
6.5.
9.1.
9.1.
8.7.

, 1.3.
2.4, . 4.5.
5.2.

529

530

() 8.4.
2.5, 8.7.
( )
8.7.

2.5.
2.5.

2.3.

2.7.
2.3.
2.7.
5.1.
. 1.1.
. 2.1.

5.4.
5.4.
4.4.
4.5.
4.5.
7.4.
3.3.
5.6.

531

2.8, . 4.5.
8.7.
4.5.
8.2.

8.3.
2- 3- 1.1.
n- 6.1.
9.2.
. 1.3.
. 1.4.
. 1.2.
11.4.
6.3.
6.3.

10.1.
1.1.
8.2.

. 4.2.

9.1.

532


9.2.

8.7.
1.8.

7.3.

8.3.
7.5.
7.5.
8.5.

8.6.
9.4.
() 8.4.


4.4.
4.5.
9.2.
1.1.
9.2.
9.2.
n 1.1.
12.2.
1.4.
1.4.
8.2.
1.4.
1.4.
. 3.0.
1.5.
7.3.


4.3.
4.6.
4.5.

9.1.

8.3.

8.7.

10.3.
1.5.
7.3.
5.2.
1.5.
1.5.
9.3, 10.3.

1.4.

7.2.
1.4.

7.2.
1.4.

7.2.
7.4.
3.2.
7.1.
8.2.
8.7.
8.1.
5.3.

533

534

8.7.
8.7.
4.1.
4.4.
4.1.

1.1.
9.1.
10.3.
9.2.
8.3.
8.4.
5.3.

1.8.
7.3.
6.8.
6.8.
9.2.
k - 6.3.

1.2.
3.3.
3.2.
7.5.
6.6.
5.3.
10.1.
10.1.


1.1.
1.4.
10.1.
1.7.
3.2.
3.2.
3.3.
1.1.
1.3.
1.2.
8.2.
8.7.
7.1.

8.4.
5.1.
7.5.
5.2.
8.2.
5.1.
8.3.
1.7.
6.6, 6.7.

6.7.

6.7.
4.5.
6.6.
5.3.
5.2, 8.1.
5.3.
8.7.
. 4.3.

535

536


7.3.
2- 1.1.
3- 1.1.
n - 6.1.
6.2.
. 4.4.
. 1.3.
. 1.4.
. 1.2.
10.2.
5.1, 10.4.
2.1, 10.5.
2.1.
2.1.
10.5.
5.5.
10.1.
1.5.
10.8.
1.7.
1.5, 10.2.
6.6.
2.1.
12.1.
5.2.

9.3.

4.4.
4.5.
3.3.
3.1.
7.4.

537


1.8.
. 2.7.
4.5.
. 4.4.
7.4.
9.6.

9.3.
4.6.
4.1.
4.2.
1.2.
6.4.
1.2.
1.2.
5.2.

9.2, 12.1.

9.2, 12.1.
4.4.
12.1
5.1.
5.2.
8.2.

8.3.
8.2.
8.7.
1.1.
1.2.
8.2.
8.7.
7.1.

538


7.4.
3.3.
3.2.

1.6.
- 1.7.
1.1.
6.3.
3-
1.1.
1.1.
7.2.
8.4.
1.2.
6.5.
3.4.

10.1.
3.2.
3.4.
3.3.
6.6.

1.1.

10.7.
. 4.3.
5.4.
2.4.
. 2.4.

539

. 1.3.
. 2.6.
. 2.5.

1.3.
n- 6.2.
. 1.4.
8.6.
8.6.
2.2.
2.6.
. 1.2.
. 2.2.
. 2.3.
3.3.
9.3.
2.3.
. 4.3.
1.1.
9.1.
n n 6.4.
m n 6.6.
2.2, . 4.5.

10.1.
1.1.
1.6.
8.3.
1.2.
. 4.3.
2.6.
() 8.5.
8.5.
6.6.
1.4.
11.5.

540

8.7.
10.6.
1.1.
1.2.
11.4.
1.1.
1.1.
8.2.
8.7.
7.4.
8.6.
4.6.
() 8.4.

. 4.2.
. 4.4.
. 4.5.
8.6.
10.3.
9.3.
6.6.
6.3.
6.5.
10.8.
6.5.
7.5.
6.7, 10.6.
8.2.
3.4.
1.1.
5.1.
. 4.3.
1.4.



. 3.0.

2.2.
10.1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.6.

8.3.
. 4.3.
. 4.3.
11.1.
11.2.
3.3.

3.1.
3.2.

1.6.

1.6.
3.5.
3.5.
3.5.
3.1.
3.1.
3.1.

. 1.3.
. 1.2.

541

542

. 3.0.

1.8.
3.3.
3.2.

6.7.
6.7.
5.2.

8.5.
8.5.

4.3.
4.6.

6.6.
2.1.


. 3.0.
9.5.
1.1.
6.3.
6.8.


4.4.
4.5.
4.5.
4.5.
11.2.
11.3.
11.3.
11.4.
11.4.

8.4.

543

. .
. .
. .

, . .
,

. .

. .
.-

06.10.2011.
400
.

. . 33,5.

60

)
,

84 1/16.

. . 34,0.

141700,
., .
., 9
E-mail: rio@mail.mipt.ru
_________________________________________________________

125412,

, .13,

.2