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87847

2014


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37
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2012
155
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198

IN MEMORIAN
(31.12.1946-20.08.2014)

:
SUMMARY

209
210
211
252


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(-)
109012, , . , 17. . : (499) 755-40-30
E-mail: direct@levada.ru
()
119571, , . , 82. .: (495) 564 8582

,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008 ISSN 2070-5107

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
12(117)
Quarterly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

Januaryjun 2014

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS

PROBLEMS OF MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY


Stability of social justice perceptions in public opinion (by Luidmila
Khakhulina)

37

Public Perceptions of Fairness and Efficiency in the Health Care


Systems of Different Countries (ISSP 2011) (by Olga Karaeva)

50

The perception of prices by the patients as the key point in medicine


marketisation (case of Moscow dental market (by Elena Berdysheva)

66

Social expulsion of migrants from the Russian society: law and practice
(by Anna Morgunova)
83
Members of
the Editorial Council
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

How Contract Workers Find Clients and Companies Choose Freelancers:


An Empirical Analysis of Self-Employment in Contemporary Russia
(by Maxim Markin and Elena Nazarbaeva)
96
Current status and problems of Russian secondary vocational education
(by Diana Migunova)
106
THE POST-SOVIET SPACE: CIVIC MOVEMENTS
Beyond the Nation-State: Indirect impact of Nationalist Movements
onPublic Opinion in Belarus and Ukraine (by Marharyta Fabrykant)

115

Belarusian Maidan: is it possible? (by Sergej Nikolyuk)

124

Belarusian respond to the Ukrainian challenge (by Sergej Nikolyuk)

130

Euromaidan. Before and After the victory (by Vladimir Paniotto)

135

Protest and self-organization (by Alexej Levinson)

141

OccupyAbay protest street camp in Moscow in May 2012 through


the eyes of its participants (by Denis Volkov)

155

IN HONOUR OF TATIANA ZASLAVSKAYA


Soviet competition with capitalism in the fate of Tatiana Zaslavskaya
(by Alexander Nikulin)

198

IN MEMORIAN
Boris Dubin (31.12.1946-20.08.2014)

209

Authors of the issue

210

INFORMATION: SURVEYSFINDINGS

211

SUMMARY

252

1. (
;
)*
4,8
4,6
4,4
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4
3,8
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12 (117) 2014

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2009
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42
41
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16
15
15

2010
I
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2011
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35
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44
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21
19
21

2012
I
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2
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10
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12
11
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41
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11
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17
18

2013
I
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10
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2014
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VII
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12 (117) 2014

16
7

22
4

10. . . ( % ,
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60
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40
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20
10

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2014 .
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12 (117) 2014

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12 (117) 2014

12

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50%

()


()
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99

2014
98

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103

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12 (117) 2014

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1996 : , , , 1989 (. 2). 1998


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1989 1998

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12 (117) 2014

10

6
1989 2000

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12 (117) 2014

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17

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12 (117) 2014

6. ..?

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12 (117) 2014

21

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2008), InLiberty URL: http://www.inliberty.
ru/library/study/1392.
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- 1991 , . http://www.issp.org/.
5
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StoreyJ., SalamanG., PlatmanK. Living with Entrerprise in an Enterprise


Economy: Freelance and Contract Workers in the Media // Human Relations.
2005. Vol.58. No.8. PP.1033-1054.
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PP.70-76.
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, FenwickT. Contradictions in Portfolio Careers: Work Design and Client
Relations // Career Development International. 2006. Vol.11. No.1. PP.6679.
3

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, . .

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113

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akvobr.ru: [-]. 2014. 22 . URL:http://www.akvobr.ru/
napravlenie_proryva.html.
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:

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.
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.


, ,
, ,

.

,
,
.
,
Way, L. Authoritarian state building and the sources of regime
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: . . . . . . 1. 114. . 20-28.
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116

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, , ,
.

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,
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.
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, , ,
D)

. ( , , )
19-
, ,
,
, ,
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Hroch, M. Social preconditions of national revival in Europe:
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(
) ,
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) ,

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,
, .

(

), 4.
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?
,
,
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. , ,
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, . ., & , . . : 2 . ,
. 2003.

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,
.

,
.
, , ,
.
,

.


1980 1990- - .
,
,

.

, , ,
1.

2. ,

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, 3. ,
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..
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,

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,
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( ) , (
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,
3. , , -

,
, .

. ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
4. ,
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(,
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, ,
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,
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,
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,
. ,

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. ,
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,
, ,
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,

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.

. (
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, , ,
. , ,
, ,
,
Rudling, P. A. (2011). The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in
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: 81%, 85,3%.

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. 2010. , (.1).
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1994 . . 2. , ,
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. .
. 2003. . 244.
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124

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, , (. 4).
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, .
4 2010 , 2010 58,9%

. 12% 39% . - (
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: 68% 60

24% 18 30 ; 75% 470, . 29%
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, . . , 3
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60
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. 2010

41
41
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http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/president/Lukashenko-majdana-vBelarusi-ne-budet_i_660937.html.
2
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126

http://news.tut.by/politics/389179.html.
http://www.belaruspartisan.org/life/252193/.

12 (117) 2014

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127

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218

25-39

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251

SUMMARY

Stability of social justice perceptions in public


opinion (by Luidmila Khakhulina). This article
analyzes the dynamics of the ideas of justice and
injustice in the distribution of public goods in the
last 20 years housing, health, education and etc.
The paper also discusses how changed peoples
perceptions of fair and unfair social mechanisms
of economic resources redistribution and which
of them dominated in public views- hard work,
education and skills or social networks.
The results showed that, despite the dramatic
social transformations of the 1990s, peoples ideas
on these issues have not changed significantly
over the 20 year period. Our society is in a state of
uncertainty the old Soviet principles can no
longer relate to the market economy, and new
market principles are not working effectively in
social meaning. Hard work does not guarantee
an achievement of high welfare, and hence the
population again supports the principles of public
distribution and continues to regard it as more
justice then defective market economy.
Public Perceptions of Fairness and Efficiency
in the Health Care Systems of Different Countries
(ISSP 2011) (by Olga Karaeva). This study provides
an analysis of the micro-level estimates and public
expectations of two key characteristics of healthcare
systems justice and effectiveness. Due to the
historically different principles of organization of
health care systems, we will be primarily interested in
the way how people percept justice and effectiveness
in countries with similar levels of economic
development and similar models of healthcare system.
We investigate the differences between 5 groups of
countries: the post-socialist, Scandinavian, Western
developed countries, countries with market models of
health and emerging economies and Russia.
Empirical data is comparative survey
International Social Survey Program (ISSP) on
the topic of Health and Healthcare conducted in
29 countries in 2011.

252

The results show neither fully public nor do


market-oriented models not achieve effectiveness in
healthcare. Optimum result in terms of economic,
social and medical efficacy observed among the
welfare states France, Germany and Belgium.
However, the more efficient healthcare system
(public satisfaction, the level of corruption, quality
of medicine service etc.) is the more unjust in public
opinion.
Despite the common preference among all
countries have equal access to unlimited free health
care, in models with market healthcare population
more satisfied with the health system functioning.
Thus, the market principle of medical services are
not always in conflict with the moral, cultural norms
of society, which suggests that at a certain balance
of social and economic factors marketization of art
can produce a positive result.
The perception of prices by the patients as
the key point in medicine marketisation (case of
Moscow dental market (by Elena Berdysheva). The
article sheds light to the social conventions which
maintain the marketization of healthcare services.
The market of dental services is used as an example
of a market for socially contested goods goods
which are highly essential for individuals and at the
same time closely related to such sacred entities as
human life, death, body, intimate relationships and
so on.
The data of the 23 in-depth interviews with
Muscovites, who have recently visited commercial
dental clinic, point out three possible scenarios of
dental services price perception: a script of hidden
price, a script of price as a communicative issue
and a script of suspicious price. Activation of this
or that price perception script in concrete clinicdoctor-patient interaction depends on the way
apatient comes to the clinic: by recommendation,
by insurance program or from the street. The
latter in its turn correlates with the type of clinic
available to patients in Moscow dental market.

12 (117) 2014

The author suggests to speak about two types


ofdental clinics with professional approach and
with mass production approach to the patient.
The main boarder between them lay in the
context of the worthiness each patient has for the
clinic. Clinics with professional approach recruit
new patients through the social networks of the
patients already treated while mass production
approach clinics populate their chairs through the
contacts with insurance companies. The particular
interest for the study is the scenario of a suspicious
price which exposes two layers of doubts patients
have in relation to the commercialized medicine.
The first layer is concerned to the values and
motives expected by patients on behalf of doctors
and personal in the private clinic. The second
appeals to the legitimacy of money prices
for dental services as such. Doubts about the
professional integrity of a doctor will be dissolved,
if the experience of undergoing dental treatment
is perceived in terms of service to the patients
and medical profession, and not in the categories
of providing market services. Doubts related to
money prices for commercial dental services
are rather mythological. On the one hand they
are driven by suspicion to the market format of
providing medical services which partly replaces
budget dentistry and partly continue to compete
with it. On the other hand patients suspect that
commercial dental services are overpriced due
to the uncertainty of quality of a medical service
provided in the circumstances of information
asymmetry between a patient and a doctor and
strongly dependent on human factor.
Social expulsion of migrants from the Russian
society: law and practice (by Anna Morgunova).
Russian discourses on migration skip many aspects
of social impact of the migration process: the most
influential social actors have not yet been presented
as a subject to study yet. The aim of this article is to
uncover emerging informal practices of interaction
with migrants in Russian society and state
system. Analyzing resources of various actors and
emerging social institutions, author comes to the
conclusion about the formation of the institutional
preconditions of social exclusion of this group.
How Contract Workers Find Clients and
Companies Choose Freelancers: An Empirical
Analysis of Self-Employment in Contemporary
Russia (by Maxim Markin and Elena Nazarbaeva).
The study concerns the process of business partners
selection in the relationships of freelancers and

their clients. As this process looks like an empirical


realization of the model of perfect competition
social ties and institutions are expected to play
unimportant role. Nevertheless the findings
demonstrate that the relationships of freelancers
and their clients are socially embedded. This
embeddedness reduces uncertainty and prevents
opportunism in the field of self-employment.
The research is based on the empirical data
collected at the beginning of the 2010th. More
than 1200 managers of different companies were
questioned in 2010 and more than 7000 contract
workers filled in a questionnaire in 2011 at the website Freelance.ru.
Although price, quantity and quality are very
important for both companies and freelancers
recommendations and previous experience of
making business with each other also play a key role
in the process of contractors selection. Social ties
and institutions make business partners behavior
predictable and that is why market actors do not rely
only on the forces of competition.
Current status and problems of Russian
secondary vocational education (by Diana
Migunova). The article contains analysis of the main
problems of secondary vocational education, as well
as its current status, which is tracked in Monitoring
of education markets and organizations (MEMO),
initiated by the Ministry of Education and Science
of the Russian Federation jointly with the Institute
for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge,
National Research University- Higher School of
Economics. Among problems faced by the system
of secondary vocational education in Russia there
are: diminution in the demand of population and
enterprises for this type of education, the reduction
in funding and degradation of the material-technical
base of educational institutions, declining progress
of skilled students and teachers.
Beyond the Nation-State: Indirect impact
of Nationalist Movements on Public Opinion in
Belarus and Ukraine (by Marharyta Fabrykant).
The goal of the paper is to broaden Hrochs
theory of three-stage development of nationalist
movements in smaller European nations using the
recent historical experience of two very different
Eastern European states. According to Hroch, each
national(ist) movement in country that did not
gain independent statehood prior to the nineteenth
century originates as a discovery of a nation
by academic intellectuals (Phase A), gains initial
support among educated professionals (Phase

12 (117) 2014

253

B), and progresses towards a full-fledged mass


movement (Phase C) culminating in the eventual
gain of independence. This scheme apparently
captures key turns in Central European nationalist
movements in the nineteenth century, but is much
less easily reconciled with later Eastern European
experience (Martin, 2001). In particular, Hrochs
theory at the first glance offers little explanation
of the post-Communist Ukraine and Belarus,
where independent nation-states emerged, at least
initially, due the general dissolution of the Soviet
Union, and not to the national liberation struggle.
The Ukrainian nationalist movement, instead of
widening the circle of its supporters nationwide,
caused polarization of alternative versions of
Ukrainian national identity and, instead of winning
on its own at the Phase C, went through a succession
of uneasy alliances with not primarily nationalist
forces. The Belarusian nationalist movement failed
to attract the popular interest and transformed
itself into a small coterie relatively isolated from
other movements. A possible explanation is that
Hrochs scheme reflects long-term direct effects
of nationalist movements, but not short-term
indirect hidden effects those irrelevant to the
goals of nationalist movements. In the Ukrainian
case, the main indirect impact of the nationalist
movements lies in forming mass notions about the
form and style of social activism, irrespectively of
its nationalist content, while in Belarus nationalists
covertly influenced the content of popular discourse
about national issue, including the views of selfproclaimed
anti-nationalists.
Metaphorically
speaking, the ABC of nationalism offered by Hroch
accurately interprets the signs of history, but, for
a comprehensive understanding of nationalist
movements, a different layer of theory is required to
read between the lines.
Belarusian Maidan: is it possible? (by Sergej
Nikolyuk). The article presents the analysis of the
possible prerequisites and conditions which could
conduce wide protest activities of mass political
processes. Basing on the survey data of IISEPS poll,
the author analyses the main question: are there
conditions for the formation of a revolutionary
situation in Belarus today.
Belarusian respond to the Ukrainian challenge
(by Sergej Nikolyuk). Subsequent to the results of
December poll of Institute of Socio-Economic
and Political Studies (iiseps) in Belarus, the
positive trend of public sentiment changed to the
negative. However, more recent studies of public

254

opinion (since 24 March by 2 April) showed that


the optimism of the Belarusians has increased.
According to the author of the recent article, such
an increase in positive attitudes was formed because
of the policy influence: in the eyes of electorate
the value of present policy, which is based on
maintaining stability, increases because of the
Ukrainian chaos.
Euromaidan. Before and After the victory (by
Vladimir Paniotto). Events which are associated
with Euromaidan can be divided into several main
phases: the beginning of the protests; beating
the protesters and changing the motivation of
the protests; the radicalization of the Maidan,
skirmishes with police, first victims; execution of
the Maidan; victory of the Maidan; after the victory.
This unique social phenomenon is not comparable
to any other form of mass activity, neither in massscale nor on activity level of participants. This
article contains step analysis of the events of the
period autumn 2013- spring 2014.
Protest and self-organization (by Alexej
Levinson). Post-Soviet popular political culture
looks as a culture of obedience to authorities or
indifference to them. The instances of protest are
very rear. The article is based on the description
and analysis of three cases of strong or ever strongest
protest movements/actions in Post-Soviet space.
The ability of the participants to switch from the
protest negative actions to the positive tasks of self
organization and self regulation is a specific and
unexpected feature of the above political culture of
protest. The case studies of the miners mass strike in
Kuzbass mining area of Russia, famous Maidan
in Kiev (Ukraine) and Bolotnaya in Moscow are
analyzed using the interviews with participants and
authors observations.
OccupyAbay protest street camp in Moscow
in May 2012 through the eyes of its participants. (by
Denis Volkov). The paper is based on the series of
interviews with the activists who started the protest
street camp, created, managed and transformed the
supporting structures of the camp such as kitchen,
informational block, security newspaper,
assembly and others. The author is concerned
with the prerequisites of the camp, social profile
of if its participants (political and civic activists,
journalists, VIP-s, and general participants), rapid
evolution of its structures, the ideas and motives
that the activists had (including tough competition
between leftists and liberals), as well as with

12 (117) 2014

the results of the protest events in Moscow between


May 6th and the end of the month, 2012.
Soviet competition with capitalism in the fate
of Tatiana Zaslavskaya (by Alexander Nikulin).
The article includes the analyzes the history of
competition between Soviet and the West, which
is associated with the scientific heritage of Tatyana
Zaslavskaya, in particular economic-statistical
comparison of development of agriculture in USSR
and United States in early 1960s and problems of
slowing economic growth and strengthening of the
socio-political stagnation of the early 1980s.

The issues of the evolution of the relationships


of political power and scientific research were
examined through the life stories of scientists,
scientific organizations and mass media and the
transformation of public opinion in the USSR.
The article includes formulation of the problem of
professional and moral succession in post-Soviet
society relating to understanding and resolving
issues of existence of Soviet society, the years of
Thaw, stagnation and Perestroika, which were
embodied in the intellectual heritage of Tatyana
Zaslavskaya.

12 (117) 2014

255


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12 (117) 2014