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Copyright & A K-C

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2005, 2009

Copyright & A K-C

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......................................................................... 17


( )

1.

.................................................... 28

1.1.

. - ..........................................

28
1.1.1. .................. 28
1.1.2. ............................. 31
1.1.3. ........................... 33
1.1.4.
.................................................... 34
1.1.5.
.................................................... 3 7
1.1.6. ................................. 43

1.2.

1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.

.......................................... 46

..............................................................

46


.................

48


..........................................

52
5

Copyright & A K-C

1.3.

m ( ) ............................. 54

1.4.

1.5.

...................... 61
1.4.1. ........................... 61
1.4.2. ........................................ 63

........................................................ 71
1.5.1. ............................................... 71
1.5.2. ................................... 7
1.5.3. .................... 80

1.5.4.
....................................

1.5 .5.

( )

1.6.

............................... 86

1. 7.

84

......................................... 8 8

......................................... 95
................................................. 102

2.
............................. 1 04

2.1.
2.2.


.....................................

105




..............................................................

114

......

114

2.2.1.

Copyright & A K-C

2.2.2.
2.2.3.
2.2.4.


................................................

11 7


................................................

119

2.3.

......................................... 121

2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.

................................................ 123


........................................

125

....................................

125


.........................................................

127
2.4. .............................. 131
2.5. ........................................................ 141
2.5.1.
................... 141
2.5.2.
................................................ 143
................................................. 149

3.1.

3.
......................

151

() ....................................................

152

3.1.1.
3.1.2.

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...................... 152

() ..................

155
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Copyright & A K-C

3.1.3.
3.1.4.

...................................................

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3.1.5.
3.1.6.
3 .1. 7.

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160

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161

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3.2.

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168

..............................................

168

...........................................................

170



.................................................................

174

...............................................................

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3.2.1.
3.2.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

.............................

3.5.1.
3.5.2.

193

................................................. 193

- ...................................

......................... 165

198
................................................. 202

Copyright & A K-C

4.

.................

4.1.

204

.................................

4.1.1.
4.1.2.

4.2.
4.3.

.............. 206

4.1.3.

.......................................... 214


.......................................

221

.............................................

224

.....................................................................

232

- .................................

23 2

...................................

234

4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.



..................................

239
................................................. 244

5. ............

5.1.

206

246

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..... 246

Copyright & A K-C

5.2.

....................................................................... 251
5. 2.1.
....... 251
5.2.2. ........................ 254
5.2.3. ...................... 256

5.3.

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5.3.1.
5.3.2.
5.3.3.
5.3.4.
5.3.5.
5.3.6.

263
11-1 - .......... 264
11-2-
.......................................................... 267
III-1 ..................................... 271
III-2- ................................................... 273
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--

5.4.

..... 277

- ............

5.4.1.

5.4.2.

..... 280

5.4.3.

10

282

5.4.4.

280

................................................... 283

- ..........................................................

284

Copyright & A K-C

5.4.5. .............................................................

5.5.

287

.........................................

288

5.5.1.

........................................ 289
5.5.2. ....... 295
................................................. 301

6.
.............

6.1.

6.1.1.
6.1.2.
6.1.3.
6.1.4.

304

......... 306


............................

306
....... 308

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314



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322
6. 2. - ............. 3 24
6.2.1. ........................................................ 324
6.2.2. .......................................... 3 28
6.3. - ................................. 331
6.3 .1. ....................... 331
6.3.2. ......... 335
6.4. ............................................... 33 7
11

Copyright & A K-C

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.4.2. ...................

338

.4.3. ...............

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.5. .........

350

.5 .1. -

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................ 353

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. 7 .2. .................................................. 34
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............... 38

.8.1.
............................. 39

.8.2.
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............................... 373

....................................

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.9.1. .........................................

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.9.2. ...................................................

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....................................................

383
................................................. 390

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.........................................

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7.1.1. ....... 393
7.1.2. ........... 396
7.1.3.
................................. 398
7.1.4. ............................ 404
7 .1.5. ........ 405

7 .2.

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7. 2.1. ................................ 409
7.2.2.
..............................................................

7.2.3.

411

.......................................... 412
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Copyright & A K-C

7.2.4.

.......................................... 41 7
7.3. - .............. 419
7.3 .1. .................................................... 420
7.3.2. ............................................ 422
7 .3.3. ......... 426
7.3.4. ................................ 431
7 .4. .................. 434
7 .4.1. ..................................... 434
7 .4.2. ....... 436
7.4.3.
........................................... 43 7
7.5.
.............................................................. 44 2

7.5 .1.
7.5.2.
7.5.3.

8.

................... 444
................................... 445
........................... 447

8 .1.

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......................................................... 451

.............................................. 451

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8.1.2.

8.1.3.
8.1.4.
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........................ 455

............ 458

.......

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8.2.1.
8.2.2.
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................

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....................................................

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8.3.1.

............................................................... 466

........................................................ 466
8.3.2. .......... 467
8.3.3. ....................................... 470
8.3.4. ................................... 472
8.4.

.........................

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...............................

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8.4.1.
8.4.2.

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.......................................................................... 492

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~),

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100

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[}] ;
[}]


).

),

r :

, .. ,

[ff

~, .. ~

() ,

[}] ,

( ) .


( )
,

; -

()
.


, -

109

Copyright & A K-C

;

,
.

,

-

-,

,
- , -
.

. 2., (
)
.

, ..

: =

f( , t). . 2., (

)
, .


: = f( r, t).
. 2.4, ,

: = f( , ,

t);

. 2.4,

,
: = f( , z, t).

-
0.56). - gradH <' ' z )

H(x,y,z) = cost, "


. , (1.56),
v,

, - ,
.

110

Copyright & A K-C

. ,
.

..

'

'

'

~'

)(

rl

2.3.

)(

..;

111

Copyright & A K-C

....

')(

11

11

1 1

1: 1
1

1 1
'q;

;:.-.

1
>

1 1

1' 1 1

\
\
\

112

Copyright & A K-C


(
) ,

2.5.

:

.

, . ,
= f( , , z, t),
-
,
.
,

(,
) :

(
) ,


, :

, .. =/( , ,

z).

2.5.

1 -

2 -

113

Copyright & A K-C


, ,

2.2.

2.4.

2.2.1.


, ,
(

. 1),
- - .

, , ,

).
,

.

,

.

(1.34),

( 1.35),

= const n = const.

,
( )

,
.
-

114

Copyright & A K-C

-
dx,

dy, dz

(. 2.6,)


dt.

~0~-------------

d ' =pvx dy dz dt,


v -
~

pvx

(pv )

2.6.

"

, , :

dx

- ; - f! UJimpau.

:::::0::::~:, ~:: r ~:x2l

dx;

1
r ~ ~
(pvx)

d '' = pvx

dx dy dz dt.

dMx=dM/-dMx''=-

(pv )

dxdydzdt. ( 2 .1)

,
:

115

Copyright & A K-C

_
dM--

[ (pvx)

(pvy)

(pvz)]
z

dxdydt. ( 2.2)

, dM
( dM ),

( dM ). ,
, d =pn dx dy dz,

r. ,

(~

dM

dt :

= ~ tn) dx dy dz dt

(2.2)

(2.3),

(2.3)

(pvx)

(pvy)

(pvz)

+ z

(pn) _
-

+ t

(2.4)

. ,

,

dx dy

(. . 2.6,).

( vx)

( vy)

( )

-,

(2.5)

- ;

( ,
,

116

z)

Copyright & A K-C

. ,


( ,

).

(..
)
,

() ;

: = f( , ,

z, t).

, ()
(. 1.6)
.


, ,
;
2.1 ,
,

.

2.2.2.
, ,
, ..

n =,


. , , ,

(2.4)

vx
)
v ~
< < , .... ,

(2.6)
117

Copyright & A K-C

(1.58), ~
:

(kx )
+ (ky )
+ (kz )
Z
= . (2. 7)

az

(kx

= ky = kz = k = st), (2.7)
V2H =,
2

(2.8)

V2 =-2 + - -2 +-2 - r


.
(2.8),
,
.


,
:

(, ):

V2H = + .
2

2'

(2.9)

1}]

(2.10)

V2 H =!._.~
r

(r ).
r

(2.11)

118

r:

Copyright & A K-C


. ,


: =/( , ,

z).

).
m

, ,

, ,
,
.


,
, ..
.

2.2.3.

, ,
, .. ( 1.34)
(1.35). - ,
(vx, vy, vz) -

*l

(_; ~; ~;
~ :
(. V ) - V
-

V
-

+ V lP_ -

(2.12)

..


(1.38),

; ,
0

n,

, (.
1.5).

119

Copyright & A K-C

dM0

=YJaH,

(2.13)

d(p n) =pYJ *,

(2.13)

..

(,n)

=pYft

(2.13)

(2.13,)

(2.12)

(2.4),

vx

vy

vz

+ + z + YJ t - '

(2.14)

/ (kx ~~) + (ky ~) + z (kz ~~) =J*~


(2.15)

VH =~*~,

(2.16)

=-"

YJ
(2.16),

(2.17)

, .

,
,

,
.. = (, , z, t)
. ,

.
<<>>

120

Copyright & A K-C

-
() ,
,
-

k . , =-*
rJ

) . [36] ~ ;
2
2

(L

1): 1, 1. ,

, -

= 10 / , rJ *= 10-4 -

, *= 10 5 21,


1
2
3

0,001 /, rJ*= 10- - *= 1 /.

, ~

v' ~ t. ,

, .

2.2.4.

,

-

- . 2.4) .,

1. 7 ,

,
.

121

Copyright & A K-C

(2. 7)

_ (

ll!._) +_
( .J!_) +_ (

.J!_) -
z

(2.18)

U - ;
- ;

, , z - .

..

(2.18)

-~.~ :~)+ -~.~ :~) ='

(2.18)

- .

(2.15)

,

:

_
( j_JJ_)
+-
(~)
+-
(~)
=C.El!_


z
z z
t
(2.19)

: Clr]

*
t
~ at = 1 .

. , (2.15)
(2.19)
, (1.78):

" at = 1

Clr] a'f

122

(2.19)

Copyright & A K-C

~ :

L!J

(. 2.4).

,
-
,

.

, ,
,


-
.

2.3.

2.2.

, ,
, (

).

; , ,

vz
z

= ( -

2.5).

,
.

123

Copyright & A K-C

2.3.1.

(2.5)

:

( ) +
( ) = '

(2.20)

= = = const
2

V2H = + =
2
2

(2.20)

(2.21)
(, ,
) (


).
,

(2.15),

_L ( ) +__ ( ) _

f.l *= 7J ~

- f.l t '

(2.22)

J
(.

1.4).

V2H
*

=2 + 2 =.!
2

*t'

(.

(2.22)

2.17),

124

Copyright & A K-C

=-*

(2.23)

f.l

2.3.2.

n n n

2. 7,

' .

,

( ),
:

.
, -

~~~~;:::::::~::~::::~.~:::::~::::::

);

( )

.. ,
, ,

[23]:
d1 =O,llln,t,

(2.24)

d2 =O,lf,
(

,t

(2.24)

kp ,t = (mlmp) ,t).

=;

; ,

125

Copyright & A K-C

k/ kP

----

--- - -- -- --- -- ---- /--_ --

2. 7.

.......
.:):::

::)::"

"

.. ,
, ,
:

IP =

'-

(2.25)

.
,
, .. m

' . ,
.

126

Copyright & A K-C

,
,

'-

=k - -

(2.26)

- ;

En

(2.5)

- (pmv)
+(pmv)
+

()
t

- =.
n

(2.27)

. ,
(2. 22)

2 2
2 + 2
=

' -
2

=* t

(2.28)

vTm/kP - ~ ()
,

. ~
,
, .

. ,

( ) ,
(.
. 2. 7) ()
, ('

) 25 5 , kJJ = 10- 4
/, = 10 . ,
3
100000 1.

2.3.3.

127

Copyright & A K-C

, (.

2.8)

,
. u

at'

,= - (~~)'
,

(2.29)

,
,

( )
.

(2.5)

x(phvx)+ y(phvy)+

n h) _
.
t
-+.(2.30)

. . . ;z;

-.

2.8.

JC n.

n.

128

(2. 20)

Copyright & A K-C

~
(k h ) + __
(k h ) + = 11- *t + 11- ht ,

(2.31)
11- ' 17 *h -

= Zp + h 1cos , ,
,

ah

t =t , 11-

>> 11- *(.

1.4), 11- * (_~~) .


~ J

, ;

= h, (2.31)

(
h)
(
h)
h
kx h + ky h + = /1- t . (2.32)

h (,

, z, t) ,


, ..

(, ,
,
).
;


. ,

k h =

(k h)

);
, ,
(.

2.5.2).

(2.31)

129

Copyright & A K-C

(
)
(
)

, + , + =p,at' (2.33)
= -
(2.22).

-f h ~ ~, hep -

; , = h 2 /2,
u (

-):

__

(k .!!:)
__ (k .!!:)
+

- J!:_ .!!:
+ - hep t (2.33)


, , ,
(.

2.5).

(2.34)

=--,

(2.35)

vz +.f =_!
k t'

(2.36)

(2.37)
,

130

Copyright & A K-C

(2.22) .
,
,
;

!l >> fl,

(2.35)

(2.23)

, ~ /,'i (

!l !l

).

(
)

, ,
.
,
,

(2.38)

-.h

... k h2

(2.38)

-, ,

. , ,

, (.
1.6) , ..
.

2.4.

1.6,

; ,

, (
) . ,
cnaraeoro,

,
, .

131

Copyright & A K-C

~
, ,

-
<;
.

,
.
,

()
,


, m .
.

, ..
.

(

)
:

(, , z, t) lr == (, , z, )= f (, , z). (2.39)
,
.

(, z) ,
(

,
m, -

mm ).
, m -


..

132

Copyright & A K-C

..

, ,

-- --- ----

. ,
-


. 2.9,

fi

=--=-=t-=- ~~---- =

.............................

. ... ....::r::-._ .._ .._ . .-. _- ..__ __ ___-_

. .

. .................... .
. ............... - .... .

; ; =
.

- . . . .

11117

/11/11/1/ll

. 2.9.
()
:
()

, ,

, ,

vn

, -

; ,

()

= '

(2.40)

. ,

2. 9 ,

( )

133

Copyright & A K-C


. , ,
,

() --
:

= f (, , z, t)

(2.41)

11
( -- ) .
,

,
()

; , ,
,
;
,

.
. 2.9,
. ,
<< >>, ,

( )
( - ,

).
, ,
, (
) ,
,


. ,

V =.

(2.42)

. ( ),

.

, ,
( ).

134

Copyright & A K-C

, ..

H=z.

(2.43)

. 2.10,
( )

.
Qc, ,

=k / =2 km () =2 ()
l

'

(2.44)
/ -
;

- , .

, :

( ) =

Qc

(2.45)


, , .

2.1 ,

(1) (2).

(
),

( ).

vn 1

vn2 ,

, ,

135

Copyright & A K-C

(2.46)
.

..

..

..

..

. . . . . . . . .

"

~~~~~~~~-r~-~-r~~~~-r~~-r~~~~----1

----11--2-rc

........ ..... .. .. .. .
..
"J

...........

;J:

2.10.

() , -

(6)

,
(2.46)

136

Copyright & A K-C

. 2. 11. .

( 1 2
).
. m
,

(.

2.11)-
tg01
k1
tg{}2 = k2.

01 02-

(2.47)

. .

2.12

3.

4.

1,

: ) ,

; ) ?

, , ,

(
).

.
,
,
.

1 -
(2.41)). ,

(.

, (. 2.13,-) - ,

137

Copyright & A K-C

,
; - ,
(,
..). 1

. . ..

.
. ..

~-.

...

...

"7' ~-.

2.12.

11 -
~j u
u

(.
(2.40)) ,
,

(.

(2.45));

Qc

[IJ

111 -

, -
:

138

Copyright & A K-C

(~~), =, +fi,

f3

][-----

~---. . ... . .. . . .

~[

-:--

.....

'""':'""

:2 .

. . . .
7

........

_;:;::_ ..

. . . ....
. . .

:::. ~:.\

!.......

. ....... .
~..
.;_<~~:~
-:-:~
. . . . . . . '-------'"" . . . . . . . .

-......

--..;

. . .

(2.48)

-- - - --~

/}
.

111711111

2.1 3.

--

...........

:....::::::::::.. :-......:..:::::

,.......

1.

;;;;;;;;;;

, (~ ~), ,

(2.48)

(.

2.3).

(. . 2. 7)
(. 2.14),
(

> kn.
, ,
,

,

v =-k
n

()n

. -

--k
n

mn

(2.49)

139

Copyright & A K-C

fl;-

).

-... 7..~~...... .. ..
-

~-

--~ ~=- -~..~~..~.~.~


~-.":R--:..........
..
.

~~

:.;::-- -,--;

.. . .... ........
... .. . ... .. .... .........
......... ..........~~:.~.
'1': !...
....... ..........
...................
...............

. ..~.

~:

77777???

7?

7??

. 2.14.
111

kn

(2.48)

-knHP

= km n ,{3 = km n
,

, ,
,
, :

, ,
() .
. ,

(2.26)

(. .

2. 7), = ~'

[!]

-k
f3 = mP. k

IV
(2.46) (2.46)

,
(. 2.2.4)

, -

140

Copyright & A K-C


(.

1. 7).

~,


, , (2.48),
.

,

: -

(2.43).

,
,

2.5.

(2.43) .

2.5.1.

. 2.15. ,

( ), .. ,

, , .

11
.

141

Copyright & A K-C

ll
1
1
1

1
1
1

. 2. 15.
,
:

- ..
I;

IL!IO.Cme,

IL!IO.cme,

omiCpnwo ; - ..

..

IL!IO.cme,

. i;

IL!IO.Cme,

..

, ,
(
).

.

:
,

; ,

. -
, [27] ,


1 1
. ,

142

Copyright & A K-C

1 1 >

1 1 > h .

(2.50)
(2.50)

lxl >vkJkz , lxl >hvk/kz,


kx

kz -

(2.51)

. k/kz

(2.51),

(2. 7))

; :

z~=-

= _~

vkx

_____

= _rr:-;

vky

YE;

,
,

.
:

( ); ,

, , ,
.

, ,

(
)
- .

2.5.2.


, -

143

Copyright & A K-C


; ..
[15].
1.
(. 2.16,) - ,
(2.22).

J/Uiilltlifli!
. . .
.
.
. .

1 . 1.

1.

. . .

't 't

i i) i

. .

fliitliitt/
..
. .
.
.. ...

,.._, ,.,_ . ......, .


't , )

:-... .

-. -. -.-.

.................

..:-...:...~..:..:- . .~-;. . ..--:


. ..
.
.............
.. . .. .. . . .. . ' '

.............

>7> 7

;;;; 7 7 7 7 7 7 >

.: - :-: ............:_. r :.:-.-:


......

.."
<"

,..

...... .

-~

t:flj

......_ .~..:...-:- ..:._ "7" .__-.

'1-.....: .

. ... ... . ... . . ..... .


. . . . . . . . . . . . ., .

/777

)')'

777 7

77

I<!Jfl@.
. . ..
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. .l' . ..
. . ; . . . ...
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? )' /

7 7

7 7 7 77

2. 16. .
2. (. 2.16,)

, (n) ,

. , ,
,

, , , ,
(

144

Copyright & A K-C

11

q =~
.LJ q.1
i=J

11

11

i=J

i=J

=L k..I
=IL 1..
1
1

(2.52)


,
:

(2.53)
. (. .
2.16,),

,
.


. . 2.16,
1 11. 1

(2.54)

1I
1

TJJ= k,. ,.+ k 8 ~

(2.54)

k,. > > k 8 ,

1:1 8

= ~ -

~1 ( ,.)

(2.54) (2.54)
1
, .. k,. ,. >> k 8 ~ > k 8 ~ ,

(2.55)
, ,
,

: ,
11
,
.

,

, -
,

145

Copyright & A K-C

(
).

4.0
(. . 2.16,);
(2.32),
~

(2.32) =

h /2 (

-r).


(2.38).

5.

. ,

(. . 2.16,). -
(. . 2.16,).
,
(2.52)

dhh

i=I

UXO

q=

L k;lf'tI=I f k (z)dz=-_f k (z)dz,

(2.56)

h, .

drpl
q= dx '

(2.57)

f/J =

f (h- z) k (z) dz.

(2.58)

(2.56)

(2.57)

f/J
z,

()

d f/J
dx

146

[.!!_
j (h- z) k (z) dz] 5/
= !f_j (h- z) k (z) dz =
dh

ux
0

Copyright & A K-C

(2.59)

[ 16 ]:

fx 1 [h(x)] = ~ 1/1

[IJ

(2.60)

h ,

~ J f(z, h) dz = f(h, h) + J ;~ dz.

(2.61)

(2.57)

(2.58),

- (. .
2.16,). ,
.

'
() ,

(2.57)

q
,

d
d
=kmax =(),

(2.62)

1 5
-+

(2.63)

,
:

(2.63)

, -

h.

1 5

147

Copyright & A K-C

,
.

,
1
( 5 ),

. ,
,

: ) (. .

2. 7),

(2.28),

(. . 2.8),
~
(2.31) , t =.

,
- . ,
,

_i_

( ) +__
(
) = ~__.
(~
) +



+ v; . (v; )

(2.64)

(2.20) (2.22)
()
:

1-

-~

1-

(2.65)

(2.64),

(2.65)

_i_ ( ) +__ ( )

-~.

= 2 + 2
' 2

' 2

(2.66)

' ',
, (', '),
, (2.65),
(, ).
- .

148

Copyright & A K-C

, , ,

, .

[IJ

[IJ

,
? ,

,
.
,
~ .


? (
):

(, ) ~~, t); [ (, ) ~~, t)


[}]

J.

~ ?

?

? , ,

[!]

~?

l2J

,

. ,
?
.

[!]

149

Copyright & A K-C

?
?

[!Q]

: )


, )
, )
?

6>>
?
?

[ill

? ,
~ .

~
: )

, )
, )

?

: ) , )
? .

. - - ,
,
?

<kx> ky> ,

1 2.
?
.

150

Copyright & A K-C

1
~

(. .

4).

.
,


.
(, ).
(
)

.

,
- .

4 ,


, .


,
,
, , .
,

: ,

151

Copyright & A K-C

.
,
-
,

. 3, . 4,

. ,
(
<< >>

) ,
, , ;

,
.


.
,
- ,
.

3.1.

()


. , ,


-
.

3.1.1.

()

. 3.1 ,
. ( 1 ) ,
152

Copyright & A K-C

( 2 ),

. L

, ..

d,

,
, .. = ().

(2.8):
2

d H

--2=0.

(3.1)

dx

(0, L),

() = 2 ;

(3.1)

H(L) =

(3.2)

(3.2)

.
().
:

[J

d (dH)
dx
dx =, dH
dx

= cl' cl -

[I)

Qf
J dH = 1 dx; () =
+ 2 -

dH = 1 dx

= 1

~j;

1 2 :

2 = 1 0 + 2
1 =C 1 L + 2

(3.2)

'

153

Copyright & A K-C

-~-

j)

j_~j j_l~ !_
.l L

- -

-- --- - h,
-

--

- -_-_li, ,---- - - --

, , ,

, /L,

, , , ,

- ---

"

,,'

3. 1. () (6) .

6.

cl 2
:

154

Copyright & A K-C

()

Hl -Hz

+ 2 ,

(3.3)

..

1 L;

()/= ( 1 - 2)


(3.3):
q

=k

dH

(J)-

dx

= k . Hl

-Hz

Hl -Hz
= .____.:.
____----=.

(3.4)

.. .

( ).
(3.3) (3.4) .

.L

=
;; (
),
- (.

2.5.2).
. ,
, : 1) ; 2)
?
.
.

(3.4),

1 2 /2 3 , 1 , 2 2 ,.-
1-1. 2-3.

3.1.2.


()

(. .

3.1 ,);
.

(2.32),

.!1_ (k
dx

dh)
+ _kE = 0 .
dx

(3.5)
155

Copyright & A K-C

()

= h2;

h (L)

= h1

(3.6)

[!]

[I]

d 1h dh)
~ dx

= - ._k dx '

dh

h dx = - k + cl

[}]

k dx + cl dx;

h dh = }f
2

+ 1 + 2 21 h L- - k '2


h2
2

2=;

[IJ

=I2+

h12_ h~

2L

h\.x)=-kx~

(h~ L- hi +
L) x+h22 ,

3 .7)

.. ;

[IJ
q(x) =

156

kh dx
dh = k_1_ (h = k (- ~ + h~ - hi + L) =
2 dx
J
2
k
L
k
:&..

Copyright & A K-C

(3.8)
.. ,

= (
).
. ,
?
? .

(. . 2.16,):

h(x) = -;;2 +
q(x) =

(hi -L ~ + 2EL)
+~;

hi L-~ + (L2 -) .

(3. 7)

(3.8)

(3.9)
(3.10)

(3.10)

.
. ?

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.4)

(3.3)

, (2.38).

.
, , -

157

Copyright & A K-C

h( L/2).

: ,

(3.8)

k?
(3.10)


.
u

(3. 7)

(
, .. ,
). -

, -
.

3.1.3.

h(x) = h 2

(3.10)

h2 =

vx/L =, h =, ..

,
- ,

.

h 2 ; . . 3.2

,
. ,
, (. 2.4),


. ,
( ) . .
3. 2 .

- .
(
-
- . 2.1),
, , (

). , -, -

158

Copyright & A K-C

. ,
?

1
1
~"'~~l"'t----- ----"""1
.

3.2.

1-

2-

,
,

(. 2.5).
,
.
:

(2.43).

3.2

1,

- h8 = ',
,
:
H(z) =z.

(3.11)

,
.

159

Copyright & A K-C

, 0

h (0 ) , ..
(3.9) h
(, ,
(2.50),
).
,

h2

h 2 + h,

, , ),

.
,

.
, ..

[32]:

(3.10)

3.1.4.

(}

, .

3.3,


(3.3) (3.4):

lfJ

lfJ1 - lfJ2

q=
lfJl lfJ 2

(2.63)

+q;2;

(3.12)

lfJ1 - lfJ2

(3.13)

,
(2.58),

lfJ = ~

(h- z;)k; (z; -

i =!
i- ,

160

[0, h]).

Copyright & A K-C

--

.---<f----~
... .......-.:-:~...........
.,..._., _.._,."""""""'. ~_:::.
-.._,...-

.....

- --___-

. "___/

......._...

--:

~-

3.3.

-. -- ...

_..._,. _ __,,

.
.
.
. .........., .
__,.
. ............

.........----+'"' . . . . . . . . .

- --.--

--~

hp

h h 2

(2.58)

q;l q; =f(h);
q (3.13);
q; () = q xj + ({Jz
xj (0< xj < L);
[Ij q;(xj) q; = f (h)
h ()

3.1.5.
=

-
()

(. 3.4) (k
2
0). .

q;/ =j (h -x)k(z)dx=f (h -z)kdz+

161

Copyright & A K-C

+J (h-z) Odz=kh-krrJ;

(3.14)

h2

h2

lfJ/' ~l (h -z)kdz=kh-k'i =k'i.


1

(3.15)

q=

lfJ/(L) -qJ/'(0) k~ - k 1'2- k


L
=
L

hi12

k ('lhl - ) - ;,;;

= -----"------:::-:---....::.
2L

(3.16)

.. -

(3.10)

h 1 -+(2h 1 -).
2

(3.17)

. 3.4. - .



(
1) .

162

(3.2)

Copyright & A K-C

q' =

(3.10)

l-z ;

q"

k (m 2- h 2 )
2
2l
q' = q"


,
l, (3.16).

,

.
:

, .

.

3.1.6.

, .. .
(. 3.5). i-ro

;/).;

qi =

[.
1

!).;- .

:

f).l

!12

!'!.

q = T l - [ - = T 2 - [ - = ... =Tn-[1
2
n

163

Copyright & A K-C

(3.18)

3.5.

q=Tp

, n

n [.

=L_!_
i = 1 ;

(3.19)

, n
,

l ip --.P.zj
1

(3.20)

, ,
.
.
. .
k n '

fi:
164

Copyright & A K-C

k =

L
=

(/k;)

(3.19)

; k;-
.

kP =

L (k; /),

;=

(2.53)

3.1.7.


()


(.

(2.32),
3.6),

..!!.... lkh dH) =


dx ~

dx

(3.21)

'


, .

. . .~
.(2) . . . ~ . .

. . .J:-~-/
...
/ ' ..
:;~\~ ~.

..

}; .-< .. .'\ .

-.

3.6.

------

1 -

2 -


- Jt ,

165

Copyright & A K-C

() = ~1 + z) = l(x) + z) = l(x) + ix,

z6

(3.21)

i = sin .

~ [kh (~~ + 1)] = '

(3.22)

kh (~~ + i) = const = q.
,

, . ,

. h = const
.

q =kh

h0

i '

(3.24)

, ,
(3.21).

h (dhldx)

+ ih = ih0

!l!!!L_i

l-t] -~dx,

166

t]2 =

h~ t]:

t]

Copyright & A K-C

(3.25)

17 ()

, = L 17

hi

= 171 = h'
2

h0 (3.24).
(3.25), ..
, , 17 < 1,
17 > 1, ..
( )
(. 3. 7):

[!]

(. . 3. 7 ,),
(1'J < 1);
(. . 3.7,),
<17 > 1).
(i < 0)

(. . 3.7,).

~
---~-~~t:~

. . - . ....;..
..~-~-~.. -.=
_-.-...........-:"__.-..
~~
.
... -...
'

(h 1 +~) /2

H2)/L:
q =kmep ! =k

1 ..

(h1 -~)( 1
2L

-2 )

--

(3.26)

.: __

.___ _.- ...~.:~ .... :

-_

....

...

---

..

. . 7.
/Ul

167

Copyright & A K-C

3.2.

()

3.2.1.

3.8

Qc

. 3.8. ~

.
.
? , ,
?


, ..
( r).
(2.20), (2.11)

_!!:_ ( dH) =
dr
dr
'

H=H(r).

168

(3.27)

(2.45)

Copyright & A K-C

(R ) =;

dH 1
=
d
r=r

Qc

'

(3.28)

[[] (3.27) :

dH

d =CI;

:
dH = d

dH =

ln

+ 2

[}] :

H0 =C 1 InR+C2 ;

1 =&;

= -~lnR

Qc

2'

1 2 :
()

Qc

=--In-+H0 2
R

(3.29)

(
). ,

Qc

= 2 ln R +'

(3.30)

.. ( )

Qc
Qc
Qc
()
= 2 ln - 2 ln + = 2 ln +

(3.3 1)

169

Copyright & A K-C

,
;

(3.27),

(3.28).

, ,

Sc = 0

2 (0 - )

ln (R/rc)

(3.30)

2S

= ln (R/rc)

'

(3.32)

- - .

.
.

(2.38)

k (hg- h;)
Qc = ln (Rg lrc)

(3.33)

,
. ,

(. 3.1.3).

.
.

.
,
r R?

3.2.2.

Qc
(. 3.9).

170

Copyright & A K-C

(
)

. ,

,

.
,
,

, .

3.9.


(.

2.3),

(2.28),

(3.34)
,
(2.11) ,

~
(r dH)
+(-) =.
r dr
dr

(3.35)
171

Copyright & A K-C

S' = lf' -

d'ls +! dS _ S' =
dr 2 r dr
2

(3.36)

'

..
, .

s(r) =

10

0 -

[ 16 ]:

cl '/ (/)+ ; (/)'

(3.37)


(1 0

, - ).

[[]

<

l0

(x)-+oo

()-+

-+;

112

0 () -+ln ~

-+;

-+ ,

05+{),1

' () .... - ~ ....

00 '

< 0,05+0, 1 .

r-+oo

='

dS 1
dr r=r

= 2r
Qc

(3.38)

.
.

r -+ / (rl) -+ :

-. ,
1

()= ; K0 (rl),

dS _
d [0 (/)] .d('{) _;. d [~(/)]
d -2 d(rl)
-
d(rl)

172

Copyright & A K-C

J ,

< 0,05+0,1,

[ (/)]

d(l)

lr =rc-- (. -

),
r r

Qc

Cz = 2

S(r) =

2 ~~ .(~).

0 ()

(3.39)

(/<

0,05+0,1),

S() =~ ln 1,12
2nT

(3.40)

r, r ?
. (. .
= 10 .. 30 ,

3.9),

,
S "" 152 S - 105 .

. 10 /.

~:

L!J

r ;

;
r
mP- 1 .

,
_.

173

Copyright & A K-C

, ,
, .

3.3.

. ,
,

,
,

() ,
.

__ ( ) + __ ( ) + r =

(3.41)

2.3

: ,

(
).
1 (, ) 2 (, ) - ,

. ,
3 (, )= 1 (, )+ 2 (, )
( ).

.

.
(, ).
(3.41):

174

Copyright & A K-C

( ) + ( )
-

+=.

, ,
(, ), n

n (3.4\):

( ) ( )
+ -- +(.;) =0.
n , n:

_i_ (S) +_l_ (S) =

'

(3.42)

(3.43)

(3.43)

n n n n
l)il n

. n

: n
, n,

n
. n,

n ,
( n , ,
).

,
,
:

,
, ,

. ,

.
.

, ..

175

Copyright & A K-C

(3.41), ,

(3 .3 1).

(3.31)

1
n
(, ) = L Qc1 1n r1 +,

2 1f

(3.44)

- i- ,
;

i=!

="" .
LJ
i =!

-, .

(3.44)

.

. ,
, ,

(3.44)

; ,
(

, .. Qci >). , ,
,
.

(3.39)

(3.45)
,

(~)=2~ [(~) +~(;)J +~'


2 ' : -

2 -z- = 1,

< ... ,
):

176

1-

Copyright & A K-C

(,)=+/;/ [(~) +(;) -(;) - (~1]

l.46>

(3.44), (3.45)
Qci > ,
.

.
:
,
, .

(3.44)

. .
. 3.10, ,
Qc .
,
: = 0 = const.
, ,
(3.44).

(. . 3.10,):

0 2/
.
Qc, (,
, Q
-Qc). ,

(3.44):

(, )= - 2 ;~ (ln -ln ')+ 2

177

Copyright & A K-C

J/

3.10.

" i 1:

i .;

.i .;

1 - mi

2
:

Qc

rc

2 = - 2nT ln 2/ - r

rc << 21,
:

Qc

(, )= + 2 nT ln

2lr

-,:-:rr

(3.47)

, ',

(r = r'), (, )= + 2 ;~ ln; 1 =
= const = 0

( -

).

, :

2nT
Qc

(3.47)

ln (2//rc)

(3.48)

(3.48)
3.10,6).

(. .

178

(0 - )

Copyright & A K-C

' , 0 ,

,
' (.
. 3.10,). ,
,

(
~ 0),
.
.
(3.48) .

- Qe,
:


',
(
). (
)
.
.

?
?
- -

(-)

. , (.

2nT(H0

3.11)

-)


,
(3.32) :

2nT

Qe =

(0 - )

ln (RirJ

'

R m

(3.50)

. -

179

Copyright & A K-C

R =Ra,

R = (R;:- r;:

/ Rg,

t 1
R=2l..

R,

. 3.1 1. ,

(3.50)

, ;
r
r0 ( r0 ,
), (3.50)
. ,

d
d > 2r0

, , r

, ( ,

).
, .
.

- r
(2.45) , - .

180

"'

),

Copyright & A K-C

r
( r

S)

r-rc

= ( r
)

r-rc

- ( r)

r-rc

~ - (r)
!1\

r-rc

r <---; ~ le,

~~ )

r --rc

(, , , -


).
, -

(3.51)
, .

,
, .. = =
,

He-Hc=Sc=Sl +S2+ ... +S;+Sn,

const.
(3.52)

S;

i- .
,

<< ,
. ,
, (3.52) n
, S. (3.44),
u
1

Qci'

,

;
(, ,
(2.32)).

181

Copyright & A K-C

3.4.


()
.
,
:

=!:J.

Q'

(3.53)


( ).

,
(. 1.6):
!:J. /). U,
- /, ,
(3.53) ,
R.

. ,
,
(3.2),

(3.54)

- , ..

,
,

.

(3.32)

(3.54)

182

Copyright & A K-C

Ra
L=-In-.
2 7

(3.55)


,
,
,

,
.

, , (. 3.12)
(

),
l = (. 2.5)
, ..
, ,

l.

,
,
,

. , (3.54),
L
L ,
L (. . 3.12)
L
L ;

> (. 2.5)
,
. ,
(. .

2.14)

L, / kn,
, kn -
. ,

(2.49)
m

183

Copyright & A K-C

(3.56)

3. 12.

~L
,
.
.

( )

1 2 (

, ), f
[34 ]:

1 -

~L- - (2 -xl) -xl'


2

184

Copyright & A K-C

_(/

- - -,--4-

~
1

3. 13.

,
.


(.

3.13).

, ,
Qc.

1 1 ~
1

[/)]
1 [Hz(x)], , , ,
1 () , 2 ()
.

--,

--

--

~ ,2 2
-,-

(3.44),
~
(2)
-,,2 ..

= v

185

Copyright & A K-C

r n () =
1
( = >, ,
rc:

>>

=- 2 ~~ [ln + ln (aJ+ ... + ln(n )1

fi

1 n.

l+

limzfi (1
n-+oo 1
, ,

-+

~\)
nJC

=shz=ez- e-z
2

(3.57)

nx

=----

(3.58)

.: .., .. , ,

. .; ,

186

1971.

Copyright & A K-C

2 (0 ) - 1 fx 0 )
() ( )- .

2 0

' ' = _:. 2 ( ) '


, (3.2), Q' g

Q' =2

R(x

)-

, Qc < Q ', ..

Qc'Xo

2() -> 2.
,

(3.59)

(3.57)

(3.58)

(3.60)
- >..,..
0 -~.

..

>
_,

, >, () = () = () = cost, ..
2
1
, , = = cost -
0
, .

(,) =~ [lny+ln(a-y) +

+ In(a+ )+ ... + In(na- )+ In(na+ )]


_ ?
-21n

Q[1 -

+=

y7'(n )1

+,

187

Copyright & A K-C

r,O

i\ -

\. 'YJ-

-+

+ 'JJrT
Qc
In

..

!!1.) .

sm

(3.61)

/2

(,)d

r,O i\ -
'
\. 'YJ = =
/2

Qc

=+ 'JJrT In r

+
(3.62)

dc-

cff2

[ 16 ]:

cff2

/2

f In sin dy =f In sin z dz =f ln sin z dz


'
Jrr/a
Jrr/a

=(

- 2 In2) = - 2 1n2.

(0, ), ..
, . 3.14.

, - ~
(, ) . U u

(3.63)
, ,
,

(3.4)

Qc =()-
2

188

'

(3.64)

Copyright & A K-C

>

( )

Qc

= + 2:r

(3.57)

(:r

(3.58)

Qc

+ ln :r d = + 2
(3.65)

q
2

Qc
=2

(3.64)

() -

() -

= + ~ ln = ~ + ~ ln ~
:r

:rdc

:r

:rdc

(3.66)

. . 14.

L!J

> ),

Qc

- =!!= "'- 1n -dc;


~'

-~

(3.67)

+ 1:1 ,
189

Copyright & A K-C

D..x = - l n n nd'

(3.68)

, ,

i rn

(.

nT

ndc

(3.54)

!:1=-1n

(3.66)):
(3.69)

,

, .

[34];

..

1951 ., ..
...

!:1

1 1 < .

1:1

!IJI

1:1

).
.
(.

3.15).
:

Qc
q=a;

190

Copyright & A K-C

qp

q =

3.1 5. .. . . . .

QJ

!f (3.62)

, r Q-



. .

3.16 ,

(
). :

(
),
, .

, .
, .
() ,

(
). (. 3.3)
, .
[6

'1Jr [H(r) - 1

Qc = ln (4!)- l (4!)-!() ,
= ( )

(3.70)

;
~ ;

191

Copyright & A K-C

t()

- ,
.

tx
1

(_ 1

L L L.

L.Lf1

~1
1

7
.

3.16.

7/< 7

7 7

7 7
/"';

~:

r
7.>17 l ~

, ~
.
(2.50).

=. (3.32~
( ):

QI =

'1JrT [H(r)- H(r0 )]


lri(rl)
'

(3. 70)

'1JrT[H(r0 ) - ]
Q = Qc = ln (4/)- o1n4- !(5)
2

, Q .. Q.2
1
( ), q (3. 70)
0

192

Copyright & A K-C

21rT IH(r)- 1

Qc =

ln

(/)+; '

(3.71)

~= (i-1) ln~~-it().
= 1 ( ) ~ = , (3.71)

(3.32). , ~
,

.
,

(3.72)

:

(. 2.5)
.


. (

8.2 8.3).

3.5.

3.5.1.

- ,

1. 7.
(. ),

~-) -

193

Copyright & A K-C

=~=~,
~

(3.73)

;
.

. ,
. 78)

(3.74)
. ,
(. 3.17).
,
({> = 0,5).

1 2

CD .

, ,

~<.= (

l = 1,
=

0). ,

,
:

[14, 34].

. ,
(. . 3.17 ,),
(. 3.18,). ,

,
(. 3.18,).
d , , ,

~ .
R ,

194

= R,

=R -

Copyright & A K-C

(, , =

' = k -

; .

1.7).

(3.54)

J! ' .

!}. ...

, .

~-

3.17.

() () -

(. .

3.17).

m -

!!J.L. = ~~ (1 -),
I!J.L, J! (.l.54)
I!J.L= 1 11, !!J..

11

,
, .

195

Copyright & A K-C

1'1

const

'

3.4),

(.

; / } / / 1 1 17171717 J

3.18.

- ,

() -

(6),

1 -

(-

). -

!1L
(3.69) (3.68).


.


,
.
(0,5+ 1 ), (

196

d!.

Copyright & A K-C

(3 .3 2)),

[ 14]

d!

= 'l:: ln d

(3.75)

,
,

Rc = ---- -

, :

1
=

d: (.

dc
(3.72)). ARc

, .
,

,

:

(3.76)
!- ,
.


,
, ,

,
.
.


?
, 3.3.

197

Copyright & A K-C

[34 ]. ,
, ,

.
, ()

. ,
(..
),

, (.
3.3). ,
,

(.

3.3).

, , ,

.

( ,
, , ).

3.5.2.

3.4

, ,

,

1'1 1'1 (. 3.19 ,).
,

(3.54)

198

1'1

= L\y;

(3. 77)

Copyright & A K-C

~ ~
.

=;

(3.77)

. 3.19,.

Rx RY

=R; =R,

(3.78)

- .

tJ'

t.'

.'

-t--

t.

+-

-t-

t-6)(

'

l)'

1 1

~7>

t,

t..

l ~

-~--

1
1

--

~~

--41

-1

. 3.19. ()
()

199

Copyright & A K-C

__ }_
/
1

"'

""' ----.-

kx

ky).

J.C

1>

f--JC-

, '

. 3.20.
-

()

(6)


, ,

[34].

, ,

(.

.-

200

3.20),

(3.32)

Qc
L\x
=--ln'l

'

(3.79)

Copyright & A K-C


,
(

3.4)

; -
Qe
Qe-4T ~ ~, i-=4" (3.80)
, ,

,
:

(3.81)

,
, :

1 ( 1

~ = "12; = 2n ln---,:;- 0 25

(3.82)


, ,

.
q (3.81).
,
, ,

(
(8.2).


. ,

201

Copyright & A K-C

(,
).


,
,. , , :

() :

,
(,
,

( 8.3);

l
' ,
(. 7.2).

, , , ,


? ,

?

2l (3.9), (3.10) (3.3)


(3.'<tr


(. (2.38)).

,
, ?

202

Copyright & A K-C

[I]

.
,
.

sl
~ ?
?
?
?

[]]

3.2

?
?

.
?
.

[IJ

- ?

- , m
,

~?

L!J

?

~ ? ?

l1J
[IQ]

? (
~ ?

L!.!J

?
?
,

3.1.1, 3.1.2., 3.1.6, 3.2.1.


?

, .

?
~ ?
~

?

?
.

203

Copyright & A K-C

, .

3,

( - )
. ,
,
, (
)

,

,
(. 2.3).
.

,
. . 4.1
. (
, l)

- (''),
(): (
)

, - '' (

).

.
(

2),

..

,
.
,
,

. ( 3)
.
,

204

0)?

Copyright & A K-C

:.~:..:...:.4_

: . J , , .

,.J'

.
.

''(

,.,,
,

.
.

..
.

4. 1. z

. ,
.

,
(

) (
) ,
: = f( , , t).

,
( ) >

( ) .

(2.22)

(2.33),

,
.
,

, ,
-.

,
r ( ,

t) H(r, t)
,
(

,
).

.
, r (.
r .

2.3)

205

Copyright & A K-C

4.1.

4.1.1.

(
)

,
. 4.2. (
). ,

/ ).

t =

(- ) -

1!1 .

- -
t > .

(2.22),

(4.1)

*-

;
=(, t);

= 0):

(O,t) = () + t1H 0 (t >).

(4.2)

,
,

(,

t) =

-+ .

(4.3)


(.

(,) = ().

206

2.4)

( >)

t = 0:

(4.4)

Copyright & A K-C

1.

1-

4.2.

rw ;

2-

rw

(4.1)- (4.4)

.
, :

(,t) =

H(x,t)- ),

(4.5)

t.

2(11.) = t ( ).
.

-------1 ? ,

(4.6)
(4.1)

(4.6)

AH(O,t) =

; H(rYJ,t) =; (,) =.

(4.6):

207

Copyright & A K-C

(4.6)

!!t.H(O,f) = 1; !).(rxJ,f) =; l!t.H(x,O) =

<4.7>

~, !).
t, L
L : I:!H= f( , t). - (. 1. 7),
~: 11,

, !!!.= f(), -
, .
, -

(.Ax!Va"'f ) n, n -.

, ,


, :

, .

(4.6)- (4. 7l.n

: = /(2 "'t)
(4.6), :
!).: !).(). t
:

(6. ) = OJ.
d (/).) dl
= (JJ.
d (6.11) dt
(2 ..["(?7
) =
dt
=

-7JJ. (6.11) 4t va* t =- 2t dl (!).);

( )

(!).) = 7JJ. (6. ) dx = 7JJ. (!).) dx 2 Va*t, =


1

= 2*

7{!).) =_i_ [_i_(!).)J


2

=-1- d [ d

2v.2fdA di

208

d1 (!).);
=-1_ _i_
2v.2fx

[d (!).)]=
Ldi

(!).)] _i_ =-1_ _{! (!).)

4a*t d2

Copyright & A K-C

(4;6),

d !~)+ 2 (~) =0,

(4.8)

~ .. =

= (!1.);

+2

=0-

d = -2d.

In = -:

~, :

-Jx [~()] =-

:
'1 100

~()
=

-i dz,

z (

).

00 r -+ , ,
(4. 7), !1. -+ 00 =. -

...

~ () = -

00

;
dz.

(4.9)

~
- , .. ... .

(4.7)

209

Copyright & A K-C

D.fh-

00

f -

dz.

vn/2 [16 ]. ,

Vii

=---,

2D.H 0

(4.9)

D.H

00

D.O= Vii {

-l-

dz.

(4.10)

,
.

(.
erfc:

2 00 -lerfc ()= Vii{


dz.
,

1),

(4.11)

erfc(oo) =0, erfc(O) =1.

LI.H

(4.12)

~ LI.H'I?rfc (z v-:' t) .

(4.12)


. , ,

(.

4.3),

, D.H~t)

() ,
,

210

(t 1

::5

::5

t2 )

Copyright & A K-C

!'!.= /),.~erfc (2 ./ t) + I'!.Hf erfc (2V'a (t _ t.))


(4.13)

H"ft)

(. 3.3) :
, t > t 1

t= t 1

,

.

4.3.

tn-J :5 t :5 tn

I'!.H(x,t)

=J,I'!.,"erfc [2 Ja (tx- t, _,)] .

(4.14)

. ,

q (x,t) =- =- (l!t.H)- =

=- I'!.H"/x [eifc (2 v: t)J - q,

qe -

(4.15)

,
.

d ( 2 ) -:l- )
1
i (f )= (f ) = v{
dz 2 'la* t =

11 1111

-rn JJ

3.3.

211

Copyright & A K-C

\iii7t7

-?

'

0
2
q(x,t)= !:J.H - !(4 *
J-q.

\iii7t7

. ,

(4.16),

(
)?

(3.4)

(4.16)

, .. =,

l!H

= v* t.

(4. 17>
(3.4)

(4.17)
,

(4.18)
t),
,
() ,

,
(
L).
,
,

, ;
, (3.53), (t)- t)/

, .

. t)
( -

). , ,
,

~ t). : , - t), ..

212

Copyright & A K-C

Vir

,t =2

!:J.H 20%

!:J.Je
. (4.12) , ,
,

~
. ?
(

).

(2.38)

(2.38). ,

,
(4.12) (4.16)
,

(2.35).

,

.

,

100 ,

30

.
.

(4.14)

(
).

,
-

213

Copyright & A K-C

/'1L( 3.4
). r

, r :

(4.14)

1'1

1'1 ,
.

I!!L

1'1L

4.1.2.


rc (. 4.4).
, ..

.
,

(2. 22)

(2.11) ,

( )

r r r =

(4.19)

H(r, t).

H(r,O)

=0 ;

(4.20)

(4.21)

.

214

Copyright & A K-C

4.4. .

'fJ =

4.1.1, -

72
---;j;
4 t

'fJ

(4.19), -

[H:H(rJ)]. t
'f/ (4.19)

(4.22)
.

(4.19).
=

:
: ln =
.

dH 1d 'fJ

=-1 ;rzdrJ.

-ln 'fJ - 'fJ + ln 1 ,


dH

(4.22)

=rrci

-
., drJ.

'fJ .

(4.21)

215

Copyright & A K-C

0 -H(YJ)

-z

= -1 f

_-dz.

YJ

(4.23)

. ,
r ,

Ei ( --rJ) = -

Ei:

-z

_- dz.
YJ z

(4.24)


(.

2).

H(r,t)

=0 -C

Ei (

l4

).
(4.25)

,
1
r .

Q, =2Jtr

~ ~~), =r, =-2Jtr r, ,{:, [Ei (4 :: ,)]},=,, =


=-

'}J(/'rc

1 {ddYJ [ Ei (- YJ)%;] }r = r

-2: r
1

2r )
- -=
(- --rJ
n
4 * t r =r
't

-4
1

-(?_(4
* J

r~/(4 * t)

t,

[- r~l(4 * t)] t
3 2
. , r -10 -10 /
1 . ~
1 %. ,

Qc

c1=-.vr

216

(4.26)

Copyright & A K-C

(4.25)

(r,t) = + ;: ; (- :t) ,
4

(4.27)

, ,
,
Qc.
S( r, )
0 ,

Qc
(
r )
S(r,t) =- 4 Ei - 4* t

Qc
=4
W (J)'

(4.28)

,z

1J = --:---;-:4 '
t

W = -; ( -J) '

[47]. ,

(
,

,- 3.3).
,

,z

1J

= --*- < 0,05+0, 1 '


4

(4.29)

- 1 ( - 1J) (0,56/1]),

ln

=~ln 2,25 * t
4.7l

r2

(4.30)

r 1 r 2 ,
S 1 S2 11 S ,

(4.29),

Qc
'z
11S = - - l n 2.7lT
r1 '

(4.31)
217

Copyright & A K-C

3.2
. , ,
(4.29),

, ..

. ,

,
,
,

(4.28), (4.30)

(4.31)

(. . 5).
,
,
. ,
,

,
.

3.3

.
(. 4.5)

r .
(.

3.3).

Qc

t0 ~ , u : t0

(
-Qc). , ,
(..

> t)

Qc (
r )
S = 41ff - 4* t

218

Qc
+ 41ff
; [ - 4 *(t- to)] (4.32)

Copyright & A K-C

---

4.5.

t' = t - t0

t0 ,

tt'

<0,1'

(4.33)

~:~(-____!!___)=
-.(-~)
4 * t
4 *
1

(4.32)

10

!). S(t') =

S'(t0 )

S(t0

+ t') =

QcT Ei (4

-+-) ,
4

t'

(4.34)
.. ,

(4.33), 1:1 S'


. 1:1 S
,
, t', , -
. ,

, (4.29)
ln (2,25 * tlr ~ -Jn (2,25 * tofr ~ = ln (tlt0 ) = ln (1
t' lt ) = t' lt :

219

Copyright & A K-C

. , ,
, ,

(4.34),

(4.29).
r

(4.34),

,
. , (= )

!iS = Qc l 2,25 * t'


4: n
,2

(4.35)

(
, .) .

'l:n:T Sc

Q-

'l:n:T Sc

---=~

- l ~+ -l
n

[42]

\iii":7"

(4.36)

,
Sc :

(4.37)
t
1t)

(2, 25

S / t) 1Qc = /( t),
( )
(. . 5).

(4.36), ,
(3.32)

R(t)

220

=v

1r

*t

+'=

v * t .

(4.38)

Copyright & A K-C

R( t)
, , ,

(. 4.1.1).
, ,

(. (4.18)),
(. (4.38)) .
,

( - )

(4.38),

R( t) .

4.1.3.

q
. ,

(. 3.3).
q
,
(4.28)
,

(., ,

4.1.2).

3.3.
(
)

(. 3.4).
, ,

( )
. ,

221

Copyright & A K-C

,
, (. 3.4).
,

(3.71)

n, (3.32),
n n (4.36)
:

Q -

1JrT Sc

----;;==;F-~
4

c-InYa t +~

(4.39)

rc
~ , (3. 71).

, ,
,

. (.
(

4.3)

) ,
.
() .


, -

.
,

( ,
) . ,

(,
) ,
,
.
()

[1].
(.

4.6)

n, (

, )

222

Copyright & A K-C

[,

( l, t). , ,

(t).

,
.

, ,

,
(
) (


. 4.6.
L

l = 0).

(4.38)

, , ,

t R( t;> . 4.6).
1
R( t) CD.
(t;>
[0, R( t.) ],


Q(t.) t 1 ,
(3.53), :
.

(4.40)

!1H(t;)-

R( t;).

([ = 0)

,
(.

3.4),

,
(. 3.4)
. (4.38),

223

Copyright & A K-C

t >--.'

(4.41)

t-

, ,

,
(.

4.2.

4.3)

4.1

.
,

.

- ,
, ,

,
.

t,
-,

[ 16] .

F( ;, t) -
; .

L 1 [F(x;,t)]

1 00

=-f
tp

[16]

F(x.t)e-tltPdt=:P(x.),
1,

(4.42)

F( ;, t) ,

( ;>
F -

r,

pyrnx .

224

Copyright & A K-C

tP -


. ,
: F( ;, t)
'F( ;), (
, F' () -
F( ;, t) ).
F'(x;), , ,

F( ;, t).
[16].

L 1:
L/ F1 + F2 ) ... Li F1) + L/ F2 ) = F 1 + F2 -

~ ;

Li

)= (- const)

L 1 {D (F(x;, ()]} ... D{L1 (F(x;, t)]} = DF<x;) ( D r r , r


4l L 1 (F' ( ;, t) ) - ~1 / tp) 'F(x;J - F( ;, t) 1t _ -


~ .
,
(4.42) .

.
(2.22), (2.33) ,
S( , , t),

:
S

7ft= D(S)'

D( S)

(4.43)

S).
(4.43)
- (4.42), -:

225

Copyright & A K-C

L 1 [S(x,y,t)] = tP

00

f S(x,y,t) -tlt dt =,.)?1' (, ). ( .4 )


4 4

L 1

(4.43)

'SitP - S lr == D ('S).

(4.45)

~ , ,

S( , , t)

t _ 0 =,

(4.46)

.

(4.46)

-. ,
~

,
-

() -

'S.

[16].


(. 4.1)
. r (4.19)

1__4_ (rdS)

r dr

dr

--J-s=o.

tP

( 4 .4?)

{[1#)r=rc =-::/;
226

S'

j,-+oo=O.

(4.48)

Copyright & A K-C


( ),

3.2.2.

{?

!()=-
'l

~ [ v'( 1/

tp) ]

:.r::'7j
* '
(V tp ~[ v'1 1 ( tp]

(4.49)

0 1 -

1 ~ < 0,1 1 [ v' 1/('~ tp] =,

= (V)!/:t; (4.49)

J,

S() =~ (v}: 1

(4.50)

S:

{?

2J

s(r,f) =- Ei ( - - . ,

(4.28).

(
) m,

,
:

[22]

s (t) =0,9 (- SI + 136 S2

! 1 S2 S3 -

156

S) ,

<4.51>


, :

tP

= 2,89 t;
1

tP

= 3 tP 1;
2

tP

= 5 tP 1
3

(4.52)

t - .


.
(4.50). (4.51), :

227

Copyright & A K-C

2 TS
(r,t) = 9 [- (1 ' 18 .)+ 5 ,333 0 (2 , 03 .)Qc
- 3,2 (2,63 .)]
. = r/(2

va:"t).

:
(4.46) (
),

S( , , tP)

S( ,

t).


(
) :

. , ,
,
(. . 5),

S .

S,
S( t).
,
-

(4.44),

[23]:
n

f S(t) (- tltp) dt = 0 S(O) + L Ak S(tk) .

k=l

(4.53)
"
.

228

Copyright & A K-C

- tk
xk--

tp

..

0,091

0,335

0,403
0,332

1,128

2,396

, 138

4,167

0,0316

6,487

0,0398

9,428

0,(3)264

13,102

0,(5)836

17,696

0,(6)106

tP

(,

),
- ,

tP , t
tP
t,

(4.53)
S(t). (4,53)
- .

S(t)

t ~ t1> , (4.53)

=f j s(t) -t/rP dt = -tltP ~ Ak s(t1 + tk).

tk = t-

tk/tp.

k=I

(4.53)

t1. tl tp

S(t)
.

, (4.44)
t .

, t .!, ..
/ exp(-t/ t ) .
/, (4.44)

229

Copyright & A K-C

t0

t
~

,
.

(4.54)

tmln -
, tp

(4.55)
,
tmln , 1t
0
S

.
, ,
Q ( t).

t)

Q/

?'\

\.!

=t1 Q)J Qc ( t) -tlt dt .

(4.56)

(4.50)

(4.57)
r<

0,1+0,2

~=-1-l 1,12
t?c 'J n Xr '

(4.57)

(4.58)
S

230

Copyright & A K-C

(4.59)
,
, (4.57) ,
.

5.

,
. ,

, ,
.
.

,
.
. ,

( )

(3.56)

(. .

2.14).

(4.6)

-,

iX~R) __
1 ~R=O
tp

dx2

(4.60)


[ 16 ]

~H=CI (-

v:tJ

+Czexp

(v:tJ .

(4.61)

!). 1-+ 00 =, 2 =. 1

( = ),
(.

(3.56)):

- (~)

= ~ -~

15.L

'

(4.62)

231

Copyright & A K-C

-!!!t. !!!t.
( ) ( )

. ,

!:1, :

!:1 =

!:1

1 + !:1L

Yat;

(- _)
tP

<4.63)

, r

!:1 11 ' ~~;~

7s:R

ln

L ,

,
= ctg .
, ~ , fi
!i.L : = ln (1 + !!!t.Liv t ).
, .
t ,
- ~
. (, )

?:!1
X1f:. =
2

2 - 1

_-:- tP

, !:1

!!!t.L

tP.

4.3.

4.3.1.



- ,

, , .
q
,

.. 40- .

232

Copyright & A K-C

,
, ..

-
;, ;, tk.
( , , t) :
( ;, ; tk)
.

~
,

, . ,

,
L ; ( s

x;S L)

/j. ,

t
tk(Os tks t) /). t,

(;1 tk):

l : : : (;, tk) - (; _
x;,tk

1,

dx

l : : : (;, tk) - (;, tk _

( Xi.fk

tk) ::::: (; + 1, tk) - (;, tk)


dx
'
(4.64)
1) :::::

(;, tk + 1) - (;, tk)


/j. f

/j. (

(4.65)

2
2

x;,tk

:::::

1
1
X;,fk- X[-1tk :::::
dx

[ (x;+1,tk)- (x;,tk)] //).

[ (x;,tk)- (x;-Ptk)] //).

dx

dx

(x;+Ptk) - 2 (x;,tk)

(d )

+ H(x;-Ptk)
(4.66)

233

Copyright & A K-C

: (;, tk) =;~ /~-



i
(Os iS V1!1x

k-
(0 s k s 1!1 tl t). ,
, (4.1) i, k
- :

k
* H i+I

k+k
- 2 i
;-J

(1!1)2

.k-k.-1

= ---=-____,.---=-1

1!1t

(4.67)

.
:

H ;k-

1!1

;-1

+1 1!1

k-1

*Hi

k
- ;

1!1 t

=#

'(4.67)

(.

4. 7 ,).

1,

( i

i-

i + 1 i,
,
( i - 1/2; i+ 1/2),

(i

+ 1/2)

11 2)

. , (4.67) -

4.3.2.

(4.67) ,
,

#*

/'- 1 - H;k
/'. - H;k
* H;k_ :- 1
T;-I
1!1
+ Ti+I
1!1
= #;
1!1 t
1!1 '
(4.676)

234

Copyright & A K-C

. - t:.kJJt

--- -

t =-(k+i)LJ.t

. ~ . . ~- ...., . . ..
. . ~
'"" . :::t: . i . .. .
" ",. . .1 .

...-.:

.....

L -1.
k-f

k-1

k-f

ui.

Ul-t

Ui+J

i+l

i,

L-1

. 4. 7.
:

u,':,Ri.-1 Uf Rt+t ti',


-

;. 1 i+I

. -

i+(i- 1) i+(i+l);

/'- 1

;-I

H;k

(3.54)\ :

/'-

;+1

H;k

=.. (J).
1

H;k_

:- 1

L1

(4.68)

- i + 1/2
i - 112, i (; = 1);

#;* -

235

Copyright & A K-C

""'
J-

j=l

j=

(n

= 2).

(4.68)

k-1

=# * (J) - --- : - - At

1,2 ,

(4.68)

'

, .

4. 7.

, ,
i- , :
k
;-1

1+1

----+
R;-1

R;+I

r.k-1

,-

+ ,

Rt.1

'=

(4.69)

( u
. 4.7). (4.69):
k
j-1

k
i

-=---

Rj-1

k
i+l -

k
i

R;+I

r.k-1

j - uj-

= ----=:---

Rt.1

(4.70)

~-

2:n

i=

"- ~-

=---

Ri

(4.70)

Rt

3.5. 2,
, (4.70) (4.70)
(4.68) (4.68)

, :

At

aRt =-;-,

f.l

(4. 71)

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= t
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,

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(6.19) qc,
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t):

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(t >) ;
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(6.22)

332

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ra~e 1 ()
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- 0

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t

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4.1), (. 4.2):

= 0,5

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.,

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erjc (z) -

7n

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4.1).

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=

0,5 erjc ~.

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(6.27)

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111 -

1 -

333

Copyright & A K-C

II -

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0).
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vt

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,

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=10
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+ d1 xn = 2 V(Dlv + d1)

xn = 2 V (D/n) xn
(6.29)

(6.30)


(. (6.26)), xn
rn .

334

Copyright & A K-C

vxn
Pe=--

(6.31)

(6.30)

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( )

(6.31)

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d1 < 0,0001 xn.

(6.32)

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6.3.2.


(6.27) .

335

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(.

[34 ]

4.1).

t0 ,

- 1

. r r
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- 1
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1


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] .

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( , t)

6.11,

336

Copyright & A K-C

, ,

n'< n,

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= ' ,u

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6.4.1.


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6.3),

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6.12).

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338

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.._

--

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J)f"'.no

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2 0 (, z, t)

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2
z

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J'

(6.35)

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D ...,! 0 ,
,
:

339

Copyright & A K-C

(6.36)
,
, z/t) ::5; m
0

*=

t'

DM t

< 0,3.

(2+3) 10-5 2 /, 0

::::=

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D

0,4,

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(. . 6.2)

[37]:

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erfc( 2 ~ v V~to~to
, ( < ~ t),
t- t
0)

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(6.39)

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v.
(6.39)
t0

r ( )
2.
(6.39)
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(6.19)

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340

() .

Copyright & A K-C

, dx
, (. (6.1 3)):

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,

(6.21),

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z=o

(4.42),

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z=o

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=D...,--2.
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=

- z

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~
z

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At

mn+
tP

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~ v dx
J~)

341

Copyright & A K-C

l = 0 =
= l ...,. 00 = ~ , :
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- 0 [(- - - 1

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6.3).
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6.12)


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(6.41)

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[21]:

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: =

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0,5),
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vn =! nl + 2 n2.

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t > 10 .

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6.4.2)

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6 = 2/ s6, 6 =
6/ S6 (6.39)

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= 0,5 6 ; (6.37) :
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6.48)

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< 0,3+0,5 .

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348

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Copyright & A K-C


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t + v = 2'

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dz=CI ---

vz)
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= 01

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356

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6.1.1).

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(t).

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2 vD/n

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t11

(6.60)
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1.
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6.3).

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6.18).

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(6.19)).

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6.1.3).

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n n
n - nn (v - 0),
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n n n
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m):

lt = =; clt = =; i/-+ =cll =/2 =; 1/ = =

360

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n n -

4.2)

Copyright & A K-C

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:

= 1 +a'IC

~
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[ 16 ):

=c0 ecCt erfc(avt).


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< 0,1

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rp

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2

(6.63)


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kc - ( k 1m 1 + k 2 m2 )/ ( 1 +
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366

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6.6),

v()

v =2

v() =~
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371

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372

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n.

373

Copyright & A K-C

v=-k(W)a,

(6.67)

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W-

=w(W-2)

- 2 (1 -

F/ ln (1 - W) =

Q lw=l

= W(n =3,5)

).

. 6.23. :
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374

k = k<w"~ (6.68)

Copyright & A K-C

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-


(!! ),
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W-W0
W=W-W:'
n

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375

Copyright & A K-C

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1)1, ,.,((
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6.24. . . 24

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376

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awaz=az dW'

Copyright & A K-C

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)

'1'' w u
ud'P
dW.
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vy

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dw

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Dw(W) ,

377

Copyright & A K-C

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6.9.

6.9.1.

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2.2,

dt

vz dt - [vz

W dt dz ,
+ vzz dzJ= t

vz

z +t =.

(6.73)


(. 71) ( ) ;

378

Copyright & A K-C

w= __ [n

z,

(W)
w

w] + k (W)

(6. 74)

(6.74)

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379

Copyright & A K-C

, (vz =- v~,

(6.71),

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=az- + k (W) = vz

(6.75)

(W =

= const),

..

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k (W) W.

, vz

[25 ]:

(6.76)

w:0 -

w; ::s; W ::s;

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).

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Dw(w)~ -k(U1 =a(W- ~).

(6.77)

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380

Copyright & A K-C

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vz-

v:

vz

vz

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[25] .
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W (

W < W 11 , .. ).

381

Copyright & A K-C


dl
dt, -

(W - W0 ) dl = k dt,
,

(6.78)

- dl- k (W)
vt = dt - W - W:

(6. 79)


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wn (dko)J/n"

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n =3

(6.81)

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vt=~n ~

6.8.2),

(6.82)

382

Copyright & A K-C

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383

Copyright & A K-C


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6.26. :

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385

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387

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Copyright & A K-C

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6.4),

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Copyright & A K-C

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8.11).

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50 , =
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483

Copyright & A K-C

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kP- (2,5 10) 1(15 35) ... 0,05). r,
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484

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485

Copyright & A K-C

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8.4.3.

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486

Copyright & A K-C

if + ~

k+1- :

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k+1

k +l

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487

Copyright & A K-C

, 4.3 (., ,
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(4.75)

(6.21):

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k i -

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;
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4.3.3);

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k+I_ k+I= Dl1t (k+t_ 2 k+I+ k+I)+v!1t(k+I_ k+I)


;
n (f1x)2 ;-!
;
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C;-I
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(8.21)
:

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1

488

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k (!1ti
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+ '

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Copyright & A K-C

3 )k @..:.+
3
k
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6
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v x~ID =50,
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489

Copyright & A K-C

> 5-1

= L/ l!x,
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8.12).
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r.

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lJI'f

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490

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Copyright & A K-C

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(8.25)). ,

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8.13).

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1. .., ..
. .,
, 1953.

2.

.., .., ..

. ., ,

1972.
3.

.., .., ..

. ., ,

1973.

.. . .,
, 1973.

4.

S.

.., ..


. ., ,

1972.

6.

., ., . -
. ., , 1971.

7. .. . ., , 1988.
8. .., . .
. .,
, 1948.

9.
. .. 1 ., , 1976.
1.

1 .., .., ..
, .. 1 ., , 1977.

11. ..
. ., , 1976.
12. .., .., ..
. ., ,

1972.
506

Copyright & A K-C

13. .
. ., , 1969.
14. .., ..
. ., , 1970.
15. .. ,
2- . .-., , 1943.
16. ., . . .,
, 1978.
.., .., ..

17.

, .

2.

., ,

1963.

18. ..
. ., , 1975.
19. .., .., ..
. ., , 1988.
20. .. -
. ., , 1974.
.., .., ..

21.


. ., ,

1988.

22. .., ..
. ., , 1974.
.., ..

23.

- . .,
,

1978.

24. .., .. , .,
, 1967.
25.

. .

., - ,

1973.

26. ..
. ., , 1985.
27. - ..
1952.

. ., ,

501

Copyright & A K-C

28. ..
. ., , 1966.
29. . . .,
, 1961.
30. ., ., .
. ., , 1976, . 1.
31.
1981.

. . ., ,

32. .. . .,
, 1956.
33. ..
. ., , 1960.
.. . ., -
, 1979.

34.

.., .., ..
: 2- . .,
, 1975.

35.

36.

..

. ., ,

1959.

37. Bear J. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. N. ., 1972.

38. Beavers G.S., Spaow .., Rodenz D.E. Influence of


bead size on the flow characteristics.- Trans. ASME, 1973,
40, N 3, . 655-660
39.Bredehoeft J .D., Papadopulos I.S. Rates of vertical
groundwater movement estimated from the earth's thermal
profile. - Water Resources Res, 1965, vol, 1, N 2, . 325328.
40. Domenico .. Concepts and models in groundwater
hydrology. N.Y., 1972.
41. Freeze R.A.,
York, 1970.

J.A. Groundwater. Ottawa, New

42. Hantush M.S. Hydraulics of Wells. Hydroscience, 1964, vol. 1, . 201-291.


508

Advances in

Copyright & A K-C

43. Jacob
Aquifer. 574-586.

..

On the Flow of Matter in Elastic Artesian


Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 1940, pt. II, .

44. Lofgren B.F. Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater


Withdrawal, Arvin-Maricopaarea.- Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper
437-D, 1975.
45. Louis . Etude des ecoulements d'eau dans les roches
fissures et de leurs influences sur stabllite des massif rocheux.
- Bull. Direction Etudes et Recherches, Ser. , 1968, N 3, .
5-131.
46. Stark .. Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes
Equations. - The Use of Analog and Digital Computers.
AIHS Pul., 81, v. 2, 1968, . 53-78.
47. Theis Ch. V. The relation between the lowering of the
piezometric surface.- Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 1935,
vol. 16. pt. 2, . 519-524.
48. Walton W. Groundwater resources evaluation. McGrawHill , 1970.

509

Copyright & A K-C

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