Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22

COMPILATION WORK ON

CONCEPT OF zÉÉåkÉlÉ

SUBMITTED BY

NAME : RINSIYA.P.E

MANNAM AYURVEDA CO-OPERATIVE MEDICAL COLLEGE


PANDALAM, PATHANAMTHITTA
MANNAM AYURVEDA CO-OPERATIVE
MEDICAL COLLEGE
PANDALAM,PATHANAMTHITTA

CERTIFICATE

Certified that this is the bona fide compilation work on


Concept of shodhana done in Rasashastra and
Bhaishajya kalpana during the year 2008-09 by the
candidate Rinsiya.P.E Register Number :

In charge H.O.D Int.Examiner Ext.Examiner

DATE:
INDEX

1. Introduction to UxÉzÉÉx§É : 1
2. Introduction to zÉÉåkÉlÉ : 2
3. zÉÉåkÉlÉ : 3
4. Classical definition : 4
5. Modified definition : 5
6. Objectives : 6
7. Procedures : 7
8. Types : 10
9. Role of Media : 11
10. Changes during zÉÉåkÉlÉ process
1. Physical changes : 12
2. Chemical changes : 12
3. Biological changes : 13
11. Purpose of zÉÉåkÉlÉ : 14
12. Conclusion : 17
13. Bibliography : 18
INTRODUCTION TO UxÉzÉÉx§É

UxÉzÉÉx§É is the “Science of Mercury” which mainly deals with


mÉÉUS (Mercury) and this branch of AÉrÉÑuÉåïS also discusses various
aspects of different Metals,Minerals,Precious stones(U¦ÉÉs),Poisons
(ÌuÉwÉÉ s)and Semi poisons(EmÉÌuÉwÉÉs) .

UxÉzÉÉx§É, though it was developed as a separate science in the


beginning, in later period completely merged with AÉrÉÑuÉåïS .It is not
considered as one of the eight main branches(A¹É…¡ûÉs) of AÉrÉÑuÉåïS .
However it has gained so much importance that it has become
indispensable part of Ayurvedic treatment.

1
INTRODUCTION TO zÉÉåkÉlÉÉ
In UxÉzÉÉx§É various methods are advised to purify each UxÉ.
zÉÉåkÉlÉÉ Literally means purification. Minerals basically are impure,
that is not fit for internal administration. They contain many
impurities and toxins, and may cause many untoward effects in the
body. In order to neutralize these toxins ,the minerals are subjected
to many purificatory measures in which ,many a times physical and
chemical impurities are removed at the same time neutralizing the
toxins. Also these processes help in potentising the minerals as many
xuÉUxÉ(plant leaf juice), iÉæsÉ(oil), iÉ¢ü(butter milk),aÉÉãqÉÔ§É(cow’s urine),
AÉUlÉÉsÉ(gruel), YuÉÉjÉ(decoction),etc are used as zÉÉåkÉlÉ SìurÉÉs.
Depending upon availability we can select zÉÉåkÉlÉ SìurÉ, they contain
the detoxifying principles and through these purification takes place.
They can also increase the potency of the metal or mineral. Since
each metal or mineral has their own or corresponding zÉÉåkÉlÉ SìurÉ,
there are specific zÉÉåkÉlÉ process also.

iÉæsÉå iÉ¢åü aÉuÉÉÇ qÉÔ§Éå ½ÉUlÉÉsÉã MÑüsÉijÉeÉå |


¢üqÉÉͳÉwÉåcÉrÉåiÉç iÉmiÉÇ SìÉuÉã SìÉuÉã iÉÑ xÉmiÉkÉÉ ||
xuÉhÉÉïÌSsÉÉãWûmɧÉÉhÉÉÇ zÉÑήUãwÉ mÉëzÉxrÉiÉå ||

(U.U.xÉ 5/13)

Anyway this type of purification is no way similar to the


purification of chemicals in Modern Chemistry. So a careful study is
yet to be done on this topic of purification using different drugs. It
may be interesting and inspiring to the researchers in other fields like
Chemistry, Toxicology etc.

2
zÉÉåkÉlÉ(ŚODHANA)
zÉÉåkÉlÉ Literally means “Purification” or “to purify”. This is done
to make the substance pure for use. Some substances contain some
unwanted ingredients or properties which may have some bad effect
or unwanted effect on the body.

Each and every metallic substance is subjected to special


purification procedures prior to its use as an internal medication. The
process of eliminating the impurities or malas of metallic substances
by means of AÍpÉwÉåMü(Sprinkling),AÉcÉÔwÉhÉ(Absorption),
pÉÉuÉlÉ(Levigation),AÉiÉmÉ/AÎalÉ zÉÉãwÉhÉ (Drying), qÉSïlÉ(Titration),
ÌlÉqÉ‹lÉ(Dipping),pÉeÉïlÉ(frying or roasting),aÉÉsÉlÉ(melting
&straining),RûÉsÉlÉ(melting quenching), ÌlÉeÉïsÉÏMüUhÉ (Evaporation of
Water), ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉ(Heating and quenching),mÉËU´ÉÉuÉhÉ(Straining), mÉÉiÉlÉ
(Sublimation), mÉë¤ÉÉsÉlÉ (Washing),mÉ×jÉMüÐMüUhÉ(Separation), xuÉåSlÉ
(Boiling under liquid bath),ÌuÉsÉrÉlÉ (Elutriation) etc is known as zÉÉåkÉlÉ.

Purification (zÉÉåkÉlÉ) is essential for all the metallic substance not


only to eliminate the physical and chemical defects; it is also to
enhance the qualities of those particular substances.

सर्वे मलहराः क्षाराः सर्वे चाम्लाः प्रबोधकाः |


वर्वषावि च तमोघ्नावि स्नेहाः मार्दर्वकारकाः ||
(रसेन्द्रचूढामविः 9/43)

3
CLASSICAL DEFINITION

zÉÉåkÉlÉ is a process of separation by which physical and chemical


impurities get separated from the substance by treatment with
various drugs
E̬¹æUÉæwÉkÉæÈ xÉÉ®ïÇ Ì¢ürÉiÉå mÉåwÉhÉÉÌSMüqÉç |
qÉsÉÌuÉÎcNû¨ÉrÉå iɨÉÑ zÉÉãkÉlÉÇ iÉÌSWûÉãcrÉiÉå ||
(UxÉiÉUÌ…¡ûÍhÉ 2/52)
It is a process by which blemishes are separated from the
substance by various processing like grinding with specific drugs.
ÌlÉÌSï¹æUÉæwÉkÉæÈ xÉÉ®ïÇ mÉåwÉhÉçÇ xuÉãSlÉÉÌSMüqÉç |
SÒ¹Ç SÉãwÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉÉrÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉÇ mÉËUMüÐÌiÉïiÉqÉç ||
(UxÉÍqɧÉÉ, mÉëjÉqÉ UÎzqÉ mÉ×)
zÉÉåkÉlÉ is a process of removal of impurities from substances by
means of pharmaceutical processing of xuÉåSlÉ, qÉSïlÉ etc with
particular drugs.

4
MODIFIED DEFINITION

zÉÉåkÉlÉ is a process of purification and detoxification by which


physical and chemical blemishes and toxic materials are eliminated
and substances are subjected for further processing.

Some kind of changes are also taking place apart from these,
which may be beneficial for therapeutic process.

5
OBJECTIVES
1. Elimination of physical and chemical impurities, which are not
desired.
2. Eradication or minimization of toxicity of the material.
3. Transformation of the hard and non homogenous materials to
soft, brittle, ductile and homogenous material.
4. Induction of wanted qualities.
5. Potentiation of therapeutic efficacy of the drug material.
6. Conversion of the material in suitable form for further processing.
7. Leads to unique and suitable physico-chemical changes.
8. For direct therapeutic uses in some cases.

6
PROCEDURES
1. AÍpÉwÉåMü (SPRINKLING)
SìÓiÉå uÉÌ»ûÎxjÉiÉå sÉÉãWåû ÌuÉUqrÉɹÌlÉqÉãwÉMüqÉç |
xÉÍsÉsÉxrÉ mÉËU¤ÉåmÉåÈ xÉÉã∫ÍpÉwÉåMü CÌiÉ xqÉÚiÉç: ||
(U.U.xÉ 8/55)
The material is heated strongly and the liquid media is sprinkled
over it after 8 seconds without removing from the fire.
Eg: qÉhQÕûU zÉÉåkÉlÉ
2. AÉcÉÔwÉhÉ (ABSORPTION)
The oily content of certain toxic material is minimized through
different absorption means
Eg: pÉssÉÉiÉMü zÉÉåkÉlÉ
3. AÉiÉmÉ /AÎalÉ zÉÉãwÉhÉ (DRYING)
The material is kept on fire or exposed to sun rays till its
dryness.
Eg: ÍzÉsÉÉeÉiÉÑ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
4. pÉeÉïlÉ (FRYING OR ROASTING)
The material is fried with specific liquid media on qÉlSÉÎalÉ (Mild
heat).
Eg: aÉæËUMü zÉÉåkÉlÉ

7
5.pÉÉuÉlÉ(LEVIGATION)
rÉŠÔÍhÉïiÉxrÉ kÉÉiuÉÉSåSìuÉæÈ xÉqmÉåwrÉ zÉÉåwÉhÉqÉç |
pÉÉuÉlÉÇ iÉlqÉiÉÇ ÌuÉgÉæpÉÉïuÉlÉÉ cÉ ÌlÉaɱiÉå ||
(U.iÉ 2/49)
The material is titrated with prescribed liquid media for specific
time period.
Eg: ÌWû…¡ÓûsÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
6. RûÉsÉlÉ (MELTING AND QUENCHING)
SìÓiÉSìurÉxrÉ ÌlɤÉåmÉÉã SìuÉå iÉiÉç RûÉsÉlÉÇ qÉiÉqÉç |
At first the material is melted by intense heat and then poured
into a liquid media. Eg: lÉÉaÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
7.aÉÉsÉlÉ(MELTING AND STRAINING)
The solid material is melted first by heating and then filtered
through a cloth.
Eg: aÉlkÉMü zÉÉåkÉlÉ
8. qÉSïlÉ (TRITURATION)
EÌSiÉæUÉæwÉkÉæ: xÉÉkÉïÇ xÉuÉÉïqsÉæÈ MüÉÎgeÉMæüUÌmÉ |
mÉåwÉhÉÇ qÉSïlÉÉZrÉÇ xrÉÉSè oÉÌWû qÉïsÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉqÉç ||
The material is ground properly with prescribed drug for
specific period. Eg: mÉÉUS zÉÉåkÉlÉ
9.ÌlÉqÉ‹lÉ(DIPPING)
The material is kept immersed in the prescribed liquid for
specific period.
Eg: uÉixÉlÉÉpÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
10. ÌlÉeÉïsÉÏMüUhÉ (EVAPORATION OF WATER)
Whole water content of the material is evaporated by heating.
Eg: xÄ TüÌOûMü zÉÉåkÉlÉ
11. ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉ (HEATING AND QUENCHING)
The red hot material is dipped into the prescribed liquid.
Eg: sÉÉãWû zÉÉåkÉlÉ

8
12. mÉËU´ÉÉuÉhÉ (STRAINING)
The solid material is dissolved in suitable liquid media and
separated from insoluble impurities through straining.
Eg: lÉuÉxÉÉSU zÉÉåkÉlÉ
13. mÉÉiÉlÉ (SUBLIMATION)
E£üÉæwÉkÉæqÉïÌSïiÉmÉÉUSxrÉrÉl§ÉÎxjÉiÉxrÉÉãkuÉïqÉkÉzÉç cÉ ÌiÉrÉïMçü |
ÌlÉrÉÉïiÉlÉÇ mÉÉiÉlÉxÉÇgÉqÉÑ£ÇüuÉ…¡ûÉÌWûxÉqmÉMïüeÉMügcÉÑMüblÉqÉç ||
(U.U.xÉ 8/65)

Through mÉÉiÉlÉrÉl§É the material is heated to convert into vapor


form which the material is regained again by condensing.
Eg: mÉÉUS zÉÉåkÉlÉ
14. mÉë¤ÉÉsÉlÉ (WASHING)
The material is washed with prescribed liquid to remove its
physical impurities.
Eg: aÉÉãSÎliÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
15. mÉ×jÉMüÐMüUhÉ (SEPARATION)
Physical impurities are removed .
Eg: aÉÑaaÉÑsÉÑ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
16. xuÉåSlÉ (BOILING UNDER LIQUID BATH)
¤ÉÉUÉqsÉæUÉæwÉkÉæuÉÉï ∫ÌmÉ RûÉãsÉÉrÉl§Éå ÎxjÉiÉxrÉ ÌWû
mÉcÉlÉÇ xuÉåSlÉÉZrÉÇ xrÉÉlqÉsÉzÉæÍjÉsrÉMüÉUMüqÉç
(U.U.xÉ 8/60)
The material is boiled in prescribed media through RûÉåsÉÉrÉl§É
method.Eg: zÉ„¡ûÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
17. ÌuÉsÉrÉlÉ (ELUTRIATION)
The material is firstly dissolved in prescribed liquid media and left as
such for sometime.Then the upper part of the liquid containing the
soluble drug material is decanted into another pot leaving behind the
impurities in the bottom of the first pot.
Eg: ÍzÉsÉÉeÉiÉÑ zÉÉåkÉlÉ

9
TYPES

zÉÉåkÉlÉ process is grossly subdivided into two major categories as


follows

1. xÉÉqÉÉlrÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
It is used as a general procedure for zÉÉåkÉlÉ of all drugs of a
particular group.In other words these drugs should be purified
individually through the same zÉÉåkÉlÉ procedure
Eg: xÉÉqÉÉlrÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ of kÉÉiÉÑ
2. ÌuÉzÉåwÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ
It is used as specific procedure for particular drug material
individually not for a group. It should be applied after xÉÉqÉÉlrÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ.
Eg: ÌuÉzÉåwÉ zÉÉåkÉlÉ of sÉÉåWû in ̧ÉÄTüsÉ YuÉÉjÉ

10
ROLE OF MEDIA
It is very interesting that specific media is used for zÉÉåkÉlÉ of
particular substances like ̧ÉÄTüsÉ YuÉÉjÉ for zÉÉåkÉlÉ of sÉÉåWû , aÉÉãqÉ賈 for
zÉÉåkÉlÉ of uÉixÉlÉÉpÉ etc. So it should be inferred that media plays an
important role in zÉÉåkÉlÉ process. Sometimes media acts like solvent
to dissolve the material for easy separation from the insoluable
impurities like in aÉÑaaÉÑsÉÑ and lÉuÉxÉÉSU zÉÉåkÉlÉ.In some other cases media
acts to eradicate toxic chemical substances from the drug Native
realgar(qÉlÉÈÍzÉsÉ) is always found mixed with As2O 3,which is a highly
toxic substance cÉÔhÉÉåïSMü (lime water)is generally used for qÉlÉÈÍzÉsÉ
zÉÉåkÉlÉ .While arsenic (As2O3) dissolves readily in solutions of alkalies
but realgar(As 2S2) is insoluble in alkali solutions. So here cÉÔhÉÉåïSMü acts
to eradicate highly toxic As2 O3 from qÉlÉÈÍzÉsÉ . Some materials are
used directly in therapeutics after zÉÉåkÉlÉ, there media may provide
some organic and inorganic principles,which have important role in
the body. Media helps in physical transformation of some metals and
minerals. In ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉ process repeated heating and quenching in liquid
media causes brittleness,breaking and size reduction of the metals
and minerals.

11
CHANGES DURING zÉÉåkÉlÉ PROCESS

1.PHYSICAL CHANGES

a)Elimination of physical impurities


MüÎqmÉssÉMü is separated from brick powder. aÉÑaaÉÑsÉÑ is separated
from physical mixture. ÍzÉsÉÉeÉiÉÑ is separated from insoluble physical
impurities.
b)Reduction in hardness
By repeated heating and quenching,hardness of the metal and
mineral become less.
c)Increase in brittleness
By repeated heating and quenching in liquid media creaks are
seen on the surface of metals and minerals and these become brittle
d)reduction in particle size
During ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉ process cracks are seen on the surface of metals
and minerals and these are broken into coarse powder.In pÉÉuÉlÉ
process mass of the substance become powder form.

2.CHEMICAL CHANGES

a)Elimination of chemical impurities

During zÉÉåkÉlÉ of native qÉÉͤÉMü (CuFeS2) impurities like arsenic


get eliminated by heating.

b)Formation of chemical compounds

sÉÉãWû when heated upto redhot,reacts with atmospheric oxygen


to form ferrosoferric oxide,which is favorable to the body.
qÉÉͤÉMü when fried,Sulphur(S) is eliminated and Iron and Copper
part convert into oxide form.

12
c)Change into desired compound.

During zÉÉåkÉlÉ of Oûƒ¡ûhÉ and MüÉÇÍ¤É water portion is evaporated


and desired chemical compound is formed.

3.BIOLOGICAL CHANGES

The ultimate objective of these physic chemical changes of the


material is to increase its biological availability means to potentiate
its biological efficacy. Reduction in particle size helps in absorption,
smoothness leads to non irritability and all chemical changes make
the material body friendly like zÉÉåÍkÉiÉ uÉixÉlÉÉpÉ (Aconitum ferox
purified in cow’s urine) is converted into cardiac stimulant,where as
crude uÉixÉlÉÉpÉ is claimed to be cardiac depressant.Seeds of MÑü mÉÏsÉÑ
(Strichnos nuxvomica) purified in cow’s milk show CNS depressant
activity, pentabarbitone hypnosis potentiation,inhibited morphine
induced catalepsy. AgeÉlÉ purified in juice of pÉ×…¡ûUÉeÉ (Eclipta alba) is
proved non-toxic to eyes in experimental animals.

13
PURPOSE OF zÉÉåkÉlÉ

zÉÉåkÉlÉ is necessary to explain the exact implications of this


term.Otherwise,there is a possibility that it will be misinterpreted to
mean making mercury and other metals only physically and
chemically pure.The term used particularly for zÉÉåkÉlÉ or processing of
mercury is xÉÇxMüÉU. cÉUMü has explained this term as aÉÑhÉÉliÉUÉkÉÉlÉ . By
implication,during the process of xÉÇxMüÉU or zÉÉåkÉlÉ ,the metal or
mineral acquires a different property which overcomes original
harmful effects of the metal.

1.To make the metal suitable for qÉÉUhÉ


The term qÉÉUhÉ literally means killing. Metals used as such are
heterogeneous to the body tissues and therefore it will not be
possible for them to get assimilated into the cells of the tissue to
exercise their prescribed therapeutic effects. It will, therefore be
necessary to reduce these metals and minerals including mercury to
a fie state of division with such changes in its qÉWûÉpÉÉæÌiÉMü composition
as would be homologous with qÉWûÉpÉÉæÌiÉMü composition of the cells on
which the metal has to act to produce the therapeutic effect. This
fine state of division of the metal has to act to produce the
therapeutic effect. This fine state of division of the metal is attained
by exposing to the heat of the fire and by repeated trituration or
pulverization. Before exposing the metal to these process,it is
necessary to make the component particles fragile and dissociable by
14
reducing their cohesive nature.This is exactly one of the objects of
the process of xÉÇxMüÉU or zÉÉåkÉlÉ
2.To remove physical and chemical impurities
In nature a metal is seldom available in its physically and
chemically pure form.The contamination is often natural and it takes
place in the mine itself. Some of the metals are available in
combination with other metals in the mine in the form of metallic
ores or compounds. It is first of all necessary to separate the
extraneous object from the metal. These extraneous objects are, at
times, added artificially during commercial transactions. Often
contamination takes place knowingly or unknowingly during the
process of extraction,storage,preservation and distribution.
Therefore,all these extraneous materials are to be removed and the
metal should be obtained in physically and chemically pure form for
obtaining the desired therapeutic effect.
3)To make the metal free from toxicity
Metals even in their physically and chemically pure form might
produce adverse effects because these are inorganic in nature and
because of their heterogeneous nature for the tissue cells. By
impregnating and triturating with organic material like the
juice,decoction etc of herbs,they are made homologous to the tissue
cells, and thus their toxicity is reduced and acceptability to the cells is
increased. During this process,certain organic or inorganic materials
are actually added to the metal which according to modern science
may be explained as addiction of impurities.
4.Transformation of attributes
Human body is composed of five qÉWûÉpÉÔiÉÉs viz AÉMüÉzÉÈ, uÉÉrÉÑÈ,iÉãeÉxÉç,eÉsÉ
and mÉ×ÎjuÉÈ. In metals and minerals the fifth i.e the mÉ×ÎjuÉÈ qÉWûÉpÉÔiÉÉ is
predominant. In some of these metals like gold, iÉãeÉxÉç qÉWûÉpÉÔiÉÉ is
predominant. Unless the first four qÉWûÉpÉÔiÉÉs viz AÉMüÉzÉÈ, uÉÉrÉÑÈ,iÉãeÉxÉç,eÉsÉ
are made potent, it is not likely that these metals and minerals will
be able to act effectively as therapeutic agents. zÉÉåkÉlÉ helps in the
transformation of these attributes of metals.

15
5.Regulation of physico chemical attributes
For SåWû ÍxÉή and sÉÉãWû ÍxÉή , it is necessary that the physico
chemical attributes of mercury should be regulated. Mercury is a
liquid metal but it is necessary to convert it into a solid form without
adding any metal or without making an amalgam of this metal along
with other metals. It is necessary that the mercury should be capable
of withstanding high temperature and should not be evaporated at
about 3570 centigrade temperature. It is also necessary that the
mercury should be able to digest gold and assimilate it. By
implication when gold is added to mercury,the weight of the latter
should not increase.This is something which a physicist will think
perhaps impossible on the basis of physical laws. But this is exactly
the test of mercury(which will be discussed later) before it is even
taken out for subsequent processing

16
CONCLUSION
Any plant, animal or mineral product whenever to be utilized
for therapeutic purpose internally or externally can not to be used in
the form it is found or has to be processed before being used.

All these products have some positive/wanted(useful) and


some unwanted/negative properties. It is necessary that the useful
properties should get enhanced to have more better and faster
results whereas the unwanted properties should be removed. This
was one of the reasons these products were processed and then
used.

These substances were also processed to make them more


subtle in action to give these substances specificity of action etc.
Some combined formulations were also prepared to have a
cumulative effect of more than one substance towards the desired
result.

17
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. AÉrÉÑuÉåïSÏrÉ UxÉzÉÉx§É by K.Nishteshwar


2. A text book of UxÉzÉÉx§É by Dr.Vilas Dole
3. Ayurveda Minerals by P.H.Kulkarni
4. UxÉÉqÉ×iÉqÉç by Dr.Damodar Joshi
5. UxÉU¦É xÉqÉÑŠrÉÇ by Dr.A.D.Satpute
6. UxÉiÉUÌ…¡ûÍhÉ
7. UxÉxÉlMåüiÉ MüÉÍsÉMüÉ by Uttam Vaidya
8. UxÉÍqɧÉÉ
9. Alchemy and Metallic Medicines in Ayurveda by Vaidya
Bhagwan Dash
10. AÉrÉÑuÉåïSÏrÉ UxÉzÉÉx§É by Dr.Siddhinandan Mishra

18
19