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..

--

2015

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373.167.1:54
2472
444
33

33

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ISBN 978-5-222-24675-7


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ISBN 978-5-222-24675-7

373.167.1:54
2472

.., , 2014
, , 2014

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1. , .
2. : +7N, +33As, +35Br, +26Fe .
118 .
3. () () (Z)
(N):
() = Z + N.

.
, () : -12, 12C, -17 17O,
-35 35Cl.
4. , ,
1/12
12, 12.
Ar(Ca) = 40,078, Ar(Cl) = 35,453.
5. , , .
6. , .
7. ,
.
8. () ,
1/12 12.
3

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9.
(, , ), . , , .



- ,

H, Cl, P, Fe
H2, Cl2, P4 , Fe
;
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12.
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13. , , , .
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() ,
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14. () (NA): 6,021023 ( ) . N = 6,021023 1.
N = N(1) n ().
15. (M) 1 (6,021023
) ( , )
():
4

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= m() / n(). .
16. n( X ) =

m(X )
m(X) =n() M(X).
M (X )

17. ,
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(, )
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1. : Vm = 22,4 3/.
2.
( ): = M/Vm m/V.
3. (D)
:
DA/B = mA/mB; DA/B = MA/MB

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, , ( ). :
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
1V 3V
2V
:
T = const, pV = const

:
V = const, p/T = const
:
p = const, V/T = const
1V1/T1 = p2V2/T2
. . p = 101,3, T0 = 273 K

n = m/M; n = V/Vm; n = N/NA


m1/m2 = V/Vm; m/M = N/NA; V/Vm = N/Nm
DA/B = mA/mB; DA/B = MA/MB.



: 1869 . ..

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: ) IIII. :
2, 8, 8; )
IVVII. : 18, 18,
32, 26 ( ).
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p
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1,6731027 1,0073 ... 1,60210 19


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. .
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(),
(, , ) ().
, () -.

CnH2n+2

4
26
38
4 10
512

2
33
323
3223
32223


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, 38 (),
.
0,154

() (
).
CH3CH(CH2)3CHCHCH2CH3
|
| |
CH3 CH3
C2H5
3,4,8-
, ,

60

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24
(. .), 515 , 17 .

.
.
1. :
:
CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl;
: CH4 + HNO3 CH3NO2 + H2O.
2. :
, :
1022 510 + 512;
: 26 24 + 2;
(-
:
614 66 + 42.
3. :
():
H4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O;
, ,
.
:
2410 + 52 43 + 22
1.
2. () :
2RBr + 2Na RR + 2NaBr
3. :
Pt
+
4

10

4. :
CH3COONa + NaOH CH4 + Na2CO3
5. :
Al4C3 + 12H2O 4Al(OH)3+ 3CH4
61

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