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PIP day in the Riverina

PIP components and


Research methods and your PIP.

th

28 November, 2014
Wagga

23/11/2014

2014 PIP day


in the Riverina
Hello and Welcome from
The SAC Association of NSW
Mr Steven Baker
Mrs Caroline McTeigue
About today.

The PIP is a part of your exam!


Allowed to work 40% of your HSC mark
before the exam! This is significant!
Engage with the PIP process!
Know the compulsory components of the
PIP and how it will be marked
Work hard it will be worth it!
Have a term plan and keep to it..
Go to the student TAB on SAC web site
Sign up for a State Library of NSW, Library
card

Student support on the Society and Culture


Website .select the student tab
http://www.scansw.com.au/

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Start your academic research and


annotations with the State Library of NSW

go to http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/using/membership/index.html

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PERSONAL INTEREST
PROJECT COMPONENTS
Tips for Pips

Required components
The Personal Interest Project enables students
to demonstrate the development of their
interests, research skills and personal
experiences concerning the interactions
between persons, societies, cultures and
environments across time. In particular,
students will be able to demonstrate the
development and application of social and
cultural research methods in completing
their PIPs.

What are the required


components?
Cover page and title
Contents
Introduction (500 words)
Log (500 words)
Central material (4000 words)
Conclusion (500 words)
Resource list inc. annotations (no word
limit)

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Hint
Go to:
arc.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/go/hsc/stdpacks/
You will be able to see PIPs at various band
cut-offs e.g. 5/6, 4/5, 3/4, 2/3, 1/2

Girls Just Want To Have Fun


Case Study: Girls In Sport; A
Deconstruction
Of Society

The cover page and title


Some suggestions for your cover page
A title that grabs the examiner
A sentence explaining your title
Creative and colourful visuals
Note: when adding photos, pictures and
visuals, its best to integrate and always
refer to them in the text

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Introduction
The introduction requires a brief
description (no more than 500 words) of:
Why this topic was chosen
What the topic is about be clear!
What ways it contributes to a better
understanding of Society and Culture
The choice of research methods should
be explained and justified

Exercise
Read the introduction and write down
what the topic is actually about
Note the focus question!

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Find the research methods and why the


student selected this topic!

Log

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What do you notice about the log?

So, the log


Is reflective
Shows strong evaluation of research
processes
Utilises commentary appropriately
Accounts for unexpected results
Shows effectiveness of research
Is genuine
Not in diary format
Not chatty

Central material
Accompanied by photographs, tables, graphs
and/or diagrams that should be labelled and
integrated into the text through discussion
Between 2500 and 4000 words
Must contain a cross-cultural perspective
Must apply course concepts such as
continuity and change

The cross-cultural perspective and continuity


and/or change should be integrated in the
central material of the PIP

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What do you notice about the following


passage?

Secondary research is footnoted

It is paraphrased: in your own words


There is commentary on the material
Concepts are included!

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Do
Aim for synthesis of public knowledge,
primary research, and concepts.
HINT: try writing paragraphs which show this
three-sentence flow. Avoid slabs of information
e.g. Studies within Australia have shown that the
participation of adolescent girls in sport is
considerably lower than that of their male
counterparts. My research shows that most
young teenagers cant even name a female golfer,
cyclist, soccer player or basketball player. Such
stereotypes have had rather negative influences
on gender roles in the micro world.

Also
Remember to integrate your
cross-cultural :
Gender M/F and sexuality
Age you can specify e.g. 20-30
Location urban/rural etc
Ethnicity/cultural heritage

Dont just add your cross-cultural as an


afterthought

Research Methods
Aim for three research methods and use them
well (best not to have all three the same)
Remember:
Justify
Explain
Analyse
ALL research methods!
Try a best fit approach: you select your
research based on a focus question .

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Q: Why wouldnt you do a questionnaire to


50 respondents in your local area about
missionaries in Thailand?
A: ???

Does the topic reflect knowledge and


understanding of continuity and/or
change? Are there links between past,
present and future?
Time is of the essence.
You cant double dip by using time as a
cross cultural on its own. Using
generations as a cross cultural still need
a time perspective.

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How has feminism changed over time?


What are the implication for womens
roles in the future? How do Baby
Boomers and Gen Y view feminism and
womens roles?

Remember: conclude your central


material findings and say what you learnt
from the project! You can be reflective.
What do you notice about the following
conclusion?

Conclusion

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Annotated resource list

Remember:
No limit on the resource list
Annotations should look to validity,
usefulness and bias (H7)
A resource can be both beneficial and
have drawbacks
Annotate your primary research as well
Be clear and appropriate in annotations
Bias can be positive and negative

All work which is not your own MUST


be referenced!
Plagiarism is malpractice!
In- text referencing or footnoted
references are acceptable
Ethics is everything

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Write down what ethical research means in


practise (syllabus p21)

2013 Notes from the Marking


Centre Society and Culture
Characteristics of better projects:

Topic choice was clearly defined


There was clear evidence of an effective research process, integrating both primary
and secondary research findings

A range of primary and secondary resources from both electronic and printed
sources was used

Resources were clearly and appropriately annotated

Research findings were synthesised in an in-depth and sophisticated way

Course concepts were thoroughly integrated


Cross-cultural and continuity and/or change perspectives were made explicit

The project log provided a holistic overview of the candidates research


development with a reflective analysis of methodologies which also identified
potential bias, where appropriate, and critical judgement of their research findings

An understanding of the limitations of particular research methodologies was


demonstrated

A high level of social and cultural literacy was demonstrated

2013 Notes from the Marking


Centre Society and Culture
Characteristics of weaker projects:
The topic selected was either very broad or proved difficult to research
over a sustained period, which prevented the candidate from being able to
develop their ideas
Where very personal issues were selected, it was difficult to relate these
to syllabus content, course concepts and appropriate social issues
Bias in research or personal views was not acknowledged
Issues that had ethical considerations were not addressed
The central material often consisted of summarising material from
secondary sources about an issue, without sufficient judgement regarding
their research findings
Log entries were often calendar entries consisting of simplistic overviews
of each month rather than a developmental analysis or reflection on the
research process
Not all secondary materials used were referenced or referenced correctly
The resources used were not annotated

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2013 Notes from the Marking


Centre Society and Culture
Recommendations:
Select a topic that will allow you to conduct valid primary and secondary research and
enable you to analyse and integrate findings
Discuss your topic selection with your teacher if you think your topic or methodology
may be controversial
If you choose to conduct primary research using the internet, you need to demonstrate
an awareness of the validity, bias and usefulness of those methodologies
Your log needs to be more than a chronological list of events and occurrences it should
be a holistic statement of reflection on how and why the research took place and the
effectiveness of the overall research process
When you discuss the ideas of others, you should try to synthesise these ideas into
discussions on your own views
Acknowledge the works of others by referencing, using a referencing system such as the
Harvard system
Any information deemed significant to the project should generally be located within the
central material. Remember that appendices are not included in the marking guidelines or
considered in marking the project
Integrate all the methodologies used in the central material rather than including a
separate chapter for each methodology.

Checklist of examination criteria

Keep the following in mind!


Clear topic: aim for clarity throughout
Clear procedures
Applied concepts
Appropriate social and cultural research methods including
acknowledgement of sources
Relevant subject matter
Continuity and/or change
Integration into a coherent structure
Conclusions that proceed from the stated introduction
Personal experience
Is related to public knowledge
Communication!
Originality!
Social literacy!

Have your teachers check your progress:


the better you are at English, the better
you are at your PIP!

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Society and Culture Literacy


Exercise

There are ten errors in the following PIP


introduction. See if you can identify them.

Society is effected by an amount of people


that belief patriotism is indeed beneficial.
However others conclude that this is not so
unusual phenomenon is not positive.
54% of people surveyed declare that
patriotism is dangerous.This may be bias. 3
versions of patriotism are said to exist.
Whereas two reactions. Less respondents
agreed.

Society and Culture Literacy


Exercise

There are ten errors in the following PIP


introduction. See if you can identify them.

Society is effected by an amount of people that


belief patriotism is indeed beneficial.
However others conclude that this is not so unusual
phenomenon is not positive.
54% of people surveyed declare that patriotism is
dangerous.This may be bias. 3 versions of patriotism
are said to exist. Whereas two reactions. Less
respondents agreed.

affected not effected.


number not amount.
believe not belief.
However, with a comma.
not-so-unusual not not so unusual.
Fifty-four percent: Dont start a sentence with
a number.
biased not bias.
Three not 3: from 1-10, numbers are written.
Whereas: this is not a sentence.
Fewer not less.

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Good Luck!

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Research and your PIP


How to get through and achieve top marks in your
Personal Interest Project

It can be daunting

PIPpa steps.

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Know your Syllabus!!


It is so important to know your syllabus!!
Print a copy and write all over it, use
sticky notes, highlighters so you are aware
of what it contains.
The syllabus should become your new
best friend!!
Tag the relevant pages in your syllabus.

Syllabus Page Numbers!!


Page 18-19:- Social & Cultural Research
Methods Qualitative & Quantitative
research methods.
Page 20:- Research Methods
Page 21:- Ethical Research
Page 22-23:- The Process of Research
Page 35:- HSC Core: The PIP!!!!!!

Whats in this session?


Part One
About research
Types of research
How to design and conduct research
Part Two
Integrating research into your PIP
Writing

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Conducting research

What is research?
Social

science factual and


measurable
Observe human behaviour
cultural and social practices, habits
and patterns
Understand human behaviour
View these behaviours in a scientific
way

Why research?

To answer a question.

What do I want to find out that I dont


already know?

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The research question


The PIP is a process.
Your Research Question should guide
you.
Writing a Research Question is the very
first thing you do before you begin.
If you need to refine it or add to it, you
can go back and do so.

Types of research
Primary research that you design
yourself.
Secondary research designed and
conducted by somebody else.
Combining research types is the only way
to answer a Research Question.

Research Methods

You can choose from this list!!

Case Study
Content Analysis

Focus Group

Interview

Observation

Participant observation

Personal Reflection
Questionnaire

Secondary Research

Statistical Analysis

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Primary research
Research that you design yourself.
You observe, measure and report.
Two types of primary research
quantitative and qualitative.
A variety of primary research methods.

The research process


Research Question you are looking for
the answer
Hypothesis/hypotheses the way you will
find the answer
Variables cause and effect

Independent variable (IV): cause


Dependent variable (DV): effect

Correlation relationship between them

An example design
Research Question
How do television viewing habits impact
on academic performance?
Hypothesis 1 (H1)
More than two hours per day spent
watching television (independent
variable/cause) will result in a score of
less than 75% (dependent variable/effect)
in weekly exams.

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Qualitative or quantitative?

Quantitative

the
measurement of
numbers.
Qualitative the analysis
of words.

Quantitative Research
Closed-ended questionnaire
Observation
Textual/content analysis
Statistical analysis

When to use quantitative research

Broad insights about a large group of


people
Research about an entire town, city, country,
culture or interest group

Comparing large sets of data about


different groups of people
Especially useful when doing cross-cultural
comparisons

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Positives of quantitative research


Objective
Neutral
Measureable
Academic rigour
Less labour intensive
Respondent/researcher anonymity
Able to be extrapolated to large
populations
Easily compared

Limitations of quantitative research


Less depth
Less detail
Researcher bias
Sample design
Impersonal
Non-response bias

Questionnaire design

Avoid leading questions


Measurability

Yes/No
Counts
Frequency (1-2 hours, 3-4 hours, 5-6 hours)
Likert scale (strongly agree strongly disagree)
Ranking (rate from 1-10)

Keep as short as possible


Right mix of structured and open-ended
questions

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Qualitative research
Interview
Open-ended questionnaire
Focus group
Participant observation
Action research
Case study (cohesive combination of two
or more qualitative methods)

Positives of qualitative research


Rich and detailed data
Interactive, evolving process
Respondent researcher interface

Limitations of qualitative research


Difficult to ensure representativeness
Difficult to operationalise
Small samples
Open to respondent bias
Relies on researcher interpretation

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Qualitative or quantitative?

Consider your respondents for each part


of your study
Who are they?
How many of them are there?
What information do you need from them?

Consider the eclectic approach


Combine methods into your research
instruments

Sampling
How do I generate insights about big
groups of people?
Sampling.
Outline your target population
Make sure your sample is
representative
How do I get a representative sample?
How do I know that it is representative?

Random Sampling
Define your target population
Equal chance for any member of the
population to be selected
Large enough to capture an accurate
cross-section of the target population

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What do I do with my data?


You will need to design a way to collect
and assess your data.
Microsoft Excel use formulae

SUM (total)
AVERAGE (average)
MODE (most frequent)
MEDIAN (middle)
CORREL (correlation)

CORREL examples
Test
score

TV hours

Test
score

TV hours

10%

10

10%

20%

20%

30%

30%

40%

40%

50%

50%

60%

60%

70%

70%

80%

80%

90%

90%

100%

100%

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Result -1

Result +1

Secondary research

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Secondary research
Secondary research is research already
carried out by another researcher
Analysing and comparing existing research
(the literature review)
Judge which research supports your work
Use secondary research as the
groundwork

Other researchers may have covered your


topic and found proven conclusions

Integrating secondary research


How useful is the information?
How does this source compare to others?
What biases are evident?
Reliability
Validity is it referenced?

Keep a record of secondary resources


as you collect them.
Write your annotations as you go.

Writing annotations
An

annotation is a mini-essay
about each secondary source you
utilise
First paragraph summarise
Second paragraph analyse
Third paragraph evaluate
Fourth paragraph personalise

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Secondary research sources


Academic journals (peer-reviewed,
referenced)
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Local government demographic profiles,
photo libraries, mapping
National Library of Australia
State and local libraries

Wikipedia
Anybody can write and edit Wikipedia
articles.
Not acceptable as a secondary
resource.
Useful to orientate yourself to aspects of
your topic.
Links in Wikipedia allow you to easily
investigate interrelationships.
Always find reliable, referenced
resources after using Wikipedia.

Integrating research into


your PIP

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Integrating into the PIP

Once Ive done my primary and


secondary research, how do I integrate it
into my central material?

Your primary and secondary research


should inform your thinking.
Your research will lead you through
the PIP process.

Structuring your approach


2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Secondary research

Review the literature


Read widely
Inform your initial approach
Design and conduct primary
research
Review and analyse your primary
research
Integrate

1.

Understanding your data


Take time to think about your research
results.
The trends and the reason for them may
not be immediately apparent.
Read widely other researchers may
have had similar experiences to you.
Look at your data again.

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Write your ideas down!


Write your ideas down as the come to
you (use the note feature in your phone)
You will either forget them, or they wont
be as good, when you most need them
later on.

Integrating my primary research

What are the results of your primary


research suggesting?

Analyse trends
Confirm or disprove hypothesis/hypotheses
Compare to secondary research
Analyse why your primary and secondary
research is consistent or not
Explain why using concepts.

Using tables
Primary research Secondary
research source
Findings

Findings

Theories

Theories

Analysis

Analysis

Conclusions

Conclusions

Similarities and differences

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You are the researcher


PIP markers are looking for sophisticated
personal insight.
This is your original research. The results
and conclusions are yours.
You should form your own opinions and
ideas, considering the facts.

All good research involves drawing your


own conclusions.

Maintain a concept focus

Cross-cultural comparison
How does my research compare to other
cultures and societies?

Continuity and change


Past
Present
Future
Keep reporting your findings about crosscultural, personal and continuity/change throughout.

How to integrate everything


Nobody writes well and quickly.
Take your time.
Practise writing.
Get second, third and fourth opinions.
Use constructive criticism.
Re-write.

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The Marks Earner!!

Anyone is capable of reading and looking up information and then


just writing it down!!
To be able to get the most out of your PIP you need to go a few
steps further!!
It is so important to analyse and synthesise the information that you
have found.
Combine personal experience and public knowledge.
SO you need to always analyse the information, tell he markers
what it means, unpack the information.
Buts there's more!! You need to now synthesise your findings, make
informed and sustained judgements consistently throughout your
writing, keep building upon what you have found out, we want to
know too!!!
Never leave a quote alone!!!
Remember, once again, the triangle of research!!!

Each paragraph is a mini-essay

Break each chapter down.


Use the TEEL approach.
Topic
Whats it about?
Contribution to the chapter

Explain
Research observations
Cross-cultural, personal & continuity and
change.

Example
Research examples

Link

Relax.

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