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N /A

 A black or dark brown non-

crystalline solid or viscous
material, composed principally
of high molecular weight
hydrocarbons, having adhesive
properties, derived from
petroleum either by natural
or refinery processes and
substantially soluble in carbon

Bitumen that have been used in
paving, includes……
 NATIVE ASPHALT : A mixture
occurring in nature in which
bitumen is associated with
inert mineral matter.  
 ROCK ASPHALT : A naturally
occurring rock formation,
usually calcareous, a
sandstone in the pores and
veins, of which is found
 Asphalt materials have been
utilized since 3500 B.C. In
building and road construction.
Their main uses have been as
adhesives, waterproofing agents,
and as mortars for brick walls.
 These early asphalt materials
were native asphalt. These
native asphalts were found in
pools and asphalt lakes. For
example Trinidad and Bermudez
lake deposits (asphalt lake).
Trinidad Lake Asphalt

 First US hot mix asphalt (HMA)
constructed in 1870.

 Demand for paved roads exceeded
the supply of lake asphalts in late
1800, lead to use of petroleum

Basic Refining Process
 Asphalt is simply the residue left over from
petroleum refining.
 Crude oil is heated in a large furnace to
about 340° C (650° F) and partially
vaporized.  It is then fed into a distillation
tower where the lighter components
vaporize and are drawn off for further
 The residue from this process (the asphalt)
is usually fed into a vacuum distillation
unit where heavier gas oils are drawn
off.  Asphalt cement grade is controlled
by the amount of heavy gas oil
remaining.  Other techniques can then
 Depending upon the exact process
and the crude oil source, different
asphalt cements of different
properties can be produced. 
Additional desirable properties can
be obtained by blending crude oils
before distillation or asphalt
cements after distillation.



 It is a hydrocarbon product of Petroleum

crude which is semi solid material.
Bitumen by definition is soluble in carbon

The hydrocarbons that make up bitumen can

generally be made up of the following :

 Asphaltenes
 Resins
 Oils

 Asphaltenes are large, high molecular
weight hydrocarbon fractions
precipitated from asphalt by a
designated paraffinic naphtha
solvent. Asphaltenes have a carbon to
hydrogen ratio of 0.8. It is insoluble in
n-heptanes/n-pentane, etc.
Asphaltenes constitute the body of
the asphalt.

 Resins are hydrocarbon molecules
with a carbon to hydrogen ratio of
more than 0.6 but less than 0.8. It
provides ductility and adhesiveness
to asphalt.

 Oils are hydrocarbon molecules with
a carbon to hydrogen ratio of less
than 0.6. Oils influence the viscosity
and flow of the asphalt.


of Bitumen :
 Complex chemical mixture of molecules
that are predominantly hydrocarbons
with a small amount structurally
analogous species (sulphur, nitrogen,
oxygen atoms). Some trace quantities
of metal such as vanadium, nickel,
iron, mg, calcium.
 Carbon : 82-88 %
 Hydrogen : 8-11 %
 Sulphur : 0-6 %
 Oxygen : 0-1.5 %
 Nitrogen : 0-1 %


  Native Bitumen
 Cutback Bitumen
 Bitumen Emulsions
 Modified Binder

  :The primary asphalt product produced

by the distillation of crude oil. They are

produced in various viscosity grades,
the most common being AC 2.5, AC 5,
AC 10, AC20 and AC40.
 The viscosity grades indicate the
viscosity in hundreds of poises ±20%
measured at 60°C. For example, AC 2.5
has a viscosity of 250 poises ±50.


 Bitumen, the viscosity of which is
reduced with a suitable volative
diluent usually a petroleum distillate.
 It is a fluid binder that can be handled
at air temperatures.
 It can be mixed with aggregates in cold

 Types and grades are based on the type
of solvent, which governs viscosity and
the rates of evaporation and curing.

 1. RC (Rapid Curing) :
 use naphtha or gasoline as a solvent.
 high volatility of solvent
 tack coats, surface treatments

 2. MC (Medium Curing) :
 use kerosene as a solvent
 moderate volatility
 stockpile patching mix

 3. SC (Slow Curing) :
 use diesel fuel as a solvent
 low volatility
 prime coat, dust control


 A liquid product in which a substantial
amount of bitumen is dispersed in a finely
divided droplets in an aqueous medium
containing an emulsifier and a stabilizer.

 The emulsifying unit breaks up the asphalt

cement and disperses it, in the form of very
fine droplets, in the water carrier. When
used, the emulsion sets as the water
evaporates. The emulsion usually contains
55-75% asphalt cement and upto 3%
emulsifying agent.

 Emulsifier gives surface charge to
asphalt droplets suspended in water
 Cationic Emulsions :
 asphalt particles have positive charge
 adhere better with negative particles
(e.g. , silica)
 acid in nature
 also work better with wet aggregates
and in cold weather

Anionic Emulsions :

 asphalt particles have negative charge

 adhere better with positive surface
charges (e.g.,limestone)
 alkaline in nature

 There are three grades of the two types

of asphalt depending on amount and
type of agent used (C indicates cationic
type and its absence indicates anionic
type) :

 Rapid Setting (RS or CRS) —
 A quick setting emulsion used for
surface treatment, penetration
macadam and tack coat.

 Medium Setting (MS or CMS) —
 A medium breaking emulsion used for
plant or road mixes with fine aggregates
between 5 percent and 20 percent retained
on 2.36 mm sieve.
 - Used for open graded premix work and
bituminous macadam.

 Slow Setting (SS or CSS) —

 A slow breaking emulsion used for plant
or road mixes with graded fine aggregates
greater than 20 percent, passes a 2.36 mm
sieve and a portion of which may pass a 75
µm sieve.
 - Used in slurry seal, seal coat, soil/sand
stabilization, etc.

Specification for Cationic Bitumen
Emulsion for use in pavement Applications
(First Revision)
 The use asphalt emulsions is growing
due to various problems with asphalt
cutback including
 The solvents in the cutbacks, such as
gasoline, which are lost due to
evaporation becoming more
expensive. With emulsions, water is
the main material that evaporates.
 Evaporation of the solvents in the
cutbacks releases hydrocarbons into
the atmosphere which are damaging
to the environment.
 Emulsions can be used at lower
Petroleum asphalt flow chart
 More stable under heavy loads, braking and
accelerating forces and shows increased
resistance to permanent deformation in hot
 It resists fatigue loads and having better
adhesion between aggregates and binders.

 Types of Modifiers :
 Sulphur
 Natural Rubber
 Crumb Rubber from discarded tyres
 Styrene-butadiene-Styrene (SBS)
 Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA),
 General requirements of
modifier :
 Be compatible with bitumen
 Be able to resist degradation of bitumen at
mixing temperature
 Be capable of being processed by
conventional mixing lying machinery
 Produce coating viscosity at application
 Maintain premium properties during
storage, application and in service
 Be cost-effective

 Polymer Modified Binder (PMB)
 A straight run bitumen, the
characteristics of which have been
improved by addition of polymers,
namely, styrene-butadiene-styrene
(SBS), ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) or
polyethylene (PE).

 Crumb Rubber Modified Binder
 A straight run bitumen whose
characteristics have been modified by
addition of crumb or natural rubber.
Advantages of modified bitumen:
 Lower susceptibility to daily seasonal
temperature variations
 Higher resistance to deformation at
elevated pavement temperature
 Better ageing resistance properties
 Higher fatigue life of mixes
 Better adhesion between aggregates and
binder, especially under exposure to
 Preventing cracking and reflective cracking
 Overall improved performance in extreme
climatic conditions and under heavy
traffic conditions.
Some other bitumen :

  Blown Bitumen (Oxidised Bitumen) —

Bitumen, the properties of which are modified
by blowing air through it at a comparatively
high temperature and pressure.
 - used in wide variety of industrial
application including roofing, flooring, pipe
coating, etc.

 Warm Asphalt – It is produced using a
synthetic zeolite (aluminum silicate) during
mixing at the plant to create a foaming effect
in the binder.
 - use in Europe
 Foamed Bitumen – created by
the computer controller injection of a
predetermined amount of cold water
(usually around 2.5%) into hot bitumen
in the mixing chamber of a pavement
recycling unit.