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Copyright & A K-C

Copyright & A K-C

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061100 , 071900

2012

Copyright & A K-C

65.012.45(075.8)
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Copyright & A K-C




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Copyright & A K-C

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87

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4.

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4.

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112

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4.


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5.

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Copyright & A K-C

116

II.


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Copyright & A K-C

5.

117

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118

II.

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Copyright & A K-C

5.

119

- .
, Internet.
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, [38].

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CASE, CASE-.
Computer Aided Software Engineering
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Development). Computer Aided System Engineering , . CASE- BPR
(Business Process Reengineering).
CASE-, , 2.
RAD
( Workbench) (Tools). CASE :
1) ;
2) ;
3) () ;
4) .

Copyright & A K-C

120

II.

CASE-. . .
. , .
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RAD
VB (Visual Basic), Delphi, PowerBuilder
Microsoft, Borland, PowerSoft.
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Copyright & A K-C

5.

121

Visual Basic Basic, Delphi


Object Pascal. CASE- IBM, VisualAge ( ) VisualGen
( ), SmallTalk.
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SAL. , , -, 3GL .
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, ,
-, , , , ..
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HAHTSoftware. Java-

Copyright & A K-C

122

II.

IBM Visial Age for Java, ( VB) , (Enterprise) .


. . CASE.
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, :

Copyright & A K-C

5.

123

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5.2.

IDEF (Integrated Definition)


Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing . ,
,
IDEF-, . 5.1.

Copyright & A K-C

124

II.

5.1

IDEF-

IDEF0

(Function Modeling
Method)

IDEF1 IDEF1X

(Information and Data Modeling Methods)

IDEF2

(Simulation Modeling
Method)

IDEF3

(Process Flow and Object


State Description Capture Method)

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- (ObjectOriented Design Method)

IDEF5

(Ontology Description Capture Method)

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(Design Rationale Capture Method)

IDEF8

(Human-System
Interaction Design)

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(Business Constraint Discovery)

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(Network Design)

.
SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique),
1973 . IDEF0 [8,
53]. , , , , , .
SADT- , , ..
. :
1) . , , .. ;

Copyright & A K-C

5.

125

2) . :
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, .

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[9]. IDEF0
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2. . .

Copyright & A K-C

126

II.

3. . ER-,
, Aij = 1,
i j, Aij = 0,
.
4. , , .
-.
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IDEF0 IDEF1X ISO 10303, STEP

Copyright & A K-C

5.

127

, .
STEP, ,
Express SGML, P-LIB MANDATE [26] CALS .
CALS



.
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5.3.


, 70- 80- XX . , , ,
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. 20
. ,
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(
() ):
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: () -

Copyright & A K-C

128

II.

, (proposal for
the development, agreement, mobilization);
 : , , (feasibility stady, scope analysis,
strategy stady and planning, requirement definition);
 , : , ,
(strategy planning, analysis, requirement specification,
function description);
 : (detailed analysis, high level design);
 : , (pilot-project, test development);
 - , (test, corrected requirement
specification);
 : (detailed analysis
and design, test development);
 : (development,
test, system implementation);
 : - (deployment,
put into operation).


(waterfall model). . ,
, , , .
:
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,
,
: , , , , .;

Copyright & A K-C

129

5.


.
, , . 5.2.


5.2

++

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+, + ++


. ,
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Copyright & A K-C

130

II.

1 ().

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,
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Copyright & A K-C

5.

131


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[60].
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, [60].
. , , ,
,

Copyright & A K-C

132

II.


?!(
)

. 5.1.

, ,

. .
2. . 80-
, (rapid prototyping approach
fast-track). :
 - (rapid
prototyping) ;
 - , (feedback,
improved prototype design and development).
.
3 4 ( ).
-

Copyright & A K-C

5.

133

.

, . .

( ).
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. [34],
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. 5.2, :
1) ( -);
2) ;

Copyright & A K-C

134

II.

3) 1 2;
4) 2 3: ()

;
5) -, 2, 3 4;
6) :
4 5.

1.
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3.
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6.

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5 ( ). ( ), , . , , . ,
,
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Copyright & A K-C

5.

135

, ,
, .
. 70-
80- .
: ,
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: (4GL). ()
. CASE,

.
70- 80- .

- , . , .
, (feasibility
stady, scope analysis, strategy stady and planning):
, , , , , ; [45],
[53], .
, : , ,
(strategy stady, analysis, requirement specification):

Copyright & A K-C

136

II.

1) ;
2) ,
, , . ( : SADT .
);
3) ,
, ;
4) , (), ,
, ;
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, .;
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[58], [61] 24 36).
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( ,
, CODASYL);
2)
( , , ,
, ,
);
3) ( ) ( , HIPO);
4) ,
( : ,
, , , .
[58]);

Copyright & A K-C

5.

137

5) ;
6) ;
7) , .
, .
. . BPR . , ,
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80- :
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.
, , , -
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Copyright & A K-C

138

II.

5.4.

80- . (,
. II III), ,
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Copyright & A K-C

5.

139


.
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Copyright & A K-C

140

II.

, -
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[35].
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Copyright & A K-C

5.

141

5.5.
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Copyright & A K-C

-


.
. .
-. ,

. [25] , CPI
Continious Process Improvement, , :

( );
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;
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.

Copyright & A K-C

6. -

143

40- 50-
. .
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.
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. ( , , , [64],
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, .
14 , . BPR. BPR.
, 80-
.
( ) , .. , ,
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,
.
.

TQM (Total Quality Management),
CPI , ,
ISO 9000.

.
,
.

Copyright & A K-C

144

II.


, .

6.1. -
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,
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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

145

;

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, BPR
XXI . XVIII, XIX XX .:
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. ,
, [14] ,
:


Copyright & A K-C

146

II.

1) .
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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

147

. [14] ( . ): BPR ,
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-: - -

Copyright & A K-C

148

II.

, , ,
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BPR. CPI . TQM
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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

149

, , , , , , -, ..
. . [3] , (Ford Motor Company)
. 500 , 400.
5 () . , .
, ! .
-,
:

(purchase order);
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;
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,
, .

75%, . ,
14 3:
, .
MBL Insurance (
PC)
-. 30 19 , 5 25 .

Copyright & A K-C

150

II.

25 ,
100 - , , .
BPR+ -. BPR , 1991
1995 . 1996 .
, BPR
. BPR
-, BPR+.

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[12], [13], BPR
. ,

Copyright & A K-C

6. -

151

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152

II.

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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

153

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Copyright & A K-C

154

II.

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6. -

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Copyright & A K-C

156

II.

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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

157

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Copyright & A K-C

158

II.

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(human factor).

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Copyright & A K-C

6. -

159

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Copyright & A K-C

7.






161


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Copyright & A K-C

162

II.

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Copyright & A K-C

163

7.

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Copyright & A K-C

164

II.

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Copyright & A K-C

7.

165

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166

II.

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7.

167

- , , ;
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Copyright & A K-C

168

II.


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Copyright & A K-C

7.

169

,
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(, Internet WWW Intranet).

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Copyright & A K-C

170

II.


, , , ;
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).

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Web), .;


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* 365 .
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Copyright & A K-C

7.

171

; ; groupware
workflow; (-), ;
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Copyright & A K-C

172

II.

: ,
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Copyright & A K-C

7.


173

, ;
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7.3.

. . 7.3
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Copyright & A K-C

174

II.




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() (RP Rapid Prototyping)


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.

Copyright & A K-C

7.

175

.
[14]
, .
.
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, , . BPR,
.

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Copyright & A K-C

176

II.

, CMM [11].
,
, , :

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.

Copyright & A K-C

7.

177

. , .
30% BPR . , BPR
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Copyright & A K-C

178

II.

,

, .
. .
1) . ( BPR.)
2) BPR ?
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Copyright & A K-C

7.

179

, BPR : , , , ,
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7.4.
(
[45]),
,
BPR, . , (., , [5]) ,
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, -

Copyright & A K-C

180

II.

, .
,
- , CASE-,
,

.
, ,
[48], BPR . ,
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.
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[48]
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Copyright & A K-C

7.

181

. , (
)
.

7.5.


. :
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[48]. :
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, .;

Copyright & A K-C

182

II.

4)
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;
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-,
.
,
. ,

;
10) , ,
, , , , CPI BPR.

Copyright & A K-C

III
II I

8.

Copyright & A K-C

XX . , , . .
, .
,
( ), -, . .
,
, (. 8.1).

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, () ).
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Internet

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)

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Copyright & A K-C

Copyright & A K-C

186

III.

, .

.

(. 8.2), , , ,
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Copyright & A K-C





( )



(Work flow)

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Copyright & A K-C

188

III.

, , , ,
. Internet
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.

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,

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. 8.3.

.
.

Copyright & A K-C

8.

189

Internet


Intranet

()


()

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8.1.
: - , , . .
-

Copyright & A K-C

190

III.

64- . ,
. ,
. - (I, ISA, EISA .)
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,

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Copyright & A K-C

8.

191

.
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Copyright & A K-C

192

III.

( );
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

193

,
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Copyright & A K-C

194

III.


.
, (Ethernet, .),
(DSSI, Memory Channel), , .
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()

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Copyright & A K-C

8.

195

,
.
(),
. ( cluster alias), .
, , .
.
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,
(failover group). ,

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;
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Copyright & A K-C

196

III.

(, ).
, - (failover group),
.
, , .
.

8.3.

.
.

.



()
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

197

,
(, , OLE, DDE, DLL, VEX .).
,
.
, 64- ,
.
.


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-
.
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.
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SQL. -

Copyright & A K-C

198

III.


.

-.
, ,
WinPlan -, , . -,
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(Oracle, Informix).

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Copyright & A K-C

8.

199

.
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);
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Copyright & A K-C

200

III.

-
.
.

.

, ,
.
.

.
,
. , , .
,

().

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Oracle Internet/Intranet,
, . Internet/Intranet Intranet, , Internet,
(Oracle) (Oracle Universal Server)
- (Oracle WebServer).
, ,
Intranet/Internet .

Copyright & A K-C

8.

201

-
(l) (HTML).


SQL. , Web-.
,
Internet. ,

Intranet Internet.
. Internet/Intranet (, Oracle Interoffice).
-, ,
. :
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(
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Copyright & A K-C

202

III.

-,
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, , , Word Wide Web,
Web- Internet.
,
.
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.
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

203

, Oracle Enterprise Manager.


,

, , ,
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,
, , ORACLE WORKGROUP SERVER
,
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Copyright & A K-C

204

III.

8.4.

. . .

CASE-.
CASE-
,
,
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:
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

205

CASE- ,
, .

- .
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.


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CASE , (, VantageTeam Binder).
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Copyright & A K-C

206

III.

. , ,
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.
,
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Tools Command Language TCL).
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

207

(-, ),
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( ) . , , .
CASE ,
,
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, . , .

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.
CASE-
.


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. . , ,

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CASE, .

Copyright & A K-C

208

III.

CASE . ,
, .
- (, LinkWorks)
, , , ,
, .

.

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.
.
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-

Copyright & A K-C

8.

209

, ,
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Copyright & A K-C

210

III.

. , ()
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.
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

211

,

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,
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. . .
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Copyright & A K-C

212

III.

,
.
() (, Microsoft Windows NT Server)
: .

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(
) . , ,
, .
, . .
, .
, (,
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.
Internet,
. ,
.
-

Copyright & A K-C

8.

213

.
, .
,

, . , , Internet,

Internet.
Web-, Internet. - Web-
,

Web-.

, , .
, .
.
, , , Internet
Intranet-.

-,
(Microsoft Word), -

Copyright & A K-C

214

III.

(Microsoft Excel), (Microsoft PowerPoint)


(, Microsoft Outlook), Internet (Microsoft
Qutlook Express) (, Microsoft Access).
, . ,
, , .. , , , , ,
Intrnet, Internet-, , Internet.
.
, .
:
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,
;
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Copyright & A K-C

8.

215

,
(,
Table Drawing Tool) , . ,
, ,
;
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;
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;
 (Table Analyzer Wizard)
,
;
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:
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; ,

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(, Outlook ),


Copyright & A K-C

216

III.

.
(, , , , , ..);
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.


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, , , , , , , , Web , Internet
, , , Internet .

Copyright & A K-C

8.

217

,
Internet. Web- (HTML, XML1),
,
, .

Web-, ,
. ,
: ,
Internet.
, ,
,
Web-, .
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: Web-,
Web,
Internet. , , Internet.
Web-
(,
, ,
Web (Web Queries)). .
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1

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Copyright & A K-C

218

III.

.
, Internet.
(, PowerPoint
Animation Player for ActiveX) Web , , , .
(Lotus) , -,
.
, ,
. , ,
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Microsoft, 45%
.

:
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;

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;

Copyright & A K-C

8.


219

, ,
(, ,
), (, Network Installation Wizard), .

,
. ,
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8.7.
.
, (), , , .
, , ,

.
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.

, , .
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-

Copyright & A K-C

220

III.

. .

. 8.4.

()

. 8.4.

Copyright & A K-C

IV
IV

9.

Copyright & A K-C



. , ,
. 1990-
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Copyright & A K-C

9.

223

,
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Copyright & A K-C

224

IV. . .



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Copyright & A K-C

9.

225

( ,
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Copyright & A K-C

226

IV. . .


,
.

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9.1.

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.

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x:
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(x) ;
(x)
, ;
R(x)
;
K(x)
.

, , : ((x)/R(x)), ((x)), (R(x)/K(x)).

Copyright & A K-C

9.

227

((x)/R(x)) , .
.
((x)) ,
.
(R(x)/K(x)) , .
,
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:

Copyright & A K-C

228

IV. . .

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Copyright & A K-C

9.

229

,
.

:
R(x) z(x) V(x) = K(x) s(x),

(9.2)

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V(x) ( V(x) = 0,36).


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1

Copyright & A K-C

230

IV. . .

:
N(x) = R(x) z(x) V + D(N(x)) K(x) s(x),
N(x)

(9.3)

D(N(x)) , .

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Copyright & A K-C

9.

231



















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, - ,
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Copyright & A K-C

232

IV. . .

, , .
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.

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244

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Copyright & A K-C

9.

245

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246

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247

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Copyright & A K-C

248

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9.

249

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250

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Copyright & A K-C

9.

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3. Hammer M. Reengineering Work: Dont Automate, Obliterate. Harvard
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4. Hammer M., Champy J. Reengineering the Corporation. A Manifesto for
Business Revolutions. HarperBusiness, 1993.
5. Hickman L.J. Technology and Business Process Reengineering (BPR):
Undestanding Where BPR Fits into the World of Information Systems
Developers. Proc. of ORACLE User Forum 93, v.2, Vienna, 1993.
6. Information Integration for Concurrent Engineering (IICE) Compendium
of Methods Report. KBSI, 1995, http://www.kbsi.com.
7. Integrated computer-aided manufacturing (ICAM): Information modeling
manual, IDEF1 Extended (IDEF1X). Albany, New York: GEC, 1985.
8. Marka D.A., McGovan K.L. SADT: Structured Analysis and Design Technique. N.Y.: McGraw Hill, 1988.
9. Mayer R. A framework and a suite of methods for business process reengineering. http://www.idef.com.
10. MicroStation Modeler. http://www.bently.com.
11. Paulk M.C., Curtis B., Chrissis M.B., Weber C.V. Capability Maturity
Model for Software, Version 1.1, Software Engineering Institute, CMU/
SEI-93-TR-24, February 1993.
12. Strassmann P.A. The Hocus-Pocus of Reengineering. Across The Board,
June 1994.
13. Strassmann P.A. The Roots Of Business Process Reengineering. June 1995.
14. Varhol Peter D. Enterprisewide Reengineering and Restructuring. CTR
Corp., 1st ed., Charleston, 1994.
15. Zinder E.Z. PRIMET The PeRsonal Information MetaTechnologies:
from marketing to program implementation. . III .
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17. .., .. :
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18. .., .., .. .

. : , 1997.

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19. . - . .: , 1992.
20. ., . // COMPUTERWORLD .
1999. 22.
21. .. // . 1995. 46; 1996. 14.
22. . // - - . 2000. 4.
2. . 177218.
23. .
// . 2001. 2.
24. .., .., .. . VII.
: . . : , 2000.
25. .. . : , 1994.
26. .., .. STEP, P_LIB, MANDATE // . 1996. 1.
27. .., ..
//
. 1997. 4.
28. .. ? // . 1995. 2.
29. .. :
- // . 1995. 4; 1996.
12.
30. .. : , //
(, , 1996): . ., 1996.
31. .. // Computerworld .
1995. 26 .
32. .. // . 1997. 3.
33. .., .. .
Tahkekeha elektroonika elementide projekteerimise ja kat-setamise
numbrilised meetodid ja vahendid. Vabar. noup. ettek. teesid. K.II.
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-

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// .:
. .: , 1983.
35. .. : ,
. .: , 1993.
36. .. CASE-.
-. .: , 2000.
37. .., .. // . 1996. 1.
38. .. . .:
, 1999.
39. .. //
-
. 2001. 2 (4). . 2533.
40. .., ..
. : , 1997.
41. .., .. - : // .:
. :
, 1997. . 105109.
42. . :
OSF DCE // . 1993. 3. . 1016.
43. .. // .: . - . . 12. ., 1995.
44. .., .. // . 1997. 4. . 211.
45. . . .: , 1984.
46. . , , // Computerworld . 1995. 30 .
47. . //
Computerworld . 1995. 14 .
48. . // Computerworld . 1995.
30 .
49. .. :
- // . 1995. 2.
50. ..
// . 1998. 2. . 29.

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51. .. . .: , 1997.
52. .., .. . .: , 1991.
53. . (SA): //
.: .
.: , 1984.
54. .. : ( ). . 1998. 10.
55. .., .. . 89-II. :
, 1989.
56. .., .., ..
. .: , 1994.
57. .. // . 1996. 4 (12).
58. ., . . .:
, 1985.
59. ..
// . 1995. 6 (14). . 7177.
60. . . .: ,
1985.
61. . .
.: , 1984.
62. ., ., . XXI .: //
. ., 1995. 7.
63. -. -. . . . .: , 1999.
64. .. . : Van Nostred, 1931; American Society for Quality Control,
1980.

Copyright & A K-C

, .
, , , ,
.

:
 16487-83 .
;
 34.003-90 . . . ;
 6.10.1-94 . ;
 982-94 . ;
 6.38-95 . - . ;
 6 1995 . 3850-XII
;
 10 2000 . 357-3 ;
 1221-2000 . ,
;
 / 9294-93 . ;
 / 9126-93 . . ;
 9127-94 . ;
 / 8631-94 . ;
 / 12207-99 . ;
 / 2382-1-99 1. ;
 .

Copyright & A K-C


A
ABB [Activity Based Budgeting]
, ABC.
ABC-.
ABC [Activity Based Costing] -

, -.
ABM [Activity Based Management] ABC- ,

- ,
ABC-.
ApICS [Applied Industrial Control Solutions]
(. )
. , . . ApICS , General Motors
Corp., Ford Motor.
ARIS
IDS Scheer (), , , .
ARP [Activity Resource Planning]

, - -.

B
Benchmarking ,
.
BPI [Business Process Improvement] () - ()
-
.
BPR [Business Process Redesign] -
-.
BPR [Business Process Reengineering] - , -

Copyright & A K-C

298

- , , , .
BPWin CASE Computer Associates.
, , -. ,
IDEF0, IDEF3, DFD (Data Flow Diagram).

C
CAD [Computer-Aided Design] ( , ) . (, , ), . ,
, CAD:
CAD, CAM, CAE.
CAE [Computer-Aided Engineering] ( ) ,
( , ..)
.
CALS [Continuous Acquisition and Life-Cycle Support] , .
. CALS IGES STEP
. CALS ,
. CALS
Computer Aided Logistic System.
CAM [Computer Aided Manufacturing] (
) .
, CAD.
CASE- CASE-,
, , ..
CASE- ,
() .
CASE- [CASE-System] . CASE.

Copyright & A K-C

299
CASE- [CASE Technology] , (CASE-)

.
Check-In PDM ( PDM ).
PDM .
Check-Out PDM
. , , .
CPI [Continuous Process Improvement] -.
CPN [Color Petri Nets]
-,
, .

D
DFD [Data Flow Diagrams] ,
, , , .

E
ECN/ECO [Engineering Change Notice] ( ) Engineering Change Order ( ) , , .
PDM ECN/ECO .
ERD [Entity-Relationship Diagrams]
,
, (), ()
().

I
IDEF0 , SADT.

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300

IDEF1X , SADT.
IDEF3 , - .
IDEF4 -
, , .
IDEF5 , ..
(), , , .
IGES [Initial Grafics Exchange Specification]
CAD-.
ISA [The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society] ANSI , 1945 .
, , .
. 2000 . ISA-95.00.01-2000,
Enterprise-Control System Integration, Part 1: Models and Terminology.

M
MRP [Materials Requirements Planning] (
) - , 60- . XX . .
, , .
MRP BOM. MRP,
,
, , MRP II.
MRP II [Manufacturing Resources Planning] ( ) - ,
MRP. II
MRP (, ),
( , .). MRP II
.

Copyright & A K-C

301
S
SADT [Structured Analysis and Design Technique] ,
(entity relationship).
STD [State Transition Diagrams]

.
STEP [Standard for the Exchange of Product] (ISO 10303),
, . STEP
, . IGES.
STEP .
STORM2000 CASE- , - (Information Computing System, ICS,
. ). COM. OMT (Object Modeling Technique) UML.

T
TM FORUM [TeleManagement Forum]
- , 1988 . , . 380
AT&T, Bea Systems, IBM, HewlettPackard, Microsoft . TM FORUM
-, , ,
.
TQM [Total Quality Management]
, -
, .

[Automation]
.
[Office Automation (OA)]
. . , , , .

Copyright & A K-C

302


, - .
, ,
, .
[computer-aided, computer assisted (CA)] , , .
[automation]
.
[automatic] , .
; [offline (adjective), off-line (adjective)] , .
, .
,
.
[authorization]
PDM , .
, , , .
, .
,
.
[adaptability] ,

, , ,
.
[Governance] , , , , , . ,
, ,
, ,
, .
; [online (adjective), on-line (adjective)] .

Copyright & A K-C

303
,
, ,
.
[Algorithm]
.
- [alphanumeric] ,
, , , ,
, , .
[Analysability] ,
,
.
[analog] , ,
, , .
[Analog Computer] , ,
.
; [Hardware]
. : , .
, .
, .
,
.
[Computer Architecture] , .
[asynchronous] , ,
.
[Attribute]
, , ,
.
, , .
[Validation] , . . 1)

Copyright & A K-C

304

. 2) .
. 3) . 4)
, .
[Audit] , ()
.
[Outsourcing]
, , () . , : , ,
, , ,
.

[Framework]
, , , .
, , . , , .
, ( ).
, , , ,
( 20886-85).
; [Database] ,
,
,
( / 2382-1-99).
, (
).
; [Knowledge Base (K-base)] ,
-

Copyright & A K-C

305
. . , ( / 2382-1-99).
, () .
[Baseline]
, ,
.
CO/MK -.
[Byte] , ,
,
. . 1) . 2) .
- ,
( ).
, , .
; [Data Bank] ,
,
( / 2382-1-99).
( ) ,
, ,
.
, .
[Business-to-Business (B2B)] 1)
, , ,
, . ; 2) , .
- [Business Process] ,
, ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

306

; [Bit; Binary Digit] 0 1 .


, .
- [Flowchart, Flow Diagram]
,
, , .
(, ..),
, .
.

(); [Input (Process)]



.

.
[Verification] , . . 1)
. 2) .
[Version] . .
, .

, ,
, .
[Replaceability] ,
.
[Open System Interconnection, OSI]
ISO, (-

Copyright & A K-C

307
, , , , , ).
, .
[Video conference] c. .
[Video conferencing] ,
- .
[Virtual Machine (VM)]
, ,
.
[Virtual reality] 1) ,
, . , .
, , , , ,
.

; 2) , - .
, .
[Virtual economy] .
[Virtual corporation] , ,
, ,
, .
[Virtual worlds] .

,
, , , , ,
- .
[Virtual communities (syn. e-Communities)]
Internet : 1) -

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308

, ; 2)
.
[Virtual] ,
,
.
, , , ,
, , .
,
.
[Interoperability] ,
, .


, .
[Recoverability] ,
, , , .
[World Wide Web] () . 1) Internet, , ; 2)
Internet, . ,
.
PDM [Bundled PDM System] PDM,
. , PDM
CAD/CAM.
[to log on, to log in] .
,
.
[Input (Adjective)] ,
-, , .
[Input Data] , .

.

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(); [Output (process)] ,

.
[to Download]
, .
[Release] , (, ).
[to log off, to log out] .
, .
[Output (Adjective)] , ,
-, , .
[Output (Data)] , .

[Report Generation] PDM. , ,


, . , PDM
, ,
.
[Hybrid Computer] , - . .
.
,
.
[Globalisation] , ,
.

.
.
() [Global information
infrastructure (GII)] ,
1995 .
. , -

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310

- , , .
[Information society policy]
( ) , , , - ,
.
[e-Readiness] - ,
: -
, , ,

.
[Off-the-shelf Product] , .
[Group Technology (GT)] .
.

, - ( ).
[Data] ,
, , . . ( / 2382-1-99).
[Data-Information-Knowledge] , .
. , . ,
, .. - . - .
, ,
. .
[Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)]
( ) ,
, , .. WBS
.

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311
,
.
,
.

. , .
[Digitalisation] . .
, .
[Disk] , ,
.
[Discrete] , , , , , , , , .
[Distance education] 1)
- , ,
;
2) , , ,
, .
[Distant learning] ,
,
,
.
[Contract] , ,
: ; ,
, , .
, ( 16487).
, , () ( 1221-2000).

Copyright & A K-C

312

, , , ,
( / 9294-93).
, .
, , ,
.
- ,
(
) .

( / 9294-93).
: 1) ,
; 2) , ; 3) .
. ,
. , , . , : 1) ; 2) ,
.
, .
.
()
,
( ).
, , ( 982-94).
( ) , .

.
[Home computerisation] 1) ( ),

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313
, Internet; 2)
.
[Domestication of the new technology]
( . domesticus
(, )).
[Access to information and knowledge]
1) ,
, .. , , ,
; , ; 2)
. , ,
.
[User-Friendly] , .
, .

, , - , , ,
.
[Natural Language] , .

[Life Cycle]
, .
: , , , , , .
[System Life-Cycle] , , . , , (), .

() -

Copyright & A K-C

314

, .
, , () .
[Being digital]
1996 ., , ,
.

( ) , ,
, .
[to Upload] ,
.
[Acquisition] ,
.
[Acquirer] ,
, .
. : , , , .
1966 [Freedom of Information Act 1966
(FOIA)] .
, , , , .
.
[Substitute Part] ,
.
.
[Security] , ,
.
[Data Protection] , ,
( / 2382-1-99).
.

Copyright & A K-C

315
[Data protection] ,
, ,
.
(Security) , , , (
/ 2382-1-99).
( ) ,

.
[Request for Proposal (Tender)] , , .
[Symbol] ,
.
[Knowledge]
. , () ,
. .. , , , .


.
[Notification] .
, , ,
. , , , ,
. .
[Review Action Notice] , , ,
.
[Approval Notification] .

Copyright & A K-C

316

, oo .
[Changeability] ,
, ,
.
[Measurement] .
[to Access] .
[Indicators of information society development] ,
: , , .
[Bill of Material (BOM)]
, , , . BOM , ,
. , BOM (ISO-9000)
() , ,

-.
CASE [CASE Tool] , () , CASE-, ,
, .

, , ,
.
, ,
.
; , [Integral Circuit; Microchip, Chip (IC)]
, .
[Integration] .
[Intelligent interface]

.

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317
[Internet] 1) , , , ,
, TCP/IP; 2) ,
, TCP/IP
, ; 3) , . Internet , , , , TCP/IP.
- [Internet incubator]
, Internet- . 1995 .
. .
- [Internet shop] Internet, ( ), . , ,
( Internet-).
- [Internet economy]
Internet: , , .
[Interface]
, , , ,
, .
[Interface] .
[Informatisation] 1) , ; 2)
-,
,
, .
[Informatics] , , , , , .
-
.

Copyright & A K-C

318

[Information Security] : , .

.
.
.
[Information industry]
( ,
() ). : ( ) .
, ,
.
[Information Revolution] , .
.
(, , , ),
.
, ,
( 982-94).
[Information System] ( ) , , .
[Information System]
, , , , ( / 2382-1-99).
[Information environment] , , ,
.
[Information Sphere] 1) ,
, , ; 2) ,
, , , , -

Copyright & A K-C

319
, .
, , ,
,
( ).
; , , , ( 982-94).
[Information economy; Knowledge economy]

, ,
, , ,
.
[Information economy] (,
1970-1980- ) 1) ,

, ,
; 2) ,
,
-
.
.
- () [Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT)] , - ,
, , , , .
, .
[Information Legislation] , .
() [Content] , , .
[Digital divide] , , ,
1) , ; 2) , ,

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320

,
.
,
.
[Information society] ; , .
: ;
, ; ,
: 1)
, 2) 3) .
[Information Society]
, , ,
(), , ,

.
[Information weapon] (, , , )

.
[Information space] ( )
1) ,
; 2) , . .
- [Information and
communication infrastructure] , , , , , , .
- , , .

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321
[Information needs]
. , .
[Information products]
, , , .
[Information processes] , , , , , , .
[Information resources] (, ,
, , , .).
[Information services] .
[Information city] , ,
, ,
, , , , , (, , ..), .
[Information crime] , , .
, .
,
.
, , .
, ,
(
).
, ( 982-94).
[Information market] , .
[Information] , , ,
, ( 982-94).
, , , , ( ).

Copyright & A K-C

322

( ) [Information (in Information


processing)] , , , , , , , , ( / 2382-1-99).
, .
.
[Personal data]
. C , , .
; [Artificial Intelligence] , , , , ,
, .
, , .
[Artificial Language] ,
.
, ,
( ).

[Calculator] ,
, , ,
. . , .

, .
() , . (
, , , , )
.
[Quality] , ( 8402). .
,
.

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323
[Software Quality]
,
. : , ,
, , , .
[Qualification Testing] (), , , , .
[Qualification Requirement] , ,
.
[Qualification]
.
[Cyber space] , Le
Neuromacien. , .
[Classification] PDM.

.
[Part Classification] , . PDM ,
PDM , . (Group Technology).
, .
, () .
[Communication]
, , , , , , , .
- , .

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324

[Computer]: , ,
, . . 1) . 2) .
[Computerisation]
, .
[to Computerize]
.
[Computer literacy] .
, , .
[Computer Graphics] , , .
[Computer Network] , .
[Computer Crime] , , ,
.
; [Computer Center, Data
Processing Center] , , , .
, .
[Connectivity] , (, ), (, ).
, , , , . - , . . .
[Access Control] () ()
PDM.

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325
.
[Change Control] , .
,
1176.1
. . ,


-
.
[Configuration] , .
[Configuration]
(
).
, .
[Software Quality
Assessment Criteria] , . , .
[Critical Activity] ,
.

,
.
, ,

.
, .
[Logistics] 1) ; 2) , , ,
.
[Local Area Network] , . -

Copyright & A K-C

326

. , , ,
,
.

- [Mass media] . (, , ), , , , , , ,
, , , , . ,
,
.
. .
[Mass communication]
-.
- [Part Master] ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
.. - , ..
- [Item Master] , -
(Part Master) ,
PDM (), .
,
. ( , ) ..
, .

,
.
( ) , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

327
, .
[Menu] , , .
[Meta-Data] ,
PDM. ,
. , . , .
[Method] - .
OMT [Object Modeling Technique]
(James Rumbaugh) ,
,
.
OOSE [Object-Oriented Software Engineering]
, (Ivar
Jacobson).
(Use Case Diagram), UML.
[Booch Method] - ,
(Grady Booch).
IDEF0 [Icam DEFinition-0]
, SADT.
1970-
(Integrated Computer
Aided Manufacturing, ICAM). . 1993 . NIST (National Institute of
Standards and Technology, ).
IDEF, .
IDEF3 [Icam DEFinition-3] ,

.
.
[Software Design
Method] ,
, . , . ( -

Copyright & A K-C

328

.)
( ...) ,
, ;
, .
SADT [Structured Analysis and Design Technique, SADT]
1970- (D. Ross)
. , , , . IDEF0.
[Software Quality Metric]
,
,
.
[Microcomputer] ,
-.
[Microprocessor] ,
.
[Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS)]
, .
[Megaflops
(MFLOPS)] ,
.
. .
[Minicomputer] , .
[Mobile telephony] . ,

.
[Portability] , ,
: , , ,
. . , (
/ 9126-93).

Copyright & A K-C

329
() [Portability (of a Program)]


( / 2382-1-99).
[Simulation] . .
,
.
[Model, Simulator] , , .
.
[Life Cycle Model] ,
, , ,
,
.
, .
[Multimedia] 1) , ; 2) .
, ,
. , , - - ;
3) , , , . ,
, , , .
, .
[Soft Copy]
. .
- .

, ( 982-94).
[Reliability] , : , , . -

Copyright & A K-C

330

. . - ,
. - ( / 9126-93).
[Monitoring]
, , .
[Status Code] ,
-
.
[Desktop Publishing] , .
[Computer Science] , .
PDM [Independent PDM System] PDM,
,
.
(, CAD/CAM), , -
. PDM.
[Non-Deliverable Item]
, ,
.
[Lifelong learning] , ,
, .
; - [Non-programmable
Terminal; Dumb Terminal] , .

, , , .
[Data Medium] ,

.

[Quality Assurance]
;
,

Copyright & A K-C

331
, . . 1) , : )
; )

. 2) . 3) , .
[Data Communication] .
; .
[Information generalisation]
,
.
[Shell] ,
.

.
.
; [Data Processing
(DP); Automatic Data Processing]
. . , , , , ,
, , , ,
. . .
[Image Processing]
, , , , .
( 982-94).
[Information Processing] . . 1)
, , . 2)
(
/ 2382-1-99).

Copyright & A K-C

332

; [Text Processing; Word Processing]


, , , ,
, , , , .
[Learnability] ,
(, , , ).
[Total Product Modelling] ,
PDM ,
(
, -
), , , ..
,
( ) .
,
.
; 8- [Octet; 8-bit byte] , 8 .
[Operator] , .
; [Operating System (OS)]
,
, , , - . . ,
.
[Option] . .

. , .
- , .
- , , , .

- - , , .
[Open System] , () , , , : 1)

Copyright & A K-C

333
() , ,
( ); 2) () () ; 3) , ( ).
[Open Specification] , ,
, ,
. , .. .
; , () .
,

.
[to Debug] ,
.
,
.
.

.
[Assessment] ,
, ( / 9126-93).
[Evaluation] .

[Software Package]
, . . .
(); [Storage (Device)]
, ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

334

[Memory] ,
.
[Concurrent Engineereing ()] , , ,
,
(, , ,
) ,
.
[Data Transport] , PDM . , . .
,
.
,
.

. , ..
.
[Portable Computer] , .
[Review] , .
[Peripheral Equipment] , . . -, .
[Maintainer] ,
.
[Personal Computer (PC)] ,
.
[PDA: personal digital assistants]
, , .
[Empowerment] ,
-

Copyright & A K-C

335
, , , , ,
, , .
o . .
, , .
.
.
, () ,
- , .
; [Routine]
, .
, , .
()
( 982-94).
[Information Retrieval (IR)] ,

( / 2382-1-99).
[Computer Generation] ,
, . . , , .

,
, .
; [Turnkey System] ,
, ,
. . .
, .
() [Information user] ,
-

Copyright & A K-C

336

(
).
[User] , ( / 2382-1-99).
(Understandability) , .
; ,
.
[Laptop Computer]
, .
[Supplier] , ,
, . . 1) , ,
. 2) .
,
.
[Workflow] ( ), ,
.
, o .
( )
, ; , .
[Accuracy] ,
. . , .
[Usability] ,
,
: , , . .
.
,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

337
, , .
( 982-94).
[Enterprise] ,
.
,
. PDM .
[Predecessor Activity] , , .
[Prompt] , , .
[Suitability] , .
. , , .
() [Features] , , . .
, , .
1)
; , , ( ) , ;
2) , , .
,

, .
; [Software]
,
. . .
[Application Interface] , PDM.
,
PDM
PDM.

Copyright & A K-C

338

[Applications of ICT] , , , ,
, .
, , , .
; [Program; Computer Program]
, ,
, .
[Programming] , ,
.
; [to Program] , , .
; [Programmable
Terminal; Intelligent Terminal] , .
[Software Product] , ( / 9126-93).
[Software Servise] ,
, , , , .
- [Firmware]
,
.
(
/ 12207-99).
- [Firmware] , ,
, ( / 2382-1-99).
- [Firmware] ,
, . , - , ; , ,
( / 9126-93).
[Software] , , , ( / 9126-93).

Copyright & A K-C

339

.
[Software Piracy] .

, ( 982-94).
; [Software]
, ,
. .
, ( / 2382-1-99).
[Software Unit]
().
[Software Product] ,
, , .
[Promotion] (Promotion Level) PDM .
[Software Engineering] , , , ,
.
[Design Variant] , , 4- 6-. , , , .
[Installability] , , .
[Operability] , .
[Profile] ( ) ( )
, , .
( ) [Process (in Data Processing)]
,
( / 2382-1-99).

Copyright & A K-C

340

[Process] , , (
/ 2382-1-99).
[Process] ,
. .
( / 12207-99).
[Processor] ,
. . - .

[Activity] ; ,
. .
[Workgroup] ,
. , . .
[Workstation] , , , -. . ,
.
, , ,
, .
[e-Development] - , .
( ) [Time Sharing]
, .
[Developer] , ( , , ) .
() [Rating] .
.

Copyright & A K-C

341
[Distributed Vault] PDM, PDM.
-
.
[Revision] , , .

.
- [Business Process Reengineering, BPR]

,
, . ( . ) (CPI, BPI .).
.

( ),
(, , ..).
; [Resource; Computer Resource]
, . . , -,
, , .
,
.
[Robotics] , .

,
, .
[connectivity] .
[Network organisation]
, , .
[Networked economy] 1) , . -

Copyright & A K-C

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; 2) , , ,
, ,
- .
[Network society] ,
.
[Network technologies] , .
[Networking]
,
.
[Network] , , (, ) .
[Signal] ,
.
[Character] , , . .
(, , , ) ( , ,
, ).
[Synergetics] , , ,
() ( ).
, .
[Synchronous] ,
,
.
[System] , ,
, , .
,
.
; [Data Processing
System; Computer System, Computing System] , , .
[Information Processing System]
, ,
, .

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343

. :
, () , , .
, ,
.
[System Documentation] , , , , , .
[System Software]
, . . .
( INCOSE) . , ,
-, .

() .
, , , .
[Successor Activity] ,
, .
[Data Dictionary] PDM , ,
.
.

,
, .
; [Support Software;
Support Program] ,
,
, . . , .
( ) , () ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

344

[Retirement] ,
.
, , , , , , .
, - , ,
,
.
[Compatibility] .
[Compliance] ,
, , .
[Agreement] , .
[Conformance] ,
, .
[Maintainability] ,
, (): , , , . . ,
, .
[Social impact of ICT]
: , , , , , .
[Specification] ,
.
() [Program (Module) Specification]
, , () .
[Flow Specification] , , , , , , , .
( ) .
.

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[Access Method] , , . . : , , .
[Interoperability] ,
. .
, .
, , . , , .
.

, , , , ,
, :
; ; , ; ; , , ;
; .
-
,
, .
,
, .
[Maturity] , .
[Product Structure]
, .
,
.
, .
[Supercomputer]
,
.

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346

[Hard Copy]
, ,
, .
[Text] , , , , , , ,
,

. . , .
[Telecommunications]
.
[Teleconference] , . : , , , ,
..
[Telematics] 1) :
,
; 2) .
[Teleworking] ,
- , , .
[Teleservice] ,
- .
[Terminal]
, .
; ; [Video Display Terminal; Visual Display Unit
(VDT, VDU)] , , .
[User Terminal] ,
.
[Testability] ,
, . . .
[Testability] , ,
.
[Test Coverage] ,
.

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347

, , , .

, , , .
[Statement of Work] ,
, .

[Computer Aided Software Engineering, CASE] . CASE-.
[Computer Aided
System Engineering, CASE] . CASE-.

, .
, .
[Data Translation] PDM
- , IGES/STEP
, .
[Trigger]
PDM, .

, .
[Universal Service]
- .
; ;
[Mainframe] , ,
, , .
() , , , .
() , -

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348

.
,
.
[Release Management]
PDM .
[Data Management] ,
,
, - .
[Image Management] (
() ),
( CAD ) (- ).
[Information Management]
, , , , .
[Configuration Management ()]
. .
[Workflow and Process
Management] , , .
PDM , . , ,
, , , ,
. . .
[Project Management] ,
, ,
, .
[State Management]
: (initiated), (submitted), (checked),

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349
(approved) (released).
. PDM

, ( ), ,
.
[Data Vault and Document
Management] ,
. check-in/check-out,
, .
[Management Data] , .
(scheduling) .
[Release Level] .
[Level of Performance] ,
,
.
[Promotion Level]
.
.
,
.
[Rating Level] , () .
, .. , . . . , 8402.

, , , , , .
[Stability] , .
[Fault Tolerance]
, . . -

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350

.
[Processing Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU)]
,
. .
.
[Approval] ,
(, , )
. ,
. :
.

. . . , .
, .

, ,
()
( 1221-2000).
[File] ,
( / 2382-1-99).
, ,
.
(,
) .

.

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- , , , .
[Forms] (), PDM .

. ,
, .

, .
[Block Diagram] ,
, , . . .
[Functional Unit] ,
, .
[Functionality] , . ,
: , , ,
, . .
, , , .
()
, .

(1) [Hacker (1)]


.
(2) [Hacker (2)]
, .
[Time Behavior] ,
.
[Resource Behavior] , .
[Software Quality
Characteristics] () ,
. -

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().
, .

; [Digit; Numeric Character] ,


. .
0, 1,..., F .
[Digital economy] ,
.
[Digital] , , , , .
[Digital age]
, - .
[Digital Computer] ,
, , ,
, ;
, ; , , ;
, . . .

[Numeric, Numerical] , ,
, , .

[Instance] - , PDM
. ,
. .

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(Part).
(assemblies) .
.

,
.
, [Knowledge economy] ,
() , , .
.
[Expert System (ES)] ,
,
, ,
. . 1) , , . 2)

, , .
[Digital library] , (, , , ..) .
[Electronic Mail (E-mail)] , .
[E-mail] 1) ; , ; 2)
.
.
; [Spreadsheet] , , ,
,
, .
[E-trade] , Internet.

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,
() , () .
() [Digital signature] , ,

, ,
.
[e-Economy] 1) : , ,
; 2) : , - (B2B) - (B2C).
; [Electronic
Publishing; Computer-aided Publishing] , . . ,
.
[e-Government] ,
.
[Vault] PDM.
, . PDM .
[e-Business] , Internet . , , Internet, ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
() [Electronic data interchange (EDI)]
,
. , , , ,
.

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, .
[Configuration Item] , .
[Emulation]
, ,
, . .
- .
( ) , , .
[Efficiency] ,
: , . . , , (, ,
) , .

UML [Unified Modeling Language]


, ,
- . UML 1.1,
Rational Software Corporation

, 1997 . OMG. UML
. CASE.
[Programming Language]
.
( ) , , , .

Copyright & A K-C

A
AAI [Application to Application Interface] .
AAR [Automatic Alternative Routing] .
ABC [Application Building Classes] .
ABI [Application Binary Interface] .
ACD [1. Automatic Call Distribution]
( ); [2. Automatic Call Distributor]
.
ACIA [Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter] .
ACMS [1. Application Control and Management System] ; [2. Automated Connection Manager
Server] .
ACS [Automated Cartridge System] .
ADB [Apple Desktop Bus] Apple
Computer.
ADF [Automatic Document Feeder] ( ).
ADL [Automated Data Library] .
ADMD [Administration Management Domain] ( , Internet).
ADSL [Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line] .
AEC [Automatic Error Correction] .
AEP [Application Environment Profile] .
AES [1. Application Environment Specifications]
; [2. Auto Emulation Switching] ( ).
AFN [Access Feeder Node] , ( ).
AIFF [Audio Interchange File Format]
.
ALM [1. Application Loadable Module] (NetWare); [2. AppWare Loadable Module]
AppWare.

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AMIS [Audio Messaging Interchange Specification] .
AMLCD [Active Matrix Liquid-Crystal Display] .
AMP [Asymmetrical Multiprocessing] .
AMPS [Advanced Mobile Phone System] ( ).
ANDF [Architecture Neutral Distribution Format] .
ANI [Automatic Number Identification]
().
ANSI [American National Standards Institute] .
AOCE [Apple Open Collaboration Environment] Apple ( ).
API [Application Portability Profile] .
API [Application Programming Interface] .
APM [Advanced Power Management] ().
APP [Application Portability Profile] () ().
APPC [Advanced Program-to-Program Communications]
( IBM).
APPN [Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking] ( IBM SNA).
APT [Application Programming Tools]
.
ARIS [Architecture of Integrated Information Systems]
.
ARL [Access Rights List] .
ART [1. Adaptive Recognition Technology]
(); [2. Automatic Recognition Technology] ( ).
ASA [1. American Software Association]
; [2. American Standards Association] .
ASD [Automated Software Distribution] .
ASE [Accredited System Engineer] -.

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ASF [Automatic Sheet Feed] ( ).


ASR [Automatic Speech Recognition] .
ATDM [Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing] ( ).
ATM [1. Asynchronous Transfer Mode] ; [2. Automatic Teller Machine] 1) ; 2)
, .
AUI [1. Access Unit Interface] ;
[2. Attachment Unit Interface] .
AVI [Audio Video Interlaced] (
Microsoft ).
AVNP [Autonomous Virtual Network Protocol]
.
AVR [Automatic Voice Recognition]
().

B
BCS [Basic Catalog Structure] .
BDC [Backup Domain Controller] (.
PDC).
BFS [Boot File System] ( ).
BFT [Binary File Transfer] ().
BNA [Broadband Network Architecture] ( IBM).
BOP [Bit-Oriented Protocol] .
BPR [Business Process Reengineering] () -.
BPR [Business Process Reengineering] ()
.
BRIM [Bridge Router Interface Module]
().
BTAC [Branch Target Address Cache] - .

C
CAD [Computer Aided Design] .
CADM [CASE Application Development Method]
CASE.
CAE [Computer Aided Engineering] .
CALS [Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support] .
CAM [Computer Aided Manufacturing] .

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CAM [Controlled Attachment Module] .
CAS [Communication Application Specification] (, Intel Digital
Communications Associates).
CASE [Computer Aided Software/System Engineering] ()
().
CASE [Computer-Aided Software Engineering] .
CAV [Constant Angular Velocity] 1) ; 2) ; 3) ( ).
CCIA [Computer and Communications Industry Association]
().
CCITT ( ITU-T) [Consultative Committee for International
Telegraphy and Telephony]
().
CDDI [Copper Distributed Data Interface]
( FDDI
).
CDE [1. Common Desktop Environment]
; [2. Cooperative Development Environment]
( Unix).
CDFS [CD-ROM File System] -.
CDI [(CD-I) Compact Disk Interactive] -.
CDMA [Code Division Multiple Access] ().
CDPD [Cellular Digital Packet Data] (
).
CD-ROM [Compact Disk Read-Only Memory] -.
CEM [Contract Electronic Manufacturers]
( ) .
CEO [Chief Executive Officer] , , ().
CGI [Computer Graphics Interface] .
CGM [Computer Graphics Metafile]
( ).
CIC [1. Carrier (Circuit) Identification Code] ; [2. Commercial Internet Carriers] Internet.
CIDR [Classless Inter-Domain Routing]
.

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CIF [1. Common Intermediate Format] ( () ); [2. Customer Information File]


CIO Chief Information Officer, ().
CIT [Computer-Integrated Telephony] .
CLI [Call Level Interface] ( ).
CLNP [Connectionless Network Protocol]
.
CLUT [Color Look Up Table] .
CLV [Constant Linear Velocity] 1) ;
2) ; 3) .
CM [1. Configuration Management] ( ); [2. Control Module] .
CMA [Communications Managers Association] ().
CMIP [Common Management Information Protocol]
.
CMS [1. Call Management System] () ; [2. Color Management System]
.
CMVC [Configuration Management and Version Control]
.
CMW [Compartmented Mode Workstation] , .
CNLP [Connectionless Network Layer Protocol]
(
).
CNM [Customer Network Management] .
CNX [Certified Network Expert]
.
CODE [Client/Server Open Development Environment]
-.
COP [Character-Oriented Protocol] .
COR [Connection-Oriented Routing] , .
CORBA [Common Object Request Broker Architecture] - ( OMA).
COSE [Common Open Software Environment]
().

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CPI (cpi) [1. Characters Per Inch] ; [2. Common
Programming Interface] ( IBM
).
CRC [Cyclic Redundancy Check] .
CRS [Customer Response System] .
CRU [Customer Replaceable Unit] , .
CSDN [Circuit-Switched Data Network] .
CSMA/CD [Carrier Sense Mutiple Access/Collision Detection]
( ).
CSTA [Computer Supported Telecommunications Application] ( ECMA).
CTA [Computer Training Associates]
.
CUA [Common User Access] ( IBM ).
CVF [Compressed Volume File] .
CVI [Compressed Video Interoperability]
().

E
EAD [Enhanced Access Diversity] ( ).
EASE [Embedded Advanced Sampling Environment]
( ).
EBB [Electronic Bulletin Board] .
EBR [Enterprise Backup and Restore] .
ECC [Error-Correcting Code] .
ECMA [European Computer Manufacturers Association]
.
ECNE [Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer]
NetWare .
ECS [External Cache Socket] .
EDCC [Error Detection and Correction Code]
.
EDD [Electronic Document Delivery] .

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EDIFACT [Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and


Transport] ,
.
EDM [Engineering Data Management]
.
EDMS [Electronic Document Management System] .
EEI [External Environment Interface] .
EIN [Electronic ID Number] .
EIS [Executive Information System]
.
EISA [Extended Industry Standard Architecture] ( ).
EMMI [Enhanced Multimedia Interface] ( AT&T).
EMX [Enterprise Mail Exchange] .
EN [End Node] ( ).
ENMS [Enterprise Network Management System]
.
EOM [Event-Oriented Modelling] ,
.
ERD [Entity-Relations Diagrams] .
ES [Enterprise System] () .
ESCON [Enterprise System Connection] .
ESD [Electronic Software Distribution]
.
ESDL [Electronic Software Distribution and Licensing]
.
ESL [Electronic Software Licensing]
.
ESM [1. Enterprise Storage Manager]
; [2. Ethernet Switching Module] Ethernet.
ETC [Enhanced Throughput Cellular]
( AT&T
).
ETSI [European Telecommunications Standards Institute]
.

F
FAT [File Allocation Table] ( DOS).
FCS [Fiber Channel Standard] - .

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FCSI [Fiber Channel System Initiative] - ( Sun Microsystems, IBM
Hewlett-Packard).
FDD [Floppy Disk Drive]
().
FDDI [Fiber Distributed Data Interface]
- ().
FDSE [Full Duplex Switched Ethernet]
Ethernet.
FED [Ferroelectric Display] .
FEP [Front-End Processor] 1) ; 2) - ( ).
FIFO [First-In, First-Out]
( ).
FIPS [Federal Information Processing Standard (U. S. Government)]
( ).
FITS [Functional Interpolating Transformation System] .
FLCD [Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display]
.
FOC [Fiber-Optics Communications] - .
FPFR [Fast-Packet Frame-Relay]
().
FRX [Frame Relay Exchange] .
FSF [Free Software Foundation]
.
FTAM [File Transfer, Access and Management] ,
().
FTS [Functional Test Suite] .
FTSA [Fault-Tolerant Server Architecture] .

G
GAPPN [Gigabit Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking] ( IBM).
GDMO [Guidelines for the Definition of Managed Objects]
( ISO).
GFS [Grandfather/Father/Son] ( , ).
GIS [Geographic Information System] ().
GLOP [Graphical Library Object Parser]
.

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GM [General Manager] , -.
GOOP [Graphical Object-Oriented Programming] - .
GOSIP [Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile] .
GOSIP [Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile] ().
GUI [Graphical User Interface] .

H
HADA [High Availability Disk Array]
.
HAL [Hardware Abstraction Layer]
.
HAM [Host Attachment Module] -.
HCI [Human/Computer Interface] .
HDL [Hardware Description Language]
.
HDLC [High-Level Data Link Control]
( ISO).
HDMS [High-Density Modem System] () .
HDTV [High Definition Television] ().
HFT [High Function Terminal] .
HIPPI [High Performance Parallel Interface] .
HLL [High-Level Language] .
HLLAPI [High Level Language Application Programming Interface] .
HLS [Hue-Level-Saturation] ( ).
HPFS [High Performance File System] .
HPR [High Performance Routing] ( IBM, APPN; , APPN+).
HPSN [High Performance Scalable Networking] ( 3Com).
HSB [Hue-Saturation-Brightness]
( ).
HSDL [High-Speed Data Link]
.

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HSM [Hierarchical Storage Management]
.
HSRP [Hot Standby Router Protocol] ( Internet).
HSSI [High Speed Serial Interface] .
HSV [Hue-Saturation-Value] ( ).
HTML [Hyper-Text Markup Language] ().

I
IBN [1. Integrated Branch Node]
(-); [2. Integrated Business Network]
.
ICAM [Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing]
.
ICDA [Integrated Cashed Disk Array] -.
ICFA [International Computer Facsimile Association]
.
ICI [Inter-Carrier Interface] .
ICTS [Inter-City Telecommunications System] .
IDAPI [Integrated Database Application Program Interface] (
Borland).
IDDE [Integrated Development and Debugging Environment] ().
IDEF [ICAM DEFinition] ICAM.
IDL [Interface Definition Language] .
IDMS [Integrated Data Management System] ( ).
IEC [International Electrotechnical Commission] ().
IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] .
IEN [Integrated Enterprise Network]
.
IETF [Internet Engineering Task Force]
Internet.

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IH [Information Highway] .
ILE [Integrated Language Environment]
( ).
ILMI [Interim Local Management Interface] .
IMAC [ISDN Media Access Control]
ISDN.
IMAP [Interactive Mail Access Protocol]
.
IMR [Integrated Multiport Repeater]
.
IMS [1. Information Management System] 1) - ; 2) ( , IBM); [2. Integration
of Management Systems] .
INM [Internet Network Management]
Internet.
IOS [Integrated Office System] .
IP [1. Image Processing] ; [2. Internet Protocol]
( Internet).
IPS [Image Processing System] .
IPX [Internetwork Packet Exchange] ( Novell).
IRQ [Interruption Request] .
IRS [Information Retrieval System] - .
ISA [Industry Standard Architecture] ( ).
ISAM [Indexed Sequential Access Method] - .
ISDN [Integrated Services Digital Network (voice + data + image network)]
(, , ).
ISDN [Integrated Services Digital Network] .
ISEE [Integrated Software Engineering Environment]
.
ISO [International Organization for Standardization]
().
ISO/IEC [International Organization for Standardization/International
Electrotechnical Commission] (/).
ISP [Internet Service Provider] Internet
( Internet IP).
ISR [Information Storage and Retrieval] .

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ISSA [Information Systems Security Association]
().
ISV [1. Independent Software Vendor] - ; [2. Information System Vendor] .
ITU-T [International Telecommunication Union. Telecommunication.
Standardization Sector of ITU (ITUT)] . .

J
JAD [Joint Application Development] .
JCL [Job Control Language] .
JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group] 1) ; 2) , .
JTC1 [Joint Technical Committee One] (CTK1).

K
KBMS [Knowledge Base Management System]
.
KBS [Knowledge Base System] ().

L
LAP [Link Access Protocol] .
LAPM [Link Access Protocol for Modems]
.
LAT [Local Area Transport] ().
LATA [Local Access and Transport Area]
( , RBOC).
LAU [LAN Access Unit] () .
LEC [Local Exchange Carrier] 1) ; 2) - .
LED [Light-Emitting Diode] .
LEL [Link, Embed and Launch-to-Edit] (,
).
LLC [Logical Link Control] ().
LMI [Local Management Interface] ( ).
LNM [LAN Network Manager] .
LON [LAN Outer Network] ,
.

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LQ [Letter Quality] .
LRU [Last (Least) Recently Used] ( ).
LS [1. Library Server] ; [2. Licensing System]
.
LSAPI [License Server Application Programming Interface]
( , ).
LU [Logical Unit] .
LUG [Local User Group] .
LVM [Logical Volume Manager]
.

M
MAC [Media Access Control]
( Ethernet).
MAN [Metropolitan Area Network] .
MAPI [Messaging Application Programming Interface] (
Microsoft).
MAS [Multimedia Access System] .
MAU [1. Medium Attachment Unit] (
); [2. Multistation (Multi) Access Unit] .
MDC [Multi-Device Controller] .
MDI [1. Medium Dependent Interface] , ( ); [2. Multiple Document Interface]
.
MFC [Microsoft Foundation Classes] () Microsoft.
MH [Modular Hub] .
MHS [1. Message Handling Service] ( Novell ); [2. Message
Handling System] .
MI [Management Interface] .
MIB [Management Information Base] .
MIDI [Musical Instrument Device Interface] .
MIF [Management Information File] .

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MII [Medium Independent Interface] , ( ).
MLID [Multiple Link Interface Driver] .
MLS [Multilevel Security] .
MMPM [Multimedia Presentation Manager]
.
MMS [Manufacturing Messaging Specification] (
).
MNI [Mobile Network Integration] .
MNP [Microcom Network Protocol] Microcom ( ,
; Microcom ).
MO [Magneto-Optical] .
MOB [Movable Object Block] ,
.
MOD [Magneto-Optical Disk] .
MOM [Manager of Managers]
( , ).
MOSPF [Multicast Open Shortest Path First] ( ).
MP [Multiprocessing] .
MPC [Multi-Purpose Communications] .
MPEG [Motion Picture Experts Group] 1) ; 2) , .
MPP [Massively Parallel Processing]
.
MPR [MultiProtocol Router] .
MPTN [Multiprotocol Transport Network]
.
MQI [Message Queue Interface] .
MRCI [Microsoft Realtime Compression Interface]
Microsoft.
MSH [Multi Services Hub] ( ).
MSL [Mirrored Server Link] .
MTF [Microsoft Tape Format]
Microsoft.

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MTNT [Multiple Technology Network Testbed] .


MVS [1. Multiple Virtual Storage] ; [2. MultiVideo System] .

N
NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology]
.
NISTIR [National Institute of Standards and Technology Interim Report]
.
NIUF (NIU-Forum) [North American ISDN Users Forum] ISDN.
NVLAP [National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program] (
NIST).

O
O&M [Operation and Maintenance] .
OC [1. Office Communications] ; [2. Optical
Carrier] .
OCE [Open Collaboration Environment] .
OD [(O/D) on demand] , .
ODA [Office (or Open) Document Architecture] ( ) ().
ODA [Open Document Architecture]
(. ODMA).
ODAPI [Open Database Application Programming Interface]
.
ODBC [(ODC) Open Database Connectivity]
( Microsoft).
ODL [Object Definition Language] .
ODMA [Open Document Management Architecture] ( DMS).
OEM [Original Equipment Manufacturer] - () , .
OID [Object Identifier] .
OIW [OSE Implementors Workshop] OSE.
OLB [Object Location Broker]
.
OLE [Object Linking and Embedding] ( Microsoft).

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OLI [Optical Line Interface] .
OLTP [On-Line Transaction Processing] .
OMG [Object Management Group] .
OMW [Object Management Workbench]
.
ONA [Open Network Architecture] .
OODB [Object-Oriented Database] -
.
OOPS [Object-Oriented Programming System] - .
OS [Operating System] .
OSE [Open System Environment]
.
OSE/RM [Open System Environment / Reference Model]
.
OSF [Open Software Foundation] ( -).
OSI [Open Systems Interconnection (Communication Protocols). ISO
7498.1984] ( ). ISO 7498.1984.
OSI [Open Systems Interconnection] ( , ISO).
OSI/TP [Open Systems Interconnection/Transaction Processing] OSI ().
OSME [Open Systems Message Exchange]
.
OSPF [Open Shortest Path First]
( ).
OT [Object Technology] .
OTF [Open Tape Format] ().
OURS [Open User Recommended Solutions] ,
(, , ).

P
PABX [Private Automatic Branch Exchange]
( ).
PAD [Packet Assembly and Disassembly] () .
PAMA [Preassigned Multiple Access] .
PARIS [Packetized Automatic Routing Integrated System] ( IBM).

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PC [Personal Computer] ().


PCB [Printed Circuit Board] .
PCL [Printer Control Language] .
PCM [Plug-Compatible Manufacturer] , .
PCMCIA [Personal Computer Memory Card International Association]
1) ; 2) .
PDA [Personal Digital Assistant] ,
( ).
PDB [Protocol Data Block] .
PDF [Portable Document Format]
( ).
PDL [Page Description Language] .
PDM [Product Data Management] .
PDQ [Parallel Data Query] .
PDU [Protocol Data Unit] .
PG [Presentation Graphics] .
PGA [Pin Grid Array] .
PGP [Pretty Good Privacy] ( ).
PIC [Picture Image Compression]
( ).
PIF [Program Information File] .
PIM [Personal Information Manager] ( ).
PIM [Product Information Management]
.
PL [Programming Language] .
PMA [Physical Medium Attachment]
( ).
PNP [Plug-and-Play] ( ).
POSIX [Portable Operating System Interface] .
POSIX [Portable Operating Systems Interface]
(
Unix).
POST [Procedure Of Self-Testing] () .
PPL [Process-to-Process Linking] .
PPP [Point-to-Point Protocol] .

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PREP [PowerPC Reference Platform] PowerPC
(, IBM Apple
PowerPC).
PTF [Program Temporary Fixes] .
PTM [Packet Transfer Mode] .
PVC [1. Permanent Virtual Circuit] ;
[2. Permanent Virtual Connection] .

Q
QBE [Query by Example] .
QBF [Query by Form] .
QBM [Query by Model] .
QIC [Quarter-Inch Cartridge] 1/4- .

R
RACF [Resource Access Control Facility] ( - IBM).
RAD [Rapid Application Development]
.
RAID [Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives (Disks)] (
).
RAS [1. Reliability, Availability and Serviceability] , (); [2. Remote Access
Server] .
RC [Remote Control] .
RDA [Remote Database Access] .
RDBMS [Relational Database Management System] .
RGB [Red-Green-Blue] ( ).
RISC [Reduced Instruction Set Computer] .
RJE [Remote Job Entry] .
RLE [Run-Length Encoding] (
).
RMON [Remote Monitoring] 1) ; 2) ().
RPC [Remote Procedure Call] ( ).
RPC [Remote Procedure Call] ()
.
RPG [Report Program Generator] (
).

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374

RPL [Remote Program Load] .


RPM [Rotations Per Minute] () .
RQBE [Relational Query By Example] .
RQS [Recoverable Queuing Service] () .
RTOS [Real-Time Operating System] .
RTP [Rapid Transport Protocol] ( HPR).

S
SAA [Systems Application Architecture] ( IBM ).
SADT [Structured Analysis and Design Technique] .
SAFE [Secure Access Facility for Enterprise] .
SAM [1. Secure Access Management] ; [2. System Administrator Means] .
SAS [Single Attachment Station] ( ).
SCS [Structured Cabling System] .
SCSI [Small Computer System Interface] ().
SDC [Synchronous Data Compression]
( Motorola).
SDDI [Schielded Distributed Data Interface] .
SDLC [Synchronous Data Link Control] ( ).
SDLC [System Development Life Cycle] .
SDMA [Space-Division Multiple Access]
.
SDO [Standards Development Organization] .
SE [Standard Edition] (
).
SE [System Engineering] .
SEE [Software Engineering Environment] .
SES [Smart Energy System] .

Copyright & A K-C

375
SFS [Shared File Server] - .
SGML [Standard Generalized (General) Markup Language] .
SH [Stackable Hub] (
).
SIG [Special Interest Group] ( ) - ( ).
SINC [Single-Image Network Computing] .
SLAP [Serial Line Access Protocol] .
SM [Smart Card] ( ).
SMA [Systems Monitor Architecture] .
SMDS [Switched Multimegabit Data Service]
( Bell
Communications).
SMF [Standard Messaging Format]
.
SMP [1. Simple Management Protocol] ; [2. Symmetrical Multiple Processor] ; [3. Symmetrical Multiprocessing] .
SMT [Station Management] (, FDDI).
SMTP [Simple Mail Transfer Protocol] ().
SNA [Systems Network Architecture] ( , IBM).
SNAP [Standard Network Access Protocol]
.
SPA [Software Publishers Association] .
SPC [Software Productivity Consortium]
.
SPC [Standard Peripheral Controller] .
SPEC [System Performance Evaluation Cooperative]
( ).
SQA [Software Quality Assurance] .
SQL [Structured Query Language] .

Copyright & A K-C

376

SRB [Source Route Bridging]


(, IBM).
SRP [Source Routing Protocol] ( ).
STD [State Transition Diagrams] .
STDMA [Space-Time Division Multiple Access] .
-
STP [1. Shielded Twisted Pair] ; [2. Signal
Transfer Point] ( ).
SW [Software Engineering] .
SWIFT [Society for World-Wide Interbank Financial Telecommunications]
( ).
SWS [Structured Wiring System] .

T
TAPI [Telephony Application Programming Interface] (,
Microsoft Intel).
TCP/IP [Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol]
/ ().
TDM [Technical Data Management] .
TDM [Time-Division Multiplexing] ( ).
TDMA [Time Division Multiple Access] .
TFT [Thin-Film Transistor] .
TIFF [Tagged Image File Format] ( ).
TIM [Technical Information Management]
.
TLU [Table Look-Up] .
TP [1. Transaction Processing] ; [2.Transport
Protocol] ; [3. Twisted Pair] .
TPC [Transaction Processing Council] 1) ; 2) .
TPI [Tracks Per Inch] .
TPS [Transactions Per Second] .
TSR [1. Terminate-and-Stay-Resident]
( ); [2. Time-Sharing Regime]
.
TTS [Text-To-Speech] () --.

Copyright & A K-C

377
U
UART [Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter]
.
UDF [User-Defined Function] , .
UDM [Uniform Data Model] (
).
ULP [Upper Layer Protocol] .
UMIG [Universal Messaging Interoperability Group] .
UNI [User (-to-) Network Interface]
( , ATM).
UNIX [Trademark Name for AT&T Operating System Product (System V)
AT&T ( V).
URPC [Universal Remote Procedure Call] .
USS [United States Standard] .
UTP [Unshielded Twisted Pair] .
UUCP [Unix to Unix Copy Program] UnixUnix ( Internet
).

V
VAC [Value-Added Carrier] 1) ; 2) , .
VAN [Value-Added Network] .
VAT [Video Audio Teleconference] -, -, .
VCC [Virtual Channel Connection] .
VCI [Virtual Circuit Identifier] .
VDI [Video Device Interface] .
VDS [Virus Detection System] .
VDT [Visual Display Terminal] .
VESA [Video Electronics Standards (Suppliers) Association] 1) ( ); 2)
Intel.
VFS [Virtual File System] .
VIM [Vendr Independent Messaging] - ( ; , Lotus Development).
VIVID [Video, Voice, Image and Data] , ,
().

Copyright & A K-C

378

VLB [VESA Local Bus] VESA.


VLIW [Very Long Instruction Word] , ( ).
VLM [Virtual Loadable Module] .
VPL [Validated Products List] .
VPN [Virtual Private Network] .
VRS [Voice Recognition System] .
VTAM [Virtual Telecommunications Access Method] .

W
WABI [Windows Application Binary Interface]
Windows.
WAN [Wide-Area Network] .
WAND [Wide-Area Network Distribution]
.
WFS [Workflow Software]
().
WORM [Write-Once/Read-Many] ( ).
WWW [World-Wide Web] ( Internet).
WYSIWYG [What You See Is What You Get] , ( ).

X
XCOFF [Extended Common Object File Format]
.
XDP [External Data Presentation] .
XE [eXtended Edition] ( ).
XOR [eXclusive OR] .

Y
Y/N [Yes/No] ().

Z
ZIF [Zero Insertion Force] ().
ZIP [Zigzag-In-line Package] , .

Copyright & A K-C

1


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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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ISO 12207, ; CMM,


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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

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ISO/IEC 15288 CD2, ISO 15504 (SPICE), EIA/ANSI 632, EIA/IS 731
(SECM), TickIT:
 ISO/IEC 12207, Information technology Software life cycle processes.
1995;
 ISO/IEC TR 15271, Information technology Guide for ISO/IEC 12207.
1998. ( ISO/IEC 12207 , : ,
);
 EIA/ANSI 632, Processes for Engineering a System. 1999. ( , ISO/IEC 15288);
 EIA/IS-731, System Engineering Capability Model (SECM). 1999. Part 1,
SECM Model. Part 2, SECM Appraisal Method. ( ,
SW CMM SPICE, SE CMM
SECM);

Copyright & A K-C

412

ISO/IEC 15288 CD2, Life Cycle Management System Life Cycle Processes. 2000;
 ISO/IEC TR 15504, SPICE Software Process Improvement Capability
dEtermination. 1998 ( ).
34 ( ,
- ,
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SW (software engineering), , . ,

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(SE-).


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Copyright & A K-C

I.

1.

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.








1.7.

7
8
8
14
19
23
27
33
36

2. 38
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

3.

3.1.
3.2.
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3.4.

II.


4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

5.

5.1.

40
42
45
49
62

64
64
70
79
84

85
86
86
97
109
113

114
119

Copyright & A K-C

414
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.

6. -

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.

-
-
-
-

6.5.

7.

7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.

III.
8.
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.

8.4.

8.5.
8.6.

8.7.

IV.

9.

9.1.
9.1.1.
9.1.2.

123
127
138
141

142
144
147
150
153
158

160
160
164
173
179
181

183
184
189
191
196

204
207
211
219

221
222
226
227
230

Copyright & A K-C

415
9.1.3.

235

9.2. 237
9.2.1.
9.2.2.

9.2.3.

9.3.
9.3.1.

9.3.2.
9.3.3.
9.3.4.
9.3.5.
9.3.6.

242
245
251

252
257
266
273
279
284
288

290

292

296

297

356

1.

379

.1.1.

379

.1.2.

379

.1.2.1.

380

.1.2.2. 34

393

.1.2.3. ( )

397

.1.2.4.
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398

.1.3.

403

.1.4.

411

.1.5.

412