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Copyright & A K-C

Copyright & A K-C

Copyright & A K-C

RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT
Customers, Operations,
and Employees
Third Edition

Robert Christie Mill


School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management
Daniels College of Business
University of Denver

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

Copyright & A K-C



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2012

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[005:640.432](075.8)
65.431.14-2173-1
60
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3- . .: -, 2012. 535 . (
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ISBN 0-13-113690-9 (.)
ISBN 978-5-238-01589-7 (.)
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65.431.14-2173-1

ISBN 0-13-113690-9 (.)


ISBN 978-5-238-01589-7 (.)
Authorized translation from the English language edition, entitled RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT: CUSTOMERS,
OPERATIONS AND EMPLOYEES, 3rd Edition, ISBN 0131136909, by MILL, ROBERT CHRISTIE, published by
Pearson Education, Inc, publishing as Prentice Hall, Copyright 2007, 2001, 1998 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. Pearson Prentice Hall.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission from
Pearson Education, Inc. RUSSIAN language edition published by UNITY-DANA PUBLISHER, Copyright 2009.
RESTAURANT MANAGEMENT: CUSTOMERS, OPERATIONS
AND EMPLOYEES, 3- ., ISBN 0131136909 ,
Pearson Education Inc., Prentice Hall, Copyright 2007
by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. .
/ Pearson
Education Inc. -, 2009.
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New York Times, January 9, 2005.

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: Hickok, Allan F. and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, pp. 5455.



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Subway

Taco Bell

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Hospitality, July 2004, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 6871.

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10:

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18

, %

Applebees Neighborhood Bar & Grill

15

Chilis Grill & Bar

11

Outback Steakhouse

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Olive Garden


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29

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10

Sodexho Healthcare Services

Sodexho Campus Services

Sodexho Corporate Services

TOP100 19 . ; 733 . .
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26

Papa Johns Pizza

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13:

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22

IHOP/International House of Pancakes

19

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store

16

Bob Evans Restaurants

10

Waffle House

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20

,
10 697 , 1 . . 14:

, %

KFC

49

Chick-fil-A

17

Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits

13

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Boston Market


TOP100 , 4 .
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Marriott Hotels, Resorts, and Suites

22

Hilton Hotels

19

Sheraton Hotels

17

Holiday Inns

12

Radisson

11

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-/
TOP100 -/.
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. TOP100 -
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Golden Corral

51

Ryans Family Steak House

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Ponderosa Steakhouse

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.

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McDonalds .
, 32% . 30,3% - 27,3%.
: DataMonitor, Restaurant Industry Profile: Global, May 2004, pp.
118.

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2005 ., 1 :
In-n-Out Burger
Red Lobster Sweet
Tomatoes

/
Outback Steakhouse
Chipotle

Chik-fil-A
Cracker Barrel P.F. Changs China Bistro casu
al-
Jasons Deli
Starbucks /
Cold Stone Creamery Papa Murphys

Carrabbas Italian Grill .
: Cholewinski, Peter. Restaurant & Institutions. August 2005. http //
www.foodservice411.com/rimag/archives/2005/08c/chain-restaurants.asp?dt=1. 2005.



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.
10 20% , 36% 19.

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: Nations Restaurant News, October 9,
1995, p. 118.

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1.6
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: Sanson, Michael, The 90% Restaurant First-Year Failure Rate Is a
Myth, Restaurant Hospitality, November 2003, vol. 87, no. 11, p. 8. Walkup, Carolyn,
Newcomers Have No Reservations About Plans of Success, Nations Restaurant News,
August 12, 2002, vol. 36, no. 32, pp. 20, 103. Watson, Dave and Karousos, George,
The Failure Rate Is Bogus, Restaurant Hospitality, January 2004, vol. 88, no. 1, p. 10.

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) ( , )? ?

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75% - , .
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1.7
:
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(Henry Adaniya), Trio ( ), Trio Atelier.
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. .
: Editors, Trendinista, Restaurant Hospitality, September 2004, vol.
88, no. 9, p. 34. Walkup, Carolyn, Adaniya Loosens Up with Rebirth of Former
Fine-Dining Eatery, Nations Restaurant News: October 4, 2004, vol. 38, no. 40,
p. 28.

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, ,
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, , , . , , , , . , .
. 6.

1. Allan F. Hickok and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper
Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, p. 9.
2. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC:
National Restaurant Association, 2005), p. 2.
3. . NRA www.restaurant.org, .
4. National Restaurant Association, Tableservice Restaurant Trends, 2005 (Washington,
DC: national Restaurant Association, 2005), pp. 34.
5. Claire D. Schmelzer and James R. Lang, Networking and Information Sources of
Independent Restaurateurs, Hospitality Research Journal, vol. 14, no 2, 1990, pp.
327338.
6. Donald E. Lundberg, The Restaurant: From Concept to Operation (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1985), pp. 1822.
7. NRN Top 100, Nations Restaurant news, vol. 39, no. 26, June 27, 2005.
8. Ibid., . 152.
9. Ibid., . 98.
10. Ibid., . 106.
11. Ibid., . 114.
12. Ibid., . 118.
13. Ibid., . 132.
14. Ibid., . 140.
15. Ibid., . 150.
16. Francis A. Kwansa and H.G. Parsa, Business Failure Analysis, Hospitality Research
Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, 1990, pp. 2334.
17. Lewis J. Minor and Ronald F. Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management (Westport, CT:
AVI Publishing Company, 1984), pp. 1823.
18. Robert Christie Mill, Managing for Productivity in the Hospitality Industry (New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1898), p. 53.

Copyright & A K-C

33

19. Alan F. Hickok and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper
Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, pp. 67.
20. Ibid., p. 22.

-
National Restaurant Association
U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Nations Restaurant News
Food Franchise
Pizza Hut
Applebees Neighborhood Grill & Bar
McDonalds
Marriott Hotels

http://www.restaurant.org/
http://www.uschamber.com/
http://www.nrn.com/
http://www.foodfranchise.com/
http://www.pizzahut.com/
http://www.applebees.com/
http://www.mcdonalds.com/
http://www.marriott.com/


1.1 Ordinaire Ordinator , (.)
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World Class Patient Service,
.
, ,
, , ,
, .
Design Solutions Culinary
Solutions Healthcare Support Services
(
), .
Aramark , ,
.

35

Copyright & A K-C

36
/ . ,
, ,
(, , .). , .
: Berta, Dina, Hospital Corner: Flavorful Food the Rx for Success in
Health are Dining. Nations Restaurants News, vol. 37, no. 33, August 18, 2003,
pp. 66, 68.

.
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Copyright & A K-C

37

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Copyright & A K-C

38

, ,
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Copyright & A K-C

39

, ,
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.

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(early adopters) , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

40

, - -.
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)
, (urban pioneers) 1830- . , . , .

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. ,
.
, . . , .


/
-

: Journal of Business & Management, Summer 2003, vol. 9, issue 3, pp. 249, 22p.

. ,
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Copyright & A K-C

41

:
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) , , . .
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Copyright & A K-C

42


, , .
3:
10 . ;
6 . 65- ;
2010 . 65- 9 . ;

50 .
50 26% 1997 .
2012 .
, 2010 .
50 96,3 ., 2020 . 115,4 4. ,
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;
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55 , , : , , , .
, . ,

Copyright & A K-C

43

, .
,
.
. , ,
.
, .
, , .
,
. . ,
, ,
. , , ,
, .
NRA6,
, 81%
55 64 72% , 65 .
.
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7.
.
,
.
.
, .
, ,
.
. ,
. , NRA, . , , , .
. , ( )
. , .
.
.

Copyright & A K-C

44

, ,
.
, .
. , , , , , , , .
, , .
,
.
. . ,
NRA8 , 15% 50 , 18% , 28% 35% .

2.1
,
?
() 35%
() 59%
() 66%
() 72%
: National Restaurant Association, http://restaurant.org/research/find_glance.cfm,
November 5, 2005.

1990 .
2010 . 77 72%. 2020 . ,
35% 9.
2010 . 12%.

, .
; , ,
10.
. 2.1 ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

45

2.1 ,

: Grow with America: Best Practices in Ethnic Marketing and Merchandising, from The
Coca-Cola Retailing Council, Hobart advertising supplement to Nations Restaurant News,
2003.

1990- .
, ,
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, , ,
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, ), , .

,
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, -
.

, 11.
, .
, . . , , . -

Copyright & A K-C

46

, , , .
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, , 40%
, , . ,
, 30% .
( 25 )
, 25 , . . , , ,
. , -

Copyright & A K-C

47

, . , , , , 15. .
8 .;
. NRA, 40%
. ,
.

, ,
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, . ,
, ,
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,
. 90% 15 . 70% 25 . .
, , - . , Bob Evans Farms . , . ,
, , .
Hyatt Regency
Scottsdale.
. -
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, ,
, . ,
. , El Torito Express El Torito Restaurants
(, ) .
30 . . , Mia Cucina
*

. .
. .

Copyright & A K-C

48

( ) ,
.
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814,99 .
- , ,
.16

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-
.
, . ,
.
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, .
(Allan Hickock), U.S. Dancorp Piper Jaffray,
.
.
- Happy Meal. ,
. -
, . , ,
, .
, - .
, 77%
-.
, . .

Copyright & A K-C

49

-
,
. ,
( , ),
, , .
: Chilis Grill and Bar Outback Steakhouse , -. , , .
, - , .
: Allen, Robin Lee, Sonic Boomers: Those Babies Have a Loud Cry
That Restaurant Operators Must Heed Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 17,
p. 43.

. ,
, -?


, ,

, .

5,3 17. 1 , . 20 . , 2005 . 51% ,
, , 38% 12% 18.
, ( 4,6 3,8 ). , : 12,8% 8,5% .
,
. 2534 18 . ,
,
, 19.

Copyright & A K-C

50


33%
, , ,
.
: National Restaurant Association, http://www.restaurant.org/research/ind_glance.cfm. 5
2005 .

20

. , , , 10%
. 40% c 11 5 . 50%
5 11 ,
,
, .
21.
.
75% .
, ,
, ,
.
25% , ,
.
, , . , .
75% , , .

35 .
.
, .
, ( ).
/
, /.
:
, .

Copyright & A K-C

51

, NRA,
, , 22:

(English muffin)

(
,
)
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, )
/

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/

; 35 ; ;

; 35 49 ;

50 ; ;

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;
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;
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;
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; 50
50 ;

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, 23.
; ,
.
, . 20 , , .
42 .
, 60% ,
24.

. Bennigans, ,
:
15 , .
Bennigans, 99%- . Le Bernardin 32 .: ,
30 .
. , , ,

Copyright & A K-C

52

45 . .
.
, , . . , , . 20% , . 14% ,
, 25. .

2.4
1996, 2002
2005 .:
. NRA
1996, 2002
2005 . .
NRA, 1996 . .

,
, 31% ,
,
- , 35%.

5,34 .

4,1 .

, .


, .

, .

1824

.

65
.
2,5 2,3 .

75 . .
.

25 . .
4,1 ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

53

, ,
.
NRA, 2002 . .


2002 . 2%, 5,85 .


6%,
4%.


( ) 2%.

, 1%,
4%.

2002 .
2% 6%
;
2002 . .


2002 .
, ,
.

,
6%.

5%-
, 29,18 .

3% 7,44 .

2%, 4,42 11,16


.
: Ebbin, Robert, CREST 2002Spring-Quarter Report, Restaurants
USA, August 2002. Mills, Susan, The Daypart Difference, Restaurants USA,
May 1997. NEWS! National Restaurant Association Releases New Consumer
Study. http://www.foodnet.com/epr/sections/new/study.html (May 15, 2004).

. ?


, NRA26.
NRA 1996 .
, 27.

Copyright & A K-C

54

1.
.
/ .
, ,
, ,
, , .
, ( , ), . , ( ), . . , .
2. , .
, , ,
. , . , . , , , .
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( ) ;
; .
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.
; .
.
, (, ), . 2.228.
, :

Copyright & A K-C

55


-
/
(
10 .)
(
1020 .)
(
20 .)


/ //
/
/
/
- /

/
-

2.2 ,


/



/




/

3%

14%

17%

38%

55%

19%

12%

7%

3%

1%

10%
13%

18%
39%

28%
29%

43%
11%

38%
3%

37%
18%

10%
8%

9%
10%

2%
3%

2%
2%

10 .

1020
.

20 .

: National Restaurant Association, Dinner Decision Making (Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1996), pp. 4950.


,
, ,
,
, - Epicurious.com, ,
, .
: Epicurious releases list of 10 worst restaurant trends, September 2005,
http:/www.hotelmarketing.com/index.php/content/article/epicurious_releases_list_of_10_worst_
restaurant_trends/ (6 2005 .).

Copyright & A K-C

56

2.5
:
?
, ,
, , :
.
,
. - , , , .
? , .
. - Aumiller Yiungquist PC
.

,
. California Pizza Kitchen
( ) -
.

.
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- , .
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(, , , ..).
. ,
.
: Lohmeyer, Lori, Ambience, design Key to Attracting Consumers
Palates, Nations Restaurant News, October 4, 2004, vol. 38, issue 40, p. 68.

.
?

Copyright & A K-C

57

2005 . (2005 Restaurant Industry


Forecast) , :
, .
, 29.
-, - , , .

.
, , ,
.
.
,
, .
, , ,
, . ,
- , , . , ,
.
, . . , , 50 .
/
, .
, , NRA (Holiday Dining-2000).
. 30. .
, ,
, .

35 . ., , , . /
, . , . , 12
.

. 40% , 25% ,
. .

Copyright & A K-C

58

2.6
:
. , ,
.
(-) .
, , ,
.
-:
. Villa Bella ,
,
. .
,
.

, ,
.
,
, McDonalds Burger King.
,
, . Villa
Bella. , , ,
, , .
Villa Bella , , , , ,
. -
(), .
Villa Bella 300
3 10 . :
- ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, .
: Duecy, Erica, Babys Day Out: Restaurateurs Feed Children Care
Needs of Parents, Kids, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 46, November 17,
2003, pp. 4, 59.

. Villa Bella
?

Copyright & A K-C

59

. . , . , 35 . 20%
, . 18 24 .
. ,
- , .

1. Donna Oetzel, The New Breed of Market Researchers: Forecasting the Future of
Cool, Restaurants USA, June/July 2001, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
2. Allan F. Hickok and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp
Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, p. 19; National Restaurant Association,
2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 2005); National Restaurant Association, Tableservice Restaurant Trends, 2005
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 2005).
3. Hickok and Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, p. 47.
4. Jacquelyn Lynn, Silver Dollars: Operators Find That Serving Seniors Just Makes
Good Cents, Restaurants USA, November 2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
5. George Mochis, Carolyn Folkman Curasi, and Denny Bellenger, RestaurantsSelection of ature Consumers, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Quarterly, vol. 44, issue 4, August 2003, pp. 51+.
6. Lynn, Silver Dollars: Operators Find That Serving Seniors Just Makes Good Cents.
7. Ibid.
8. Ibid.
9. M. Pina, Profiling Ethnic Travelers, Travel Weekly, August 22, 1996, p. 3.
10. Hickok and Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, p. 9.
11. Susan Mills, A Cultural melting Pot, Restaurants USA, May 2000,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.
12. Ibid.
13. Ibid.
14. Robert Ebbin, Multipaycheck Households Spark Sales, Restaurants USA, April
1998, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
15. Suzanne Hall, Marketing to Children: Growing the Customers of Tomorrow, Restaurants USA, November 1999, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
16. Ibid.
17. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington,
D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 2005), p. 23.
18. John McPherson, Adrian Mitchell, and Mark Mitten, Speed It Up, Buddy: Overcoming Hurdles to Fast Casual a Quicker Way to Maximize Profits, Nations Restaurant News, vol.37, no. 32, pp. 2728.
19. Robert Ebbin, Americans Dining-Out Habits Restaurants USA, November 2000,
www.restaurants.org./rusa.
20. Susan
Mill,
Whats
for
Breakfast?
Restaurants
USA,
May
2002,
www.restaurants.org./rusa.
21. Ibid.

Copyright & A K-C

60

22. Ibid.
23. Sarah E. Smith, 1999 Lunch Study: Restaurateurs Put Food Back Into Lunch
Hour, Restaurants USA, October 1999, www.restaurants.org./rusa.
24. Karen Dybis, Restaurants Dangle Cheap Eats for the Lunch Crowd, The Detroit
News, November 6, 1999.
25. Smith, 1999 Lunch Study: Restaurateurs Put Food Back into Lunch Hour.
26. National Restaurant Association, Dinner Decision Making (Washington, D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 1996); National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 2005);
National Restaurant Association, Tableservice Restaurant Trends, 2005 (Washington,
D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 2005).
27. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington,
D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 2005), p. 11.
28. National Restaurant Association, Dinner Decision Making (Washington, D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 1996), pp. 67.
29. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington,
D.C.: National Restaurant Association, 2005), p. 25.
30. Robert Ebbin, Eating Out for the Holidays, Restaurants USA, October 2000,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.

-
Restaurant News Resource
Iconoculture, Inc.
Style Report (Lambesis Research Group)

http://restaurantnewsresource.com/
http://www.iconoculture.com/
http://www.lstylereport.com/


2.1 (a) ( ).
2.2 (b) 66%.

Copyright & A K-C

,
.
, ,
New York Yankees


, :
1
2 ,
,
3
4
5 ,

Copyright & A K-C

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3.1
:
,
,
. ,
.
.
, , , .
, , ,
, .
, McDonalds Corp., 30 .
, ( 20 ). ,
, McDonalds
12 .
20
, 70 ;
1,3 .
.
,
, , , .
, , , ,
-,
.
: Allen, Robin Lee, Serving Meals Just Isnt Enough Anymore as Industry Must Sandwich in Good Works Globally, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 47, November 24, 2003, p. 31.

. , ,
McDonalds, ( )?

Copyright & A K-C

63


(American Marketing Association, AMA) , , , , 1.
,
. , / , . () (), , . , .
(Robert Reid) ,
. 2:
(1) ;
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(3)
, .
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, , ; , , . , , ,
.
. ,
, . , ,
,
. :
, , . , ,
. ,
. : , .
. . , , , , . .

Copyright & A K-C

64

3.1
?
() 55%
(b) 62%
(c) 76%
: Hickok, Allan F. and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp
Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, p. 5455.


3.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .


: , . , .
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?
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), , 4:
(1) : ;

Copyright & A K-C

65

(2) : ;
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, .

Copyright & A K-C

66

3.2

. .
,
.
.
, , .
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() .

, , ,
SWOT- ( , ) .
, , ( ), , ( ).

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.

,

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?
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Copyright & A K-C

67


,
, . .
,
.
, , .


.
: Berry, Tim, and Wilson, Doug The Essential Ingredients of an Effective Marketing Plan, http://marketingsurvivalkit.com/marketing-plan-tips.htm (May
26, 2004). Manktelow, James, Understanding Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities
and Threats. SWOT Analysis, www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.htm
(May 26, 2004).

. , ?

. :
,
. 5:
;
;
;
;
;
;
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. ,
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,
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. .
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: . -

Copyright & A K-C

68

,
, , , .
, ,
.
. , 80% , 3 .
/
.
, ,
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-.
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Copyright & A K-C

69

;
;
happy hour ( ).
,
. , .
, ,
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?
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(1) ;
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, .
, . 7:
(1) , , ;
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;
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.

Copyright & A K-C

70


: , ,
; -, .
. , , .
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. , , , ,
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, , 1518- .
,
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3755 , , , , ,
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, , , .
-,
-

Copyright & A K-C

71

. , , - . ,
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.
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20% . , ,
.
Simmons Market Research Bureau, Inc. : (, , , ), (,
), () ( ), ( 13 )
( 14 ). 44,8% ;
40,8% 14,8%.
100, 522, ,
, ,
5,22 .10

, . (.
. 2), ,
:
(1) ;
(2) ;

Copyright & A K-C

72

(3) ;
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.

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Copyright & A K-C


?
(,
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,




,

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73

( )


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(Restaurant Activity Index, RAI * )

RAI
.
, (
) (
). 100. RAI 100, ,
, . . .

Copyright & A K-C

74


(Restaurant Growth Index, RGI*)


: Michigan State University Extension, Restaurant Market Analysis


http://www.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modtd/33702004.html (May 12, 2004).

.
?
* Restaurant Growth Index
. .
. 100. . .

,
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Copyright & A K-C

75

. ,
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.

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. , , ..
(..
) .

Copyright & A K-C

76

3.2
2003 . _________ .
() 1700 .
(b) 1955 .
(c) 2145 .
(d) 2211 .
: National Restaurant Association, http://www.restaurant.org/pdfs/research/2005factsheet.pdf,
November 5, 2005.

() . : , . ,

: ,
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,

Copyright & A K-C

77

, ,

: 1 ( ) 5 (). ,
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) 5 ( ).
(. . 3.1).

. 3.1

, 20 , ;
.
. , 1,
, , , . , , ,
, :
(A);
(E);
(I);
(J);
(M).
2 , , , , :
, (D);
, (F);

Copyright & A K-C

78

(P);
, (S);
(T).
3 4 , , 3 , , , . , 4, , .
3 :
(B);
(G);
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Copyright & A K-C

79

. , , , , , . , , . , , , - . , , .
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Copyright & A K-C

80

, , , ,
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.

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Copyright & A K-C

81

,
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Price, Promotion, Place). .
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.

Copyright & A K-C

82

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Copyright & A K-C

83

,
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Copyright & A K-C

84

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Copyright & A K-C

85

-,
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45% 25 34 ,
.
: National Restaurant Association, http:// www.restaurant.org/research/ind_glance.cfm,
5 2005 .

Copyright & A K-C

86

3.4
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24- ,
.
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2010, Nations Restaurant News, July 19, 1999, vol. 33, no 29, p. 16.

.
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Copyright & A K-C

87


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Copyright & A K-C

88

. ? ? ?
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? , : (1) (2)
.

3.5
:
,
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15 .
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Embassy, 16 . ?
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. , , , .
Chinese Kitchen, 16 , Abuelos, .
, - , ,
. , ,
.
Abuelos
14- Bank of America
, , Food Concepts
International Holding, Inc., Abuelos.
: Duecy, Erica, Abuelos Young Ready to Add onto Chains UpscaleCasual Family, Nations Restaurant News; February 16, 2004, vol. 38, issue 7, p. 14.

.
. , . ?

Copyright & A K-C

89

3.6
:
, ? , - Little Caesars Enterprises
(Mike Sczuggs).
,
, ,
, . , , . , . - ,
,
, . ,
.
, , Little
Caesars , . , .
, , , .
, , , . Little Caesars
, .
Little Caesars, .
: 2003 . 15,5%! -
.
: Garber, Amy, Pizza Players Eye New Products, Demographics to
Increase Sales, Nations Restaurant News, September 8, 2003, vol. 37, issue 36, p. 4.

.
?

1. AMA Board Approves New Marketing Definition, Marketing News, March 1, 1985,
p. 1.
2. Robert D. Reid, Hospitality Marketing Management, 2nd ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 8.

Copyright & A K-C

90

3. James R. Abbey, Hospitality Sales and Advertising (East Lansing, MI: Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, 1989), p. 34.
4. Tom Feltenstein, Foodservice Marketing for the 90s (New York: John Wiley & Sons,
1992), pp. 5154.
5. Ibid., . 29.
6. Ibid., . 23.
7. Abbey, Hospitality Sales and Advertising, p. 37.
8. National Restaurant Association, The Business of Keeping Baby Boomers Happy,
Restaurants USA, December 2001, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
9. Ibid.
10. Eric N. Berkowitz, Roger A. Kerin, Steven W. Hartley, and William Rudelius,
Marketing, 3rd ed. (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1992), p. 204.
11. Abbey, Hospitality Sales and Advertising, p. 20.
12. Robert C. Lewis and Richard E. Chambers, Marketing Leadership in Hospitality:
Foundations and Practices (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 327.
13. Ibid., . 354.

-
American Marketing Association
Simmons Market Research Bureau.
Nations Restaurant News
U.S. Census Bureau

http://www.marketingpower.com/
http://www.smrb.com/
http://www.nrn.com/
http://www.census.gov


3.1 (c) 76%.
3.2 (d) 2211 .

Copyright & A K-C

- ,
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PR-

Copyright & A K-C

92

4.1
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.
Noodles & Company ,
Aerios Direct:
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45 . .), . ,
Noodles 20% () . , , , , .
: Garber Amy, Online Order Centers Save Advertising, Promotion
Time, Nations Restaurant News, June 14, 2004, vol. 38, issue 24, p. 90.

. , Noodles & Company,


90 , ?



,

. .

Copyright & A K-C

93

,
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()

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: Robert Christie Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, The Tourism System:
An Introductory Text, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 448.

Copyright & A K-C

94


. .
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Copyright & A K-C

95

, (smart), .. SMART
(Specific), (Measurable), (Achievable), (Realistic) (Timebound). , .
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Copyright & A K-C

96

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Copyright & A K-C

97

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. .
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, , 10%-
, . , - ,
. , .
: Spielberg, Susan, Ryans Get More Upscale with New Look, Name,
Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38, . 7, February 16, 2004, p. 4.

. , , ? ?

Copyright & A K-C

98


, ,
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:
(Mathew Tivvy) .
Metro Diet , . Metro Diet ,

. , ,
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?
: Lohmeyer, Lori, Mathew Tivvy: Tipping the Scales in Favor of Good
Health, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38, no. 1, January 5, 2004, p. 24.

.
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(tent-card) , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

99


NRA3, , , ,
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Copyright & A K-C

100

,
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Copyright & A K-C

101

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Copyright & A K-C

102

4.1
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: Hickok, Allan F. and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, pp. 5455.

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Copyright & A K-C

103

,
.

4.4
:
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Lobster, ,
. Red Lobster ,
. , ,
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. ,

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. ( .) Red Lobster ,
? Red Lobster
, ,
?
: Cebrzynski, Gregg, Red Lobster May Not Be a Tired Brand, but It
Looks Sleepy, Nations Restaurant News, 38, no. 1, January 5, 2004, p. 14.

. , Red
Lobster
? , .

Copyright & A K-C

104

,
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Copyright & A K-C

105

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Copyright & A K-C

106

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Copyright & A K-C

107

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Copyright & A K-C

108

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Takeout Taxi (1987 .) . , , , . , , ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

109


, , , 2030% . , , , , -, web-
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4.2
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(b) Have it your way ( -)
(c) Finger Lickin Good ( , )
(d) You Deserve a Break Today ( )
(e) Pizza! Pizza!


(Jellow Pages). ,
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. .

Copyright & A K-C

110

,
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Copyright & A K-C

111

. , ,
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Copyright & A K-C

112

-, .
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).
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P.S., .
, , .

Copyright & A K-C

113

4.5

. . .
Buffalo Wild Wings Grill & Bar
Finger
Foods * 2004 .
,
200 , Periscope Marketing Communications. 8 . 2004 .
, .
, Buffalo


March Madness, NCAA ( ), NBA
( ).
, , , - , Buffalo. ,
.
: Cebrzynski, Gregg, Buffalo Wild Wings Puts the Finger on New
Promo, Preps TV Spots, Nations Restaurant News, March 10, 2004, p. 14.

. Buffalo Wild
Wings
? Buffalo
? **

* , ,
, , .. . .
** Buffalo Wild Wings . ,
, 2004 . 200 , 2008 .
500- . .

Copyright & A K-C

114


. web-9 ( )
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. ,

Copyright & A K-C

115

Dining Privileges
Visa Signature , 11. () . ,
.
15 30% ( ). , ,
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. ,
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2 60 .
, . Fishbowl .



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Copyright & A K-C

116

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13.
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Copyright & A K-C

117

, , . , , , 14.

:
(Jay Solomon),
,
.

1990- Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises (LEYE) .


. . LEYE , . LEYE , , ,
. LEYE 25 . : . . -

Copyright & A K-C

118

( 40), LEYE , , 15.


- McDonalds - 19 25 .
15%- 5 .
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Copyright & A K-C

119

. , 20%- 16.
:
,
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4.3
1888 . ,
,
.
, . ?
: Allan F. and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper
Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, pp. 5455.


, , , .
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Copyright & A K-C

120

, .
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Copyright & A K-C

121

. , .
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).
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3,5 ., ,
39%. 15%,
5 1%.
39 + 15 + 5 + 1 = 60% . 100
40%. 350 .,
, ( ),
350 . 40% (.. 0,4), 875 .
: 875 . 525 . (60% 875 .).
875 . 525 . 350 ., .. . -

Copyright & A K-C

122

875 . , 875 .
. , 1200 .
, , 60% , .. 720 . , , 350 .,
370 .

4.6

. : PR-.
, spongemonkeys?
, .
,
- , ,
,
2004 . ,
. , The Martin Agency of Richmond ( ),

Quiznos. -
,
subs , Quiznos. ,
. : , ?
! , Quiznos
. ,
,
.
Quiznos , . , ,
? . , , , , . !
: Cebrzynski, Gregg, Love Em of Hate Em, Creatures Sing for
Quizons Subs, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38, no. 9, March 1, 2004, p. 14.

. ,
spongemonkeys?
?

Copyright & A K-C

123

A
,
.
,
,
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18.
Visual Deal,
.
30 .,
19.
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. , , !
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Copyright & A K-C

124

, .
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Copyright & A K-C

125

,
.

4.4
Burger King?
() Insta-Burger-King
() Burgers Your Way
() Burgers on the Go
: Hickok, Allan F., and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, pp. 5455.

PR
PR ,
.
, , -
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, : , ,
. :
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.
, Dallas
Cowboys
(Bill Parcells), ,
Big Tuna ( ).
(
16 22 )
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, .
. ,
. PR-
, , , , , 21.
,
, ( ?)
, . , , ,

Copyright & A K-C

126

doggie bags. 60% doggie bags,


22. ,
, , . ,
Gladstones Malibu , , ( , , 120 . !), , (, , , ). , 40 . Fork Restaurant .
Doggie bags ,
. , .
,
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). doggie bag .

( )
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, .

Copyright & A K-C

127

,
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.

PR-
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(media kit) , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

128

/ ;
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.

PR- PR - ,
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Copyright & A K-C

129

. PR-
, .

4.7
:
? (Koren Grieveson).
Avec . Avec
, , . ,

, ! ,
, .
, ,
, , . ,
, . , - Blackbird.
, : , .
, ,
, .
Avec, , .
,
. , , , , . - , , .
, ,
.
: Garber, Amy, Avec, Chicago, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38,
no. 15, April 12, 2004, p. 38.

. ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

130

PR- . , ,
.
, , , .
, . , - . :
;
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;
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PR- :
? , , : , ,
, , PR-
.

1. T.F. Chiffriller, Successful Restaurant Operation (Boston: CBI Publishing Company,


1982), p.278.
2. National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry Operations Report, 2004
(Washington, DC: Deloitte & Touche and the National Restaurant Association,
2005), pp. 29, 57, 85, 113.
3. National Restaurant Association, Drawing Diners to Your Door, Restaurants USA,
May 1998, pp. 4143.
4. Robert D. Reid, Hospitality Marketing Management, 2nd ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), pp. 284286.
5. Ibid., . 233.
6. Sherri van Saxon, How to Market Your Restaurant (Washington, D.C., National
Restaurant Association, undated), p. 11.
7. Amy Spector, Menu Marketers Deliver Dinner, Incremental Sales, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 154.
8. James R. Abbey, Hospitality Sales and Advertising (East Lansing, MI: Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, 1989), pp. 336337.
9. Philip M. Perry, Honing Your Home Page, Restaurants USA, September 1997,
pp. 2125.
10. Lori Loymeyer, Feeding Stories To Press Creates Feast Of Free Publicity, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 160.
11. Alan J. Liddle, Using Web for Discounting Clicks with Digital Diners, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 172.
12. Amy Garber, Redeeming Factor: Coupons Shout Value, Boost Traffic, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 138.
13. Ibid., . 138.

Copyright & A K-C

131

14. Ibid., . 138.


15. Paul Frumkin, Frequent-Guest Clubs Multiply Sales with Loyal-Diner Rewards,
Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 142.
16. Amy Spector, Menu Marketers Deliver Dinner, Incremental Sales, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 132.
17. Tom Feltenstein, Foodservice Marketing for the 90s (New York: John Wiley & Sons,
1992), pp. 101102.
18. Mark Hanstra, War College Drills Operators in Underdog Marketing, Nations
Restaurant News, October 13, 1997.
19. Spector, Menu Marketers Deliver Dinner, Incremental Sales.
20. Alastair M. Morrison, Hospitality and Travel Marketing (Albany, NY: Delmar
Publishers, 1989), p. 420.
21. Lori Loymeyer, Operators Drive Traffic Via Information Superhighway, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 20, May 19, 2003, p. 137.
22. Marnie Roberts, The Art of Packaging Leftovers, Restaurants USA, August 2001,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.
23. Alastair M. Morrison, Hospitality and Travel Marketing (Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers, 1989), pp. 429440.

-
Quantified Marketing Group
Takeout Taxi Meal Delivery.
Restaurant Loyalty Program
Hard Rock Cafe

http://www.restaurant-public-relations.com/
http://www.quantifiedmarketing.com/
http://www.takeout-taxi.com/
http://www.edining.us/restaurant_loyalty_programs.html
http://www.hardrock.com/


4.1 (Wimpy burger).
4.2 () Wendys; () Burger King; () Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC); ()
McDonalds; () Caesars Pizza.
4.3 (Salisbury steak ).
4.4 () Insta-Burger-King ( 1957 .).

Copyright & A K-C

- , .
.
,

, :
1
,
2

3

4

5

6

7
, ,

Copyright & A K-C

5.1
:
, : table dhte ( ), ,
, la carte ( ), . ,
. ,
table dhte 20 (.. ).
-
20 ! la carte 60 . table dhte

, ,
. , ,
.
,
.
table dhte . ,
,
. ,
.
table dhte
. , , . ,
, , , , .
, ,
- ? , , .

. , , table dhte,
, .
la carte. .
, . ( ), ,
, , . table dhte : 17 .,
, , 12 .
la carte ,
17 .
, . , ,
.

133

Copyright & A K-C

134

la carte . ,
.
, ,
.

. , ,
. , table dhte, , ,
. ,
,
, semi- la
carte ( la carte). , , . la carte, table dhte,
.. , , , . ,
!
, .
: Types of Menus, Food Service Operations Fundamentals,
http://www.unlv.edu/depts/foodbeverage/fsofmenutypes.html (May 15, 2004).

. , table dhte?


, . . -, , , , . ,
. -,
.
. , , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

135


NRA 2005 . ,
1.

,
, ;
.
.
,
, .
.
, ,
, , .
, , , , .
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
( ,
):
( ) 44%;
( ) 40%;
( ) 28%;
( , , ) 27%;
( ) 26%;
25%.

,
, .
, ,
. ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

136

5.2

. , . .
2001 . ,
, ,
.
, .
, , ,
. .


,
.

Menu Education and Labeling Act .
, , 20 , , ,
.

. ,
-,
.
, , , . ,
1990 . (Nutritional Labeling and Education
Act), . , -, , -, .
, . ,
, ?
- ! ?
. ,
, -?

Copyright & A K-C

137


. .

, ?
- ,
?
, ,
!
, , !
, , . , ,
,
. : , ,
,

,
.
: Koteff, Ellen, Too Much Information: Mandated Menu Labeling Not
Healthful for Consumers or the Food Industry, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37,
no. 46, November 7, 2003, p. 21.

. ,
, .


,
.
2:
(1) / ;
(2) ;
(3) .
/ ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, , , , , , , .

Copyright & A K-C

138

5.3


. .
,
.
, KFC, Burger King, Wendys, McDonalds,
El Pollo Loco Carls Jr. Recently,
.

, ,
, , ,

, ,
. , Consulting, Inc. , ,
.

Wendys

Garden Sensations.
Wendys,
.
, 1880 Jack in the Box, ,
,
.
, .
: Lohmeyer, Lori, Fast Feeders Seek to Raise Bar, Toss around Salad
Ideas, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 16, April 21, 2003, p. 1.

. ,
. ?

.
- ,
, , ,
, .
,

Copyright & A K-C

139

. , , .

, . ,
, . , , , , ,
, . , , , , ,
, . , , . , (. . 4).
, ,
, .
/
:
3. ,
.
.
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,

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, , ,
( ) .

, , , . ,
.
, ,
, ,
. , ..
, ,
.
.
, ,
. , - 12 .
120 1440 . .
10% 10,80 . ,
, 134 (10,80 134 = 1227,20 .).
,

Copyright & A K-C

140

10% , , 11,7% ((134 120)/120 100 = 11,7%).


, . , . ,
,
, . , , , .
,
, . .
,
, ,
.
. , , , . ,
, .


. ,
.


Organic Trade Association ( , ), * , 2005 . 14 .,
. , 39% . Organic Monitor, 2002 .
23 .
: Orgainc Trade Association, http://ota.com/mt.html.
2 2005.

, ,
. , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

141


, , . , , . .



. . ,
( ,
) ,
, (
):
= ,

=
=

100

. , .
, ,
.

100. , ,
30% ( 2834% ).
100/30 = 3,33.

, . ,
,
5,25 .
5,25 3,33 = 17,50 .

, .
5,25 ., , ,
30% , :
5,25/30%, .. (5,25/30) 100 = 17,50 .

Copyright & A K-C

142

, .
, , . ,
. , . , , , , :

,
.


,
.

,
.

,
.

2,25

0,75

3,00

3,333

7,50

1,10

1,90

3,00

3,333

3,67

3 .,
, . ,
, , .



, . ,
.
, .. ,
100 .
, .
, , , 3 .; ,
(50%), 100/50 = 2 ( ).
: 3 2 = 6 .
, ,
.
, ,
, 100.
, , . , 30 15
, 20 30 . ,

Copyright & A K-C

143

12 ., 8 . 5 .,
30
12/4 + 8/3 + 5/3 = 7, 16 .

,
23,9 (7,16/30).


. , , .
, .
. : , . .
,
, 10 ,
, 11 20 , , 20 . ( )
. , , 3145 ., 2 . ,
500 , 800, 700 .
,
1 : 2 : 3, ..
, ,
, ,
()
700 + 2(800) + 3(500) = 3145 .;
700 + 1600 + 1500 = 3145 .;
3800 = 3145 .;
= 0,83 .

,
83 , , , 1,66 .,
, , 2,49 .
:
, ,
, . ,

, . ( - , .)

,

,
,

Copyright & A K-C

144

, . (actual pricing).
,
. , ,
. .
.
.
( ). , 15%. 15
100 ( )
. , 9,5 .
:
=

9,5
= 11,18 .
(100 15)%

,
, ,
. , , , . , :
, , ,
.
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,
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. , .


,
,
.
, .
, .
,
800 . ., 30%,
240 . ., 120 . .
:
=

( )
=

(800 000 240 000)
=
= 4, 67 .
120 000

Copyright & A K-C

145


.
, , ,
. , ,
, , -, , , . .


: , ,
. , , ,
( ). , .
, , 15%, 30%,
20%.
15 + 30 + 20 = 65%. 35% (100 65)
. 12 ., , , 4,2 . (12 . 35).
() ,
, .
()
33%, , ,
3,96 . (12 . 33%). ,
, . , ,
.


()

, . , 600 .
., 180 . (30% ),
( ) 150 . .
(25% ), 15%, ;
600,000 (180,000 + 150,000 + 90,000) = 180,000;
100 (30 + 25+ 15) = 30%.

Copyright & A K-C

146

30%,
, 100 . 3,333. .

. 4:


()

-
a la carte

2050
1040
100500
1025
2550
1020
1020
1040
1535


()
, , . , ;
. ,
, ,
. , , . ,
.
. , , ,
( ),
() .
, , . , .


(, ), ,
. ,
, , .

Copyright & A K-C

147

. 5.1 , . , ,
. , . , .
5.1 ,

( )

,
.

,
.

( )

,
,
.
.
6,95
4,52

10,04

6,53

10,67

7,16

8,79

6,36

8,28

4,77

7,96

5,53

8,16

4,65

7,08

4,65

9,86

6,35

6,83

4,40

: Robert D. Reid, Foodservice and Restaurant Marketing (Boston: CBI Publishing Company,
1983), p.229.



. , .
, .
,
(.. ),
. ,
. ,
,
( ).
, : .
, .
,
25%. ,
. ,
, .
: ,

Copyright & A K-C

148

, . , ,
.
, . a la carte, .. . . , . , - . , , . ,
.
( ) ,
.
, , , . , , - .
- .


5.

.
( ). .
, ,
, , . ,
, .
, ,
, .
.
a la carte. , , ,
, . , . , . ,
, . , ,
. , . a la carte
, ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

149

table dhte . . , , , .
.
, , , , . , .
, .
, .
. .
,
, ,
, .

5.4
?
.
. .

.
I

1. ..............................................................................6,95


2. ...............................................................................................4,25

3. - ....................................................6,95

4. ..........................................................................4,95
( ).


1. ............................................................................................2,25

2. ....................................................4,25
, ,
3. - ........................................3,25
4. Larb Kai ...................................................................................6,95

Copyright & A K-C

150


1. .............................................................0,95

2. .................................................................14,95


3. Choo-Chi ........................... 12,95

4. ............................................................... 11,95
-

II
20,03 . , ,
, .



- ()




, -

-



: All Asia Asian Cuisine & Bar,
http://web.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/w/c/wchuang/www/menus/menus/All_Asia.txt
(September 10, 2001). LEcole-Prix Fixe Lunch Menu,
http://www.frenchculinary.com/subpages/ecole/prix_fixe.html (May 15, 2004).

. ?
?

Copyright & A K-C

151


, () , .


,
, .
.
.
(..
), . .



, . , 68 .; 810 ., 1012 .
,
, .. , . , . , ,
,
. ,

, .


( ) , .
, .

, . . 5.2
.
() .
, , . :
(285) (450).
63%.

Copyright & A K-C

152
5.2
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

, .

,
%

(2) (3),
.

.
(4) (5)

65
75
90
55
285

9,95
11,95
10,25
12,95

30
38
31
45

(7) :
(8) :
(9) :
(10) :
(11) :
(12) :
(13) :

646,75
896,25
922,50
712,25
3177,75
(5) : (2)
(5) (6)
(8) : (5)
(7) (9)
(2) : (11)
(10) (12)

194,03
340,58
285,98
320,51
1141,10
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

11,15 .
2036,65 .
64%
7,15 .
450
63%
4,5

: : James Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations,


2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 6162.


.
. , 75 , 11,95 ., , 896,25 . 3177,75 ., 285 . : 3177,75 : 285 = 11,15 .

.
.

. .
3177,75 .

, . , 646,75 ., 30%. 194,03 . -

Copyright & A K-C

153


. ,
1141,10 .
: 3177,75 1141,10 = 2036,65.
. 64%. ,
64% , .. 11,15 ., 7,14 .
: (7,14 .),
( ). ,
, 63%. 4,5 . ? - , , ,
, .. .

5.1

?
() *
(b)
()
: Hickok, Allan F. and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S.
Bancorp Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, p. 5455.



,
.
, (.. )
.
. 5.3 . 5.1.
, . . ,
, 7090% . ,
*

(1920-): , , , , , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

154

10 , 10% . ,
79%,
. 80% .
5.3
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)


,
.

,
%


,
.
(4) (5)

65
75
90
55
285

9,95
11,95
10,25
12,95

30
38
31
45

646,75
896,25
922,50
712,25
3177,75

(7) :
(8) :
(9) :

(2) (3),
.

194,03
340,58
285,98
320,51
1141,10

(6) : (5)
(5) (6)
(8) : (2)

= 36,93%
= 2004,32 .
= 7,03 .
(5) (6)
(10) :
2
646, 75 226, 36
:
= 6,47 .
65
896, 25 340, 58
:
= 7,41 .
75
922, 50 285, 98
:
= 7,07 .
90
712, 75 320, 51
= 7,13 .
:
55
(11) () :
80% :
(100 : 4) 80% = 20%.
(12) :
(:)
:
65 : 285 = 22,8%
:
75 : 285 = 26,3%
:
90 : 285 = 31,6%
:
55 : 285 = 19,3%
: James Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations,
2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 6162.

Copyright & A K-C

155


(. . 5.1). , , .
, , , .

. ,
( ).
- , . ,
.
. , ,

. , , ,
. , ( ). , ,
. , , , , . , () .
100%

(7,03/31,6%)
*

(6,47/22,8%)

(7,41/26,3%)

20%
*
(7,12/19,3%)

7,03
, .

. 5.1

Copyright & A K-C

156

5.5
:
Roys, (Roy Yamaguchi), ,
(prix-fixe) 30 . - Roys, , . ,
, .
,
.
, Roys. - .
, , Roys. ,
,
.
Roys,
,
,
, , ,
.
, -,
,
-. ,
prix-fixe , Roys
,
.
,
.
: Lohmeyer, Lori, Roys Focuses on Favourites in Rollout of New
Prix-Fixe Menu, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 21, p. 76. Labenskey, R.
Sarah, and Hause, M. Alan, On Cooking. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,
2003).

. . , , ?

,
, -

Copyright & A K-C

157

6. .
, - / ; , . , .
, , , .


, , , 7. , , . , .
210%8.
,
, , ,
. ,
.


, ,
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.
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.


, . ,
, , , , , . ,
, (
..). ,
. , , , , . ,
, . , , ,
. -

Copyright & A K-C

158

, , , , . , , ,
. , , .. . . ,
, , . , . , .
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.
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. ,
.
,
, -

Copyright & A K-C

159

.
, .
, .

. ,
.
(. 5.2).
, (. 5.3).

. 5.2

. 5.3

Copyright & A K-C

160

, ,
, , ,
, , ,
,
, .
, , (. 5.4).

. 5.4

, ,
, . ,
, , ,
. , , , .
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.
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, ,
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Copyright & A K-C

161

16 . 21 .9! :
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,
, .


, .
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, .
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. . , ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
, . , . ,

Copyright & A K-C

162

. , (), ,
. ,
, , .
,

. .
15%-
, .
, . , , ,
. , . , , . ,
. , .
, . , , Healthmark,
.
, , . : , , .
NRA, , ,
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, ,
,
,



()



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,

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(-, )

( )

. 2, NRA , : (1) , ,
(2) , , (3) ,

Copyright & A K-C

163

(4) . ,
. ,
.
, , , , , , , , ,
. , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , . , , , , , , , , . , ,
/, -, , ,
, , , , .

5.2
Harvard Faculty Club (,
)
() 1783 .
(b) 1883 .
() 1983 .
: Wall Street Journal, September 21, 2005, p. A8.


(, ),
, .
, 12.
, Roman,
modern script ( ).
Roman
. Modern , ,
.
script, , . , , , .
, , , . , . , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

164

, ,
, .
.
, .
,
.
. , , , , .
, ,
. , , .


, , , (
). 11.
(1) ?
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,
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:

()

. :

, .
, . , .


,
,
-

Copyright & A K-C

165

, , , ,
, .
. .



, . .
,
5 9 . ,
- 11,99 ., 12 .
1 , , , -. ,
, . ,
- Macys
( ), . , - 2,99 .,
. , 1
. 3 .,
. ,
,
. .
, . ,
2529 2933 . : 2, , , , 3 .
, . , 9,95 . 10,25 . , 9,25 . 9,55 .,
30 .
. .
. , , . , . : 9,45 9,85
9,85 10,25. !

Copyright & A K-C

166

5.6
,
. . ,
,
.

,
. , , ,
! , ,
, .
, . , : , . ,
.
,
.
.
,
, 50 95 .
11,95 .
12 .,
. ,

, , , . ,
Feltenstein Partners (-,
),
,
, -
. ,
, ,
.
: Arnoult, Emily, Designing Menus That Sell, Restaurants USA, May
1998.

. ,
, table dhte.

Copyright & A K-C

167


.
. , :
.
, , , . , , :

, .
, , ,
, , . :

12,99 .

15,99 .

17,99 .

16,99 .

, , . ,
.
. ,
, ?

,

12,99 .

,
15,99 .



19,99 .
-

- 16,99 .


, , ( ). -

Copyright & A K-C

168

, , , . ,
.


.
. :
, .
.
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, .
,
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. - ,
.
,
, , , . , , . ,
,
.


. , ,

Copyright & A K-C

169

, .
. , (, , ).
, , ,
( , ).
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
. , , .. . , .
: , . , .
,
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.
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,
, ,
. , , 12.

5.7
:
,
. , ,
, , ? Chi-Chi.
,
, , . , 25
. Chi-Chi
, , , ,
, , .

Copyright & A K-C

170


, ,
, . , Bill Main and Associates, ,
. , . , , , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
,
. , , , . . ,
. , , ,
. ,
, .
, Miller Resource Group (, ),
, .
,
, . , ,
,
.

, - . , , .
.
.
,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
, :
.
Hospitality Works ,
,
.

Copyright & A K-C

171

, ,
, , , ,
, . , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, .
- , , ,
, Levy Restaurants,
, , , , , .
,
.
. , , ($),
, .
,
,
. , , ,
, ,
, .
: Panitz, Beth, Reading Between the Lines: The Psychology of Menu
Design, Restaurants USA, August 2000. Arnoult, Emily, Designing Menus That
Sell, Restaurants USA, May 1998.

.
?

1. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC:


National Restaurant Association, 2005).
2. Robert D. Reid, Foodservice and Restaurant Marketing (Boston: CBI Publishing
Company, 1983), pp. 207209.
3. Ibid., . 204206.

Copyright & A K-C

172

4. James Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations, 2nd ed. (New
York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), p.56; Reid, Foodservice and Restaurant
Marketing, p. 228.
5. Keiser, pp. 4950.
6. Bradley Beran, Menu Sales Mix Analysis Revisted: An Economic Approach,
Hospitality Research Journal, vol. 18, no 3, vol. 19, no. 1, 1995, pp. 125142.
7. Albin G. Seaberg, Menu Design: Merchandising and Marketing 4th ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1991), p. vii.
8. Beth Panitz, Reading Between the Lines: The Psychology of Menu Design
Restaurants USA, August 2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
9. Ibid.
10. National Restaurant Association, 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC:
National Restaurant Association, 2005), p. 2.
11. Seaberg, Menu Design, p. 207.
12. Panitz, Reading Between the Lines: The Psychology of Menu Design.

-
Boxer Brand Menu Covers
Restaurant Costing Software

http://www.boxerbrand.com/
http://www.restaurantcosting.com


5.1 () .
5.2 (b) 1983 .

Copyright & A K-C

, ,
,
.
[ ] (18321889),
, ,


, :
1 ,

2 ,
3 , - ,
4

5
6 ,

Copyright & A K-C

174

6.1
: Fogo de Cho !
,
. ,
,
- , ,
, , ,
. ,
1979 . Fogo de Co.

, churrascaria:
, , , ,
. 30 .,
- 30
.
. -
, , espeto corridor .

. ,
,
,
. , ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , . , ?
1996 .
. Fogo de Co .
, .
. , Fogo de Co .
, , .

Copyright & A K-C

175

.
Fogo de Co , , .

.
.
: Thorn, Bret, Fogo de Co: Brazilian Churrascaria Records Beefy Sales with
Style, Consistency, and Service, www.nrnhotconcepts.com/2003_winners/fogo.cfm, April
14, 2004.

.
?


(.. ) .
, , .


, ,
, 1. , .
. , , (,
). ,
, , . , .
. , ,
. . - , , , , ,
, .
-.
. ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

176

. . , , , , , , ,
. . , , , , ,
,
.
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193


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News, vol. 36, no. 35, pp. 26, 28, September 2, 2002.

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vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 3840, January 26, 2004.

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1. Stanley C. Hollander, A Historical Perspective on the Service Encounter,


John A. Czepiel, Michael R. Solomon, and carol F. Surprenant (eds.), The Service
Encounter: Managing Employee/Customer Interaction in Service Businesses (Lexington,
MA: DC Health and Company, 1985), pp. 4853.
2. Rolling Our the Red Carpet: Restaurants Service Rates High with Diners,
Restaurants USA, August 1997, pp. 3941.
3. Jody D. Nyquist, Mary J. Bitner, and Bernard H. Booms, Identifying
Communication Difficulties in the Service Encounter: A Critical Incident Approach,
Czepiel et al., The Service Encounter, pp. 113123.
4. Robert Reid, Foodservice and Restaurant Marketing (Boston: CBI Publishing
Company, 1983), pp. 129130.
5. http://www.restaurantowner.com/public/295print.cfm, 19
2005 .
6. Valarie A. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and Leonard L. Berry, Delivering Quality
Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations (New York: Free Press,
1990), pp. 3645.
7. Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from
America's Best-Run Companies, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, NY, 1982.
8. Zeithaml et al., Delivering Quality service, pp. 2122, 26.
9. Gavin R. Fick and J. R. Brent Ritchie, Measuring Service Quality in the Travel and
Tourism Industry, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 29.

Copyright & A K-C

208

10. William B. Martin, Quality Service: The Restaurant Manager's Bible (Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 1986), pp. 7981.
11. David H. Maister, The Psychology of Waiting Lines Czepiel et al., The
Service Encounter, p. 114.
12. Ibid., pp. 113123.
13. Zeithaml et al., Delivering Quality Service, pp. 8082.
14. Ibid., pp. 8486.
15. Bruce H. Axler and Carol A. Litrides, Food and Beverage Service (New York: John
Wiley & Sons, 1990), p. XIII.
16. Ibid., p. 1.
17. Ibid., p. 59.
18. David H. Maister, The Psychology of Waiting Lines, Czepiel et al., The
Service Encounter, pp. 89113.
19. Axler and Litrides, Food and Beverage Service, p. xv.
20. David E. Bowen and Benjamin Schneider, Boundary-Spanning-Role Employees
and the Service Encounter: Some Guidelines for Management and Research,
Czepiel et al., The Service Encounter, pp. 137139.
21. Ibid., p. 144147.
22. Lewis J. Minor and Ronald Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management (Westport, CT:
AVI Publishing Company, 1984), p. 148.
23. Ibid., p. 150.
24. Zeithaml et al., Delivering Quality Service, p. 103.

-
Mystery Shopper Services
TopServe Consulting
SuperServer Food Server Tips

http://www.mysteryshopperservices.com/
http://www.topserveconsulting.com/training.html
http://www.foodservertips.com/

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2003.

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247

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248


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249

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Copyright & A K-C

250

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Copyright & A K-C

251

7.6
:
1995 . Starr Restaurant Organization (SRO)
. 127 Continental Restaurant and Martini
Bar.
(Richard Roberts). ,

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Star; GM Leads Team to 35-Percent Sales Increase, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 5657, January 26, 2004.

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Copyright & A K-C

252

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Copyright & A K-C

253

1. Sharon L. Fullen, Restaurant Design (Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing Group, Inc.,
2003), p. 51.
2. Ibid., . 50.
3. Edward Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, 3rd ed. (New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1989), p. 240.
4. Ibid., p. 116119.
5. Sharon L. Fullen, Restaurant Design (Ocala, FL: Atlantic Publishing Group, Inc.,
2003), pp. 100101.
6. Ronald E. Millman, The Hidden Influence, NRA News, vol. 6, no. 5, may 1986,
pp. 2829.
7. Carolyn U. Lambert, Environmental Design, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant
Administration Quarterly, May 1981, pp. 6268.
8. Richard E. Hopkins, Light, The Consultant, vol. XVI, no. 4, Fall 1983, pp. 3437.
9. Marilynn Motto, Profit by Design, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration
Quarterly, May 1970, pp. 113116.
10. Beth Panitz, ADA After a Decade: The Industrys Efforts to Provide Accessible
Hospitality, Restaurants USA, September 2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
11. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, 3rd ed., p. 401.
12. Ibid., p. 246247.
13. Ibid., p. 393398.
14. Arthur C. Avery, A Modern Guide to Foodservice Equipment (Boston: CBI Publishing
Company, 1980), pp. 1819.
15. Ibid., . 142.
16. Ibid., . 150.
17. Ibid., p. 159161.
18. Fullen, Restaurant Design, pp. 5758.
19. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, p. 272.
20. Ibid., . 275.
21. Fullen, Restaurant Design, p. 52.
22. Boger, Carl A., A Comparison Between Different Delivery Systems of Quick Service
Food Facilities, Hospitality Research Journal, vol. 18, no. 3/vol. 19, no. 1, 1995,
pp. 111124.
23. Ira Apfel, Taking the Strain Out of Ergonomics, Restaurants USA, June/July 2001,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.
24. http://www.osha.gov/oshinfo/mission.html, 12 2005 .
25. Adam Blair, With Ergonomics, Small Steps Equal Big Benefits, Sage, 2003, p. 13.
26. Robert Christie Mill, Managing for Productivity in the Hospitality Industry (New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 65.

-
Nation Restaurant Design
AMC Industries Restaurant Furniture
Food Equipment Unlimited
Restaurant Furniture
Golden Age Chandeliers and
Lighting

http://www.nationalrd.com/
http:// restaurantbooths.com/
http://www.foodequipmentunlimited.com/furniture.html
http://www.goldenageusa.com/hospitality-lighting.asp

Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

257

8.1
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Buffalo Wild Wings Bar &
Grill Captain Morgans Rum.
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Buffalo 2004 .,
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2004 .
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Saucer Strategy, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38, no. 12, March 22, 2004,
p. 14.

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November 5, 2005.

Copyright & A K-C

258

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Copyright & A K-C

259

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Copyright & A K-C

260

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Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C

264

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2005.

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Copyright & A K-C

265

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Copyright & A K-C

266

, ,
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Copyright & A K-C

267

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Copyright & A K-C

268

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November 1, 1999, vol. 109, no. 29, p. 97.

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Copyright & A K-C

270



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271

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Pear Chef, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38, no. 12, March 22, 2004, p. 38.

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Copyright & A K-C

272



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Copyright & A K-C

273


McDonalds, 30 . , ,
, www.mcdonalds.com
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Items Are Nutritional, http://www.nrn.com/newsletter-sr/story.cfm?ID =8411705304&SEC
=QSR%20Newsletter, November 7, 2005.



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Copyright & A K-C

274


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Copyright & A K-C

275

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1987), pp. 254257.
2. Lewis J. Minor and Ronald F. Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management (Westport,
CT: AVI Publishing Company, 1984), p. 100.

Copyright & A K-C

283

3. Khan, Foodservice Operations, pp. 148149.


4. Ibid., . 175.
5. Ibid., . 195.
6. Ibid., . 163.
7. Ibid., . 164165.
8. Ibid., . 148.
9. Ibid., . 148.
10. Ibid., p. 209211.
11. Edward A. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, 3rd ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 11.
12. Khan, Foodservice Operations, pp. 211215.
13. Ibid., . 214.
14. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, p. 12.
15. Ibid., . 13.
16. Khan, Foodservice Operations, p. 218.
17. Ibid., . 220.
18. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, p. 33.
19. John B. Knight and Lendal H. Kotschevar, Quantity Food Production, Planning and
Management, 2nd ed. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 173.
20. Ibid., . 275.
21. Khan, Foodservice Operations, p. 267.
22. Ibid., p. 252253.
23. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, p. 130.
24. Khan, Foodservice Operations, pp. 254257.
25. Ibid., . 283.
26. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, p. 17.

-
Cost Guard Foodservice Software
Food Software/Advanced
Analytical, Inc.
Sysco Corporation
ARAMARK Corporation
Canteen Vending Company

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http://www.foodsoftware.com/
http://www.sysco.com/
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News, vol. 37, no. 16, pp. 7172, April 21, 2003.

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2003.

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9.7
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1. Mahmood Khan, Foodservice Operations (Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Company,


1987), pp. 112116.
2. Ibid., .164166.
3. Ibid., . 112.
4. Lendal H. Kotschevar and Margaret E. Terrell, Foodservice Planning: Layout and
Equipment, 3rd ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), p. 330.

Copyright & A K-C

318

5. Khan, Foodservice Operations, pp. 112113.


6. Ibid., . 113.
7. Madeleine Burka, Dont Let Your Business Go Up in Flames: How to prevent Fires
and Be Prepared when Disaster Strikes, Restaurants USA, May 2000,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.
8. Khan, Foodservice Operations, p. 119.
9. Ibid., . 138.
10. Ibid., . 126.
11. Ibid., .
12. Edward A. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, 3rd ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1989), p. 171.
13. Khan, Foodservice Operations, p. 113.
14. Kotschevar and Terrell, Foodservice Planning: Layout and Equipment, 3rd ed. (New
York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), p. 447.
15. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, pp. 112113.
16. Ibid., pp. 219.
17. Lewis J. Minor and Ronald F. Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management (Westport,
CT: AVI Publishing Company, 1984), p. 242.
18. Ibid., . 242.
19. Ibid., . 241.
20. Kazarian, Foodservice Facilities Planning, pp. 223224.
21. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, p. 241.
22. Ibid., . 242.
23. Madeleine Burka, Youve Got the Power to Cut Energy Costs Through
Conservation, Restaurants USA, August 2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
24. Robert E. Aulbach, Energy and Water Resource Management, 2nd ed. (East Lansing,
MI: The Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, 1988),
p. 99.
25. Ibid., . 101.
26. Judy Ford Stokes, Cost Effective Quality Food Service: An Institutional Guide
(Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems Corporation, 1985), p. 258.
27. Madeleine Burka, Youve Got the Power to Cut Energy Costs Through
Conservation, Restaurants USA, August 2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
28. Ibid.
29. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, pp. 243244; Equipment
Insights, 30. A Joint Report from FCSI and Nations Restaurant News, vol. 4, no. 1,
September 1, 2003.
30. Ira Apfel, Dont Waste Your Energy, Restaurants USA, June 2002,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.

-
USA Restaurant Equipment
Galasource, Inc.
Greenlight Management Corp.

http://www.amer-rest-equip.com/
http://www.galasource.com/
http://www.greenlight-management.com/literaturerestaurant-energy-study.html

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Consumer, vol. 37, no. 6, November/December 2003, pp. 2835. Liddle, Alan J.,
Engineering the Future: Interest in Biotech Grows, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 38, September 22, 2003, pp. 128131.

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348

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November 11, 2002, p. 20. King, Paul, Charnette Norton, Nation's Restaurant
News, vol. 37, no. 39, September 29, 2003, p. 18. Norton, Char, HACCP Goes
with the Flow, vol. 86, no. 8, August 2002, pp. 8485.

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Copyright & A K-C

349

1. Lewis J. Minor and Ronald F. Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management (Westport, CT:
AVI Publishing Company, 1984), p. 161.
2. National Assessment Institute, Handbook for Safe Food Service Management (Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Regents/Prentice Hall, 1994), p. 8.
3. Ibid., . 42.
4. NRA staff, Food Allergy Awareness, Restaurants USA, January 2002,
www.restaurant.org/rusa.
5. Ibid.
6. National Assessment Institute, Handbook for Safe Food Service Management (Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Regents/Prentice Hall, 1994), pp. 11, 3941.
7. Mahmood Khan, Concepts of Foodservice and Management, 2nd ed. (Westport, CT:
AVI Publishing Company, 1991), p. 208.
8. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, p. 162.
9. National Assessment Institute, Handbook for Safe Food Service Management, p. 35.
10. Ibid., . 37.
11. National Institute for Food service Industry, Applied Foodservice Sanitation, 4th ed.
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992), p. 86.
12. Ibid., . 87.
13. Ibid., . 89.
14. Minor and Cichy, Foodservice Systems Management, p. 181.
15. Applied Foodservice Sanitation, p. 67.
16. Ibid., . 135.
17. Ibid., . 176.
18. Top Twelve Bar Sanitation Tips, F&B Business, December 1989, p. 55.
19. Applied Foodservice Sanitation, pp. 188189.
20. National Assessment Institute, Handbook for Safe Food Service Management, p. 96.
21. John Knight, p. 47.
22. Applied Foodservice Sanitation, pp. 228229.
23. Ibid., . 279.
24. Ibid., . 280.
25. Knight, p. 52.
26. Ibid., . 51.
27. Ibid., . 53.

-
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Restaurant Association Educational
Foundation
Foodhandler, Inc.
San Jamar
Ecolab, Inc.

http://www.osha.gov/
http://www.cdc.gov/
http://www.nraef.org/servsafe/
http://www.foodhandler.com/
http://www.sanjamar.com/
http://www.ecolab.com/

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5, 2005.

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Flow, Restaurant Hospitality, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 3234. Meharg, Ken, Boost
Flow by Bartering, Restaurant Hospitality, vol. 83, no. 8, p. 28.

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Copyright & A K-C

11

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Act). , , ,

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. , Nations Restaurant News , 30
.
: Allen, Robin Lee, SEC Policy or Not, Foodservice Execs Should
Completely Digest, Certify Financial Reports, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38,
no. 34, p. 27. Liddle, Alan, Old Woes Crowd New Resolutions: Obesity, Food
Safety, Fiscal Disclosure Still Loom as 04 Issues, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 51, p. 26.

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Copyright & A K-C

11

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750

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Operations, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 410411.

, , , .. . 9 . 700 , 6300 .
A .

Copyright & A K-C

373

11.5

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.
Bubbles.
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:
62 964 : 0,60 = 104 940 .
:
104 940 : 255 = 411,52 .
: Strausser, Michael J., How to Figure Your Break-Even Point,
Restaurants USA, vol. 14, no. 2, February 1994, pp. 1517.

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Copyright & A K-C

11

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Copyright & A K-C

375

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11

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Copyright & A K-C

377

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Copyright & A K-C

11

378

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Kitchen Display System. ,
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http://www.restaurant.org/show/exhibitorlist/ki/ki_recipients.cfm, November 7, 2005.

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Copyright & A K-C

379

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Copyright & A K-C

11

380

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Copyright & A K-C

11.6
:


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Quarterly, no. 4, 1999, pp. 134144. Kruse, Nancy, Life Studies, Restaurant
Business, vol. 100. no. 19, October 1, 2001, p. 101.

. , ,
?

381

Copyright & A K-C

11

382

, ,
. * .
( 3000 . , ) ,
19%.

1. James Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations, 2nd ed.
(New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), p. 335.
2. Laube, Jim, Restaurant Numbers: Part 1: IntroductionHow to Evaluate Your
Restaurants Profitability, www.RestaurantOwner.com, 15
2005 .
3. James Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations, 2nd ed.
(New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 335347.
4. Ibid., . 339.
5. Ibid., . 349.
6. Michael M. Coltman, Cost Control for the Hospitality Industry (Boston: CDI
Publishing Company, 1980), pp. 1625.
7. Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations, p. 410.
8. Coltman, Cost Control for the Hospitality Industry, p. 21.
9. Keiser, Controlling and Analyzing Costs in Foodservice Operations, p. 381.
10. Ibid., . 410.
11. Ibid., . 385.

-
Restaurant Resource Group
Restaurant Owner

http://rrgconsulting.com/operations_consulting.htm
http://www.restaurantowner.com/

., : ., . . : . . .: -, 2005. . .

Copyright & A K-C

12



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Copyright & A K-C

12

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2005
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17


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.
, ,
.
1990 . ,
, 1624 3%. .

.
1990-
, , 2010 .
18%- . ,
20 1517 , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

385

12.1
: Teds Montana Grill
casual- Teds Montana Grill,
, ,
CNN * . -.,
Long Horn
Steakhouse, ,
, , .
, , ,
. , 33% , 26%
25% , . .
.

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Grill .
, , ,
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.
2002 .
19 , .

12 .!
14 . , Teds Montana Grill,
. , , .
,

, .
, , . 65 .

2002 .
( ),
. . .

Copyright & A K-C

386

12

Teds Montana Grill,


,
10% , . Teds Montana
Grill .
, , . Teds Montana Grill
, .
,
--! !.
: Hayes, Jack, Teds Montana Grill: Media Tycoon Lassos Crowds
with Casual Bison Concept, Nations Restaurant News, May 12, 2003, vol. 37,
no. 19, pp. 6667. : http://www.tedsmontanagrill.com>,
March 19, 2004.

.
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Copyright & A K-C

387

. 20%
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NRA.


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. 60% , .
.
. , ,
.
6.
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(The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) :
, ,
, , ()
, (b) , , (c)
, 7.

, , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

12

388


, , ,
, , .
: National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry Facts, http:// www.restaurant.ogg/research/ind glance.cfm#employment, November 7, 2005.


,
. ,
, ,
.

. 8. 1990 . 79% , 19902005 . ,
, 65%. 16% , . 13% 6% 9.

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Copyright & A K-C

389


,
450 . 100 300 . 10.
, , 11.
, - , 20% 12.
1986 . (Immigration Reform and Control Act)
, , . .
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.


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.

Copyright & A K-C

390

12

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.
McDonalds KFC ( Kentucky Fried Chicken) .
(American
Association of Retired Persons), , , , , ,
, ,
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. .
.
, 401() ( ,
),
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1 . , , 80% -
, . 45%
, .
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,
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, .

Copyright & A K-C

391

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1990 . (ADA), . , , ,
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Copyright & A K-C

12

392

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Hardees (),
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;

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, ,


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, ,

: William F. Jaffe, Integrating the Disabled Employee into Quick-Service Restaurant: The
Enclave Model, Hospitality & Tourism Educator, vol. 6, no. 2, Spring 1994, p. 19.

Copyright & A K-C

393


.
, ,
. , , , ,
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Hardees

McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut, Friendlys. , McDonalds McJobs
1989 . .
, ,
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, :
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, , 19.
, .
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. , . , Marriott, , ,
, , ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

394

12

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.
,
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,
. 21.
, 1963 . (Equal Pay Act),
. ,
, , 22.
VII , 1964 . ( 1972 .,
Civil Rights Act), ,
, ,
.
, 1967 . (Age Discrimination in Employment Act) 40
, , , .

Copyright & A K-C

395

, 1978 . (Pregnancy
Discrimination Act)
,
.
,
, 15 , 20 .
, , ,
. , . 23.
, 1973 . ( 1974 .,
Vocational Rehabilitation Act)
, .
,
, 1974 . (The Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment
Assistance Act) ,
10 . . , , .
, - .
.
,
,
. ,
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1517 17
23 24. , , . ,
(Fair Labor Standards Act)
- ,
16 . , ,
1415 , . ,
25:
, ;
7-00 7-00 , 1
, 9 ;
3 .;
18 .;
, , 8 . ;
, , 40 . .

Copyright & A K-C

12

396

12.2

. ,
.

.
,
.
. , ,
?
,
, (Jean Biorch).
2003 .
Corner Bakery Caf, , Pizza Hut Taco Bell.
- (National
Association of Female Executives, NAFE)
? ,
- , .
, NAFE,
, , , .
,
,
,
. , ,
;
. ,
,
.
-, - The Cheescake Factory, , , .

Copyright & A K-C

397

,
; -
, -.
NAFE, , , - . , --, , , , , .
: Berta, Dina, NAFE Survey: Women Must Start at Bottom Line to
Reach Top Posts, Nations Restaurant News, February 9, 2004, vol. 38, no. 6,
p. 16.

. , , ?

.
,
; .


,
, , , ,
, (Bona Fide Occupational Qualification, BFOQ).
, , , , , . ,
.

-, ,
1163 1275 .
: Lee Allen, Robin, A Matter of Education: Workplace-Required Classes a Way
to Curb Sexual Harassment, Nations Restaurant News, January 4, 2005.

Copyright & A K-C

398

12


,
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. 26:
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50 . .
,
27.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
.

Copyright & A K-C

399

5. , , .
6. .
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8. , .

12.3

. , .

( ) 58%
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.
, , , , .

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.

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, .
casual- Fazolis, 380 .
.

Copyright & A K-C

400

12


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Copyright & A K-C

401

,
-

.
: Hastings, Carol, Going Beyond Translation, Restaurant Hospitality,
March 2003, vol. 87, no. 3, p. 54.

. ,
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Copyright & A K-C

402

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Copyright & A K-C

403

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, ,
50 . . .
: National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry Facts, http://www.restaurant.org/research/ind_glance.cfm#employment, November 7, 2005.

.
, , , , , , .

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, , 29.
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, . - 40 60 , . .
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Copyright & A K-C

404

12

,
, .
, , ,
. 6872%
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Copyright & A K-C

405

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Copyright & A K-C

406

12

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Copyright & A K-C

407

,
, ,
. ,
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, .
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. VII 1964 .
(EEOC). , 1978 .
(Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures,
UGESP), ,
, ;
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;

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Association), (American
Counseling Association, ACA),
(American Management Association).
, , .
,
:
(1)
, , , ;
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. . .
, . , , , , ,
.
.

Copyright & A K-C

408

12

: . ,
, . ( ), , . , ,

.
. , , , .
,
.

Reid Psychological Systems, London
House Stanton. 70% ,
. Reid Psychological Systems, , ,
0,90, 0,78. 0,43 ( ), 0,62 0,39. , 0,30. .
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Hire Assist, ,
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, .

Copyright & A K-C

12.4
:
(Van Eure), Angus Barn ,
( ),
.
, , ,
,
Nations Restaurant News , , . , , , , .
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Angus Barn ,
, ,
.
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Barn,
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. Angus Barn
.

409

Copyright & A K-C

410

12
14%,
, . .
. ,
.
, , .
.
, , . .
: Van Eure: Lighting 40 andles for Venerable Angus Barn, Nations
Restaurant News, May 29, 2000, vol. 34, no. 22, p. 27. Customer Service: ASFSA
Key Areas Operations and Human Resources, The Outlook, September 2001,
p. 2.

. , ?

8,50 25 . ,
, . (
,
HR- , ).
BatrusHollweg Security Assessment for Employers (SAFE), 50 ,

.
: , ,

(25%), , , (25%), , 50% , , , ,
. BatrusHollweg, . ,
,
36.
.
,
. ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

12.5

. ,
, .
, , ? (Ray Kavanauqh) (Ph.D., Purdue)
, NRA.
,
,
, ,
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, ,

.
, . ,
(P.R. Scholtes) The Team Handbook.
: ,
( ), , .
, ,
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, .

, ( ) , .
, , , ,
,
, .

411

Copyright & A K-C

12

412

, , , :
. , .
,
, .
,
, , .
: King, Paul, Teamwork: The Key to Success in Labor-Short Times,
Nations Restaurant News, June 12, 2000, vol. 34, no. 24, p. 110.

. , ,
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Copyright & A K-C

413


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1. 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC: National Restaurant


Association, 2005), p. 27.
2. Allan F. Hickok and Lana E. Lazarus, Restaurant Industry Review, U.S. Bancorp
Piper Jaffray Equity Research, March 2003, p. 32.
3. Cathy A. Enz, Key Issues of Concern for Food-Service managers, CHR Report, vol. 3,
no. 4 (Ithaca, NY: The Center for Hospitality Research at Cornell University, 2003).
4. Susan Mills, Teen Spirit, Restaurants USA, March 2001, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
5. 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC: National Restaurant
Association, 2005), p. 28.
6. Irina Obenauer, Whos Who in the Restaurant Industry, Restaurants USA, March
2000, www.restaurant.org/rusa.
7. Karen Eich Drummond, Human Resource management for the Hospitality Industry
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990), p. 230.
8. Obenauer, Whos Who in the Restaurant Industry.
9. Johnston and Packer, Workers for the 21st Century, p. 89.
10. National Restaurant Association, Foodservice Manager 2000, p. 19.
11. 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast (Washington, DC: National Restaurant
Association, 2005), p. 30.
12. Johnston and Packer, Workers for the 21st Century, pp. 9293.
13. Mill, Managing for productivity in the Hospitality Industry, p. 19.
14. Paul Ehrlich, Loy Bilderback, and Anne H. Ehrlich, The Golden Door (New York:
Ballantine Books, 1979), p. 242.
15. William F. Jaffe, Integrating the Disabled Employee into the Quick-Service
Restaurant: The Enclave Model, Hospitality & Tourism Educator, vol. 6, no. 2,
Spring 1994, p. 15.

Copyright & A K-C

12

424

16. National Restaurant Association, Americans with Disabilities Act: Answers for Foodservice
Operators (Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1992), p. 2.
17. Ibid., . 818.
18. Ibid., . 27.
19. Jaffe, Integrating the Disabled Employee into the Quick-Service Restaurant, p. 19.
20. Arthur W. Sherman Jr., George W. Bohlander, and Herbert J. Chudren, Managing
Human Resources, 8th ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co., 1988), p. 63.
21. David Wheelhouse, Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry (East
Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association,
1989), p. 67.
22. Ibid., . 66.
23. Ibid., . 71.
24. Obenauer, Whos Who in the Restaurant Industry.
25. Summer Job Prospects Not So Sunny For Teen Workers, Nations Restaurant
News, vol. 37, no. 18, May 5, 2003, p. 22.
26. Wheelhouse, Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 79.
27. EEOC, Affirmative Action and Equal Employment: A Guidebook for Employers, vol. 1
(Washington, DC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1974), pp. 1617.
28. Lewis C. Forrest, Training for the Hospitality Industry (East Lansing: MI: Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, 1983), p. 56.
29. Donald Lundberg, The Management of People in Hotels and Restaurants, 5th ed.
(Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Company, 1992), p. 85.
30. Forrest, Training for the Hospitality Industry, p. 41.
31. Addressing the Needs of a Diverse Work Force, Restaurants USA, October 1997, p. 42.
32. Ibid., . 53.
33. National Restaurant Association, 1998 Restaurant Industry Operations Report
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association and Deloitte & Touche LLP,
1998), p. 9.
34. Sherman et al., Managing Human Resources, p. 160. Bruce Grindy, Hooking and
Keeping Employees, Restaurants USA, October 1998, p. 24.
35. Reid Research Report, , .
36. Dina Berta, Employee Behavior Study Alarm Operators, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 31, p. 99.
37. Sherman et al., Managing Human Resources, p. 172.
38. Wheelhouse, Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, pp. 176183.
39. Bill From and Len Schlesinger, The Real Heroes of Business (New York: Doubleday,
1994), pp. 232333.
40. J.D. Bell, J. Castagnera, and J. P. Young, Employment References: Do You Know
the Law? Personnel Journal, vol. 63, no. 2, February 1984, pp. 3236.
41. Drummond, Human Resource Management for the Hospitality Industry, p. 33.
42. Wheelhouse, Managing Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 119.

-
U.S. Department of Labor
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission
Hospitality Careers Online
Global Hospitality
American Association of Retired Persons

http://www.dol.gov/
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1. Arthur W. Sherman, George W. Bohlande, and Herbert J. Chudren, Managing


Human Resources, 8th ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co., 1988), p.
194.
2. Ibid., . 194.
3. Ibid., . 197.
4. Vincent H. Eade, Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry
(Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, Publishers, 1993), p. 180.
5. Sharon Fullen, Controlling Restaurant & Foodservice Labor Costs (Ocala, FL: Atlantic
Publishing Group, Inc., 2003), p. 86.
6. David Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry (East
Lancing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association,
1989), pp. 146147.
7. Sherman et al., Managing Human Resources, p. 199.
8. Karen Eich Drummond, Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990), pp. 6878.
9. Sherman et al., Managing Human Resources, p. 201.
10. Lewis C. Forrest, Training for the Hospitality Industry (East Lancing, MI: Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, 1983), p. 40.

Copyright & A K-C

13

456
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Ibid., . 41.
Ibid., . 4546.
Ibid., . 45.
Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, pp. 148149.
Mary L. Tanke, Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry (Albany,
NY: Delmar Publishers, 1990), p. 75.
16. Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 154.
17. Bruce Grindy, Hooking and Keeping Employees, Restaurants USA, October 1998,
p. 26.
18. Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 154.
19. Forrest, Training for the Hospitality Industry, pp. 112116.
20. Ibid., p. 113114.
21. Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 155.
22. Tanke, Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry, p. 198.
23. The Next Generation of Leadership Research, Inserts in Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 31, August 4, 2003, and vol. 37, no. 47, November 24, 2003.
24. Ibid.
25. Wheelhouse, Managing for Human Resources in the Hospitality Industry, p. 176.
26. Tanke, Human Resources Management for the Hospitality Industry, p. 80.
27. Ibid., . 193.

-
National Restaurant Association Educational
Foundation
Quality Restaurant Group

http://www.nraef.org/
http://www.qualityrestaurantgroup.com/

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14.1
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459

Copyright & A K-C

460

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467

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470

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14

474

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475

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479

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481

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484

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Copyright & A K-C

14.6
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487

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488

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Copyright & A K-C

493


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14

494

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495

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to the Core, March 22, 2004, p. 42.

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496

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Copyright & A K-C

14.8
:
(Sally Smith) , , , KPMG Peat Marwick Miracle-Ear Inc.,
. Buffalo Wild Wings?
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: National Restaurant News, 2003 Golden Chain: Sally Smith, September
22, 2003. pp. 72, 74.

.
Buffalo Wild Wings ?

497

Copyright & A K-C

14

498

1. Dina Berta, Employee Behavior Study Alarms Operators, Nations Restaurant News,
vol. 37, no. 31, August 4, 2003, p. 16.
2. Craig c. Pinder, Work Motivation: Theories, Issues and Applications (Glenview, IL:
Scott, Foresman and Company, 1984), p. 63; David McClelland, Human Motivation
(Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1985), pp. 595596.
3. Auren Uris, 101 of the Greatest Ideas in Management (New York: John Wiley & Sons,
1986), p. 26.
4. Ibid., . 26.
5. Arthur W. Srerman, George W. Bohlander, and Herbert J. Chudren, Managing
Human Resources, 8th ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co., 1988), p.
304.
6. Ibid., . 299.
7. Ibid., . 302.
8. Ibid., . 304.
9. , Robert Christie Mill, Managing for
Productivity in the Hospitality Industry (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989),
chapters 610.
10. George H. Litwin and Robert A. Stringer, Jr., Motivation and Organizational Climate
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968).
11. Forum Corporation, The Language of Organizational Climate,
, 1979.
12. Thomas T. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence (New York:
Harper & Row, 1982).
13. Bruce Grindy, Hooking and Keeping Employees, Restaurants USA, October 1998,
p. 25.
14. Dina Berta, Study Finds Employees Not Getting a Lot of Satisfaction, Nations
Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 23, June 9, 2003, pp. 8, 22.
15. Milford Prewitt, All Work, No PlayNo More, Special Report: General
Managers, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 37, no. 47, November 24, 2003, pp. 1, 43,
46, 48.
16. M.C. McConkie, A Classification of the Goal-Setting and Appraisal Process in
MBO, Academy of Management Review, vol. 4, no. 1, 1979, p. 29.
17. Mill, Managing for Productivity in the Hospitality Industry, pp. 143144.
18. Ricky W. Griffen, Relationships among Individual, Task Design and Leader
Behavior, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 23, no. 4, 1980, p. 667.
19. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge (New
York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1985), p. 218.
20. Marc G. Singer, Human Resource Management (Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing
Company, 1990), pp. 353354.
21. Ibid., . 356.
22. Gary P. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,
1981), pp. 121125.
23. Singer, Human Resource Management, pp. 356357.
24. Ibid., . 358.
25. Ibid., . 359.

-
Success Factors Performance and Talent
Management
Loyalty Works Incentive and Loyalty
Programs

http://www.successfactors.com/
http://www.loyaltyworks.com/

Copyright & A K-C

15

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15

500

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Magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, 2004, pp.6667.

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Copyright & A K-C

501

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2005 .

, , .
. : http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-554.
: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/pressrelease.cfm?ID=1162, October 23, 2005.


. -
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Copyright & A K-C

15

502

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Copyright & A K-C

503

high-tech high-touch
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Nations Restaurant News, vol. 36, no. 47, November 25, 2002, pp. 4, 42.

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15

504

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: Melvin, Jim, Riding Wave of Future Can Be Risky; Smart Tech
Choices help Operators avoid Wipeout, Nations Restaurant News, vol. 38,
no. 10, March 8, 2004, p. 26.

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Copyright & A K-C

15

506

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Copyright & A K-C

507

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News, vol. 37, no. 38, pp. 8692.
2. Ibid., . 94100.
3. Ibid., . 106114.
4. Ibid., . 116120.
5. Ibid., . 122126.
6. Ibid., . 128132.
7. Ibid., . 146149.
8. Job Analysis Report for Unit manager and Assistant Manager, Educational
Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, November 1988.
9. National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry 2010: The Road Ahead
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1999), p. 33.
10. National Restaurant Association, Foodservice Manager 2000, Current Issues Report
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1992), p. 5.

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11. National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry 2010: The Road Ahead
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1999), p. 32.
12. Ibid., . 3334.
13. Ibid., . 32.
14. Ibid., . 34.
15. Ibid., . 35.
16. National Restaurant Association, Foodservice Manager 2000, Current Issues Report
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1992), p. 16.
17. National Restaurant Association, Restaurant Industry 2010, The Road Ahead
(Washington, DC: National Restaurant Association, 1999), p. 12.
18. Ibid., . 31.

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