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Intel

IT Innovation Centre

WiMAX :
,
,

. .
. .
. .
. .

. . . . .

-
-
2005

681.3.06
32.811
98

98

. . .
WiMAX : ,
, . / . . . . .:
-, 2005. 368 : .
ISBN 5-94157-812-1

Intel
, WiMAX.

, WiMAX,
IEEE 802.162004
IEEE 802.16.
WiMAX .
,

681.3.06
32.811
:

.
.

1. WiMAX
1.1. WiMAX
1.2. WiMAX
1.3.
1.3.1. Wi-Fi
1.3.2. WiMAX
1.3.3. 3G

9
9
12
15
16
19
21

2. WiMAX
2.1. WiMAX
2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.2.
2.3. WiMAX

2.4. WiMAX

23
23
24
25
26
30

34

2.5.
WiMAX

46

3. WiMAX
3.1.
3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.1.4.
3.2.
3.3.

59
59
60
60
63
64
68
76

IV

3.4.
3.4.1. " "
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
(OFDM)
3.4.4. BPSK, QPSK QAM
3.5.

3.5.1.
3.5.1.

79
83
90
98
106
118
119
120

4. WiMAX-
4.1.
4.1.1. -
4.1.2.
4.2.

4.2.1. MIMO-
4.2.2. MIMO-
4.2.3. BLAST-
4.2.4.
, (MIMO + STBC)
4.2.5.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.

4.3.3.

123
124
124
129

5.

163

5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
5.2. IEEE 802.16
5.3.
6. IEEE 802.162004 (802.16Revd)
6.1.
6.2. 802.16
6.3. 802.162004
6.4. IEEE 802.162004 (Revd)
6.4.1. ,
(CS)

130
131
134
138
141
146
151
152
154
158

163
175
176
179
186
189
189
197
199
204
204

6.4.2. -
6.4.3. -
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.5.2.
6.5.3. OFDM- MAN
6.6. IEEE 802.16
6.6.1.
6.6.2.
6.6.3. OFDMA
6.6.4.
6.6.5.
6.6.6. CID
6.6.7. IP-
6.6.8. OFDMA

212
219
260
260
262
263
275
276
277
285
289
290
292
293
294

7. WiM
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.3.1. MIMO, AAS OFDMA
7.4. WiM
7.4.1. SkyMAN
InfiNet Wireless
7.4.2. Nateks-Multilink 3
7.4.3. BreezeMAX
IEEE 802.16a Alvarion
7.4.4. PacketWave Aperto Networks
7.4.5. AN Redlinc Communications
7.4.6. SR-Telecom Angel
7.4.7. Canopy Motorola

297
297
300
304
310
313

343

354

319
322
325
327
329
330
332

WiMAX (802.16)

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, Intel Russia 802.16
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Intel 802.16
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WiMAX Forum-, 100
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WiMAX. Intel
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2006 .
Intel
ZTE . ZTE

IEEE 802.162004 Rosedale.
IEEE
802.16.
2005 . -
IEEE 802.162004. 2006 .
IEEE 802.16.
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211 ).
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2005 .
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2004 .

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2007 .

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2005 .

400500

2006 .

100200

2007 .

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$2,8 2008 .
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1000 $3050.
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In-Stat (www.comnews.ru), 2009 . 3% (8,5
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2030 .
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20052010 . "WiMAX and
Broadband Wireless (Sub-1lGhz) Worldwide Market Analysis and Trends 2005
2010" 2005 .
In-Stat 2009 . 3%
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2.3.
WiMAX
,

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MARAVEDIS,

11 $430 2003 . $562 2004 ., . .
30%.
$1 2010 . 2004 .
130

.
Airspan Alvarion.

Intel W i M A X - ,
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) 7 2004 . Intel
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Intel 2004 . , 2005 .
Intel 5116 (Rosedale),
- (PHY) IEEE
802.162004,
, , . .
/ O F D M (Orthogo
nal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Intel
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.
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.
2005 .
802.162004 Fujitsu W i M A X SoC M B 8 7 M 3 4 0 0 .
M A R A V E D I S ,
:

2004 . 785
40 ;

Alvarion (26%
). Motorola
Canopy, IP Wireless. (WiBro);


(Backhaul) 2004 . 8 1 % 19%
WiMAX-. , 2010 .
27% .
2004 . 2 1 %
;

O F D M ( 802.162004)
2004 . 18% 60% 2008 .

MARAVEDIS, 2004 . WiMAX


$37 . , 87%
FDD TDD.
3,5 50%
7 14 . 1,75 .
WiMAX
.
.
DM110
Wavesat (www.wavesat.com). DM110
OFDM- BGA-1156.
Atmel (). 2004 . Wavesat
OFDM- DM256,
PQFP-208. DM256
.
Wavesat
. 2003 . 25
$100 000 .
,
52 2004 .
$1,5 .

IEEE 802.16 .
,
3,5 5,8 . -
.
40
"Shark" (Indoor)
802.16.
2005 .
$2000 DM256 Intel
1 , .

$3540, -
ARM9 $2025,
$100. SiGe Semiconductor.
SE7351L/SE7051L Fujitsu

. Texas Instruments (TI) 2,5, 3,5
5,8 TRF , -

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.
$250
.
Airspan.
,
, $300,
$400. Alvarion Redline
"" , outdoor-
$500. ,

InfiNet Wireless ( SkyMAN Access), $595.
Intel PRO/Wireless 5116
, Airspan, Alvarion, Alcatel,
Aperto Networks, Axcelera Broadband Wireless, Gemtek, Huawei, Proxim
Corporation, Redline Communications, Siemens Mobile, SR Telecom ZTE.

PRO/Wireless 5116
WiMAX Forum,
,
WiMAX .
Intel Siemens Business Services Alvarion
- ( , )

WiMAX. ,
,
6 /, - 1 20
DSL.
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,
200 , 20
(
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Intel
,

WiMAX.

: 2004 . (John Davies), -


Sales and Marketing Group Intel,
Telkom,

WiMAX.

2.4.

WiMAX
Intel
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,
.
" " "" (
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Intel W i M A X .

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,
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.
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, $1000, "" $ 1 2
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BreezeACCESS
VL.
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BreezeACCESS V I .
p r e - W i M A X , 5,150
5,850 . BreezeMAX 3500, Alvarion
IEEE 802.16-2004,
W i M A X , BreezeACCESS V L

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$200 , 2004 . $650
700 , 2005 ., , $1 .
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25% - , ,
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.
85% BWA-
15% ( ,
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).
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, 5 : 5,2; 5,4; 5,6; 5,8.
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, CompTek, 160
.
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.
,
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802.16 (pre-WiMAX). ""
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.
,
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2,7 . (
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.
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.
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.
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, (MAN).
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,
, Wi-Fi. ,
Wi
MAX . ,
WiMAX
.
, ,

WiMAX, :
1. (
, SMF/SOHO ).
2.
.
3. . ,
( ),
( 1012 / 500 /
), , , ,
() .


- .1651,

,
(RLAN). ,
WiMAX
Wi-Fi.


WiMAX.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .

WiMAX 2 3.
WiMAX,
. 2.3.
2.3.


IEEE
802.16

,
/

= 0,9999

=0,99999

= 0,999999

159

20,2

12,7

80,1

24

151

13,9

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5,6

54

142

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5,8

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11

157

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,

.

,
,
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,
IEEE 802.16.

2.5.

WiMAX
,

WiMAX.
, Vs,
s- ,
.
,
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, ,

( )
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,
. 2.4.
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10000

SME/SOHO

1500

200

100

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1000

, VoD MPEG2
, VoD MPEG4

200

VHS

2000

2000

,
//

1,5

20
3
TDD
50


. 2.52.7.
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SME/
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( )



()

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64

128

2048

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( )

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120

200

300

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30

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2048

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1048

4096

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9000

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DVD

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2048

^--

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()

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30

30

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2.6 ()



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50

50

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2.7.



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5000

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,

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,
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1500

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,
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200

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100

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1000

6.

,
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200

7.


VHS

2000

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36,05
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2000

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1394,42

1.
(. 2.4)
Vs.
.

2.

.
Fv = I F v = IKv/5 0 , ,
:
s

V,

() ,
s- , //;

S0

, //
/.

,
().

:
FL= I F , = I V , / 5 0 = 454,26/1,5 = 929,6
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, ,
50 ( ),
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8 . 2.52.7
.
.

.

(. .
)
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, ^ , ^


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,
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12

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12

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24

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, , O F D M (
2048)
. /
- 5 10 .
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-

1.

,
4
80 .

. ,
10
^ = 3 = 3 .
90 9 10 .



WiMAX
3.1.

WiMAX ,
,
, .

.
.
.
( ),
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,
, . .
.
: (LOS Line of Sight) *
(NLOS Non Line of Sight)
.
,
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, :
;
;

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.
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3.1.2.
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[25, 28].

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. 3.1.

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,
, ,
.

.
U =
2

/ = -y/l +

-2Kcos(p~n/3)

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; = II/RQ. 0 < < I


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,
.
.
.
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23 , 46
.
, .

.
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,
1 (/,) (No) 1 .

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N0

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= S/R, R = \IT\y, / .
:
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( )
( BER Bit Error Ratio)
EIJNQ. EIJNQ,

R. ,
9600 / = 10"6,
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:

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.


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3.2.


.
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20%.

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[25, 28]. ,
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.
,
.
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180.
.
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, ,
. , ,
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.
,
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,
,
(NLOS) .

.
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,
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() (BER Bit Error Ratio).

/ (S/N). ,

BER / S/N (
1 EQ/NO) .
.
.
/ BER .
.
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BER < 10"* ( 1 106
). BER
, . BER >
> 10"3
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.
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40 80 ; U(t)

[25, 24, 28].

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5 ( = 15 6 ), 1,5 60
.

, ,
:
2
2
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2
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; 2
(
). = 2 2 .
:
2
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2(
:
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,
,
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,

( ).

:
.

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/(*) .


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,
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3540 .
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).

3.3.


.
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;

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;
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.
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quest).
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(Forward Error Correction).
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().
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Multiple Outputs). MIMO-
4.
,

.
,
1 . ,
-
.

,
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3.4.


- ( -

). ,

u(t) = U, cos(cof ).
,
(, ),
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: ( A M ) , ( )
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() -
, .

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.
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(); FH (Frequency Hopping)
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.

,
.
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.

FDM (Frequency Division Multiple).
,
.


OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing).
,

,

.
, ,
.

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().
.
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. , ,
C D M A (one) W i M A X 802.16 802.162004
SC (Single Carrier). 802.162004

,
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W i M A X .
,

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.
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.

U(t) ,
, (^ < / < +).
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M{U(t))

. U(t)
:
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+ T)}=

J dut J u,ul+lW(ut,ul+T,T)du(+

(-,<<+),

W(uh ut+x, )
U(t) : t t + .
.

,
:
1

()= lim \u{k\t)u(k\t-T)dt,

(^<<+),


U(t) - ( ()
, .
.
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(3.1)

,
95% .
, 5()
, .
()
, 5()
=
.
.
;
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.

: /0 (3.1)
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:
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]" S(f)df=0,95+Js(f)df.

(3.3)

, ,

",,


.
s[t\ U(t)], ,
,
,, ,
,
(/) .
, (3.2) (3.3):
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+~

Gs(fW

=0,95 \Gs{f)df-

/-/"/2

-./ 0 + /72

/+4/'/2

Ss(f)df +

-/-/2

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= 0,95 \Ss(f)df.

/ -/- / 2

, :
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*Ps=

\
0

Gs(fW+

\G (f)df.

s
/+/"/2

(3.4)

,

, . . 3
.

, , 0,5%
0,5% ;
99% ,
.

, -
(AM) .
.
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.
[25, 27], [28]

.


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)
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%
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. , ,
. -
.
.
.

. GSM
GMSK,
.

1,2 .

BPSK, QPSK, GMSK, FSK,
GFSK .
[25, 28].

.
:

,
( );

;

;
,
1 1 ;
.

,
.
,
,
. (
)
. , GSM
200
GMSK,
(), CDMA
(1,225 ),
QPSK.
WiMAX ,
,
.
.
802.16 IEEE 802.16a
SC (Single Carrier).

( ). -
, ,
, ,

.

,
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing),
.

3.4.2.
,
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,
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.
. (,
128 .) ,

.
(/).
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, ,
.
0 1 ,
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,

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.

, . . 3.5
[25],

.

I J

J !

3 \-


. 3.5.

J :

JT"

0 1, ,
;

;
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, .

() .
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,
().

:
= \-\ + 2 _ 2 +... + , _

(3.6)

+ 2,
0 1.
2.

.
, N
.
/,
N. N
. .
N . N

. ,
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0,
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. ,
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,
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- .
, . 3.5,
.

(3.6),
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+ 2"~

+...+ ,_ |- +

= 1 , = 1. = [ \ ...,,,]
: / = 0,
, / ;
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,
. ,

.
.

. ,
,
.
.
(BPSK, QPSK) - ( Q A M ) .

. 3.6.



.
= 7V)in/7iicn ,
, .

,
BPSK, QPSK
QAM,
.

(0 /(,
.
:
s[t, (0] =Acos{2nfot + [()]} =Acos{2nfot + [.1(00] }
. 3.7
, .

. 3.7.

.
(
) Wc.
,
,
.
,

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)
, ( )

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;


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.
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10...20 . ,
;
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,
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.

3.4.3.
(OFDM)
OFDM ,
(WLAN),
802.11 , ETSI BRAN , ARIB ,
, - .
[22, 26, 7], ,
1950- . (Multi-carrier modula
tion ),

,
, ,
. .
- () Ks(f)

Fk
. N(f)

n(t) .
. ,
, , ( / )
Fk

\.1,/\
K2(f)

Sl(f) = \

[.

(3.7)

f*Fk\

JS,(/) df<Pcp,
.

Fk N
/=^-.
N

(3.8)

K2(f)

S,(f), ,
;
.
OFDM .

.
OFDM

m- (w-) PSK,
BPSK, QPSK QAM . . ,
/ = , ,

, ,
.

,
.
xm k
N . N
N = NTX
. N
(. 3.9 3.10).

<,}

s(0

. 3.9. OFDM-

. 3.10.

O F D M

> = ^ l | - W * { j y [ * " ^ ) <).


:

; ; fk. = / 0 +

(3-9)

f n(N-\) I
expl-j \ r
,

(3.10)


fk.

N , = NTS LTS, LTS


(),
(
) .
,

OFDM-

GTS > LTS.


(3.7) , ,
K~{f)lN(f)

, . ,

1
,

K~(/)//V(/) . OFDM "


" ().
OFDM
,

(. 3.11) ,
( )
.
OFDM,
, ,

(), , , () .

. 3.11.

(3.9) ( ) = 0
(3.10), OFDM

N x

[ lit

'o<0 = * E ^ e x p h * /
*=
I ' J

(3.11)

Ts t = nTx, n = i,N.
/ = , (3.7) :
/

^1

/ ^

I .2\

,_ ._.

(3.12)
,
(Inverse Fast Fourier Transform EFFT).
OFDM
().
,
G Ts.
\Xjjllt \
(3.13):

^ = * Z w x p l / - L " = 0,(/V + C-1),

(3.13)

*=
L /v J

, ,
7?=-^--

(3-14)

N
[ ^ j = {xjjl0,Xjjll,...,Xl!nN+G_]\nocjie

- ()
(, )
.
OFDM- IFFT
. 3.12.
, &(/),

,
{/i,}, / = 0,L,
LTf .
\zftl)l \
z{t) = s(t) + n(t)

Z,l = i>,X,l-,
/=0

(3.15)

. 3.12. OFDM- IFFT

, G > L
( . 3.13
), .

()
( G
) :
Zm, = i / * X , , - W | . = OJV^.

(3.16)


. 3.13.
OFDM-
. 3.14.
Rmk {/?,*}
:
^

=jj

X Z^exp 1 -

= */,,-, i = 0,yv-l,

(3.17)

V/

( - 27l/ 0

), = 2^"/ ~7
/=
{

.
)

. 3.13. OFDM

. 3.14. OFDM-

{/?,,*} ().

,
OFDM .
OFDM 802.162004 (
802.16 Revd).
( 1,5, 10, 20, 25 28 ) N . ,
R /, , -

. 7V, = MR.
N ,
7>,.
"" . . 3.15
. 5-
.

. 3.15. OFDM-

,
. ,

( )
.

. ,

.

.

.
, O F D M
() . , ,
. ,
, . ,
-
. W i M A X
BPSK, QPSK Q A M .

3.4.4. BPSK, QPSK


QAM

(
) O F D M
, .
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
. ,

(-) .
BPSK, QPSK, Q A M .

BPSK QPSK
(
- 2 ) BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying)
:
s[t\ U(t)\ = /(f)cos(o>of) = /(Ocos(cDo/ ).
To ,
+1 - I
.

, ,
, v(r) :
1 < / < / ; . ,

v(/)=

(3.18)
.

J v(t)v(t + x)(lt = Tc-T 0<<7;,:

(/)(/ + )/ - 7 ; . < < 0 .

1
,

L 2 fl-M]
*() =

||<;,

'<)

||> .


(3.18) :

S(co) = jK(T)^4x = b2J{\^c-^\k


- )

= b\S^2^Tc/p.
(<*>/2)

(3.19)


:
5

b \

= ^ ( ) - 0 ) + 5[-(-(0)]} =

fsin 2 [((o-(o 0 )7- c /2] ^ sin 2 [-((Q + ( o 0 ) 7 ; / 2 ] |

2 | [(- 0 ) /2] 2

[-(( + 0 )7 /2] 2

(. . ) -2
:
Gs((o) = b2Tc\
^
; -, 0<<+.
[ [(<D-CDO)7- C /2] J



:

C ,(/)^o.g|

si 2[2 (/ /o)r / 2]
" " " - 2 U'Q' g f Sin2[Tl(/ " /o) ^ ] l-

[ [2(/-/0)/2]
f

1 0

1 /

[ [(/-/0)7-] J

( 3 - 2 )

ll

1>'"2/-/)^]1
[ [(/-/0)/]2

RQ = 1/,
-2 ( ) 1 .
(f-fo)Tc = (f-fo)/Re
.
. 3.16
Gsif) (3.19) (/-/)/ (
/).
Gsl(f) .

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
BPSK-.
QPSK :
s[t;U(t)] = /(Ocos(a>o0+e(/)sin(u>o0.

(3.21)

W = SB 2/ _^(r-2/T c ), Q(t) = ^B2ig(t-2iTc)


; g(t)
v(t).
{- / = 0, 1, 2,...} ,
{2?2/, ' = 0, 1, 2,...} -

. , , ,
,
b -;
.
(3.21) , -2 ,
, 2.
-2 v(t) #(/)
2, QPSK-:
,
[sin2r2rc(/-/0)7cll
G v (/)=101g
L \J Joj c j

[ [2n(f-f0)Tc]

iQlg

f s i n 2 r H ( / - J0
/0)2//?G]|
L ^
'
6JI

[ [(/-/ 0 )2//? ] j

. 3.16
Gs2(f). QPSK-
-2- (
).
. , ,
.

. 3.16.
(f-fo)/R6

, GS{J)
\/(f-fo) .
13
, 18 . .
-

.

, .
-2
,
/ = 2/, . . (f-fo)T, = \. 95%
.
(. 3.17, ).
+1 1 -1
0.

0 .
, . 3.17, .

_.^

-^

-*-*

'

. 3.17. BPSK () ()

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)


BPSK, BPSK +/4
-/4, +/4 -/4 ( +/4, +7/4, +/4 +5/4
). PSK
(-4).
. , :
00 - /cos(co0/ + 5/4)
01 -> (/cos(co0f + 7/4)
11 > Ucos((uot + /4)
10 - /cos(co0/ + /4).

.
(, ). -

, (
) cos((Oo/).

/.

.
, ,
- / 2 , . . sin(a)<)/) = cos(w<)/ - /2).
, ,
.

Q.
.
.
,

.
1/V2

1.
.
. 3.18.

. 3.18. QPSK

,

,
.
,
, , +1
1 - 1 0.

j=I{t)
V2
QPSK :
s(t) = - = / ( / ) c o s ( o v ) + -rQ(0V2
V2

j=Q{t)
V2

sin(oy).

,
, . 3.19.

. 3.19. QPSK = 4

,
.
. , ,
.
. ,
" , .

.
,
.

QAM
Q A M (Quadrature Amplitycle
Modulation) ! .
, . 16Q A M 16 , a 6 4 - Q A M
64 . .

, ,
.

. I /\,. (
),
. 1
,, 0 .
, , (, ) , .

,
.
QPSK (. .
3.15). ,

. QPSK, 256 .

:
.*,(/) =A, M COS(2JI/ 0 / + ,)=/?,{ , ){2/()/}], (/-1)7; < / < /,,
, = Afi\p{j ,}
, /;; = 1, 2,..., /.

:
*,,,(/) = /4m/cos(27t/b/ + ,) = <{)${21) + /\ i;i sin^ HI )sin(2n/o/) =
= afios(2nfot) + bms\n(2itfQt), (I- \), < t < /T,,
, bm w- -.
. 3.20 -16 (
).

. 3.20.
-

,
;
.
.
- \ogi
. , = 16 = 4. , ,
- = . ,

.
.
.
. 3.20
, .
, .
, , , ,
.
.
1024.

,
. , ,
. 3.20, \ {
. ,
,

:
= \\
, = 1,
/ ! . ,
. 3.20 { - 3 , - 1 , + 1 ,
+3}.

R - 3 . + 3)

( * / 1 = ( ~ 3 , + |)

( - L + 3)
(_,,+1)

( + 1,-1-3)
( + 1 +1)

'

(3, + 3)1
+1)

* ' ' " (-3,-1)

(-1,-1)

( + 1,-1)

(3,-1) '

| -3,-3)

(-1,-3)

( + 1,-3)

(3,-3)J

- , - .

. , , , ,
- ,

.

,
,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
.

/. '
,
/.
, .
QPSK BPSK,
/.
( / S/N).

. 3.21.

BPSK

^^^^^ S/N=6

/^^\
/

~^\ \

QPSK
S/N=9

i i / ^\ \
\
\

\
\

^^>/
^ ~ ^

/ / .

'

16QAM
S/N=16AB

. 3.21.

: BPSK 1/2, QPSK


1/2, 3/4, 16 QAM 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 64 QAM 2/3, 3/4.
. 3.1 802.16, 802.162004 802.16.
3.1. 802.16, 802.162004 802.16

802.16

802.162004

802.16

1066

11

11

32,0134,4 /

1,075,0 /

QPSK, 16QAM,

QPSK, 16 QAM,
64 QAM,
.

64 QAM,

QPSK, 16
QAM, 64 QAM,
256 QAM,
BPSK
OFDM

TDD/FDD

TDD/FDD

TDD/FDD

20, 25 28

1.2520

1,2520

25

46

48

() ,
(, 75
134 /). , ,
.
, , . .
, , . ,
256
192 , 8 - 56

. - 2.5
, .
256 . 3.22.

. 3.22.

.
DC
( ), .
.
.
(802.16
2004) (802.1 ),
.
. 3.23 1, 2,
3 . . .
, - .

. 3.23.

WiMAX ,

.
OFDM
,
. NT&
, ,
, ,
TQ.

.
.
OFDM- . -,
. ,

. -, ,
.
,
. OFDM-
. ,

, .
, , . . .
(, ,
),
. ,
,
.

3.5.

802.16
,
.
.

.
,
.
.
.

, .

. ,
. ,
/
, , .

, .
.
,
.
. ,

. ,
,
. ,

,
, , .

.

- .

.

3.5.1.
:

;

;

D ;

.
:
;
,
.

3.5.2.
:
;
;
;

.
, ;


- ;


.
,

.



. ,
" ",
.
, , ,
, -

,
22,5 . .

,
.
.
. 2,32,5
. 3,5 .
55,2 5,8 .

.

.
(28, 27].
.
( ) .

. 4 2005 .
"
" "
".
,
.

:
http://www.minsvyaz.ru.


WiMAX-

.

. , Alamouti STC (STBC), M1MO, AAS, Smart Antennas,
SDMA.
,
, [20].
.


.


.

. . 4.1
.
,
SNR. . 4.2 MIMO-
. ,
.
, .
. 4.3.

. -

, Nt x Nr Nt Nr
.

.
,
1/2.
1, . . ,

, .
/ (SNR). ,

.
/2.

/ C(SNR).

, I ,
/ - .
BER FER (
) SNR.
,
. ,
,
, ,
BER.

4.1.

4.1.1. -

-
Alamouti [l], -
STBC (Space-Time Block Coding) [18]. STBC
, .

. -

STBC ,
, .
STBC ,
.
( ).
, ,
d\ , di .
(h ( * ),
d\ .
,
, \ .
=h\d,

+h2dt\

" .
2 = - / l | < / 2 +/2^l '

(4.0

/ : () .
h\ (hi)
(
) . ,
,
. [10].
\ , ,
:
di =/ii*r, +->2*;

. 2

d2 ~h\rx

~h\r2-

(4 2)

(4.1) (4.2) :

<H*.|J+M2W.;
(4.3)
d2=(\h,\2+\h2\2)d2.
(4.3) , ,
(4.2), ,
d\ di .
-
. 4 . 1 .

. 4.1.
- (STBC)

.
.
,
.
.
STBC, . 4.1, ,
.
.
, (4.14.3) .
d , (4.1)

' I .

=Hd

Lr2j | ~h JLr/2J

(4<4

>

(4.4) ,
, ,
. ,
:
H* T H=(|/| 2 + |A 2 | 2 )l = ||h||l.

(4.5)

* - ,
. I , ||h||

. (4.4) (4.5) ,

* .
d = H*Tr.

(4.6)

(4.6) (4.2).
(4.44.6) ,
.
. ,
SBTC ,
.
,
. ,
, .


, dx

-d\

* d2

d\


:
~d2

~d3

~d4

A2 d2

dx

dA

-d3

} d$

-d4

rf,

d2

~d2

~dl

~d4

d2

d*

dl

-d]

dl

-dl

d*

d\

:
~d2

~d3

~d4

A2 d2

d\

d4

-d$

^3 d3

-dA

d]

d2

d$

d2

di

A,

d^

~d2

~dl

~d4

d2

d,

d4

-d$

d\

-d\

d\

d\

dA

d$

d2

dx

- ,
1/2,
, 8 .
,
.

:
,

-,

0 1
-
- |
- - ,


U j -Af - ;
*

- , *

Aj

- A j -A,* J

:
2 4 1
2 | -
A3 4 , 2
4 3 - A j -A,

h^

A,

Aj -,*
A3

A3 4
4

-3*

- A 4 -A, Aj

I 4

A3 2 Aj J

,
,
4 . :
rT

=[l

(4.6)
STBC .
STBC-
. (4.44.6) ( (4.3)

) ,

2 .

.7)

(4.7) ,
- ,
. ,
STBC- SNR .
-
, .

4.1.2.


.
.

, ,
. 4.2.

. 4.2.

,
.
.
. ,
-

,
.
, ,
,
SNR. ,
.
.
[9]
. .
,
.
, . ,

.

4.2.



, .
, .
(MIMO
Multiple Input Multiple Output). . 4.2.14.2.3 ,
(Nt < Nr).
,
, . . .
Nt> Nr . 4.2.4 4.3.
. 4.2.1 MIMO- ,

. . 4.2.2

. . 4.2.3
Bell-Labs BLAST (Bell Laboratories
Layered Space-Time). . 4.2.4 ,
MIMO- Nt > Nr. . 4.2.5

4.2.1. MIMO-
- - Nt Nr
Nt < Nr . 4.3.
Nt .

. 4.3. - MIMO-

- . 4.3
.
. Nt
.
.
Nt Nr .
Nt
,
.

,
.
.
Nt
. Nr Nt .
Nr - Nt , .
Nr > Nt ,
MMSE (Minimum MeanSquare Error). . 4.3 , Nt
, .
.
MIMO-
Nt .

.
, . 4.3 MIMO-
Nt ,
. (SISO Single Input Single Output)

. MIMO- SISO- . 4.4.

. 4.4.
MIMO- SISO-

MIMO- . 4.3,

. . 4.3


. ,
,
. . 4.5

.

. 4.6.


. , ,
.

. ,
, Nr
, .

.



.

4.2.2.
Ml -

MIMO-.
MIMO-
.

SISO-
C = log 2 (l + 5/V/?).

(4.8)

(4.8) ,
/ . ,

I . SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio)
.
- Nt
Nr [17]:
Ni

C = E b g 2 ( l + S/V/?,A,,>

(4.9)

=\

(4.9) ,
, . . ,
H H HU = MJ.

(4.10)

(4.10) U .
, . .
. ,
.
(4.9) (4.8) .
4.2.1. , MIMO- -
. Nt .
nt
, ( SNRnt)
1. (4.9) ,. Xt
.


(4.9) :

(4.11) :
C =log2detf/^xM+^HIIH\

(4.11)

(4.1 la) I NtxNt det


.
.

MIMO- .

.
1 (
1/2). NrxNt
, (4.11) (4.11) .

,
C(SNR).
. 4.64.9.
. 4.6 SNR
MIMO- ( = 2)
(Nr = 2, 4, 8).
(2,2, SNR)\ SISO (Nt = Nr= 1).
, SISO MIMO
,
.
, ,
SNR ,
.
2x2, 2x4 2x8 . 4.7. ,

-4,5 -8,5 . MIMO-
-

4,5 ,
8,5 .

. 4.6. MIMO- SNR

. 4.7. MIMO-

. 4.8. Ml - SNR
(Nt = Nr= N)

. 4.9. MIMO-
/

. 4.8 MIMO-,
(Nt = Nr = N). ,
. ,
NxN MIMO- N
1x1 SISO- ( ,
SNR). . 4.9.
, . 4.8,
N. 1x1
. . 4.9 ^-
.
. 4.9
. 4.4, MIMO- ,
SISO .

4.2.3. BLAST-

Bell-Labs
BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time).
: D-BLAST V-BLAST. DBLAST , ,
, .
D-BLAST V-BLAST ,
.
[4, 21, 6, 5]. ,
, [2].
.
,

r(f) = Hd(f) + n(/).

(4.12)

/ ; () /, d(/)
Nt\ () - ;
NrxNt.
,
, .
WiMAX- .

OFDM
. , (4.12)
,
.
(/) (4.12) Nr , ,

Rmi = E{n(t)nll(t)}

al\NrxNr.

. ,
Nt ,
. , ,
, d
:
Rdd=E{d(t)dH(t)}

= c2d\NlxNt,

Od , .
:

, SNR

SNR = r.

(),
:
e(r) = d(0-d(r).

. (/)
(MMSE-), G:
= [ + 1 / ^]" 1 =HQ.

(4.13)

, :
= ^- = .
SNR

(4.14)

(4.13) ,

G = H[HHH]"1.

(4.15)

(4.15), , (4.13)
al.
,
. (4.13)
, (4.15), .
V-BLAST- Nt (
d(/)) Nt . ,
( d(0),
.
.
1. d(f) MMSE- (4.13)
(4.15)
d(/) = G H r(f).

(4.16)

2. d(/), SNR
.
Q (4.13) MMSE
(4.15). \ dp\
dp](t) = Pr[dpl(t)].

(4.17)

(4.17) Pr[jc] ,
, -
3. r(t) .
dp\\
r2(t) =

r(t)-dpl(t)H^\

' 1 ' \ .
\ .
13 Nt , , V-BLAST .

r,(0-r(0.

|==[..<>]

Q, =[HUH, t a l ^ , J ' =[Q<;>Q(i...QL?)]


Pi=argmm(Q A ,,) j . ,

^c)=Q < ;; )H Hj!,r 1 (r)

<*,,() = *[<*,,(').]
: m = 1, 2

- 1:

1- r w+l (0 = r , - ^ ( 0 H f e > .
2. -, /, _, + i.
3- QM-III = | _ H M - I H M - / H

+ aI

/V/-ix/v7-/nJ

- P,+i=argmin(Q^_ m ) .
i

"

- ^.,c)=Qfei H;j,-rar,+1(/).

<L,<')=Pr[<W')] :
: \dpidp2

-dpNt

[4]
, ,
V-BLAST
MIMO-.

4.2.4.
,
(MIMO + STBC)
BLAST
, .


, Nt Nt . WiMAX
, .
,
. Nr < Nt
, .
, ,
Nr. Nr
,
Nt . (
),
.
. 4.3.
, Nr
. MIMO- STBC-.

. 4..

U(1)r a (2) ^
I (1)(2) ^

. 4.10. MIMO+STBC 4 x 2


.
,
.
, dA dB. I, 2

(dA\, dAi, dB\, dB2), . 4.1,


. dA\% dAi
. ,
,
.
-dA*2, dA V .
4.10,
. dB\, dBi, -dB*2
i\dB'\.
,
.
, (1) = , ,dA, + hndA2 + h]3dBx + hudB2;
r 2 (l) = hudAy + hndA2 + h23dB{ +

^dB^

, , :
, (2) = -, xdA2 + hx2dA* - h]3dB*2 + h]4dB*;
2(2) = - / l a , ^ + h22dA* - h23dB\ + ^dB*.
, r*i(2) r*2(2) \(2) 2(2),
:
, (1) = , xdAx + h[2dA2 + hx3dBx + hudB2;
r 2 (l) = h2ldA{ + h22dA2 + h23dB] + h2AdB2\
r*(2) = , - h*xdA2 + hx\dB{ - h*3dB2;
r2 (2) = ^, -h^ x dA 2 + ^?,

-h^3dB2.

.
.
:
dA=

\dAx ! 1
;
\dA2\

dB=

dBx 1
' ;
[dfi 2 J

, (1)1
r(l)=

II

r 1

L 2< >J

IV (2)1
(2)=

,l

L r 2( 2 )J

=[" 4 ; HB = [A" ;
L^l

^22 J

L^23

^4 J

HaJ*13 4 ; Hb = h*4 " ^ 1


[ ^24 J

L^ 4 ^ J

(4.18)
(1) = dA + HB dB;
(2) = dA + Hb dB.

(4.19)

dA .
()" (4.19)
(1). :
(1) - -1 (2) = ( - 1 Ha)dA.

(4.20)

dB.
(2) - 4 (1) = ( - "1 Hb)dB.

(4.21)

(4.20, 4.21) , 4.10


2x2 MIMO-, .
:
- "1 ,
:
- 1 .
,
, ,
, .

.
. 4.10
. ,
(4.20, 4.21) . 4.11 4.12. . 4.11
SNR.

. 4 . 1 1 . SNR
MIMO-

. 4.12. MIMO-

4x2 MIMO+STBC- 2x2 MIMO ,


4x2 MIMO- .
2x4 . 4.6.
. 4.11 , MIMO+STBC-
, , , ,
, 4x2 MIMO-.
4.12,
, . 4.11, SNR. ,
MIMO+STBC- 3 ,
2x2 MIMO- 7 . ,
, MIMO-

.

4.2.5.

,
.
,
MIMO-
.
.
,
: ,
() .

,

.
,
.
.
. -


.

.

.
(
),

. (-)

. , -
(PSAM Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation) [11].
, ,
.

:
= 0 + .

(4.22)

, ;
.
MIMO- Nt ( Nt < Nr)
.
\1 , (4.11),
.
,
.
.
(crosstalk), ,
.
, ,
.

. ,

.

,

[23, 3]. (
// (4.22))
2-

* ' 'itus

(4.23) ,
<
.
*mes

, ,
. PINt , Nt
. ,
, .

. , (4.23), :
= 4

= 1, 7 ^ = 1 ,

/> = 1.


( ) ( ) , ,
, (7^ = 1),
1 ( = 1), (Nt = 1).
[23, 3]

\ :
_2
KL

mut

'


, Xnh
:

(/ 1),
,
^,=4;

(4-24)

*, ^
,
,
. :

L= ^ 4 ("'--

(4.25)

(4.25) , Nt
PINt Nt-\.

:

Nt

Chip

mes

. 4.13. SNR

(4.26)
.
. . 4.13 .
- 2x4.
. 4.6
. ,
,

, .

. 4.14 4.15.
2x4
SNR (25 . 4.14 15 4.15).

.
. . 4.14 4.15,
SNR .

. 4.14. MIMO- 2x4


SNR = 25

. 4.16. MIMO- 2x4


SNR = 15

4.3.

,

.
.
, , .
.

.
,
. , ,

WiMAX-. ,
, ,
WiMAX-.

, . 4.3.1,
. . 4.3.2
,

. . 4.3.3
.

4.3.1.

. 4.2.4 ,
(Nt > Nr), Nr
Nt .
, ,
. 4.2.4. ,
Nr Nt , NrxNr
,
,
.
.
Nr Nt. To
, :
62

1-2.. .Nr

(4.27) , , 3x2 1,6 ,


4x2 2,6 8x4 6,13 . ,
, . . OFDM-
,
.

. . 4.16, 4.17
SNR 4x2.
:
,
;

. 4.2.4, MIMO- STBC-;


.
. 4.16,
,
MIMO STBC. ,
.
. 4.17. ,
4x2 2 , a MIMO+STBC
3 .

. 4.16.
SNR 4x2 MIMO-

. 4.17. 4x2 MlMO-


4.3.2.


,
, ,
SNR. ,
, .
SNR.

. WiMAX-, ,
, -
.


.
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
. -
.
W i M A X -
- .
[13],
,
.


SNR. .
, SNR,
SNR
SNR. , ,
, . 4.18.

SNR 3x3. ,

. ,

.
. 4.18, SNR < 12
, . SNR > 12

.


. [16, 29].
"" .

/
, {. , 2 t- ; X,-
i. . 4.19
"" .

. 4.18. SNR 3x3 MIMO-


. 4.19. ""

. ,
.
("")
. SNR "",
.
SNR . SNR
, , /X, " ",
.


- .
.
-
[19].
, 6 4 - Q A M ,

16-QAM,

QPSK .
, QPSK. 4x4
10"
9 .

.
,
.

.

.
.

(SDMA Space-Diversity Multiple Access). SDMA-
, MIMO-, ,
, ,
, .
SDMA-, MIMO-,
.
.
, , -

,
.
,
.
, : ,
. ,
,
( s)
( ) :
u = H _ , s.
.
( )
s, :
r = Hu = s.

(4.28)

, ,

:
U = HH(HHH)",S.

, ,
(4.28) .

(precoder).
[19].
.
SDMA-
.

4.3.3.

,

. ,
-

. -, SNR
. -, .
-,
. , .
1. SNR
.
, SNR
. MIMO- SDMA-
,
.
2.
, ,
.

.
3.
.

.
,
.

[14, 15].

. 1
, ,
2. 2.
[8],
. [15]
CDMA-.
,
.
, ,


.

, ,
, .

. , ,


.

. MIMO-
.
, ,
.

, . .
MIMO- SDMA-
, ,
.
, , MIMO-
. ,
. [8]

. :

,
?
? "
" . ,
,
.
,
.

. ,
, d
(d X),
.

6 . ,

SNR MIMO-
6 .
,
. ,
(d = 2), SNR = 20
60.
70 / .
10 ,
SNR 20 6,7 / .
,
.
MIMO-

WiMAX.

802.16
"-", 1066
211 . LOS- He-LOS-
.
.
IEEE 802.162004 ,
.

.

5.1.

, ,
,
. :
.

, ,
, .

(/
), (

, ), (
) ,
DoS-, . . ,
.
:


, ;
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
.

DoS- .

,
.


.
,
.
802.16 DES (Data
Encryption Standart). DES
64 64- .
, ,
.

. L R , LR
L R, . . ,
L R.
R L
, . . ABCDE
,
, . . +
2.


. 5.1. 64
. 5.1.
, 58 1, 50 2
. .
5.1.
58

50

42

34

26

18

10

60

52

44

36

28

20

12

62

54

46

38

30

22

14

64

56

48

40

32

24

16

57

49

41

33

25

17

59

51

43

35

27

19

11

61

53

45

37

29

21

13

63

55

47

39

31

23

15

:
) ( 58, 50, 42, ..., 8) /?(0) ( 57, 49, 41, ..., 7),
32 . ,
:
/) = / ? 0 - 1 ) , | = 1 , 2

16;

(0 = - 1) + F(R(i - 1), K(i)), i = 1, 2

16.

F .
R, , 48-
K(i), 64-
.
K(i) .
16)
(16), 64- (16)16).
64
. 5.2. ,
(. . 5.1).

. 5.1.

5.2.

40

48

16

56

24

64

32

39

47

15

55

23

63

31

38

46

14

54

22

62

30

37

45

13

53

21

61

29

36

44

12

52

20

60

28

5.2 ()
35

43

11

51

19

59

27

34

42

10

50

18

58

26

33

41

49

17

57

25

64
.


()
.
. ,
. 5.1,
/?(16)16) , ,
.
:
( / - 1 ) = /),*= 16, 15

1;

- 1) = R(i) + F(L(i), i = 16, 15

1.

0)
/?(0), 64- )().
64
. 5.2.
( 64- ).


F(R, ) . 5.2.
F ( 32 48),
5(1), 5(2), ..., 5(8) ( 6- 4-)
( 32- ).
. R
(32 ) (48 ). E{R) 48- ,
2 . , 48-
, , 8
6 (. . (\)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6))

S(i)B(i) 4- , .
8

32- L = 1)2))4)5)6)7)8). ,

L. P(L).

. 5.2. F(R, )

, 32 48,
. 5.3. (/?)
32, 1 2, 31, 32, 1.
. 5.35.8 = 1,2, ... ,
, / = 1 , 2 , . . . .
5.3.

32

9
13

10

11

12

12

13

14

15

16

17

16

17

18

19

20

21

5.3 ()

20

21

22

23

24

25

24

25

26

27

28

29

28

29

30

31

32

5(0, 6- 4-,
. 5.4.
5.4. S(i)

5(1)
14

13

15

11

10

12

15

14

13

10

12

11

14

13

11

15

12

10

15

12

11

14

10

13

5(2)
15

14

11

13

12

13

15

14

12

10

11

14

11

10

13

12

15

13

10

15

11

12

14

10

14

15

13

12

13

10

14

12

11

15

13

15

11

12

10

14

10

13

15

14

11

12

13

14

10

11

12

15

12

10

14

10

S(3)

5(4)
7

11

15

10

12

11

13

15

14

15

10

13

11

12

14

13

5.4 ()
|

5(5)

12

10

11

15

13

14

14

11

12

13

15

10

11

10

13

15

12

14

11

12

14

13

15

10

12

10

15

13

14

11

10

15

12

13

14

11

14

15

12

10

13

11

12

15

10

11

14

13

5(6)

5(7)

11

14

15

13

12

10

13

11

10

14

12

15

11

13

12

14

10

15

11

13

10

15

14

12

5(8)

13

15

11

10

14

12

15

13

10

12

11

14

11

12

14

10

13

15

14

10

13

15

12

11

. 5.4 . S(i)B(i)
6- 4- .
1.
.
2. , ,
/.
3. /.

, = 011011. S(\)(B) = 0101. , = 1, / =


= 13. 13 1 5,
5(1)(011011).
P(L),
, , . 5.5.
L 32 , 16 ,
7 . .
5.5.

16

20

29

12

28

17

15

23

26

18

31

10

21

24

14

32

27

19

13

30

22

11

25


,
K(i), i = 1,2, ..., 16 48 .
K(i) 64-
. 5.3.
,
, . 5.6.
,
(0) ( (0) 57 , 49
. ., 44 36 ),
, D(0)
(. . >(0) 63, 55,..., 12, 4
).

. 5.3. ([)

5.6.
57

49

41

33

25

17

58

50

42

34

26

18

10

59

51

43

35

27

19

11

60

52

44

36

63

55

47

39

31

23

15

62

54

46

38

30

22

14

61

53

45

37

29

21

13

28

20

12

. 5.6, (0) D(0)


8, 16, 25, 32, 40, 48, 56 64 .
(,
). ,
56-. (0) D(0)
(0 D(/). i- 1,2, ..., 16.
,
. 5.7. (/)
D(i) . , (3)
(2),
D(3)
2). , .
, C(i) ,
(0
: 2,3, ...,28, 1.
5.7. Si
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

({), ,
56- C(i)D{i)
. , K(i) = K(C(i)D(i)),
, . S.8.
S.S.

14

17

11

24

28

15

21

10

23

19

12

26

16

27

20

13

41

52

31

37

47

55

30

40

51

45

33

48

44

49

39

56

34

53

46

42

50

36

29

32

. 5.8, K(i) 14
C(i)D(i), 17, 32.
. Triple
DES DES.

. ANSI X9.52
Triple DES.
.
, .
.

802.16.
802.16

.

.
,
,
. : -

.
.
.

5.1.1.
() (one way function)
/, X, X Y
, .
1. ( ')
v =) 2. ye Y ( ) / - (), . . ,
=/U), .
" "? ,
: =*), ,
. 2 ,
- , .
mod n,
awn .
. ,
. -
,

, !!!

.

.
: JCO, flxo) = \
*99) = *100 JCIOO ( ) .
,
JC99- ,/(JC99)? = *ioo (? " ").
99, :98)? = -99 . .
/- ,
, _ i (- -

),
. . 5.4.

. 5.4.

"/".
(trapdoor one way function)
fk, X>Y, X Y
, .
1. ( ), =/*(*), y Y.
2. ye Y =fk~ (), &.
3. =/*" ()
.

. ,
,
, ,
.
RSA .

5.1.2.

:
RSA, (El Gamal), (Rabin).
,

, , ,
, ,
.
, 2 : .
d.
, /.
.
m , ,
, , , - Et(m).
. , ,
,
: m = / ().
,
, . .
.
.
802.16 ,
" ". (DiffieHellman).

.
q.
. \
2
A = qx mod n.
2 1

B-q

modn.

Pi, , = * mod n, 2
= mod . , .
. ,
, .
,
, , ,
. ,
ISO
X.S09.
.509 . -


(, Certification Authority)
, .
.
, .
,
. ,
,
, . . 5.5
.

. 5.5.

.
.
,
.
.
.

. .
. .
.
.

:
1. /?
2. = (7, /?. / d), ,
, , ,
, .
3. (, \(/)) .
4. 5. DA(M).
, .
6. /?.
.

5.2.
IEEE 802.16
() . -
(
). -
. -
, ,
.
IEEE 802.16,
,
DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification),
" " .
.
1. , ,

;
.
2. ,
(Primary Management Channel)
. ,
.

3.
, .
4. (Base Station, BS), ,
(Subscriber Station, SS).
5. SS , BS ,

.
6. SS BS .
802.16
:


;


BS SS.


,
. SA ,
.509 , 160-
(Authorization Key, AK), ,
(Key-Encrypting Key, KEK), BS
(Traffic Encryption Key, ).
SA , SAID (
SA), ,
, , , 64 IV .

.509
.
, ,
:

;
;

;
(- SS);
;
;
;
.
SS. BS

SS. , SS
.


SS: SS,
.
BS SS. SS
(Authorization Information, AI),
, BS SS. , SS
(Areq). SS , BS
, SS.

AuthRep
. 5.6.

AI: SS - BS : Cert ()
Areq : SS BS : Cert(SS)|B03MO)KHOCTH|CID
Arep : BS - SS : Epkss(pubkey(SS),AK)| AK aoHH|Seq No(4 bit)|SAE)
SS
.
.
, .
, .
BS
"". ,
, ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
BS .
BS SA- SAID.
: BS
, BS .

, SAID.
, . 5.7.

. 5.7. SS BS

BS SS : Seq No|SAID|HMAC
SS BS : Seq No|SAID|HMAC
BS - SS : SeqNO|SAID|cTapbm | |

. BS ,
SA SA.
, .
, .
, , BS.
.
"
". ,
,
.
, ,
" ",
.


: BS
SA. BS ,
.
. SS
. BS
,
SS. ,
, . , BS
.
,
.
BS ,
,
SS. , SS.
.
, SS
BS .
. BS . ,
, .
(ALT Active Life Time ) [30].
:
. BS SA.

,
. BS
-
,
SS. BS , .
SS.
,
. SS
, , ,
, BS. . 5.8.

. 5.8.

DES (Ci
pher Block Chaining ). IV
, IV .

DES .
: = Ekl[Dk2[Ekl[P]]].
: = Dkl[Ek2[Dkl[Cl]].
1 64 128- .
2 64 128- .
, BS.
= 128(8(| )).
() 512- .
.
= SHA1 ((| ))
. 5.9 .

. 5.9.

5.3.

:
" "

[12];

,
, ;
,
"" -
. ,
.
.



SS BS. SS BS, .509-. BS SS. , BS , SS
BS, SS ,
.
/.
[12].
SS BS : Cert (Manufact)
SS -> BS : SS-Rand | Cert(SS) | | SAID
BS SS : BS-Rand | SS-Rand | Epkss( Pub(SS),AK)| | Seq No |
SAID |
Cert (BS) | Sig (BS)
SS
BS. BS -

SS.
.
BS
. SS
. SS BS ,
BS.


BS.
, BS, ,
.
SS ,
.
= - SHAl(BS's AK,SS Rand)


DES-CBC 56- . DES
, 56- DES
[30]. , 802.16,
, .
IEEE802.16,
AES-CCM.
, . IEEE802.16
, .
,
AES-CCM,
[12].


IEEE 802.16-2004 (802.16Revd)
,
802.162004
802.16. ,
, , ,
WiMAX.

6.1.
IEEE 802.162004 (802. l6Revd),
WiMAX
, IEEE 802.16, ,

, .
-
OSI.

OSI. ,
,
.
WiMAX
, , PHY
(Physical) MAC (Media Access Control). . 6.1

( ), WiMAX,
.

. 6 . 1 .

CS (Convergence Sublayer)
IP, VoIP, ATM,
. ., . 6.1.
-
.
:

Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)


,
, 1 IP
;

Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS)


, ,
MPEG-;

Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS)


, ,
FTP;

Best Effort (BE) service


best effort.


.
:

PDU (Protocol Data Unit)


MAC ;

, Wi;
QoS ;

MAC.
PDU
( ),
MAC PDU.
( /)
.
.
802.16
, QoS,
IP, .
(MAC).

.

- ,
, . .
. ,
.
""
.
DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access).
(,
ATM-)
QoS, MAC
, .
( )
, MAC .
,
MAC .
- ,
. ,

,
.
,
.
:
QoS;
;

:

;

- QoS
( );
QoS
( );
,
,
SS, BS;

QoS.
QoS
-
. ,
QoS. BS SS
QoS .
32- SFH)
(Service Flow ); 16- .
QoS-,
, , .
, :
Service Flow ID (SFID) ,
.
;

. SFID
QoS ;
Provisioned QoS ParamSet
QoS. He
, , ;
Admitted QoS ParamSet QoS.
QoS-, BS (,
, SS) , , ,
, ;
Active QoS ParamSet QoS.
, QoS, ;
Authorisation Module , BS
, , QoS
, .
. (
) .

(Privacy Key Management) . BS, SS
, (Traf
fic Encryption Key) .

SA (Security Association) 0x01 ( ),

(Chiper Block Chaining)
DES (US Data Encryption Standard). SA
0x00, AES (US Advanced Encryp
tion Standard) . SA 0x02,
AES (US Advanced Encryption
Standard, NIST Special Publication 800-38C, FIPS-197) .
PHY ,
. ,
/ , /
,
/.
. 6.2 802.16
Revd .

. 6.2. 802.16 Revd


() SAP (Service Access Point).



.
MAC
. MAC CS (PDU CS) -
.
MAC PDU.
, .
,
, , .

.
, , ,
(, ).

.

,
. 6.3.

. 6.3. WiMAX

( )
MAC-.
( " ") ,
802.16, ,
. 6.4.
MAC ( ) CRC

32
48 56

. 6.4. IEEE 802.16


-, ,
. .
.
(, ATM,
IP, . . CS).
( ) MAC.
CRC
.
,

.
, , . .,
,
. -,
802.16 Revd (802.162004) 802.16.
6.5 ATM-
WiMAX-
.

. 6.5. ATM

WiMAX ,
( . 6.5
ATM-).

, -

, ,
ATM,
.

,
.
(,
-) ,
.

. 5,

.

, OFDM.
,
.

6.2. 802.16
802.16 WiMAX
1066 .
. 802.162004, 802.16
10 OFDM
(802.162004)
OFDMA 802/16), WirelessMAN
OFDM WirelessMAN OFDMA . ( 802.16
OFDM).
IEEE 802.16 Revd (IEEE 802.162004) 860
12 .
14 .
:
1. Service specific CS ( )
ATM
( 5.1 ) Ethernet ( 5.2).
2. MAC common part sublayer ( MAC)

, " " -

() .

.
.
3. Security sublayer ( )
,
.
4. PHY ( )

(Downlink) (Uplink)
(FDD) (TDD).
, ,
, , BPSK- OFDM-
"-" .
, ,
.
5. Configuration () IP-,
.
6. Parameters and constants ( )
,
, . . WirelessMAN
SC, WirelessMAN SCa, WirelessMAN OFDM WirelessMAN OFDMA.
7. TLV encodings (Type/Length/Value) ,
, ,
, ,
.
8. System profiles ( )
WirelessMAN SC, WirelessMAN SCa,
WirelessMAN OFDM WirelessMAN OFDMA.
1,25 , 3,5 , 7 ,
8,75 , 10 , 14 , 17,5 , 20 28 .
,
, -, , , , .
, , .
, -

.
.
802.16 Revd.
802.16 Revd 802.16
802.16 http://grouper.ieee.org/gpoups/802/16index.html.
802.16 (470 ) ,
802.16 Revd, ,
.

. ,
.

6.3.
802.16-2004
WiMAX, 802.16
,
, . .
MAC (Media Access Control)
PHY (Physical Layer) .
.
:

( );
, ;
: 1066 , 26 , 211 ;
OFDM 64 QAM;
135 /;
Wi-Fi;
;
.
802.16. . 6.1
.

6.1. 802.16

802.16

802.16

802.16

2001

2003

2004

1066

211

2-6

32135 /
28

75 /
28

15 /
5-

QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM

OFDM 256,
QPSK, 16 QAM,
64QAM

OFDM 256,
QPSK, 16QAM,
64QAM

20, 25 28

.
1,520

.
1,520

25

710 . ,
50

25

, ,
"". WiMAX
IEEE 802.16.1 IEEE 802.16.3.
( ) . 6.1.

-
.
.
.
WiMAX
.
ATM
ATM, WiMAX
ATM. WiMAX
QoS, ATM.

, IP. ,
WiMAX -.

ATM ,
ATM-
.
WiMAX Ethernet-.
WiFi SS.
. 6.2
.
6.2.

QPSK
1/2
/

QPSK
3/4
/

16QAM
1/2
/

16QAM
3/4
/

64QAM
2/3
/

64QAM
3/4
/

1,75

1,04

2,18

2,91

4,36

5,94

6,55

3,5

2,08

4,37

5,82

8,73

11,88

13,09

7,0

4,15

8,73

11,64

17,45

23,75

26,18

10,0

8,31

12,47

16,63

24,94

33,25

37,4

20,0

16,62

24,94

33,25

49,87

66,49

74,81

6.2 ,
WiMAX .
6.2. , WiMAX

3264 /
,

(MOS
>4,0)



MAC



(
)
BER: 10-6

6.2 ()



MAC



(
)

,

(MOS
< 4,0)

616 /

BER: *

< 155 /

BER: -6

413 /
()

BER:

32 /
1,5 /
()

:
IP, IPX,
,

,

. .

< 155 /

BER: 10-8


MPEG

< 8 /

BER: 10""

TBD

CLR:3- 10"8

16 /
ATM CBR
155 /

CER: 10"*
CMR: 1

SEBCR: 10"4
CLR: 10'5
CER:4- -6

6.2 ()



MAC

16 /
ATM rt- VBR
155 /



(
)
CMR: 1

SEBCR: 10"4
CLR: -5
CER:4- 6


ATM

< 155 /

CMR: 1

SEBCR: 10-4

MAC
.
(
)
. MAC- ,
-
(). WiMAX
" ".
QoS PDU,
BS SS.

, .

( ),
(), (
).
IEEE 802.162004 (Revd)

(LOS),
(NLOS).

SC (Single Carrier).
OFDM .
.

6.4.
IEEE 802.16-2004 (Revd)
6.4.1. ,
(CS)
IEEE 802.162004 (Revd)
(CS) (ATM)
.
.
CS PDU
( ) ()
CS PDU. .
40 .

, , (
),
( ),
. .
CS (Convergence syblayer)
MAC (MAC CPS MAC Common Part Sy
blayer) (. . 6.2) MAC SAP (MAC Ser
vice access point) :

PDU
CS PDU;

() ;

CS PDU -
MAC SAP;
:

( ,
);

() PDU
.

( , PDU)
( ). ,
QoS,
SDU (Service Data Un).

CID (Connection Identifier).
BS
SS . 6.6. CID .

. 6.6.

CID
, QoS.
CS.
,
PHS (Payload Header Suppression) .
PHS
DSA-REQ (Dynamic Service Ad
dition Request).
.

, ,
. ( )
SS.

. ,
.
CS .
ATM
ATM -.
, , PHS ( ). , VPI (Virtual
Path Identifier) VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier),
(VP), (VC).
, ,
ATM. VPI VCI,
CID (Connection ID). ATM ,
MAC .
CID . ,
TCP/IP
. , IP .
,
, , ,
. .
, CS: ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
. ATM CS
, () PDU,
ATM- ATM- ATM CS.
(PDU)
( )
, CS PDU. ATM CS PDU
(. 6.7).
ATM CS PDU-
( .
40 )

ATM PDU
(48 )

. 6.7. ATM CS PDU-

. ATM CS PDU 40 . . 6.3.


6.3.

40

ATMCSPDU(){
ATM CS PDU
If(noPHS){
(
)
ATM_Header
( ATM)
}
Elseif(VP-swithed){

PTI

(
-)

CLP

(
-)

VCI

16


( -)

PTI

(
ATM )

CLP

(
-)

}
Elseif(VC-swithed) {

}
{


.
ATM- :
VP (Virtual Path) VC
(Virtual Channel),
VPI VCI . . 6.1
. CS
ATM- . 6.8,
, . 6.8,
.

. 6.8. ATM CS-:


;

VPI ),
.
VPI VCI.
PTI CLP.



()
PHS (Payload Header Suppression)
CS SDU.
, .

(. 6.9).
PHSI , PHSI = 0. ,
PHSF, PHSM, PHSS PHSV,
:
PHSF ;
PHSI ;
PHSM ;
PHSS ;
PHSV .
SS BS
, . 6.9.
CS.
, CID .
PHSE, PHSI, PHSM, PHSS, PHSV.
PHSV , SS
PHSF , ,
PHSM. PHSM, SS PHSF
, , PHSM.
PHSI
MAC SDU MAC SAP
.
, MAC PDU
-, -.
, CID PHSI
PHSF, PHSM PHSS.
.
PHSF. PHSF , PHSF-
. ,
, PHSF- .

. 6.9. PHS

.

.
PHSF, PHSI, PHSM, PHSS PHSV. PHSV
,
PHSF. , BS
,
PHSM. BS PHSI
-.
SS, -,
- , , PHSI
CID, PHSF, PHSM PHSS.
.
. 6.10
PHSM. ,
. , PHSF PHSS
.
,
.

. 6.10.

PHS.


. PHS
DSC (Dynamic Service Change). BS
PHSI, PHS. PHS
, DSC, DSD
(Dynamic Service Deletion). BS SS PHSS PHSF.
PHSF ,
. 5.9
PHS. PHS
PHS. , ,
, .
(, IP-,
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) . .)
DSC
( "Set PHS Rule" " PHS" DSC).
PHS- ,
DSA DSC SFE)
(Service Flow Identifier) ( ) PHS
PHS .
WiMAX
.
.
.

6.4.2. -

,
/, ,
. .
-.

: "-" ( Point-to-maltipoint)
(Mesh) .

"-"
( )
,
. ,
, ,
. /
TDD, . .
.
, ,
. 48- ( IEEE Std 8022001) 16- .
BS.

, .

. SS

SS.
.
,
.
, .
"-"
.
, .
,
.
,
.

.
,
.


.
BS .
, ,
-

,
, .

. (,
) , (
, ) .
.
- .
(
)
.
SS .
.
,
.
,
. ()
(. . )
,
. , ,
QoS.
WiMAX
-.
, , .
.
SS .
SS .

.
. , (
) 1
,
. 1
, , ,
. IP-

. ,
SS
BS. -


Mesh ,
BS SS.
SS SS.


,
,
, BS. ()
SS. .
, :
In ( BS),
away.
: (neighbor), (neighborhood)
(extended neighborhood). , ,
. . ,
(hop) .
.
BS
. , ,
BS,
( ,
) . ,

.
,
,
.
.

.
BS SS
( ). BS
In away.
SS . -

,
,
. ,
.
.
.
(
, ).
MAC
PDU.
/ .
, ,
MAC SAP. ,
, ,
.
,
, .


"-" ()
SS 48- -,
IEEE Std 8022001.
SS ,
.
SS , SS BS .

16- .
SS BS
"-",
(). ,
BS SS.
() BS MAC SS MAC,
MAC.
BS MAC SS MAC
(tolerant) MAC.
. 6.7 ,
.
, BS SS MAC,
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol). IP-. -

/
(. . "",
). SC, OFDM OFDMA
CRC.

SS.
RNG-RSP- REG-RSP. CID.
"-".
BS ,
, BS. SS
, SS,
() BS SS.
CID
( IP), CID
. 16 )
64 "-".
CID,

. , SS, ,
,
.
.
,
TCP/IP .
,
.



( ,
). SS 48- ,
IEEE Std 8022001.
SS ,
. , SS BS 16-
(Node ),
.
SS
, MAC.


SS-, , ,
,
8-
(Link Id).
CID
MAC. .
.
.
, .

. 6.4.

6.4. CID

{
If(XmtLinkID = = OxFF){
Logical Network ID

0x00:

0x0: -

} else {
Type

0x1: IP
0x20x3:
Reliability

( )
Priority/Class

0x1: 4

(/)
Drop Precedence
( )
}

0x0:

6.4 ()

Xmt Link ID

OxFF: MAC
.

( Link ID)

)

"-" "-".
,
. ,
(, ).

.

6.4.3. -

Rsv(1)

1(1)
(1)

802.16 Revd (802.162004)


MAC. MAC
PDU. MAC- (PDU) . 6.11.
48 CS PDU,
.

(6)
I

LSB (8)

EKS
(2)
I

LEN
MSB
(3)
I

SIDMS (8)

LEN LSB (8)


I

HCS (8)

. 6.11. -

.
. - "", -

,
. 6.11.
( = 0 ( )),
= 0. = 1
Rsv, CI, EKS, Rsv LEN BR.
- . 6.5.
6.5. -

CI

CRC
1 - CRC
0 = CRC

CID

16

(MSB)
(LSB)


0 =
1 =

EKS

.

.
=1

HCS

.
8- ,
.
HCS
MAC.
: g(D) = D8 + D2 + D + 1

. . (
1.)

LEN

11

(Bandwidth request)
, . 6.12.

| 5

1 1

BR LSB ()
1
|
1
1 1

BRMSB
(11)

()
I
i

I
ii

1
1

SID MSB ()
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1
1

HCS(8)

LSB (8)

. 6.12. -


. 6.6.
6.6.

BR

19

16

HCS

.
1

()

. ,
"".
CID

48 (6 ).
, . CID
, . BR (Bandwidth
Request) .
.

: 000 ; 001
.
, .
,
OxFX.
.
MAC
. ,
(initial ranging)
.
/ .
. 6.7.
802.162004 49 32
802.16.
.
6.7.

UCD

DCD

DL-MAP

UL-MAP

RNG-REQ

RNG-RSP

REG-REQ

REG-RSP

8
9

PKM-REQ

6.7 ()

10

PKM-RSP

11

DSA-REQ

12

DSA-RSP

13

DSA-ACK

14

DSC-REQ

15

DSC-RSP

16

DSC-ACK

17

DSD-REQ

18

DSD-RSP

19

20

21

MCA-REQ

22

MCA-RSP

23

DBPC-REQ

24

DBPC-RSP

25

RES-CMD

26

SBC-REQ


SS

6.7 ()

27

SBC-RSP


SS

28

CLK-CMP


SS

29

DREG-CMD

30

DSX-RVD

DSx

31

TFTP-CPLT


TFTP

32

TFTP-REP


TFTP

33

ARQ-Feedback

ARQ

34

ARQ-Discard

ARQ

35

ARQ-Reset

ARQ

36

REP-REQ

37

REP-RSP

38

FPS

39

MSH-NCFG

40

MSH-NENT

41

MSH-DSCH

42

MSH-CSCH

43

MSH-CSCF

44

AAS-FBCK-REQ AAS -

6.7 ()

45

AAS-FBCK-RSP

AAS

46

AAS_Beam_
Select


AAS

47

AAS.BEAM
_REQ


A AS

48

AAS.BEAM
_RSP


AAS

49

DREG-REQ

50
255

, ,
,
SS BS .
.
.
, , , "" "-".


(DL-MAP UL-MAP)

.
BS DCD (Download Channel Descriptor).
, ID ,
TLV, .
DCD . 6.8.

6.8. DCD

DCD Message Format () {


= 1

TLV


TLV

, PHY {


PHY

for(/= 1 ;/'<=;-+) {

Downlink_Burst_Profile}

PHY

}
}
}
BS DCD . 6.8, :

BS 1
256 .
DCD , SS
, ,
;


, .
BS
MAC.

,
, TLV.
Downlink_Burst_ProfiIe TLV,
DIUC (Downlink Interval Usage Code)
. DownlinkBurstProfile -

PHY, TLV.
DL-MAP DIUC.
DownlinkBurstProfile DCD
:
;
FEC;
;
DIUC;
DIUC;
.
FEC 1, 2 3, DownlinkBurstProfile
:
RS- ();
RS- (R).
FEC 2, DownlinkBurstProfile
. FEC 4, DownlinkBurstProfile
, (
) .

.
FEC-. TDM
. TDMA
() (burst). DL-MAP
, , PS
. (DL)
, .

(DL-MAP)
DL-MAP .
, LEN
MAC . DLMAP . 6.9. :
PHY PHY
;
DCD DCD;

D BS
48- , BS. 24
;

DL-MAP PHY,
.
5.9. DL-MAP

DL-MAP_Message_Format() {
= 2

PHY

DCD

BS

48

DL-MAP n

16

, PHY {
for(<= 1;|'<=;/'++) {
DL-MAP_Information_Element()


DL-MAP 1
.

}
}
^( ) {
Padding Nibble }
( -)

}
}

(UCD)
(UCD) BS,
.
UCD . BS

UCD , . 6.10.
:
BS 1 (
256) ,
. UCD
, SS ,
;
- -
. =
= 2 , 07;
,
. BS
MAC;

, 2.
015 (
);

, 2.
015 (
);

,
2. 015 (
);
D
,
2. 015 (
).
. 6.10.
6.10. UCD

UCD_Message_Format () {
Management Message Type = 0
( )

6.10 ()

Configuration Change Count


( )

Ranging Backoff Start


( )

Ranging Backoff End


( )

Request Backoff Start


( )

Request Backoff
( )

TLV Encoded Information for the overall channel


( TLV)

, PHY {
for(/= 1;/<=;-+) {

Uplink_Burst_Profile }
( )




1
.

}
}
}
,
TLV.
Uplink_Biirst_Profile TLV,
UIUC (Uplink Interval Usage Code)
. Uplink_Burst_Profile
PHY, TLV.
UL-MAP UIUC.

(UL-MAP)
UL-MAP . 6.11.
6.11. UL-MAP

UL-MAP_Message_Format () {
= 3

UCD

UL-MAP n

8
32

, PHY {
for(/=l;i<=n;i++) {
UL-MAP_Information_Element() }


UL-MAP 1
.

}}
BS UL-MAP :

, ;
UCD UCD,
;
;

UL-MAP -.

()
(IE)
:
(CID);
(UIUC);
.

IE
. UL-MAP IE,
(burst). IE
UL-MAP .
CID , .
CID CID SS
CID SS. UIUC ,
, .
Uplink_Burst_Profile UCD UIUC,
UL-MAP.

() (RNG-REQ)
RNG-REQ SS
BS, /
. RNG-REQ
. 6.12.
6.12. RNG-REQ

RNG-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 4

, TLV

)
CID MAC
:
CID , SS
;
CID , SS
( )
;

CID ( RNG-RSP), SS

;
CID ( RNG-RSP), SS
;
CID,
RNG-RSP.
.
, RNG-REQ. (,
RNG-REQ,
, .)

, SS UCD, ,
.
8 .
, - TLV.
,
RNG-REQ :
;
- SS.
RNG-RSP,
, RNG-REQ :
;
;
(RNG-RSP).
RNG-RSP BS RNGREQ
,
MAC-. SS RNG-RSP ,
RNG-REQ.
RNG-RSP
,

. ,
ID , TLV.
BS RNG-RSP , . 6.13.
6.13. RNG-RSP

RNG-RSP_Message_Format () {
= 5

, TLV

}
RNG-RSP :

G ;

RNG-RSP:

ID ;

CID , RNG-RSP
RNG-REQ;
CID ,
RNG-RSP RNGREQ;
- SS (48 ) , CID CID ;
(REG-REQ) REG-REQ
SS , . 6.14.

6.14. REG-REQ

REG- REQ_Message_Format() {
= 6

, TLV

}
REG-REQ (
-). SS CID -
. TLV.
REG-REQ TLV:
;
CID .
REG-REQ TLV,
SS:
ID (SS);

SS;

(REG-RSP).
REG-RSP BS REG-REQ,
. 6.15.
6.15. REG-RSP

REG-RSP_Message_Format () {
= 7

, TLV

BS REG-RSP, :

CID ( MAC) CID MAC


SS.

:
, :
0 = ok ( );
1 = .
REG-RSP :
MAC;
CID ;

()

REG-RSP,
REG-REQ BS
:

SS BS SS (
REG-REQ). BS SS,
. BS
SS, "off REG-RSP.

, REG-RSP,
, REG-REQ.


(PKM-REQ/PKM-RSP)
()
, (PKM-REQ) (PKM-RSP),
. 6.16.
6.16. PKM-REQ/PKM-RSP

PKM-REQ


[ SS BS]

10

PKM-RSP


[ BS SS]


MAC. SS BS
, . 6.17. SS
.
6.17.

PKM-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 9

, TLV

}
BS SS
, . 6.18. SS
.
6.18.

PKM-RSP_Message_Format () {
= 10

, TLV

}
:
-.
, .
. 6.19;

. SS
BS. SS ( 2) (
) -.
,
-.
, ,
.
BS PKM-RSP
PKM-REQ, BS .
(),
PKM-REQ, .
PKM-RSP SS
(,
).
SS
. SS
,
.
SS
(SA). SS
KEY Reply Key Reject
;

- ,
,
. -
. ,
.
LEN MAC PDU.
. 6.19 .
6.19.

MAC

02

SAAdd

PKM-RSP

Auth Request

PKM-REQ

6.19 ()

MAC

Auth Reply

PKM-RSP

Auth Reject

PKM-RSP

Key Request

PKM-REQ

Key Reply

PKM-RSP

'

Key Reject

PKM-RSP

10

Auth Invalid

PKM-RSP

11

Invalid

PKM-RSP

12

Authent Info

PKM-REQ

13-255

BS SS /,
.

(SA Add)
BS SS
SA. = 3, . 6.20.
6.20. SA Add

( )
SA

SA-
SAID
SA


SHA

(Auth Request)
= 4.
. 6.21.
6.21. Auth Request

SS-

.509 SS


SS
SAID

SAID SS, CID

,
SS .
SAID SAID .
SAID CID SS, SS
.

(Auth Reply)
BS SS
,
SA, SA.
SS (, . .).
SS. SA
CID, BS
Auth Request.
SAID, SS.
= 5.
Auth Reply . 6.22.
6.22. Auth Reply

AUTH-Key

,
SS

6.22 ()

SA
SA
SAID SA
.

(Auth Reject)
BS SS, Auth Reject,
SS.
= 6.
Auth Reject . 6.23.
6.23. Auth Reject


= 7.
"-"
. 6.24.
6.24.

SAID

ID

()

,
SHA

.
BS
.


= 8.
. 6.25.
6.25.

SAID

ID

,
SAID

,
SAID

,
SHA

,
, SAID.
, , , .
BS
SAID. "
", "" .
1 ( 4),
. BS SS
. ,
-,
SAID.
-

BS SS.


(KeyReject)
SS, SAID .
= 9.
Key Reject . 6.26.
6.26. KeyReject

SAID

ID


()

,
SHA


BS SS:
;
, SS.
SS
BS. BS ,
BS SS
,
BS SS.
=10.
Authorization Invalid . 6.27.

6.27. Authorization Invalid


()

Invalid
BS (SS) Invalid, ,
PDU
MAC.
= 1 1 .
Invalid . 6.28.
6.28. Invalid

SAID

ID

, Invalid


()

,
Invalid

, SHA

(Authent Info)
Authent Info CA-Certificate .509
SS.
=12.
Authent Info . 6.29.

6.29. Authent Info

SS


(DSA-REQ)
DSA-REQ SS BS
. SS BS DSA-REQ ,
. 6.30.
6.30. DSA-REQ

DSA-REQ_Message_Format () {
= 11

ID

16

, TLV

:
CID CID SS;
ID ,
.
DSA-REQ
. :

;

CS .
, DSAREQ :

, .
;

(DSA), SS,

DSA; RSA-REQ
.
, .
SS RSA-REQ
QoS;

DSA, BS, BS RSA-REQ


CID, -. BS RSAREQ
QoS, , SA
.
, SS CID,
DSA-RSP.

(DSA-RSP)

DSA-RSP DSA-REQ.
. 6.31.
6.31. DSA-RSP

DSA-RSP_Message_Format () {
= 12

ID

16

, TLV

}
:

CID SS;

ID ID , DSA-REQ;

DSA-REQ.

, DSA-RSP :

DSA-RSP,
CID ;
CS ,
CS.
, DSA-RSP :
DSARSP /
, .

QoS
. .
, DSA-RSP :

( ).
;
DSA, SS, DSA-RSP, BS,
CID. DSA-RSP
QoS
C1D.
DSA-RSP, BS, SA-
. DSA-REQ
, DSA-RSP
QoS, .
DSA-REQ
QoS, BS DSA-REQ,
.
, BS , DSA-REQ.
, BS
, DSA-RSP.


(DSA-ACK)
DSA-ACK DSA-RSP.
. 6.32.

6.32. DSA-ACK

DSA-ACK_Message_Format() {
- 13

ID

16

, TLV

)
:

( -) CID SS;

ID DSARSP;

DSARSP.

DSA-RSP ( ),
,
DSA-ACK.

DSC-REQ
DSC-REQ SS BS,
. DSC-REQ
. 6.33.
6.33. DSC-REQ

DSC-REQ_Message_Format () {
= 14

ID

116

, TLV

DSC-REQ
(uplink downlink).


(DSC-RSP)
DSC-RSP DSC-REQ.
. 6.34.
6.34. DSC-RSP

DSC-RSP_() {
= 15

ID

16

, TLV

}
, DSC-RSP :

DSC-RSP,
CID .
QoS
CID, DSCRSP CID.
QoS,
DSC-RSP QoS,
. QoS
, DSCRSP QoS- .


(DSC-ACK)
DSC-ACK DSC-RSP
, . 6.35.

6.35. DSC-ACK

DSC-ACK_Message_Format() {
= 16

ID

16

, TLV

}
DSA-RSP ( ), DSC-ACK
DSC-RSP, .


(DSD-REQ)
DSD-REQ SS BS,
. . 6.36.
6.36. DSD-REQ

DSD-REQ_ Message_Format () {
= 17

ID

16

ID

32

, TLV

ID SFTD, .


(DSD-RSP)
DSD-RSP DSD-REQ.
. 6.37.

6.37. DSD-RSP

MCA-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 18

ID

16

ID

32

, TLV

ID SFID DSD-REQ,
.

/
(MCA-REQ)
MCA-REQ SS,
.
. 6.38.
6.38. MCA-REQ

MCA-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 21

ID

16

, TLV

TLV:
CID, .

/
(MCA-RSP)
SS MCA-REQ.
. 6.39.
6.39. MCA-RSP

MCA-RSP_Message_Format() {
= 22

ID

16

, TLV


(DBPC-REQ)
DBPC-REQ SS BS
SS ,
BS SS. DBPC-REQ
. SS

,
. . 6.40.
6.40. DBPC-REQ

DBPC-REQ_Message_Format() {
- 23

DIUC

DIUC DUIC (Downlink Interval Usage Code)


143 ,
235 OFDM 274
OFDMA.


(DBPC-RSP)
DBPC-RSP BS CID SS
DBPC-REQ, SS. DIUC
DBPC-REQ, .
, DIUC , SS
. . 6.41.
6.41. DBPC-RSP

DBPC-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 24

DIUC

(RES-CMD)
RES-CMD CID SS,
, MAC
. , SS
BS BS
SS. RES-CMD . 6.42.

6.42. RES-CMD

DBPC-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 25

, TLV

SS (SBC-REQ)
SS SBC-REQ . SS SBCREQ , . 6.43.
6.43. SBC-REQ

SBC-REQ_Message_Format() {
= 26

, TLV

)

(SBC-RSP)
SS BS
SBC-REQ.
SBC-RSP
TLV . 6.44.
6.44. SBC-RSP

SBC-RSP_Message_Format() {
= 27

6.44 ()

, TLV

}
SBC-RSP,
SS SBC-REQ:
.
BS SS, SBC-REQ.
BS , SS .
BS SS, "off.
, "on" REG-RSP,
.

(CLK-CMP)
, ,
(, DS1 DS3),
CLK-CMP.
, BS CLK-CMP ,
, . 6.45.
6.45. CLK-CMP

CLK-CMP_Message_Format() {
= 28

for(/'= 1; |<-;|++) {
Clock ID(0

[i]

[(] }

}
}

CLK-CMP : ID
(ClocklD), , CCV
(Clock Comparison Value).

8- , BS 1 (
256) CLK-CMP.
.

8- ( 256)
:

10 ,
(, GPS),

8.192 , .

(DREG-CMD)
DREG-CMD CID SS,
. DREG-CMD SS
, .
MAC . 6.46.
6.46. DREG-CMD

DREG-CMD_Message_Format() {
8

= 29

, TLV

. 6.47.
6.47.

0x00

SS

0x01

SS , ,
RES-CMD

6.47 ()

0x02

SS ,

0x03

SS ,

0x04

SS BS. BS
SS
DREG-REC

0x05-0xFF

DSx (DSX-RVD)
(DS)
DSx-REQ SS,
SS , BS DSx-REQ
, DSx-RSP,
DSx-REQ. DSX-RVD
. 6.48.
6.48. DSX-RVD

DSX-RVD_Message_Format() {
= 30

ID

16


TFTP (TFTP-CPLT)
TFTP-CPLT SS,
. TFTP-CPLT
. 6.49.

6.49. TFTP-CPLT

TFTP-CPLT_Message_Format() {
= 31

, TLV


(TFTP-RSP)
TFTP-RSP BS
TFTP-CPLT, SS. TFTP-RSP
. 6.50.
6.50. TFTP-RSP

TFTP-CPLT_Message_Format() {
= 32

MAC PDU
- (
). MAC- TLV- ( CRC HCS)
,
MSB. (, ARQ)
.
WiMAX
.
. ,
,
, . -

{ () (Concatenation)
MAC PDU,
.
, QoS.
.
MAC PDU . 6.13.

. 6.13. MAC PDU

MAC PDU .

MAC PDU- MAC SDU.

CS. MAC,
MAC .
SS
. SS
MAC PDU ,
MAC PDU.
MAC
MAC SDU MAC PDU.
, ,
.


.
MAC PDU.
(-)
QoS .

FC (Fragmentation Control)
: 10 , 11
01 . FC = 00.

6.5.
6.5.1.

WiMAX
( )
. "-".

.
, ,
IEEE 802.16.2004 (Revd).
. 6.14.

.
1.
.
2. ( UCD).
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. ().
8. .
9. .
10. ( ).
7, 8, 9 SS
REG-REQ/REG-RSP.

. 6.14.

SS ,
:
48- - (
Std 8022001). SS
;

D ( .509),
SS
.

6.5.2.

,
(One
Casting) ,
UL-MAP "".
SS, , SS,
(Multicast) . WiMAX
,
UCD. ,
, .

. , ,
SS
(. .
).
, CID.
BS CID.
CID QoS.



SS.
, SS . ,
,

(Request Backoff Start),
4.9 UCD.
(RNG-REG)
.
(RNG-RSP) ,

, . .
.
() -

UCD . , 4
0 15, 10 0 1023.
, SS
. SS
3- . SS ,
16- (, BS ).
SS
SS .
-
(-). - (8 ) 2
4 .

. , WirelessMANSC (WiMAX ) UCD 16
(2 -), 3 -
3 - SS .
8 - (64 ). , ,

24 -, 8 -,
, 3- .

6.5.3.
OFDM- MAN
,
MAN-OFDM, OFDM,
.
802.16 802.162004
SC (Single
Carrier), .
4. ,
OFDM OFDMA.
, ,
, .
:
, ;
FEC
, ;

,
, ARQ.

(
) .

.
( +
) .
. ,
.
() ,
.
( ).

.
, MAC, .
,
FEC. FEC
(RS)
. , .


,
.
:
N-K ,
N . ,
.
.
.
,
; , .
,
.
.


.
.
,
, . .
.

.
,
. ,
.

.
CRC (Cyclic Redudancy Check).
k -
FCS (Frame Check Sequency).

. .
.
.
(
XOR).


,
, .

.
" "
,
.
, . . OFDM .
,
OxFF. ,
,
.

PRBS (Pseudo
Random Binary Sequency).
PRBS 1 + +
. 6.15.

. 6.15. PRBS

, MSB , LSB
. .
, XOR
( )
. .
.

100101010000000.
1. ,
2, . 6.16.
, ,
, .

. 6.16. OFDM-


. 6.17. , ,
, UL MAP, .
BSID
MSB | b31 I J 1

UIUC
||,|,||


I b j b j b j b , , ! LSB

MSB | 31 | , | 01 1 | 1 | | ba | b, | 01 1 J | ba | b, I b01 LSB


. 6.17. OFDM-

(FEC)
802.162004
(ReedSolomon).
FEC
. RS-CC. FEC ,
. .
1/2
.
RS, .
,
. . 2.
802.162004 - 8.
( + ) N
N = (2 - 1) = /(2 - 1) .
. , ,
(N - ) .
(N, , ), .
,
(N - ) = 2 .
, WiMAX, 802.162004
(N - 255, = 239, = 8) . ( = 8)
, , N = 2048 , =
= 1912 , - 64 .
, WiMAX,
( ) .

N .
= 8 , N = (2 - 1).
GF(2 ) (Galois Field).
.
.
, :

: g(x) = ( + 0)( + XI)( + 2)...{ + X2T - 1 ) =


= 02;
/

: () - + + + + 1.
,

. ' ,
239 - ' .
.
, ,
2' 16 .
- MSB.
RS- ,
1/2. 7.

()

, .
, ,

, . . "" .

. : , , . .

, N ( N : +
+ ) L , .
, . .
, .

.
.

,
OFDM- Ncbps.
.
, . ,

.
, .
Ncpc 1 . , 1, 2, 4
6 BPSK, QPSK-16QAM 64-QAM .
s = ce\\(Nrpr/2) (ceil ).
Ncbps
, *
*

. .
:
= (Nrpc/2) kniod\2 + floor(*/12), = 0, 1,... Ncbps - 1,
floor .
:
jk = s- floor(m*/5) + (m* + AUpA-floor(12- I Ncbps))u,d(sh
* = 0, 1
Ncbps-I.
,
, .
Ncbps j
, // kj

.
.
:
m, = S 00(/ / S) + (J + 00( 12 jl Ncbps))mod(sh./ = 0, 1, ... NrbPs - 1

:
it,-=12- mj-(Ncbps-l)-

floor(12-

mj/Ncbps)J

= 0, 1, ... Ncbps- 1.

(MSB) .
. 6.51 Nrpc
1 , .
6.51. Nt:pc 1

16

BPSK

192

96

48

24

12

QPSK

384

192

96

48

24

Nebps

16-QAM

768

384

192

96

48

64-QAM

1152

576

288

144

72

OFDM
802.162004, OFDM :

s(t) = Re\ej2*'x

Nv

ckxej2^(t-TA,

k*0,

,
, / Q
(
) OFDM.

(/) .
2 . .
802.16 802.162004 = 8
NFFT = 2 = 256.
NFFT , .
.
, ,
.

"+" ( )
"-" ( ), . 6.18.

. 6.18.

256 55 .
28 ( -128 -101)
27 ( 101 127). 200
-. -
88, 63, 38 13.
BPSK. -
+
+ + 1.
8FF, 555.
(. .
).
192 , 16 :
12 .
, . ,
1- -100, -99, -98, -37, -35, 1, 2,
3, 64, 65, 66. , ,
.
() 16
, , , 1, 2-, 4- 8- . ,

( OFDMA).
OFDM-
, .
.
. -

() Tg, .
= Ts + .
( )

.
(
Tg). .

.
7^ 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 1/32
BW (
) Fs = NFFT/ . Fs / BW : 87/75
(BW 1,5 ), 144/125 (BW 1,25 ), 316/275 (BW
2,75 ), 57/50 (BW 2 ), 8/7 (BW 1,75
). 2,5; 4; 5; 8; 10; 12,5 20 .

.
.
Eo/No. :
1 0 1 o g ( l - r g / ( r , + 7*))/log(10).
SNR
FFT, , ,

. ,
FFT .

.
SS
, BS. SS
(UL).
(DL),
, SS .
802.162004
TDD, FDD.
(). (
): UL DL.
TDD-
, FDD

, FDD
, .

, "-" . 6.19 6.20. . 6.19 OFDM
DL- UL- TDD,
. 6.20 FDD-.

. 6.19. OFDM TDD

. 6.20. OFDM FDD

,
(FCH) . (
QPSK) .
, 4,
.

.
OFDM- ( BPSK)
1/2.
DLFP. (
) DL-.
(. . ) ,
DL-MAP, UL-MAP,
(DCD/UCD)
. ,
, .
DL-MAP-.
UL- ,
SS BS
.
BS .
DL-MAP.
.
OFDM. .
, -,
- (6 ), CRC.

6.6. IEEE 802.16


IEEE 802.16, Intel Corporation,
IEEE 802.162004
. IEEE 802.16
-
,
,
.


, 802.16
/, ,
IEEEStd 802.162004.
.
: , , .

.
, , (
) ( ).
.
,
. .
.
, ,
.
,
.

6.6.1.
: IEEE Std 802.16
2004 , ,
, , ,
,
.
.
, 6 .
IEEE Std 802.162004
.
:
,
.

.
,
.

6.6.2.


802.16 .

MSS:
, ()

.
. :
(mobile station, MS): ,

.
BS: BS MSS, . .
, CID , CID
MSS. MSS
BS. MSS
BS. FBSS BS BS,
/ / MSS
. SHO MSS BS
DL, . . DL_MAP, UL_MAP, FCH
DL.
SHO FBSS, MSS, BS,
MSS, ,
DL. FBSS,
MSS, BS,
/ / MSS .
BS: MSS BS BS (
BS),
MSS.
BS: (MSS)
BS BS, MSS
.
BS: BS, MSS
.

: SHO FBSS.
BS MSS.
MSS BS.
BS: BS MSS,
, MAC.
SHO MSS / / BS
.
FA: FA, .
FA
, , MSS
, .
BS (fast BS switching, FBSS): BS,

. MSS /
/ BS ( BS) . BS
, BS.
(fixed subscriber station, FSS):
, ,
.
(frequency assignment, FA): (FA)
DL
, BS.
(handover, ): , MSS
, BS, , BS. :
: ,
BS
BS;
: ,
BS
BS.
: , MSS
BS BS .
(soft handover, SHO):
, BS MSS
MAC/PHY PDU , MSS

. SHO UL
BS, (, ) MSS
.
PHY BS.
(group key encryption key, GKEK):
GKEKEK, .
(group traffic encryption key,
GTEK): GKEK.

BS (base station,
), ( )
MSS . BS,
(
), .
,
, /.
AAA
(Authorization, Authentication and Accounting ,
), , . ,
,
(ASA-).
ASA-
. ASA .
. 6.21 .

. 6.21. ,

,
. 6.52.
6.52.

, 802.16

MAC- ( CS) PHY,


,
BS

,

MSS

, , . 6.53.
6.53. ,

MSS

Mobile Subscriber Station ,


MAC- (CS) PHY-

BS

Base Station

ASA-cepeep(bi)

Authentication and Service Authorization Server


.


MSS (, handover)
BS .
BS
/ ASA-.
. 6.22 , BS
. BS#1 BS MSS. BS#2 BS. MSS

BS#2, ,
BS#2 BS .

. 6.22.

, MSS
, ,
, ,
6.3.20.2 IEEE 802.16.
= 19
. (. . 6.54), () ()
BS MSS. 0 " ",
1 "".
6.54.

19

Bit #0: SHO/FBSS ,


"1".
" 1", BS
.

REG.REQ
REG_RSP

6.54 ()

Bit #1: FBSS/SHO DL RF


MAP
BS, " 1".
Bit #2: FBSS/SHO DL RF
MAP
BS, " 1".
Bit #3: SHO DL

MAP BS,
" .
Bit #4: SHO DL
MAP
BS, "1".
Bit #5: FBSS/SHO UL .
Bit #6: SHO UL .
Bit #7: ,

(. 6.55) MSS,
BS, RTM (Resource
Retain Time). BS Resource Retain Time no
MSS
MOB_HO-IND MSS.
100 .
6.55.

50

100 .


REG_RSP

200 ,

,
. 6.236.25.

MSS

. 6.23. - MSS MSS

. 6.24. -
BS MSS

. 6.25. - BS MSS

BS
- MSS BS . 6.26.
- BS BS
. 6.27.

6.6.3.
OFDMA
WirelessMAN-OFDMA PHY MAC

. .
.

. , .
.

NBR_ADV (. BS) |

. 6.26. -
MSS BS

, ,
UL MAP. ,

.

.

. 6.27. -
BS BS

, BS,
,
,
UL- RNG-REQ - 23 , -

,
. BS, -
,
MSS, , RNG-REQ .
256.
0...255. BS ,
5, 0 < S < 255. S ((5 +
+ 0 + /V + M + L)mod256.

N
. ,
, PRBS 144 (S mod 256)
144 ((5 + /) mod 256) 1 .

.
,
PRBS 144 x((S + N) mod 256) 144 : ((5 +
+ N + ) mod 256) 1 .
L . ,

PRBS 144 JC ((5 + N + ) mod 256) 144 ((5 + /V +
+ + L) mod 256) 1 .

. ,
PRBS 144 ((S + N + +
+ L) mod 256) 144 ((S + N + + L + ) mod 256) 1 .
128- FFT BS 6 ( 8
PUSC ) /
BW-. MSS
, ( 6/8 ),
, (
).

MSS, ,
.
( )
.

(X)

.
(
) . 6.28.

. 6.28.
OFDMA

BS
( ), MSS
(
2), . 6.29.

. 6.29.
OFDMA

6.6.4.
HO-REQ/RSP
, -

. MSS, ,
PKM_PREAUTH-REQ. ,
PKM-AUTH-REQ, PKM-PREAUTH-RSP
PKM_PREAUTH-REJECT. BS
AUTH-RSP. PKM-PREAUTH-RSP
, BS ,
MSS.
MSS
.
BS, MSS ,
7.... , ,
,
PKMv2.

6.6.5.

,
BS MSS.
PCS RSP. UL.

"".
L + C/N+N1< 101ogl0(/?) + OffsetJSSperss + Offset.BS^ss,
:

P (dBm) ;

L UL.
/ ;

ON "/" /FEC , 332


. 332 UCD (
CIN). , C/N
UL ACK QPSK 1/3
UCD;

R /FEC;

N1 (dBm)
BS;
Offset_SSp,rss ,
SS. SS. ;
Offset_BSp<rrs5 ,
SS. BS .
.

, (8.4.12.1).
SS
EVM. SS Offset_SSpfrss
:
Offset_Bound/,we/- < Offset_SSp,fss < Offset_Boundupp,r,
:

Offset_BoundMppt.r Offset_SSpt,rss;

Offset_Bound/rnvt.r Offset_SSp<,r5s Offset_SSp<rrss


/ ""
.
BS Offset_BSp<.r5s,
PCS_RSP ( 6.3.2.3.58),
(FPC, Fast Power Control) ( 6.3.2.3.34)
( 8.4.5.4.5).
,
PMC_RSP, SS
.
Offset.BSp^ss
.
0,1 ,
, CSIT


, . 6.56.
6.56. SNR .

SNR ,

QPSK

1/2

9,4

3/4

11,2

16-QAM

64-QAM

1/2

16,4

3/4

18,2

2/3

22,7

3/4

24,4

6.6.6.
MSS ,
, MSS
BS.
() update) 16.
TLV (. 6.57) TLV
update.
6.57.

(1 )

(1 )

( )

New.CID

16.1

CID
BS

Old.CID

16.2


BS

(. 6.58) TLV CID update TLV.


6.58. CID update TLV

(1 )

(1 )

( )

Connection Info (

)

16.3


,
TLV

.
Cobbectionjnfo
TLV,

.
,


DSC-RSP,
,
TLV

6.6.7. IP-
- = 23
. 6.59.
6.59. IP-

23

bit #0: DHCP

bit #1: IPv4


bit#2:DHCPv6
bit #3:IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
bits #4-7: ;

6.6.8. OFDMA
OFDMA
. .
.
,
. ,
, ( )
.
,

.
:

BW ;

,
;
. BW /
.
8/7;

G
. 1/32, 1/16, 1/8 1/4.

, :
NFFT 2, NHCn\

Fs ( BW/8000)x8000 ;

/= FJ NFFT ;

= 1// ;
Tg = G ;

= + Ts OFDMA;

/ NFFT .

OFDMA
.
. OFDMA, -

FUSC PUSC
, .
FUSC,
, OFDMA.
PUSC,
, 2 -.
PUSC, ,

OFDMA.
,
, OFDMA.
OFDMA

OFDMA. BS 1
SS.

OFDMA, .
MAC.

OFDMA , (
) .
FDD TDD. SS
HFDD () TDD.
802.162004 OFDMA
(. 6.30).
TDD BS SS.
D-link ,
DL UL. TTG RTG
DL UL ,
BS .
OFDMA (TDD)
BS, SS.
, DL UL.
BS, SS, RTG (Re
ceive/Transmit Gap), TTG (Transmit/Receive Transition Gap)
, -

/ .
TDD- HFDD- SS
SSRTG SSTTG,
.

. 6.30. OFDMA (TDD)


.
PUSC (Partial Usage of Subchannels),
,
FUSC (Ful Usage of Subchannels).
FCH (Frame Con
trol Header). FCH
4- .
QPSK 1/2 PUSC-. FCH DL DL-MAP-,
DL- . OFDMA-
, PUSC FUSC.

WiMAX

, 802.162004,
, 2005 .

,
, .

7.1.

IEEE 802.162004 (Revd)
, WiMAX:
SS 15 10
-40 + +65 ;

5 ;

BS 8 - 1 0

-40 +65
10 .

SR
/ BW(Mru) : SR = (BW -0,088)/(1-).



2 2%
-40 - +65
SNR EVM : SNR > 40
, EVM , 3,1% 64 QAM.


,
20- 1 ,
25% (
4 , 4
25% 1 ).

5 .
.
.

.

( = 10"
7 3 ).
QPSK: - 93,2 + 10 lg BW,
16 QAM: - 86,2 + 10 lg BW,
64 QAM: - 8 6 + 1 0 lg BW, ,
BW .

/ (SNR)
QPSK: 9,8
16QAM: 16,8
64 QAM: 23,8
1 >-30 .
BS -40
0 . SS

-20 ,
0 .

. / (/1) . 7.1.
.
7.1. /1

BER 3

3



/1

BER 3

1

BPSK: -12

BPSK:-8

QPSK: -9

QPSK: -5

16 QAM: -2

16 QAM: +2

64 QAM: +5

64 QAM: +9

256 QAM: +12

256 QAM:+16

BPSK: -37

BPSK: -33

QPSK: -34

QPSK: -30

16 QAM: -27

16 QAM:-22

64 QAM: -20

64 QAM:-16

256 QAM:-13

256 QAM: -9

. 7.2 ,
SS BS OFDMA.
7.2. SS BS OFDM A


SS

>30

BS

>10

<1
< +/- 0,5

7.2 ()

BS.

(2,5 -
)

< 0,1


1702
:

-1 +1 -425
+425;

< +/-2

-425 +425 -851


+851

< +2/-4

SS.

(2,5 -
)

< 0,1


1702 :

-1 +1 -424
+424;

< +/-2

-424 +424 -848


+848

< +2/-4

()

()

.
BS 1 100 SS.

7.2.

, -

WiMAX,
. ,
,
,
,
, , , .
, ,
.

.
,
.

.
,
WiMAX-.
,
. () LO
(Local Oscillator), PA (Power Amplifier)
.
. WiMAX
.
.
1 1/2
.
100 . 210
.
WiMAX ()
, ,
( 100 ).

( )
,
. ,

.

, ,
. $30.
.
.
.

45% . 1518%.

() 2,5% (
< 0,1 ).

. -
100 .
,
.


. 0,9
-100 ,
.
~6 .

.
.
,
.
( !)
.
- , .
,
~$32 (
), ~$8, -
(SAW) ~$2.
. 7.3
(
1, 2, 3) .

7.3.

HFDD/TDD

FDD
1,

2,

RFIC

RFIC-

182

206

Rx-

RF-

3,

RF-

VTCXO

Rx-

RFIC

VTCXO-

58

RF-

13

18

LNA

SAW-

,
,
.

RF- (TBD)

204

234

204

61,77

56,73

24,30

7.3.

WiMAX
. FDD,
TDD, .

HFDD (Half-Duplex Frequency Division dyplex).
IF (Intermediate Frequency),
DC (Direct Converter),
ZTF (Zero Intermedia Frequency)
.
TDD. . 7.1 TDD. TDD ,
. () LO (Local Oscillator).
(),
, .
.
, .
TDD-
, ,
FDD, .

. 7.1. TOD

, TDD
, (
). - I
.
.
FDD,
.

-
FDD -
, .
- -
. ,
, SS
, .
( )
, . TDD
, FDD.
TDD- ,
, ,
. TDD ,
FDD, (
) .
FDD. . 7.2 FDD.
,
, .
/,
,
, TDD. .
FDD TDD
BER. 50
100 .

. 7.2. FDD

(), ,
10 ,
. -

/
0,5 .
,
FDD-
, .
$35 , $8.

, ,
, , (,
).

, ,

( ,
, ).
,
, :
() = */) AF () - /() - [ 1 7 4 + yVF- )],
:
1
AF;

DM
;

NF ;

() ,
10 .
, = -33
AF = 1 (10 = 6 0 ),
= -33 + 60 = +27 . = 60 .
-106 = -\\6 .
5 .
,
= -96 ,
.
2 (
). -

VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator)



.
, FDD- -
,
,
. FDD
.
FDD 5,8 , 3,5
2,5 , .
( , )
.
FDD,
HFDD (Half FDD).
HFDD.
. 7.3. TDD-
FDD.

. 7.3. HFDD

FDD
TDD-.

TDD-, .
TDD .
(, ,
).
.

.
HFDD , . SS
, TDD, .
.
HFDD TDD.
Intel ,
TDD HFDD.
,
(-)
.


.
. ( ),
, (AGC),
,
, .
, ,

-. ,
- .
,
.
.

.
HFDD ,
/
.

: .

TDD
( ZIF Zero Intermedia Frequency).
. 7.4.
.

,
.

. 7.4. TDD-

HFDD- TDD-
(I- Q-) . 7.5.
ZIF.

. 7.5. HFDD TDD

7.3.1.
MIMO, AAS OFDMA

,
.
.
SDC ,
/
.
,
.
, .

d .
1/3 .
, >1/3 X (
) ,
.
> 1/2 ..
.
SDC
(Selection Diverity Combining).

EGC (Equul Gain Combining)
,
/ MRC (Maximum Ratio Combining).

.
,
,
.
,
.
TDD ,
(
). SDC ,

,
, .
:
;
.



.
,
, ,
, ,

.
,
,
.

10 lg(/i), n
.
.
, ,
EGC. ,
SDC, .
( ), (
)
. .
EGC-
. , EGC
, SDC.
,
MRC. EGC ,
,
, .
.

,
,
.
MRC ,
.
- , ,

. MRC
.
MRC

. / (SNR).
MRC
. ,
MRC .
MIMO AAS .
MIMO
AD (Antenn Direct).
.
.
20 , .

,
. TDD-, FDD-

.
, AAS- "" , .
SS (
SS). SS
SDC.
AAS- , ,
. AAS
TDD,
.

7.4.
WiMAX
WiMAX-
,
, (Airspan Networks,
Alvarion Ltd, Aperto Networks, Redline Communications, Proxim Corporation,
Wi-LAN Inc) pre-WiMAX- .
, InfiNet Wireless Nateks
WiMax-
. ,
Airspan, Alvarion, Aperto Networks, Axxcelera Broadband
Wireless, Gemtek, Huawei, Proxim Corporation, Redline Communications,
Siemens Mobile, SR Telecom ZTE,

PRO/Wireless 5116 Intel,
IEEE 802.162004.
Rosedale,
1 . 2005 . Intel
.
Intel ,
.
WiMAX ,
Intel PRO/Wireless 5116 ,
, , WiMAX .
WiMAX Intel . 2003 .
, WiMAX
Fujitsu Microelectronics America.
Fujitsu
Wi-LAN, ,
802.16 ,
, , Libra MX,
. 7.6.
Wavesat Wireless 2004 .
, DM216,
802.16. , Redline Communications, -

2003 . AN-100,
802.16.
, 2005 . WiMAX-
, -
WiMAX
.

.
, WiMax
Forum, 2005 .
WiMAX,
(WiMAX-ready)
, Alvarion, Airs pan
Networks Redline Communications,
Intel CeBIT
2005 . Alvarion
BreezeMAX, Airspan AS.MAX,
CeBIT 2005, a Redline AN-100U.

.

(MAC),
Cetecom,
WiMAX Forum 2005 . .
Intel Fujitsu
WiMAX- ,
.
WiMAX-
2005 . , 2006 .
WiMAX.
, WiMAX-
, .
pre-WiMAX.
Texas Instruments Inc. (www.supportti.com/sc/pic/euro.htm)
TRFxxxx ( 4-
)
2,5, 3,5 5,8 ,
FDD-TDD .

(BS, SS) , ,
. TRF112x
2,32,7 , TRF122x 3,33,8 ,
TRF243x 4,95,9 .
. 7.6 (RF frontend) 2,5 3,5 . . 7.6,
, . 7.6, .

. 7.6. TRFxxxx

. 7.7 5,8
.

. 7.7. 5,8

VCO , ();

DDC ;

PLL ;
TRF 1123 ;
TRF 1222 ;
TRF 1221 - ();
TRF 1216 ;
TRF 1212 - ();
TRF 1122 ;
TRF 1121 ;
TRF 1115 ;
TRF 1112 ;
a TRF2432 ;
TRF 2436 .

() 1,2 5,8
0,5 2,5 3,5 . 80
1 . 90100 2,5 3,5 75
5,8 . >1,2 .
48 2,5 , 45
3,5 32,5 5,8 .
10x10 .
Fujitsu Microelectronics America 2005 .
(http://us.fujitsu.com/microAViMAX) 873400
SE7351L/SE7051L ( ARM 926 RISC),
802.162004 OFDM (256 , 64-QAM, 16QAM, QPSK, BPSK). 16 .
FDD/HFDD, TDD. 2,5, 3,5, 3,6
5,8 .

WiMAX.
.
.
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing),

(FFT) ()
. OFDM

, NLOS (Non Line
of Sight) . OFDMA (Orthogonal Fre
quency Division Multiply Access)
OFDM, SOFDMA (Scalable OFDMA)
OFDMA .
.
:
DAMA (Demand Assignment Multiple Access)
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) .
.
( , ,
)
, : BPSK, QPSK,
8 QAM, 16 QAM, 64 QAM.

CINR
(Carrier/Interference + Noise Radio).
.
TDD (Time Division Duplex),
FDD (Frequency Division Du
plex).
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request)

,
FEC (Forward Error Correction)
,
.
, QoS.
("endto-end")
:

UGS (Unsolicited Grand Service)


;

rtPS (Real Time Polling Service)


;

nrtPS (Non Real Time Polling Service)


;

BE (Best Effort) , - .

,
DiffServ, VLAN-,
CBR (Constant Bit Rate)
VBR (Variable Bit Rate),
:

CIR (Committed Information Rate)


;

D MIR (Maximum Information Rate)


;
PIR (Peak Information Rate) .
.

DES
(Digital Encryption Standard), 3DES (Triple DES), AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard)
(Privacy Key Management).
.509.

, 6090,
. . 46 .
, , ,
, , -.
,
WiMAX-.
.

7.4.1.
SkyMAN
InfiNet Wireless
InfiNet Wireless 10

SkyMAN/CA.


.
:
288 /
(48 / );
()
"-" 54 /;
2,42,492 (DSSS ) 5,16,0
(OFDM );

50 ;
;

, ]-;

QoS , VoIP;

VoIP-;

, VPN ;


;
"-", "-"
.
pre-WiMAX InflNet Wireless

.
2,4
(DACS) BPSK, QPSK,
1, 2, 5,5 11 / .
5 OFDM (
) 52 BPSK,
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM 6 9, 12 18, 24 36, 48 54 /
. . 7.6 SkyMAN.
SkyMAN
(), SkyMAN
.
5
AC (SS) 6 288 / 12 .
2,4
11 / .
(),
12
, .
().
, ,
.
, . -

,
.
6
,
, .
( )
,
.
360 ( ), 120 (
) 60 ( ).
,
, ,
.

54 /.

6 48 /.
,
"-"
.
:

;

.
:

;
IP-
;

VPN.
:

;


;

;

.
. SkyMAN
InfiNet Wireless
R5000. , ( 2,4 )

, ,
.

7.4.2.
Nateks-Multilink 3
802.16
WiMAX Nateks-Multilink 3. (. 7.9)

70 /.
Nateks-Multilink 3
3,43,8
"-" () "-" ()
, .
:

(QoS),

Ethernet TDM E1
, -
;

, ;
(SLA)
, QoS
;



;
OFDM
;
(QPSK, 16 QAM,
64 QAM);

99,999%.
Nateks-Multilink 3 :
,
SC (Sector Controller) ;
SS (Subscriber Station),
SC (90 60);
"-"
.
Nateks-Multilink 3 :
6 SC ;
16 SS;
4000 SC;
250 SC.
Nateks-Multilink 3

, .
3,4003,800 .
250 .
.
3,5 , 7 14 .
>50 .
5 / / (), 2,7 / / (
Ethernet).

70 / (
).
SC + 23 , SS + 16 .
-88 (1-09 BER 7 ,
QPSK 1/2).
. 300 ,
, , (Tx/Rx, , ).
802.3 Ethernet, 802.1Q VLAN, 802. lp, DHCP
.
. ()
: QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM
.
. DES () 3DES ( ).
. 1/2, 2/3 3/4.
. "-" () 802.16.
(ARQ).
( ). "-": 6,5
, 33 . "-":
70 .
. TDD (time division duplex), HD-FDD.
.
256 FFT OFDM.

~ 5 //.
10/100 Ethernet (RJ-45), 4 1 SS, 8 1 SC (RJ-48c).
Web, CLI, Telnet.
FlexGain View.
AC/DC, .
. : 18 15 24 8.
: 14 90 17 60.

.
.

7.4.3. BreezeMAX

IEEE 802.16a Alvarion
BreezeMAX
,
IEEE 802.16. Alvarion,
WiMAX. BreezeMAX

, , (VPN),
, , .
BreezeMAX BWA
("end to end") (QoS),
IEEE 802.16a. , QoS
, .
,
IEEE 802.16a,
, .

48 /.
1,75 3,5 .

. Alvarion
15 .
BreezeMAX .

-.
Ethernet-
Wi-Fi WLAN , ,
.
POTS ( 2-).
:
: 12,7 /;
: 34003500; 35003600 ;

: 1,75 3,5 ;

: TDMA;

:
: FDD full duplex;
: FDD half duplex;

: QAM 16QAM64;

: FEC
.

WiMAX-
Alvarion BreezeMAX 3500
.
802.162004
BreezeUSER III,
Alvarion "".
, BreezeMAX 3500 Alvarion
- IEEE 802.I62004,
WiMAX. BreezeMAX 3500
OFDM Alvarion,
3,43,5 3,53,6

(NLOS).

,
, (VPN), ,
-. BreezeMAX 3500
(QoS), ,
.
, IEEE
802.16,
, .
Alvarion BreezeMAX 3500
:
( )
. 2005 .

48 /.
,
1,75 3,5 .
-

.
15 .

7.4.4. PacketWave
Aperto Networks
Aperto Networks PacketWave 1000
,
4

.

.
:
(RG-6)
( 250 ); 5 (FTP5e)
.

4, 6

20 / 14 / "" .

.


(
) .
/ .
PacketWave 100,
, (/
),
( /) .
Aperto Networks PacketWave

.
:
(
100 ); 5 .
3 (PacketWave 110,

PacketWave 120, PacketWave 130),


, , .

"
".
PW 1000
.
8 255 PW 760

.
,
.
32 PW-760.
Aperto Networks . 7.4.
7.4.
Aperto

Networks

Aperto Networks PacketWave

3,300-3,700 / 5,1505,350 / 5,725


5,875

3,5 : 1,75/3,5/7 1/2/3/4/5/6


5,3 / 5,8 : 2/3/4/5/6

,
/

20/13 /

, //,
/

3,33/2,33

QPSK, 16QAM

3,5 : 20 40
5,3/5,8 : 14

, 17x17

100BaseT

10/100BaseT

7.4 ()

A per to Networks PacketWave

, ,
VLAN

QoS

CBR / CIR / BE

ToS(802.1p,RFC791)

,
/

20

AT,
/

20

- AT

1022

(
)

AT

: , 75
:

250

: +0 +40

:-40 +60

+
Outdoor radio unit
4 6

7.4.5. AN
Redline Communications
Redline Communications
AN-30, AN-30e, AN-50e, AN-100.
AN-100 IEEE 802.16a.

7.4.6.
SR-Telecom Angel

ABS3000, BSU3000
SS3100 SSU4000.

(LOS),
(OLOS), (NLOS);
: 3,5 ;

: 1;

"-";

OFDM-;

: TDMA, FDD;
: QPSK, 8QAM, 16QAM, 64QAM ""
"";
QoS: CIR, MIR;
;
;
(G.729e);
(V. 17,V.29,V.21.27);
(V.32, V.90);
- (G. 168);
DHCP;

V5.1,V5.2;
MLPPP.
:
El MLPPP;
El v5.1;
El v5.2.
:

10/100 Base-T (RJ-45);

a/b(RJ-ll).

7. Canopy
Motorola
Motorola Canopy
,
,
-. Motorola Canopy
, "-" "" . "-"
Motorola Canopy 56 ,
"-" 18 .
. 7.5.

7.5. Motorola

Motorola Canopy

5,255,35/5,7255,825

20

,
/

10/7 /

, //,
/

0,5/0,35

High Index BFSK

5,2/5,8 : 16 .
5,2 / 5,8 : 32 . -

, 8 , 60x60
, 26 ,
6x6

10/100BaseT

10/100BaseT

7.5 ()

Motorola Canopy

, VLAN

QoS

MIR

IPToS

, /

23

AT, /

23

- AT

200

AT

100

-40 +55

Outdoor unit

WiMAX-
. 7.6.
WiMAX .
WiMAX IEEE
802.16 802.162004.
WiMAX-,
WiMAX.

7.6. WiMAX

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

2003 802.16
2004
802.162004

NaterksSkyMAN
Multilink 3
Access (Infinet
( ,
Wireless,
)
)

PacketWave
(Aperto Net
works, )

VectaStar 3500
(Cambridge
Broadband,
)

Symmetry
(SR Telecom,
)

2004

2004

2004

2004

2005

802.16

802.16

802.16

802.16

802.16e

OFDM 256

DSSS,
OFDM 64

OFDM

OFDM

OFDM

TDMA

TDMA,
Polling +PVC

TDMA

IEEE

"

OFDM 256,
OFDMA 2048

TDMA,
DAMA

QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

BPSK,
QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

QPSK,
16 QAM

QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

QPSK, 8 QAM,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

TDD/FDD

TDD,
HD-FDD

TDD

FDD

FDD

7.6 ()

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

2 11

1,25

20

NaterksSkyMAN
Multilink 3
Access (Infinet
( ,
Wireless,
)
)

PacketWave
VectaStar 3500
(Aperto Net
(Cambridge
works, )
Broadband,
)

Symmetry
(SR Telecom,
)

3,43,8

2,42,492
5,16,0

2,52,689
3,33,8
5,155,35
5,725,92

3,43,8

2,3
2,4
3,5

3,5
7
14

20

1,756,0

1,75
3,5
7
14

1,75
3,5



, /

175

70

54

20

60

11
(66 )

46

46

12

15

20

,
,

50

33

50

40

90

32

FEC,
ARQ

ARQ


FEC,
ARQ

FEC,
ARQ

"

7.6 ()

,

QoS

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

UGS,
rtPS, nrtPS, BE

NaterksMultilink 3
( ,
)

SkyMAN Ac
cess (In/met
Wireles,
)

PacketWave VectaStar 3500


(Aperto Net
(Cambridge
works, )
Broadband,
)

Symmetry
(SR Telecom,
)

UGS,
rtPS, nrtPS, BE
5

VoIP,
VPN
MIR,
BER

CBR, CIR BE ATM


(CBR, VBR)
DiffServ,
VLAN,
UBR/VBR,
CIR

CIR,
MIR

CIRHPIR

, , - :


IP-, DES 56/112/168
.509
DES/3DES, ,

.509

AT

10/100BaseT,
4-81

10/100BaseT

10/100BaseT

250

150

1022

www.nateks.ru

www.
infinetwireless.ru

www.
apertonet.com

10/100BaseT
El/Tl
ATM

10/100BaseT
El v.5.1

www.cambridge
broadband.com

www.
srtelecom.com

"

www.

wimaxforum.org

7.6 ()

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

2003802.16
2004
802.162004

IEEE

AS.MAX
(Airspan,
)
4 :
PrimeMAX
MicroMAX

HiperMAX

3500
(Alvarion,
)

RedMAX
(AN-100U,
AN-50)
(Redline
Commu
nications,
)

OS-Gemini
(Orthogon
System,
)

Libra MX
(Wi-LAN/,
)

2005
1 . 2006

2004

2005

2004

2004

802.162004

802.162004

802.162004

802.16

802.16

OFDM 256,
OFDMA 2048

OFDM 256,
SOFDMA

OFDM 256

OFDM

OFDM

W-OFDM 256

TDMA,
DAMA

TDMA/TDM/
SDMA

TDMA

TDMA

TDMA

TDMA

7.6 ()

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

AS.MAX
(Airspan,
)
4 :
PrimeMAX
MicroMAX
MacroMAX
HiperMAX

3500
(Alvarion,
)

RedMAX
(AN-100U,
AN-50)
(Redline
Commu
nications,
)

OS-Gemini
(Orthogon
System,
)

Libra MX
(Wi-LAN Inc.,
)

QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM

BPSK,
QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

BPSK,
QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

BPSK
64 QAM

BPSK
64 QAM
(8 )

BPSK,
QPSK,
16 QAM,
64 QAM

TDD/FDD

FDD + TDD

FDD

TDD

TDD/FDD

FDD,
HDX/FDX

211

3,5
5,8
(0,7; 2,3; 2,5;
3,7; 4,9;
5,45,7
2006 .)

3,43,5
3,53,6

3,5
5,8

5,725,85

3,43,6

7.6 ()

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

AS.MAX
(Airspan,
)
4 :
PrimeMAX
MicroMAX

HiperMAX

BreeMAX
3500
(Alvarion,
)

RedMAX
(AN-100U,
AN-50)
(Redline
Commu
nications,
)

OS-Gemini
(Orthogon
System,
)

Libra MX
(Wi-LAN Inc.,
)

1,2520

1,75
3
5
7
10

1,75
3,5
14

1,7520

12

3,5
7



,
/

175

50

48

72

33,6

48

46

3 7,5

15

10

,
,

50

30

30

7.6 ()

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

AS.MAX
(Airspan,
)
4 :
PrimeMAX
MicroMAX
MacroMAX
HiperMAX

BreeMAX
3500
(Alvarion,
)

RedMAX
(AN-100U,
AN-50)
(Redline
Commu
nications,
)

OS-Gemini
(Orthogon
System,
)

FEC,
ARQ

FEC,
ARQ

ARQ


FEC

FEC,
ARQ

QoS

UGS,
rtPS, nrtPS, BE

UGS,
rtPS, nrtPS, BE
CIR,
MIR,
DiffServ
VLAN

rtPS, nrtPS,
BE
CIR,
MIR,
DiffServ

CBR,
CIR,
MIR,

,
-
.509

AES/DES/
3DES

.509

3DES,
X.509

Libra MX
(Wi-LAN Inc.,
)

IPTOS

AES 128 bit


VPN

7.6 ()


AT

IEEE 802.16
802.162004

"

www.wimaxfor
um.org

AS.MAX
(Airspan,
)
4 :
PrimeMAX
MicroMAX

HiperMAX

3500
(Alvarion,
)

RedMAX
(AN-100U,
AN-50)
(Redline
Commu
nications,
)

OS-Gemini
(Orthogon
System,
)

Libra MX
(Wi-LAN Inc.,
)

10/100BaseT

10/100BaseT

10/100BaseT
18E1

10/100BaseT

10/100BaseT
El/Tl

512

2048

www.
airspan.com

www.
alvarion.com

www.redlineco
mmunication.com

www.
ortogonsystems.com

www.
wi-lan.com

, ,
,
, -
, . ,

.
.
, WiMAX
.

,
.

3-DES

Triple Data Encryption Standard

AAS

Adaptive Antenna System

AES

Advanced Encryption Standard

AGC

Automatic Gain Control


()

Authorization Key

ARQ

Automatic Repetition reQuest

ASA

Authentication and Service


Authorization

ATDD

Adaptive Time Division Duplexing

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Block Convolutional Code

BE

Best Effort

BER

Bit Error Rate

BPSK

Binary Phase-Shift Keying

()

BR

Bandwidth Request

BS

Base Station

BSN

Block Sequence Number

Block Turbo Code

BW

Bandwidth

BWA

Broadband Wireless Access

Carrier-to-interference ratio

C/N

Carrier-to-Noise ratio


(/)

Certification Authority

Cipher Block Chaining

Cipher Block Chaining Message


Authentication Code

Confirmation Code

Control Subchannel

CCI

Co-Channel Interference

CTR Mode with CBC-MAC

CTR CDC-MAC

CCS

Common Channel Signaling

CCV

Clock Comparison Value

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

Conference of European Post and


Telegraph

ChID

Channel Identifier

CID

Connection ID

()

CINR

Carrier to Noise and Interference


Ratio

CIR

Channel Impulse Response

CLP

Cell Loss Priority

Cyclic Prefix

CPS

Common Part Sublayer

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CS

Convergence Sublayer

(
)

CSCF

Centralized scheduling configuration

CSCH

Centralized scheduling

CTR

Counter Mode Encryption

DAMA

Demand assigned multiple access

- ,

DARS

Digital Audio Radio Satellite

DCD

Download Channel Descriptor

DES

Data Encryption Standard

DFS

Dynamic Frequency Selection

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration


Protocol

DIUC

Downlink Interval Usage Code

DL

Downlink

( )

DM

Directed Mesh

DSA

Dynamic Service Addition

()

DSC

Dynamic Service Change

DSCH

Distributed Scheduling

DSCP

Differentiated Services Codepoint

DSD

Dynamic Service Deletion

DSx

Dynamic Service addition, change,


deletion

,
,

Extensible Authentication Protocol

Encryption Control

Electronic Code Book

EDE

Encrypt-Decrypt-Encrypt

EESS

Earth Exploration Satellite System

EIRP

Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

EKS

Encryption Key Sequence

EVM

Error Vector Magnitude

FBSS

Fast Base Station Switching

FC

Fragmentation Control

FCH

Frame Control Header

FDD

Frequency Division Duplex

FEC

Forward Error Correction

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

()

FPC

Fast Power Control

FSH

Frame Control Header

FSN

Fragment Sequence Number

FSS

Fixed Satellite Service

GKEK

Group Key Encryption Key

GPS

Global Positioning System/Satellite

GS

Guard Symbol

GTEK

Group Traffic Encryption Key

HARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request

HCS

Header Check Sequence

Header Error Check

H-FDD

Half-Duplex frequency division du


plex

Hashed Message Authentication


Code

Handover

HUMAN

High-speed unlicensed metropolitan


area network

Inphase

IANA

Internet Assigned Numbers


Authority

IE

Information Element

()

irrr

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

IP

Internet Protocol

()

ITU

International Telecommunication
Union


(ITU TS = CCITT)

IWF

Interworking function

Key Encryption Key

LAN

Local Area Network

LFSR

Linear Feedback Shift Register

LLC

Logical Link Control

LOS

Line-of-sight

LSB

Least Significant Bit

MAC

Medium Access Control

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network

MBd

Megabaud

MBd/s

Megabaud per second

Mb/s

Megabit per second

MBS

Mobile Base Station

MDS

Multipoint distribution service

MIB

Management Information Base

,

SNMP 1

MIC

Message Integrity Check

MMDS

Multichannel Multipoint Distribu


tion Service

()

MPEG

Motion Picture Expert Group


(
ISO-11172)

MSB

Most Significant Bit

MSH

Mesh

MSS

Mobile Subscriber Station

NCFG

Network Configuration

NENT

Network Entry

NLOS

Non-Line-Of-Sight

NNI

Network-Network Interface (Net


work Node Interface)

- (
)

nrtPS

Non-Real-Time Polling Service

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing

OFDMA

Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiple Access




(IEEE802.16)

OID

Object Identifier

Primary Authorization Key

PBR

Piggyback request

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

PHS

Payload Header Suppression

PHSF

Payload Header Suppression Field

PHSI

Payload Header Suppression Index

()

PHSM

Payload Header SuppressionMask

PHSS

Payload Header SuppressionSize

PHSV

Payload Header Suppression Valid

PHY

PHysical Layer Protocol

Privacy Key Management

Poll-Me bit

PMD

Physical layer Media Dependent

Pairwise Master Key

Point-to-Multipoint

"-"

Point-to-Point Protocol

"-"

PRBS

Pseudo Random Binary Sequence

PS

Physical Slot

PSH

Packing Subheader

PTI

Payload Type Identifier


(ATM)

Point-to-point

PVC

Permanent Virtual Circuit

Quadrature

()

QAM

Quadrature-Amplitude Modulation


(1 = 4 )

QoS

Quality Of Service


(ISO-8348)

()

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

REQ

Request

RLAN

Radio Local Access Network

RNG

Ranging

RS

Reed-Solomon

RSP

Response

RSS

Receive Signal Strength

RSSI

Receive Signal Strength Indicator

RTG

Receive/Transmit Transition Gap

PTPS
(rtPS)

Real Time Polling Service

Rx

Receiver

RxDS

Receiver Delay Spread Clearing


Interval

SA

Security Association

SAID

Security Association Identifier

SAP

Service Access Point

SAR

Synthetic Aperture Radar

sc

Single Carrier

SCTE

Society of Cable Telecommunica


tions Engineers

SDU

Service Data Unit

SF

Service Flow

()

SFID

Service Flow Identifier

SHA

Secure Hash Algorithm

SHO

Soft Handover

SI

Slip Indicator

SNMP

Simple Network Management


Protocol


(RFC 13 81 -82)

SNR

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

SS

Subscriber Station

SSTG

Subscriber Station Transition Gap

STC

Space Time Coding

SVC

Switched Virtual Circuit

Transmission convergencesublayer

Trellis-coded Modulation

TCP

Transport Control Protocol

TDD

Time Division Duplex

TDM

Time Division Multiplexing

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

Traffic Encryption Key

()

TFTP

Trivial File Transfer Protocol


(REC-783)

TLV

Type/Length/Val ue

//

TTG

Transmit/Receive Transition Gap

Transmitter

UCD

Uplink Channel Descriptor

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

(RFC-768)

UGS

Unsolicited Grant Service

UIUC

Uplink Interval Usage Code

UL

Uplink

UNI

User Network Interface

U-NII

Unlicensed National Informational


Infrastructure

UTC

Universal Time Coordinated


( )

UW

Unique Word

VC

Virtual Channel

VCI

Virtual Channel/Circuit Identifier

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

VP

Virtual Pass

VPI

Virtual Pass Identifier

XOR

Exclusive-OR


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22. . ., . ., . .
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29. . / .
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