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- / TNK-BP STANDARD

/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing


12.0 / Version 12.0

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

1.

/ BASIC TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................7

2.

/ TNK-BP
PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR FRAC QA/QC .....................................................................................................8

3.

/ HSE REQUIREMENTS .........................................9


3.1
3.2

/ REQUIREMENTS TO THE PERSONNEL .............................................................................. 9


/ SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR
HANDLING HYDROCARBON-BASED FLUIDS............................................................................................................................ 9
3.3 , / HIGH PRESSURE
EQUIPMENT OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 10
3.4 / REQUIREMENTS TO FRAC TANKS.......................................................... 13
3.4.1
/ Safe use of tanks .............................................................. 13
3.4.2
/ Tank inspection .......................................................................... 14
3.5 / REQUIREMENTS TO STORAGE OF CHEMICALS ................... 14
3.6 , / GENERAL WELL SITE LOW
PRESSURE PUMPING EQUIPMENT & OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................ 15
3.7 / REQUIREMENTS TO TANK TRUCKS ........................................................................... 16
4.

/ PRE-JOB DAY TESTING AND


PREPARATORY WORK................................................................................................................................................................ 18
4.1.

( ) / LABORATORY TESTING PROCEDURES (FIELD

AND BASE LABORATORIES) ............................................................................................................................................ 18

4.1.1.
/ Water Analysis ..................................................................................................... 18
4.1.2.
-50 / Fluid Formula Test Fann-50 ............................... 20
4.2.
/ EMULSION TEST ........................................................................................ 23
4.2.1.
/ RCP / Breaker
Interaction Test ................................................................................................................................................. 24
4.2.2
/ Frac Fluid / Ceramic
Proppant Interaction Test .................................................................................................................................. 25
4.2.3
/ Regained Conductivity /
PermeabilityTesting............................................................................................................................................ 26
4.3 / REQUIREMENTS TO PROPPANT
QAQC & HANDLING ON LOCATION ................................................................................................................................. 27
4.3.1
/ Proppant QAQC Principles ....................
........................................................................................................................................................ 27
4.3.2
/ Requirements to proppant
transportation and storage .............................................................................................................................. 28
4.3.3
- / Proppant testing and documentation ............... 29
5.

/ FIELD TESTING OF MATERIALS


& EQUIPMENT CHECKUP .......................................................................................................................................................... 33
5.1 / PRE-FRAC GEL TESTING....................................................................... 33
5.2 / MATERIALS ................................................................................................................................. 33
5.3 / / GELLED WATER TESTS.............................................................................. 34
5.4 / CROSSLINK FLUID TEST .............................................................. 34
5.5 / QUICK BREAK BREAKER TEST .................................................. 35
5.6 / / FLUIDS BASED ON DIESEL FUEL / HYDROCARBONS .................................... 36
5.6.1
/ Field
Vapor Pressure Determination for Hydrocarbon Fluids .................................................................................. 36
5.6.2
/ / Hydrocarbons-based fluids tests ................ 37
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

5.6.3
/ / Gelled Hydrocarbonsbased Fluids Test ................................................................................................................................................ 37
5.7 / PROPPANT TRANSPORT TEST ............................................ 38
5.8 / PROCEDURE OF GELLING THE FLUID IN THE TANKS /........................................... 38
5.9 / PROPPANT QAQC PROCEDURE ........................................................ 39
5.10
, , / BLENDERS, TREATING LINES,
PUMP TRUCKS, AND FRAC MANIFOLD INSPECTION .............................................................................................................. 40
5.11
/ BUCKET TEST............................................................................................................... 40
5.11.1
/ Liquid Additive Flowmeter Tests ............................ 40
5.11.2
/ Additive auger testing ............................................................ 42
5.12
/ BLENDER FLOW METER TEST ................................................................... 42
5.13
/ BLENDER/HYDRATION UNIT ADDITIVE CYCLING
TEST
................................................................................................................................................................. 43
5.14
, . / DENSIOMETER
REQUIREMENTS / VALIDATION. PROPPANT METERING ......................................................................................................... 44
5.15
/ HYDRATION UNIT
QAQC REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................ 45
5.16
/ WORK CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR FRACTURE TREATMENTS ..................... 45
6

/ FRACTURING PROCESS CONTROL ............................................................................................ 47


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

/ COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................................ 47
/ FRAC VAN RECORDING & MONITOR SETUP........................................................ 47
/ FLOW METER MONITORING ............................................................................ 48
/ FLUID SAMPLES ..................................................................................................................... 48
/ PROPPANT SAMPLES ............................................................................................................. 48

/ CONTINGENCY PLAN ........................................................................ 50


7.1
7.2

/ ABORTING DURING A JOB ....................................... 50


/ PAD REPLACEMENT DURING A SHUTDOWN
IN A PAD.................................................................................................................................................................... 51
7.3 / PUMP RATE PROBLEMS ..................................................................................... 51
8

/ FINISHING WORK AFTER FRACTURE TREATMENT .............. 52

/ HYDRAULIC FRACTURING WITH NITROGEN - GENERAL


REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................................................................................. 54

1a ................................................................................................................................ 56
Attachment # 1a to TNK-BP STANDARD ............................................................................................................................................... 58
1b ................................................................................................................................ 60
Attachment # 1b to TNK-BP STANDARD ............................................................................................................................................... 62
2 .................................................................................................................................. 64
Attachment # 2 to TNK-BP STANDARD ................................................................................................................................................. 67

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

1.

/
BASIC TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS

1.

BASIC TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS

ASTM

ASTM..

American Society for Testing and


Materials

ISIP

ISIP..

Initial Shut-In Pressure

QAQC.

QAQC..

Quality Assurance / Quality Control

S.G..

S.G...

Specific Gravity

SPE..

SPE..

Society of Petroleum Engineers

(API)..

API...

American Petroleum Institute

Frac..

Hydraulic Fracturing

-..

Crush Test

Testing the proppants for crush

Mesh

An opening in a sieve, unit of sieve


size measure

TBG.

Tubing

C of A..

C of A..

Certificate of analysis

PPE..

Personal protective equipment

..

Centipoise

A unit of viscosity measurement

ISP...

ISP

Intermediate Strength Proppant

LWP

LWP.

Light Weight Proppant

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

/ TNK-BP
PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL REGULATIONS
FOR FRAC QA/QC

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2.

2.

TNK-BP PRINCIPLES AND GENERAL


REGULATIONS FOR FRAC QA/QC

This Standard regulates the QA/QC issues


pertaining to hydraulic fracturing operations. Despite the
fact that every Service Company has infinitely more
detailed QAQC procedures of their own, for a number of
reasons TNK-BP Management cannot expect every frac
job to be pumped accordingly. Basically, this document
can be boiled down into one simple demand a service
company, which we do not believe is unnecessarily
burdensome: prove you are capable and prepared to
pump this treatment.

Strict observance of regulations stated herein is


obligatory.
Any amendments of these Standards require a
written request duly approved by the Upstream TNK-BP
Management.
All the HSE practices required by TNK-BP
Operations Policy and the Service Company HSE
Policies must be adhered to. Any deviation from HSE
practices will require written dispensation from the duly
authorized executives (the Upstream TNK-BP
Management).
Any HSE documents that are issued by TNK-BP
in Moscow will take precedence over any of the HSE
requirements listed in this document unless the HSE
requirements listed in this document of the Service
Companies HSE requirements are more stringent.

For the sake of uniformity, TNK-BP will follow


the general guidelines and procedures outlined in
various API standards. If the local service companies
and suppliers do not have a copy of the applicable API
standards, they can be purchased in the Russian
language at the following website - http://cis.ihs.com/.
TNK-BP insists upon each company acquiring a set of
these standards listed in this QAQC Document.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

3.

REQUIREMENTS

HSE

3.1 / Requirements to
the Personnel

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Safety
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hydrocarbon-based fluids

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3.

HSE REQUIREMENTS

3.1 Requirements to the Personnel

Service Company personnel and any third parties


contracted by the Service Company are required to use
protective coveralls, steel-toe boots, personal protective
equipment (respirators, masks, hard hats, safety goggles,
shields, ear plugs, cleansers and detoxicants, measuring
instruments) at all times when working or visiting a TNKBP hazardous facility.

All the service companys personnel involved in a


fracture treatment must have knowledge assessment
certificates with a note about passing the the following
examinations that correspond to the nature of their work:
main profession
electric safety specifying the qualification
grade
TNK-BP Golden Rules
fire safety
All the Service Companys personnel involved in
rig-up procedures must take the training course Well
Control in case of Oil / Gas / Water Kicks.
In the event that an employee combines two or
more jobs, he must have a separate qualification
certificate for each type of job.
Operating personnel is allowed to take one
combined comprehensive examination which includes
main profession; industrial safety and labor safety
(provided that the questions related to labor / industrial
safety are included into the examination list approved by
the Company Manager).
3.2 Safety
Requirements
hydrocarbon-based fluids

for

handling

Wellsite Fire Protection (Fire Truck and Crew) are


required for all Hydrocarbon Frac / Stimulation treatments
that are utilizing hydrocarbon fluids in excess of 3.44 kPa
and > 15m3 of volume.

Wind Direction Indicators (Wind Socks) must be


used at all times on location.
If there is H2S gas present within the hydrocarbon
fluid proposed for pumping operations (>5 ppm), such
fluid must be refused due to personnel safety
considerations.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

3.3

3.3 High Pressure Equipment Operational


,
Requirements
/ High Pressure Equipment
Operational Requirements

TNK-BP requires a detailed inventory of all high


pressure treating iron parts / connections (main string and
annulus string) along with yearly non-destructive testing
( results (wall thickness and iron test). Non-destructive
) testing results must be completed and documented as per
. the manufacturers recommendations and specifications.
TNK-BP also requires a recorded pressure test of all high

) pressure treating line components every twelve months to


the maximum working pressure (~1000 atm) in presence
of a duly authorized TNK-BP representative, followed by

issuance of a respective bilateral act.


.


(~ 1000 )

,
.

New treating iron and all the high-pressure
connections must have quality certificates and technical
. passports. New high pressure treating iron must be
pressure tested to maximum operating pressure (~ 1000
(~ 1000 ), atm) prior to its commissioning into operation, if the

appropriate backup documents (technical passports) are

available, it is not required to conduct tests at the non (), destructive testing laboratory. The first tests of new
. high-pressure treating iron must be run at the non destructive testing laboratory no later than within 12
12 months from the date of its commissioning into

operation (date of the 1 st pressure testing to maximum


).
operating pressure).

Russian-made adapter spools rated at 700 atm


, 700 ., must have the passport specifying the date of their
checkup (checkup should be performed after each
( ), operation), records confirming pressure tests done on a
test bench to the maximum operating pressure 700 atm, as
700 ., well as the iron test results no less than once in 12
1 12 .
months.

All the high pressure pumps (with 3 or 5 plungers)
(3- 5- shall also be subject to non-destructive testing, including
), high-pressure plugs, connective semi-rods connecting the
, , pump fluid end to the power unit. Required test intervals . no less than once in 12 months.
- 12
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Tubing joints used in frac strings must have grade
, of strength of no less than N-80, admissible cycle of their
N-80, continuous use should be 10 frac jobs for the new tubing
- 10 and 8 frac jobs for reconditioned tubing, the maximum
, - 8 , admissible number of tubing repairs must not exceed 2
2 . times. The tubing must be repaired by a specialized repair
service company in compliance with the RF Standard
, -633-80, GOST 633-80, with its obligatory pressure testing to the
700 ., pressure of no less than 700 atm and continuous (end-to

, end) iron tests, wall thickness gauging.


.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

10

Documented results of all the aforementioned tests


must be available for viewing on all Frac Locations
.
where frac treatments are being performed.

No threaded connections are permitted in any of


, the treating iron line or wellhead subjected to treating
, fluid pumping. This requirement also extends to Annulus
, Pump Line connections used by the Service Company.
. The only exception: crossover sub between the annulus
,
line and annulus pumper.
.

.

This Technical Standard excludes any use of
, connections which are not rated for work at high
pressures in treating / pressure pumping lines.

.

Two pressure transducers must be installed on the
, main treating line to ensure continuous pressure

recording. Both pressure transducers must be installed


between the wellhead and duplex check valve
- . shutdown valve. Pressure transducers must be installed
as close as possible to the frac fluid flow so as to prevent
, freezing when work is performed in cold time of the year.
Difference between the readings of each pressure
. transducer cannot exceed 3%.
3%.

It is strictly prohibited to open the wellhead and
pump fluid without pre-frac pressure testing. Treating /
. high pressure pumping lines must be pressure tested to
maximum expected operating pressure with safety margin
factor of no less than 1.25.
1,25.
()
The Service Company engineer / supervisor in the
only person on location who is authorized to open and
close the well before and after frac.
.

If the Service Company uses Flow Back Iron
, that is the same type treating iron that is used in their day
to day pumping operations, this flow back iron must be
painted or identified clearly so it is not ever used for High
, Pressure Pumping Operations. As a reverse circulation
. , line it is admitted to use reinforced high-pressure hoses,
, which should have appropriate technical passports and
pressure tested to maximum operating pressure no less
than once in 6 months.
1 6
.

Annulus pumpers must be equipped with an
operable emergency shutdown system if the pressure
, exceeds admissible limits. The emergency shutdown
system must be tested prior to any pumping operation.
. Should at least one emergency shutdown unit prove to be
unsatisfactory, fracture treatment must be postponed until
.
it is duly repaired.

Any hammer union wing with more than 5 mm
mushroom extension, loose metal burrs, splitting
5 , mushrooms or touching ears should be immediately
, marked with paint, repaired before being used again or
, .
removed from service.

On completion of fracture treatment, the wellhead
valve can be nippled down only upon approval received
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

11

. , from TNK-BP representative. The wellhead valve


, provided by the service company must have the ID and
passport where technical specifications are outlined.
, . Apart from this, the Act of the last pressure testing to
maximum pressure specified in the passport and the Act
, of magnetic iron test and wall thickness gauging must be
attached to the Passport.
.

Circulation Tees must not be placed between the
. 2 Wellhead Valves. These valves must be positioned in
.
series.

Each high pressure pump unit must be equipped
, with an isolation valve, check valve and bleed-off valve or
high pressure relief valve. All types of Needle Valves
. are not to be used anywhere in the Main treating lines,
pumps and annulus pumping lines.
, .

The treating line must be equipped with a check
, valve and isolation valve installed as close as possible
from the wellhead on surface complete with bleed-off
, valve and tee-piece. A check valve operability must be
. tested prior to any pumping operations. In case of the

check valve inoperability it must be replaced and tested.


.

It is prohibited to lay high pressure treating lines
. on the ground. For their layout it is necessary to use
505020. wooden pads with size of no less than 505020 cm.
,
In order to avoid the contact with the ground, all
. the cable lines must be laid in cable support assemblies.
Cable lines must not cross the high pressure treating lines.
.

When pumping or mixing oil-based fluids, all the
, equipment, including storage tanks, pumps, data van and
, , blender must be grounded to earth. This regulation applies
, . to any amounts of fluids to be pumped.
.
,
The annulus pump must be spotted at the distance
, of no less than 15 m from the wellhead if the well site
15 , space allows this. In the event that the well site area does
. , not allow for spotting in compliance with the approved
scheme, the frac equipment must be spotted on location

,
after preliminary assessment of risks, issuance of actual
scheme specifying distances, upon agreement with the
, Customers representative.
,
.

Annulus Pressure relief valves are required on all


treatments. The relief valve must be set & tested prior to
. pumping into a TNK-BP well. Service Company is
required to record operating / testing pressure by the data
. van. No visible leaks are permitted anywhere in the
treating line, bleed-off line, pumps, or wellhead before
. pumping. The only permissible leak while pumping is a
- , , drip through a chicsan weep hole. If the drip becomes a
. continuous stream and cannot be isolated, pumping must
be terminated immediately.
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The packer used for fracture treatment must be
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

12


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selected in compliance with the casing size and work


string size, with its technical characteristics compliant
with its operational conditions: pressure differential
across the housing and packing element, temperature
and type of well fluid.


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Type of the packer must be compliant with its


intended use: - hydraulic fracturing, and must sustain
stresses transferred by the work string on the packer,
and stresses arising on the packer in process of fracture
treatment, considering the most onerous operational
conditions (fracture initiation, gel pumping, premature
screen-out in process of pumping).

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The vendor supplying the packer for fracture


treatment must provide the following:
1. Detailed calculation of loads on the packer
and tubing (drill string, coiled tubing) in
course of workover operations (at the stage of
well preparation for frac and in process of
pulling the packer after frac, if it is planned);
2. Recommendations for the tubing slack-off on
the packer in process of workover operations
(at the stage of well preparation for frac;
3. Calculation of maximum loads on the packer
and tubing string (drill string, coiled tubing)
in process of fracture treatment;
4. Calculation of loads on the packer and tubing
string (drill string, coiled tubing) in process of
well operation (if the frac is performed on the
packer which will be used after the well in
placed on production.

3.4 /
3.4 Requirements to frac tanks
Requirements to frac tanks
3.4.1 /
3.4.1 Safe use of tanks
Safe use of tanks
,
All efforts must be made to spot the frac tanks

, downwind/crosswind from the wellhead and crews


, position. Tanks must not be closer than 30 meters to the
wellhead. It will be at the sole discretion of the TNK-BP
. well site representative and the Service Company
30 Supervisor to terminate operations if the wind direction
. will have a detrimental effect on the safe continuance of
the pumping operation.


.

If a Hydrocarbon is to be heated inside a storage
tank on a TNK-BP well site location, preference is given
to using a Steam Truck unit heating the tank fluids via
steam coils inside the storage tanks. If a Hot Oiler unit is
. to be used, it must be spotted 15 meters away from the
15 tank it is heating. The same distance also applies to Steam
.
Truck units.

Frac Tanks must be spotted at the furthest point
away from the wellhead.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

13

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0,75 ,
, 0,75 .
, 60
, 2 ,
35 - 40 ,
.
80 .

70 - 80 . ( 08-624-03).
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08-624-03.
3.4.2 / Tank
inspection

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The tanks which require an operators work at the


height up to 0.75m for their servicing must be fitted with
stairs and at the height above 0.75m catwalks with rails.
Tunnel-type ladders must be made of metal, with the
width of no less than 60m, and have, starting from the
height of 2m, safety arcs with radius 35 40 cm,
connected to each other with straps. The arcs are
positioned at the distance of no more than 80 cm from
each other. The distance from the most remote point of
the arc to the steps must be within 70-80 cm. (RF Safety
Regulations in Oil & Gas Industry PB 08-624-03).
The tanks must be numbered, equipped with
operable safety level gages and gate valves, viewports
must be closed, it is allowed to check the fluid level from
special inspection windows of size 30x30cm.
All the equipment used in TNK-BP fields for
storage, transportation and pumping of hydrocarbon
water-based fluids must be grounded to ensure
compliance with RF Safety Regulations in Oil & Gas
Industry PB 08-624-03.
3.4.2 Tank inspection
Thoroughly inspect the Frac tanks and make sure
they are clean and entirely free of gel residue and
proppant before filling. Tanks coming off a hydrocarbon
Frac must be thoroughly cleaned before using them on a
water-based Frac. Additionally, tanks used on a
hydrocarbon Frac must be totally free of water. Small
amounts of water may tie up the cross-linker and/or
prematurely activate the breakers, thereby creating an
unstable cross-linked hydrocarbon gel.

Date of cleaning, tank number and the name of the


company representative checking the tanks must be
recorded in the operations log. The operations log must be
stored at the frac service section and shown upon
requirement during audits.
In the summer months, additional steps must be
taken to prevent bacteria. Tanks that have been allowed to
dry due to infrequent use must be steam cleaned
thoroughly to remove any dried polymer. Extra care is
required for unlined tanks. Biocide is to be added prior
to or with the first load of water. It is recommended to
re-treat the Frac tanks with biocide every 72 hours.

Note: Tanks need to follow these procedures


when cleaned even though Slurry (Guars mixed with
Diesel) type guar gellants are used. The amount of diesel
that is used will not affect the Gel performance.

3.5

3.5 Requirements to Storage of Chemicals


/ Requirements to
Storage of Chemicals
.,
Liquid chemicals intended for mixing on location
, must be stored or transported in closed marked containers

at a temperature >15 Celsius.


- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

14


15 C.

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After every use each chemical container must be


put back in place. The data regarding the container storage
place must be specified on the container.
Do not store stock supplies of chemicals on bench
tops where they are unprotected from ignition sources and
can be accidentally knocked over. Only chemicals in use
should be on bench tops.

Do not store chemicals in alphabetical order


except within "Chemical Storage Groups". Alphabetical
arrangement of randomly collected chemicals often
increases the likelihood of dangerous reactions by
bringing incompatible materials into close proximity.

Storage areas should not be exposed to extremes


of heat or sunlight.
Do not store any chemicals except bleach and
compatible cleaning agents under the sink.
All containers within the lab must be labeled.
Suspect and known carcinogens must be labeled as such
and segregated within trays to contain leaks and spills.

Storage of liquid chemicals is more hazardous than


storage of solids requires compliance with additional
safety precautions.
Cabinets are recommended for storage of dry
chemicals, but if not available, open shelves are
acceptable. Store solids above liquids.
Warning labels on highly toxic powders should be
inspected and highlighted on a regular basis.
All leftovers and deposits are subject to disposal
in accordance with TNK-BP policy in the specially
equipped utilization spots.

3.6

3.6 General Well Site Low Pressure Pumping


,
Equipment & Operational Requirements
/ General Well Site Low Pressure
Pumping
Equipment
&
Operational
Requirements

Suction and Discharge hoses must be of good
, quality with a pressure rating of 10 atm from the
10 . blender discharge pressure. Discharge piping of the
blender must be complete with good quality hoses
rated to maximum operating pressure of no less than 10
12 atm. Blender discharge hoses must be pressure tested
. to maximum operating pressure no less than once in 12
months, with pressure test results documented in a
.
respective Act. The documentation must be stored in
the data van and be available for the TNK
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

15



King
Nipple.



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representative to review.
Suction hoses must have a double clamped or
Crimped on King Nipple connection. When
Hydrocarbon Fracs/Stimulation treatments are being
performed, all the blender discharge hoses must have
Hose Covers made of durable, fire-resistant and
corrosion-proof material.
TNK-BP requires one 4 Discharge Hose from
the blender to the main manifold for each 1 m 3/min of
Slurry Rate plus 1 extra 4 hose as backup.
TNK-BP also requires a minimum of two 4
Hoses from each Frac Tank to the suction side of the
blender (in addition to reverse circulation hoses).

The blender (both sides if applicable), flow


meters, additive pumps, densometers, pressure
transducers and breaker augers must be fully
operational and functional prior to beginning the
treatment.
Unless approved by TNK-BP Frac supervisor,
all additive controls must be functioning properly in
automatic (Computer controlled/operated calculated
from the Clean Fluid Flow meter) mode before the
job commences.
Ensure all equipment, including Frac Pumps,
Blenders, additive pumps, breaker augers and proppant
delivery system, are capable of delivering the desired
rates (Minimum & Maximum) and concentrations
before dispatching equipment to location.

All pre-job calibration tests of the flow meters


must be <5% error before the treatment commences.

TNK-BP requires that all service companies use


a vacuum truck unit for all fracture treatments.
It is strictly prohibited that any Frac Fluids,
Hydrocarbons, Produced Water and any other
fluids or dry chemical be disposed of on a TNK-BP
well site, access roads or adjacent areas.

3.7

/
3.7 Requirements to tank trucks
Requirements to tank trucks

Water must be delivered on locations by tank

,
trucks specially designed for water transportation.
.

All the tank trucks owned by the Service

Company and third parties used for water


, transportation must be thoroughly steamed and
checked by the Service company representative prior to
water taking and its delivery on location. The tank
. truck inspection date must be recorded in a check-off
.
list.

Tank trucks must be checked no less than once a
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

16

,
.

, ..
.
/
.

.

week or more frequently if this is necessary in order to


ensure proper quality control.
The tank trucks used must be dedicated solely to
water transportation on well sites, i.e. specially
assigned for fracturing services only. Their in-between
use for transportation of hydrocarbons or other fluids is
strictly prohibited. These requirements also apply to
delivery of fluid to be used for annulus pressure
maintenance.

, ,
1
.

.

:

On the well site where water is being delivered,


it is necessary to take and keep 1 litre of water as a
sample from the tank truck. These samples will be used
for quality control in case if problems with gelling the
fluid occur. The bottle that contains the water sample
must have a label with the following information:

Place of sample taking and water source


location

Date of sample taking


Tank truck number
Tank truck drivers name

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

17


/ PREJOB DAY TESTING AND PREPARATORY
WORK


250
. ,
,
.



.
(

)

,
.

,
, ,
.

-50
.



,
,
.
(
)
-50.

.


,
.
,
.

,
.

.
4.

( ) /
Laboratory Testing Procedures (Field and
Base Laboratories)
4.1.1. / Water Analysis

4.1.

4.

PRE-JOB
DAY
TESTING
PREPARATORY WORK

AND

Each Service Company is required to have their


own Base Laboratory facility within a 250 km radius of
their base of operations. Laboratory facilities that are
located in another region of the Russian Federation do
not qualify.
TNK-BP does not accept Chemical Product
Passports and vendors recommendations on how to
use materials as confirmation of product suitability and
quality. Only the results of accurate Laboratory testing
(performed at the Service Company Laboratory or third
partys certified laboratory) will help to determine
whether the fluids for formation stimulation and
proppants used within all TNK-BP assets duly comply
with the requirements and have appropriate quality.

All Service Companies are required to have the


necessary Base and Field Laboratory testing equipment
as listed within this document. Exception: availability
of Fann-50 and hydraulic press in the field laboratory.

An electronic database must be maintained at


the Base Lab with all Lot / Batch numbers of gellants
and related chemicals as well as all Proppant Tests and
relevant testing performed for every TNK-BP
operation. The database should be easily read (Russian
& English) with all relevant (Fann 50) graphs and
charts attached through hyperlinks in 1 folder. This
data base should also be regularly e-mailed / updated to
the relevant Frac Engineers within each division and
target subsidiary.
All tests that are performed prior to pumping
any treatment for TNK-BP must be uploaded into a
comprehensive Data Base that can be easily reviewed
by TNK-BP personnel at their request. The data base
must be very similar to the data base developed and
used by all Service Companies presently pumping Frac
Treatments for TNK-BP.
This data base does not replace the documented
report issued by the laboratory for every treatment
performed. Individual Laboratory Test results are
required to be submitted.
4.1 Laboratory Testing Procedures (Field and
Base Laboratories)

4.1.1 Water Analysis

,
Any source water that is to be used in the
performance of injecting into a TNK-BP formation
must have a full water analysis performed.
,
.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

18

Hach ( )
With a Hach (or similar) kit, measure possible
contaminants or naturally occurring compounds /
/, elements that affect gel quality, i.e. oxygen, ferrous
() , iron (+2), bicarbonates, sulphates, total hardness (Ca +
..
,

(+2), Mg) and chlorides.


, (),
( + ) .

Water pH factor must also be within 5 8. If pH
5 8. is lower than the set limit, caustic soda (sodium
, hydroxide) must be used to increase pH, or
( ) , hydrochloric acid to lower pH level. It is not
. recommended to use water-free sodium bicarbonate or
fumaric acid due to their slow solubility, change and
( ) maintenance of pH factor (but in extreme conditions

they can be used as replacement to caustic soda or


, hydrochloric acid).
pH (, ,

).

Ideally, total hardness of water must not exceed
500 /.
500 mg/l.
500 /
If water hardness exceeds 500 mg/l and during
pre-job gel analysis problems occur with its stability,
, water must be replaced.
.
Hach
Hach kit includes the test for general content
(Fe+2 Fe+3). of iron (Fe+2 Fe+3). Total content of iron must not
8 /.
exceed 8 mg/l.

Content of bicarbonate ions must not increase
600 /. , 600 mg/l. Water which has higher concentrations of
, bicarbonate can be treated with hydrochloric acid to
3.5 4.0 increase pH to 3.5 and 4.0 and circulated. This
. technique is used to lower the bicarbonate
concentration down to admissible level. On completion
. of circulation pH must be restored to the initial level
5-8 within 5-8 by means of caustic soda.
.
: ,
Sulfates: sulfate ions are important because they
, are easily connected with calcium and form calcium
(). , sulfate (gypsum). If concentration of sulfates is too

high, it doesnt necessarily mean that calcium sulfate


( will be generated (although its coming into contact
, .)
with live breaker results in gypsum).

A one-time Laboratory water analyses test


should be conducted and include a documented
( Bacteria Test where bacteria growth is measured on all
). relevant source waters being used. Results of this
.
analysis must be documented in a respective report).
:
Note:
As a general guideline to Water
, API RP- 45 Analyses, refer to API Standard RP- 45 for further
.
detailed explanation.

Obtain an analysis of the fluid from each tank
/ and record the results on the QAQC form (Form 9.6 of
( 9.6 -). TNK-BP standards). Service Company can make minor

modifications to the form as needed for each fluid


system to ensure testing of all potential contaminants is

done.
,
.

Clarity test Fill a clear glass container with
15 . water so that you would have about 15 cm of water
height. Place on a sheet of paper with words of about
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

19

10 12 . 15 ,
.

.

(pH-) pH 4, 7 10.

.
pH
+/- 0,1 pH.

(5-8 7-10), pH-.
(, 0 14)
.

10 to 12 point font type. If the words are not legible


through the 15 cm of water, the fluid is too dirty.
Dump and replace with cleaner and/or filtered water.
Calibrate pH meter with 4, 7 and 10 standard
pH solutions. Have an extra probe on hand. pH meter
must have resolution of +/- 0.1 pH units.

Have narrow range pH (5-8 and 7-10) paper or


a spare pH meter on hand in case the pH meter fails.
Wide range (e.g., 0 to 14 pH paper is unacceptable for
use).

4.1.2.
4.1.2 Fluid Formula Test Fann-50
-50 / Fluid Formula Test Fann50

Hereafter, for convenience, this test is simply
-50. called a Fann 50 test. By Fann 50, we simply mean a
-50 Couette-type test of viscosity run at bottom-hole
conditions. It is possible, and even preferable, to use a
.
, Rheometer (a rotational viscometer) made by
( ) Brookfield, OFITE-1000, as well as Grace, Chandler &
Brookfield, fite-1000, Grace, Granger.
Chandler Granger.
-50 ( ..
All Fann 50 Type Rheometers (inclusive of
Brookfield, Grace, Granger, Ofite, Chandler Brookfield, Grace, Granger, Ofite, Chandler etc) must
..) be certified & calibrated once in 12 months by the

manufacturers technician. All appropriate calibration


-. documentation must be available for review.

.
,
The accepted TNK-BP Fann 50 tests are to be
-50 run with an R1 Sleeve and B5 Extended Bob
(R1) configuration (R1-B5X) at a shear rate of 100 sec-1.
(B5) ( R1-B5X) This particular test will be named a Fluid Stability
100 -1. Test.

.

Service Companies are required to run a full
suite of Shear Historys at 100 & 511 sec-1 on each
100 511 -1 .
fluid recipe.

For the purpose on Shear Testing procedures,
the first 5 minutes of the shear test will be conducted at
, a shear rate of 511 sec-1, then it is necessary to lower
511 -1, the shear rate instantaneously to 100 sec-1 and carry on
100-1 testing for another 10 minutes. Testing time at the
10 . shear rate 511 sec -1 must be equal to the time required
511 -1 for the fluid to go from the surface (the blender) all the
way down to the bottomhole, calculation of this time
() , must be done individually for each group of
formations. All Laboratory shear sensitivity tests are
. to be conducted at the temperature equating ( BHST +
Surface Base Fluid Temp )/ 2 or the temperature from
( the bottomhole pressure gages of offset wells must be
+ )/2, used but not less than 25 Celsius for summer
operations and 35 for winter operations.
, 25
35 .
,
This procedure has one exception: conditions at

which static formation temperature is lower than frac


- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

20

.
,

,
,

-50
(,
/ .).


.



:

fluid temperature on the surface. In this case the testing


should be run at the temperature which is as close to
the static formation temperature as possible. When
fracture treatment is performed on formations with
abnormally low formation temperature during pre-frac
operations, frac fluid must be heated to the temperature
which has maximum possible correspondence to the
pumping conditions, based on Fann-50, Brookfield or
Chandler fluid testing results. For calculations it is
necessary to take into account that the frac fluid cools
down after proppant is added and while moving down
through the wellbore.

1.

511
-1

100 -1 (

)

1. When shear rate is 511 sec-1 with the


switchover to 100 sec-1 (in order to design gels
characteristics when pulled out of tubing to the
wellbore)

2. ,

2.
When rates are faster, considering the ball
seats diameters and correspondent shear rates when gel
is coming through them.

In course of preparing for multistage fracturing


with running isolating balls in hole, gel sensitivity to
shear rate change must be tested:


When performing the shear tests, recording time
, intervals must be set up to record viscosity every 1
. second. Viscosity recovery time after decreasing the
shear rate must not exceed the estimated time period
for the gel to move from the liner to the upper perfs.

.
-50
Fann 50 Stability tests must be run at a
, temperature of not greater than +/- 5 Celsius of the
bottom hole static reservoir temperature.
+/- 5 .
-50
All Fann 50 Stability and Shear tests that are
performed must be at the Target Temperature 5 to 10
minutes from the beginning of the Fann 50 test.
5-10
.

The main objective of the following fluid tests
are to confirm fluid quality for every Frac Treatment

without the necessity of performing the same tests for


every degree of bottom hole temperature change.
.
,
Basically stated, if a certain Division is pumping
an approved fluid recipe of 3.8-kg/m3 guar gel loading
, at 100 Celsius, a full suite of Fann 50 tests must be
3,0 /3 performed with Distilled Water (Base Line) and Source
100, Waters inclusive of Sensitivity/Variance Tests.
-50

( )

100,

/.

If the bottom hole temperature were to change
100 95 105 from 100 Celsius to a range of 95 105 Celsius
-50 with the same fluid recipe, no further Fann 50 tests will
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

21

3,0 2,8 3,2


/3 95-105


+/- 10 +/- 20%.

be required. If the gel loading has been reduced from


3.0 to 2.8 kgs/m3 or raised up to 3.2 kgs/m3 within the
95-105 Celsius range, it is necessary to test the
source water and run the tests for sensitivity to
crosslinker and breaker with deviations in
concentration (loading) +/- 10 and +/- 20%.


, ,
..
,
,

+/- 5
.

,
().


-50
.

Base Line Test with Distilled Water must be


conducted on all fluid recipes & additives inclusive of
breakers, activators, X-Linkers and Clay Control
within +/- 5 Celsius of the Bottom Hole Static
Temperature. Breaker loadings for this test must be at
the design concentration for the Pad X-Linked Stage. If
a Linear gel pad is being requested as per the TNKBP Frac design, the Fann 50 test must be conducted
with the Breaker loading on the 1 st X-linked stage
pumped.

-50
Source Water Tests as per the procedures
listed in the Base Line Test, the same suite of Fann 50
. tests are required to be performed for all the locally
used source water supplies approved by the Customer.
. Sensitivity/Variance tests must be performed as part of

this suite of tests with 10% and 20% variance in


loading of additives.
10% 20%.

Example of Sensitivity/Variance Tests: If we are


/: near the end of the pad and a strap of the cross-linker
, , reveals weve pumped 20% too much cross-linker, do
- we continue or shut down? The only way to answer
20% , , : this question correctly is to have already run a suite of
? Fann 50s on different sensitivities, e.g., +/- 10% & +/ 20%. So, each Service Company must provide TNK BP with sensitivity tests for each additive (X-Link
-50 , Concentration, Breaker Concentration, spacer fluid
, +/- 10%, +/-20%. , concentration) with sufficient variance to understand
where the go-no go point is for a given fluid with
each source water. For each fluid system these

(
,
, variances may be different. These tests must be on

location for every frac job. These tests are critical to


/ , , the quality assurance process. If the test with 20%
variance is acceptable, it is not acceptable to conduct
. the test with 10% variance, but it will be necessary to
conduct the test with larger variance, for example,
. 30%.
.

. ,
20%- ,
10% ,

, 30%.
.
New Lot/Batch Number Fann 50 Tests
-50.
Upon the arrival of a new Lot/Batch number of
. chemicals, a base line test with distilled water must be
performed to insure the same characteristics are
, observed with the same fluid recipe. If multiple Bottom

Hole temperature regimes are being used on a


particular fluid recipe, perform the Base Line test at the
highest bottom hole temperature experienced in that
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

22

,

.

(
,
)
-50

.
:
.

75, 90 105
: 3,0, 3,2 3,6 /3.
-50
.
105
.
10%,

.
10%,


,
.
,
,

.
,
- ,
,

50
,
.
-50

.


.

, ..

.

area. If multiple fluid recipes are being used in the


same area (delayed X-Link fluid vs. Instantaneous XLink fluid, Borate vs. Zirconium), a Fann 50 base line
test must be conducted with each fluid recipe at the
highest bottom hole temperature.

Example: The service company receives a new


shipment of guar gellent. The same fluid recipe is
being used at bottom hole temperatures of 75, 90 &
105 Celsius but with different gel loading
concentrations, 3.0, 3.2 & 3.6 kgs/m3.
Perform the Fann 50 test with all fluid recipe
chemicals at the 105 Celsius temperature at the
appropriate gellant concentration. If the Frac Fluid
viscosity is <10% high or low, the new Lot/Batch
number of guar gellant will be considered acceptable
for TNK-BP usage. If the Fann 50 Base Line test
shows >10% viscosity change, adjust the fluid recipe
so it meets the local TNK-BP Fluid requirements and
perform the Sensitivity/Variance tests on distilled and
source water.

If there has to be an adjustment with the


approved Frac Fluid recipe due to results from the
above testing, the particular change has to be approved
by the local Division / Target Subsidiary Frac Design
engineer. When a request for approval is being
submitted for the alteration of a previously approved
fluid recipe, it must be submitted as a protocol
document in both Russian and English languages.
In the event that there is some free time on location
prior to frac, or if some problems occur with the fluid
quality and in case of work on remote locations, TNKBP representatives can require that the Service
Company conduct Fann-50 test of the water from the
source using additives from the batches actually used
during the frac job.
The same Fann 50 test procedures applies
whether the Service Company is Batch Mixing Frac
Fluid or utilizing some variant of an On-The-Fly
Hydration unit and/or fluid system. If an On-The-Fly
hydration type unit is being utilized by TNK-BP, extra
attention will be given to the Sensitivity/ Variance
testing as those test results be more crucial to a
successful Frac treatment.

/
4.2 Emulsion Test
Emulsion Test

If water based Frac fluids are used, API
emulsion tests with mix water and crude must be run
API prior to the treatment to determine the surfactant, non emulsifiers, loading required to prevent the formation
of stable emulsions. Here is the API Emulsion Test
. Procedure:
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0
4.2.

23

:
1. 100
(
-).
2.
.
3. 100 .
.
4.
.
5.
250 .
6.

.
7.
.

1.Measure 100 mls of crude oil into a Waring


Blender. If not available, any high-speed mixer will do.

:
1. 30
90% .
2.
() /
90% 30
.

.
3.

<4 .
.

.
4.
:

Notes:
1. Mixture should be 90% broken in 30
minutes, i.e.=/>90 mls aqueous phase.
2. Adjust non-emulsifier concentration and/or
type to achieve a 90% break in 30 minutes at BHST.
Sometimes combinations of Non-Emulsifier agents
work best.

.
: ,
.
.
4.2.1.

/
RCP / Breaker Interaction Test
,

,
.


-50:
1.

2.

1000
.

, .
,
,

2.Turn the blender on at maximum speed.


3.Add 100 mls of the aqueous solution of broken
gel.
4.Mix at high speed for one minute.
5.Remove and place into 250 ml graduated
cylinder.
6.Place in water bath at, or as close to, BHST.

7.Record the aqueous breakout volume every


minute for 30 minutes.

3. There should be a clean interface, <4mls,


between the oil and water phases. Make sure there is
not a sludgy interface. Experiment with NonEmulsifier or Anti-Sludge agents concentration and/or
types to minimize interface.
4. Broken gel is used for testing:

Prepare linear gel.


Add other fluid ingredients: crosslinker,
breaker etc.
Break it
4.2.1

RCP / Breaker Interaction Test

Service
Company
will
also
supply
documentation that the Frac fluid is compatible with
any resincoated proppant planned for the Frac.

Fluid preparation procedure for the Fann 50


tests when using resin coated proppant:

1.

Mix 1,000 mls of gel using the design


gellant loading. Ensure the gellant is fully
hydrated before proceeding.

2.

With the mixer at a very slow speed to


minimize air entrainment, add all the
additives, except the cross-linker.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

24

3.
4.

5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

).
.
1,2 :

1200/3,
.



10 .

.
( ) ,
50.
.

-50

.

3.
4.

Check the linear gel pH.


Add 1.2 kg of the resin coated proppant.
This simulates 1,200 kg/m3 of proppant,
which is usually the tail-in concentration.

5.

Keep the mixer at a minimal speed that will


keep the proppant from settling yet as slow
as possible to minimize air entrainment.
Mix for 10 min.

6.

Let the sample sit until the air entrainment


has dissipated.
Decant the desired volume of fluid (without
proppant) required for a Fann 50 test.

7.

8.
9.

Check the linear gel pH.


Cross-link the linear gel and conduct Fann50 test as per the set parameters to establish
presence or absence of negative effect of
proppant on fluid.


,

.


.

To prevent potential delays on Frac day, if at all


possible, perform source fluid analyses and gel tests in
the Service Company lab prior to the day of treatment.

4.2.2


/ Frac Fluid / Ceramic Proppant Interaction
Test

, ,
.
,

,

.

():

4.2.2
Frac Fluid / Ceramic Proppant
Interaction Test

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

All of the above test results must be on location


on Frac day.

This test is conducted to establish how the frac


fluid parameters change when ceramic proppant is
added. These changes must be minimal.
The Contractor must submit documented proof
confirming that the frac fluid is compatible with any
type of ceramic proppant planned for frac.
Test to detect the change
composition of frac fluid (water):

in

chemical

1000 .
1. Take 1000 ml of water from the source.
,
2. Conduct the water chemical composition

analysis as per Frac Fluid QAQC Form.


.

3. Add ceramic proppant based on loading 1000
1000 /3 1.
kg/m3 1 kg.
10 .
4. Mix in the blender for 10 min.
.
5. Filter the fluid.

6. Repeat the water chemical composition
,
analysis as per Frac Fluid QAQC Form.
.

7. Analyze the changes in chemical composition
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

25

of water and correlate them with the


Companys requirements to fluid, if the
maximum admissible limits are exceeded, this
batch of proppant must be replaced.

-50
:
1. 1000
.

, .
2. ,
,

),
,
.
3. 1000 . :

1000/3.
4.



10 .
5.
.
6. ( ),

,
.
.
7.
-50 .
8.
,
-50, ,
.

Fluid preparation procedure for the Fann 50


tests when using ceramic proppant:


( ),


.


.

To prevent potential delays on Frac day, if at all


possible, perform source fluid analyses and gel tests in
the Service Company lab prior to the day of treatment.

1.

Mix 1,000 mls of linear gel using the design


polymer loading. Ensure the gellant is fully
hydrated before proceeding.

2.

With the mixer at a very slow speed to


minimize air entrainment, add all the
additives, except the cross-linker; check pH,
viscosity and temperature of the sample.

3.

Add 1000g of ceramic proppant.


simulates 1000 kg/m3 of proppant.

4.

Keep the mixer at a minimal speed that will


keep the proppant from settling yet as slow as
possible to minimize air entrainment. Mix for
10 min.

This

5.

Let the sample sit until the air entrainment has


dissipated.
6. Decant the gel (without proppant), re-check
pH, viscosity and temperature of the sample.
Record the results of changes in a respective
document (Protocol).
7. Cross-link the linear gel and conduct Fann-50
test as per the set parameters.
8. Compare the results of Fann-50 testing of the
gel with proppant and testing of the gel
without proppant, issue the respective Protocol
and submit it to the Customer.

All of the above test results must be on location


on Frac day.

4.2.3

4.2.3
Regained Conductivity/
/ Regained
Permeability Testing
Conductivity / TermeabilityTesting

All Gelled Fluid Recipes will require
documented Regained Conductivity/Permeability Tests
- with the results submitted for approval to the Upstream
OJSC TNK-BP Management and specialists of

respective Divisions and Target Subsidiaries prior to



pumping into a TNK-BP well.
.

These tests must be conducted by independent
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

26


,
( ,
..) .


,

.


,

:

,
,



50 ,
,


,
,
,
.


, !

entities, for objective comparison it is recommended to


use available test results for the rocks, the same as the
ones occurring in this region (Ohio Sandstone or
Bandera) and their compatibility with the actual recipe.

Regained conductivity/permeability is not


required in case of alteration of a fluid system pursuant
to testing results of chemicals related to new Lot/Batch
Number.
In case of fluid system change or replacement of
one or several components of the system for an
analogous product made by another manufacturer, prior
to pumping operations the Service Company must
submit the following documents to TNK-BP:
Regained conductivity / permeability test
results
MSDS
Compliance certificate
Chemical product passport issued by its
manufacturer
Fann-50 fluid system testing result in
compliance with this Standard
Emulsion test result
Decision to replace one or several components
of the system to an analogous product supplied by
another Vendor without its Regained conductivity /
permeability testing shall be made by TS, Corporate
Centre and PR&TDC specialists after comparison of
the chemicals physical characteristics specified in the
chemical product passport issued by its manufacturer.

It is strictly prohibited to use new chemicals


until positive conclusive statement is received from
the TS, Corporate Centre and PR&TDC specialists!

4.3

/ Requirements to Proppant
QAQC & Handling on Location
4.3.1
/ Proppant QAQC
Principles

,


. ,
,
.


.

The purpose of these QAQC Requirements is to


ensure proppant that is purchased by a service
company and/or operator arrives at its final destination
unchanged. The majority of proppants offered in
todays hydraulic fracturing market must traverse a
difficult path from point of manufacture to the well
fracture. These requirements are meant to bring notice
to general housecleaning issues and basic handling
procedures in order to minimize proppant performance
degradation.


,
(
).

All proppants are manufactured in compliance


with upper and lower control specifications in order to
meet performance criteria. A Quality Certificate should
accompany each truckload and/or rail car batch of

4.3 Requirements to Proppant


Handling on Location

QAQC

&

4.3.1 Proppant QAQC Principles

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

27


, -.

,
RP56/58/60.
4.3.2

/ Requirements to
proppant transportation and storage
/
:


,

, ,
.

.
,
.


-

.

:
, ,

,
,
, .


.
.
,
-
.

.
,
,

:

.

.

, ,
,
.

, ,
,
.
,
,
: , ,
.

proppant that leaves the point of manufacture. Proper


sampling techniques defined by API RP56/58/60
should be employed to collect the sample for analysis.

4.3.2
Requirements
to
transportation and storage

proppant

Rail Car / Truck Inspection:

Prior to filling hopper rail cars and bulk trucks


for delivery, each should be visually inspected to
ensure the inside is dry and free of contaminates. All
bottom flanges and gates should be opened and
inspected for cleanliness. Tank discharge hoses and
lines should be pressurized and blown through to
ensure they are cleaned out and checked for a good
seal. When loading the rail car/truck with bulk
proppant, an oversized screen should be placed over
the hatch opening to catch any contaminates or foreign
objects.

Sand Trucks and Field Storage Bins:


Prior to offloading proppant, field storage bins
and associated plumbing should be inspected for
residual proppant that may have been left over from
previous jobs. Proper cleaning of bins and lines should
be Standard Operating Procedures before and after all
fracture stimulation treatments. The knife gates and
conveyor system should be free of any visible
contaminates. A confined workspace permit may be
required if personnel are needed to sweep out insides
of bins. If necessary, vacuum trucks must be employed
to properly clean the bins and related equipment.

Before off-loading begins, the following


paperwork and procedural issues should be reviewed
with the truck driver for accuracy:
The bill of lading with proppant type for each
load.
Certified weight tickets specifying proppant
weight and point of origin.
The trucking company, drivers name, tractor
number, trailer numbers, and time of arrival should be
documented.
If a Quality Certificate accompanies the load,
one needs to review the paperwork to make sure the
product meets designed specifications.
If a retain proppant sample is available from the
driver, check physical characteristics such as color,
roundness, dustiness, for any non-conformance.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

28


,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.

RP 56/58/60

, .


.


.

, ,
.


.
4.3.3
-
/ Proppant testing and
documentation


,
API RP-60,
, 1
2b.


API RP-56.


API RP-61.

,
,
.
,

.
.

API RP (
) 56 / 58 60 / 61 .

-,

.
-,
, 2-

During most normal off-loading operations,


proppant dust is liberated; therefore proper dusk mask
must be worn at all times. If possible, automated
sampling devices should be employed during offloading operations to collect a proppant sample of each
truckload. After off-loading has finished, inspect the
trailer to make sure it is empty by pounding on the
lower sides of the trailer tank.
In order to satisfy API RP 56/58/60
Recommended Practices, samples collected for
analysis must be caught from a flowing stream in order
to remove variance from natural particle segregation.
The easiest method for collecting an API sample is
during the job while the proppant is conveyed from the
field storage bin to the blender hopper.
After the fracture treatment, inspection of the
field storage bins need to be conducted to ensure all the
proppant was pumped. Using special portable weigh
scales, establish the weight of remaining proppant and
amount of proppant pumped from each section of the
sand truck and each tank. Compare the readings of
each proppant totalizer versus the amount of proppant
actually pumped. If necessary, make corrections in the
input sources transferring data to totalizers.

4.3.3
Proppant
documentation

testing

and

TNK-BP requires that the Service Company


follow the general test procedures and specifications
listed in API Standard RP-60 with the exception of
Proppant Specifications listed in Attachments # 2a &
2b.
Service Companies will be expected to follow
API Standard RP- 56 for the use of all Frac Sand that
is used for TNK-BP.
Service Companies will also be expected to
perform Proppant Conductivity Tests based upon API
Standard RP-61.
All Proppants that are being used for TNK-BP
must be kept inside an unheated dry storage facility at
all times of the year.
Proppants that are hauled to the Frac Location in
large sacks or stored on location are to be covered at all
times with a quality tarpaulin. Plastic does not fit for
this purpose.
The Service Company must provide the TNK
representative with the documentation issued by the
manufacturer as per API RP 56 / 58 & 60 & 61 tests for
every Frac. Other test data that is to be supplied by the
Service Company is random Crush Testing analysis
performed and documented by the Service Company
on each proppant batch at their base.

All Crush Tests that are performed for TNK-BP


are to be conducted in a 2 Test/Load Cell. If a larger

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

29

, API RP-60, 9, .
9.2.1 . 3.
,
,

.
:

load cell has to be used, follow the adjustment factor as


stated in API RP-60, Section 9, and Paragraph 9.2.1
Table 3.

(50 )
(mD*) 2 / (9.8 /).
2%-
KCl , 250F
(125 ).

: 2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000
(41.37), 8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74)
14000 (96.53) psi ().
() 2 / (9.8
/)
2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000
(96.53) psi ().
-
12% 3%
.
.
.

0.75.
.
- /.
- .

.


2500 (17.24), 5000 (34.47), 7500 (51.71),
10000 (68.95), 12500 (86.18) psi ().

,

.


1a, 1b. ,
, ,

, .

-
-,


- .


.

,

Long Term (50 hour) Conductivity test at


2lb/ft2, 2% KCl between Ohio Sandstone, 250F (125
Celsius) in md/ft. Conductivity results must be
provided at 2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 1400
(96.53) psi (P) simulated closure pressure
range.

TNK-BP requires that all companies that


provide proppants must submit a document detailing
the results of proppant analysis performed by an
independent laboratory. This analysis must include the
following parameters:

Permeability (Darcy) 2lb/ft2 must also be


listed for the 2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000
(96.53) psi (P) ranges.
Acid Solubility - Tested with 12 % HCL / 3 %
HF Blend.
Roundness
Sphericity
Roundness and sphericity of all the ceramic
proppants must be above 0.75.
Apparent SG
Bulk Density kgs/m3
Average diameter mm.
Crush Test & Sieve Analysis for all types of
proppants
Crush Test Fines % with simulated Closure
Pressures of 2,500 (17.24), 5,000 (34.47), 7,500
(51.71), 10,000 (68.95), 12,500 (86.18) psi (P).
Sieve Analysis must also be tested and
measured (% in each screen) including the pan.
General Proppant Conductivity and Crush Test
guidelines are listed as Attachments 1a, 1b. TNK-BP
requires that the Service Company Meets or
Exceeds the Conductivity and Crush Test parameters
listed.
If the test results submitted by a Service
Company for a certain type of proppant do not comply
with TNK-BP requirements, such proppant may be
approved for use only upon formal approval received
from the Upstream OJSC TNK-BP Management.
There are many different brands and types of
resin coated proppants on the market today. Resin
coated proppants however, require other tests to be
performed to insure that in fact, the resin coating is
performing as required. Therefore, the following tests

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

30

.

, . ,


:

. .

1.5% - 4.5%,
.
:
1.

927C.
2.
(
927C
).
3.


.
4.
, ,
m1.
5.

105C
, 6 8 .
6.


.
m2;
7.

927C.
927 C

2 .
8.

.
9.


.
m3.
m1 - .
m2 -
.
m3 -
.

:

will have to be performed and documented by an


independent laboratory. Service Companies will be
required to perform some of the tests for quality
assurance of the product they are providing to TNKBP:
Resin coat percentage must be clearly
stated. Most resin coated proppants range from 1.5% 4.5% depending on the product.

1.

L.O.I Test (Loss of Ignition Test)


Muffle furnace must be pre-heated to 927C.

2.
Prepare a crucible with cover for use (heat in the
muffle furnace at 927C and cool in the desiccator down
to room temperature).
3.
After the crucible goes through this preliminary
preparation (see the above), weigh it on the high-precision
scales which have accuracy up to 0.0001.
4.
Record the resultant mass (weight) in grams as
m1.
5.
Put a sample of resin coatedproppant into the
crucible . This proppant must be pre-dried at 105C to
itsconstant-mass conditions, weight within 6-8 g.
6.
Weigh the crucible with cover containing the
proppant sample on the high-precision scales which have
accuracy up to 0.0001. Record the resultant mass (weight)
in grams as m2.
7.
Placed the covered crucible with the sample into
the muffle furnace and heat to 927C. Keep heating the
sample at 927C to its constant-mass state.
Recommended heating time no less than 2 hours.
8.
Remove the crucible with the proppant sample
from the muffle furnace and let it cool down to room
temperature in the desiccator.
9.
Re-weigh the crucible with cover containing the
proppant sample on the high-precision scales which have
accuracy up to 0.0001. Record the resultant mass (weight)
in grams as m3.
m1 weight of prepared crucible
m2 weight of the crucible with the proppant
sample prior to heating
m3 weight of the crucible with the proppant
sample after heating

m 2 - m3
100
m 2 - m1

.
.
- /.

% polymer content of sample is calculated as


per the formula:

m 2 - m3
100
m 2 - m1
Average Mean Diameter of the proppant
(Microns) with and without the resin coating.
Apparent S.G.
Bulk Density kg/m3

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

31

.
.
(50 )
(mD*) 2 / (9.8 /). 2%-
KCl , 250F (125).


2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37), 8000
(55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000 (96.53) psi
().
() 2 / (9.8
/)
2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000
(96.53) psi ().

:
1.

68 (1000 psi).
2.
60,
+/- 10C
.
3.
60,
+/- 5C
.
:
,

75 % .
, 4 27
atm (400 psi), > 20 atm
(> 300 psi).

12 .

Roundness
Sphericity
Long Term (50 hour) Conductivity test at
2lb/ft2, 2% KCl between Ohio Sandstone, 250F (125
Celsius) in md/ft. Conductivity results must be
provided at 2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000
(96.53) psi (P) simulated closure pressure range.

Permeability (Darcy) 2lb/ft2 must also be


listed for the 2000 (13.79), 4000 (27.58), 6000 (41.37),
8000 (55.16), 10000 (68.95), 12000 (82.74) 14000
(96.53) psi (P) ranges.
Cure Time vs. Bond:
1.

Pressure for the test must be at 68 atm


(1000psi)
2. BHT that are > 60 C (>150 F) will require a
Cure vs. Bond Test that is +/-10 C (+/- 50 F)
of the Bottom Hole Temperature.
3. BHT that are < 60 C (<150 F) will require a
Cure vs. Bond Test that is +/-5 C (+/- 40 F)
of the Bottom Hole
Temperature.
Note: As a general rule of thumb, Bond
strength vs. time is to achieve > 75% of manufacturers
rating. As an Example If in 4 hours the resin coating
should achieve 27 atm (400 psi), the TNK-BP
requirement would be > 20 atm (> 300 psi)

Test results cannot be > 12 month old.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

32

/ FIELD TESTING OF
MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT CHECKUP
5.1 /
Pre-Frac Gel Testing


. ,

2 .

2 , , ,


.



2 .

-.

,
,

,
-50 .
,
-50, ,
,
pH .



35.

25. ( :
0C,
- 0C).
-50
10%, 20%

-50.

.
5.

5.2 / Materials



(, / ,
.,
,

).
, ,

> 15 C .

5 FIELD TESTING OF
EQUIPMENT CHECKUP

MATERIALS

&

5.1 Pre-Frac Gel Testing


Conduct on-site pre-job Bacteria pilot test using
on-site chemicals and composite water samples from
the tanks. Gel cannot be mixed in the tanks until the
Pre-Job Bacteria Test has been conducted. TNK-BP
deems an acceptable Bacteria test that does not have a
viscosity drop of >2 cp within a 1 hour period. If the
Base Frac fluid loses viscosity of >2 cp prior to
pumping the Frac Treatment, the tank will be
dumped, cleaned and refilled with Fresh Water and
gelled again after the appropriate QAQC tests have
been performed.

Under no circumstances will polymer gellant be


added to a tank of Base Frac Fluid that has lost >2 cp
of Viscosity with the intent of repairing the Frac Fluid
Base Viscosity.
Be sure to flush the valves before catching a
sample.
Without exception, every planned fracturing
fluid formulation must have supporting Fann 50 or
equivalent test data documentation on site. Chemical
Batch/Lot numbers, Water Source, Date of Test and
XLink fluid optimum pH must be listed and displayed
on the Fann 50 Test Result graphs. It is acceptable that
the Service Company can produce data from their
electronic data base as proof the tests were in fact
compliant.
Base Water/Fluid Temperature During Winter
operations, base fluid temperature must be a minimum
of 35 Celsius prior to gelling. During summer
operations, base fluid temperature must be at a
minimum of 25 Celsius prior to gelling. (For basic
definition, Winter Operations are defined as
Temperature
<0
C,
Summer
Operations
Temperature>0 C).
TNK-BP requires +/-10 % 20% sensitivity tests
be conducted as part of the Fann 50 test suite.

All fluid formulation changes must be approved


by TNK-BP Frac Design Engineer.
5.2 Materials
Ensure sufficient materials (tanks, base fluid,
chemicals, proppant, field lab equipment and materials)
are on location prior to the commencement of mixing
Frac Tanks.

All Liquid Additive Chemicals must be stored,


transported, tested and pumped at a temperature >15
Celsius in all weather conditions.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

33

5.3 /
Gelled Water Tests

5.3 Gelled Water Tests

35,
20
50 .

.

.
90-95%
,
.
,
.

10% ,
.
10%,
. ,
,
.
,
.


10%:

Calibrate Fann 35 type viscometer with 20 to 50


cp calibration oil. Water is not an acceptable
calibration fluid. Adjust gel readings accordingly.

-50
,
, ,
/ .

And there are Fann 50 test results available for


this very lot of gel, correct gel by adding more polymer or
dilution and repeat the gel test.

-50
, ,
.

And Fann 50 test results are not available for


this gel lot, and then postpone the Frac until gel from a
different production lot is brought to location.

If the gel sample is within 90-95% (~1-2 cp) of


design loading, continue with crosslink test.
If it is below the admissible limit, catch another
sample and repeat the test anew.
If it is above the admissible limit by 10%,
repeat the test with distilled water.
If it is within 10%, there is a water problem.
Repeat gel test on individual water tanks until the
problem tank is located. If this is the case, dump and
refill the tank and repeat the test.

If the distilled water sample exceeds the design


loading value by 10%:

/ .
Repeat the gel test.

- .
,
.
,

.

.
5.4
/ Crosslink Fluid Test

If test is OK, then replace gel.


If not OK, then postpone Frac until a solution is
obtained. The well wont be fracced until a gel
hydration problem is resolved.
Split the gel samples for bacteria and crosslinker tests.
5.4 Crosslink Fluid Test

Waring
A Waring type blender with a 1000 ml jar
1000 ( (preferably a top-driven spindle-type) with a rheostat to
) control blender speed is required.
.

Place gel sample in bath and heat to anticipated
fluid temperature at the perforations, +/- 5 Celsius.
+/- 5.

After heating up, place a 250 ml sample of fluid
250 . in the blender jar. Increase the blender speed until the
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

34

,
.
(
,
).
, ,
.

(.. . Vortex time
test), ..
,
. 5075% , ,

.

75%.


50.
,

. pH ,
,
,
-50.

,
.

,
,

.
,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
,

..
.
,
,
.


.
-50 .
5.5

/ Quick Break Breaker Test

top of the blade nut is exposed.


Add cross-linker. (X-Linker used for testing
should be the same as X-linker which will be used for
the Frac treatment). Insure the X-link solution has been
stirred or agitated to prevent settling.
Perform vortex closure test (also known as
Vortex Time Test) to define how much time it takes
for the vortex to close and dome to occur after
adding the crosslinker. The fluid must close within 50
and 75% of the calculated time for the fluid to reach
the perforations. Adjustments must be made to ensure
the fluid is cross-linked by the 75% mark. The final
cross-linker and/or delay additives required to achieve
the desired crosslink times must be supported by Fann
50 data.

Remove fluid from blender and ensure fluid will


lip and is dry to the touch. Check the Fluid pH to
insure it is the same as the Fann 50 Test Data.

If fluid does not meet these tests, repeat tests


with an alternate cross-linker. It is recommended as a
Best Practice to use the X-Linker that you are going to
pump that day and not the X-Linker that has been used
for testing over the last few weeks.

If this does not correct the problem, then


postpone Frac until a solution is obtained.
Place the fluid in water bath, heat to BHST.
Ensure pH is within the acceptable range as stated by
the manufacturer of the chemical additive used for gel.
Also note if sample appears to be overcrosslinked, i.e., chunky. Consult with Frac
Company and TNK-BP Well-site representative for
possible adjustment of cross-linker concentration. Any
changes should also be explained and confirmed with
TNK-BP Frac Design engineer prior to pumping.
Fann 50 data sensitivity (Variance/Sensitivity Testing)
data must also be available for review.

5.5 Quick Break Breaker Test


The breaker system is also a critical part of the
. job. However, it is usually not feasible to test the actual
breaker loading on a job site. If time does permit, then
the tests should be run on site.
. ,
.

If not, then a Quick Break standard should be
developed for each Service Company recipe and

breaker type. This is a test designed by the Service


- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

35

.
,
,

, 45-60 .


, . 1
.
,
- -50,
,
.
(+/20%) ,

.

Company to determine the amount of breaker required


to break a cross-linked fluid in a nominal period of
time, e.g. 45-60 minutes. On Frac day, a similar
amount of breaker is added to a cross-linked sample
and placed in a hot water bath. Within one hour, the
fluid should be broken. This is not meant to prove the
breaker design is correct a Fann 50 is required for
that but simply to prove the breaker works. This
provides a minimal amount of confidence that the
breaker is OK to be pumped. If the fluid breaks faster
or slower, +/- 20%, than the indicated by the Quick
Break Test, investigate and remediate before
pumping.

5.6 / /
Fluids based on diesel fuel / hydrocarbons
5.6.1

/
Field
Vapor
Pressure
Determination for Hydrocarbon Fluids

- ,

10C .
,
55C,
45C ,

,
,

.
, >1,0 psi (6,89 ),
<1,5 psi (10.34 ),

-
.
,
> 1,5 psi (10,34 )
.

5.6 Fluids based on diesel fuel / hydrocarbons


5.6.1
Field
Vapor
Pressure
Determination for HydrocarbonFluids
High Hazard Flammable Fluids are flammable
fluids handled at a temperature within 10C of the open
cup flash point. For example, a liquid with a flash point
of 55C operating at a temperature of 45C or higher
should be treated as a High Hazard Flammable Fluid.

Any Hydrocarbon that is going to be pumped


into a TNK-BP well will require a Vapor Pressure Test
and documented certification of the tested Vapor
Pressure. Vapor Pressures >1.0 psi (6.89 kPa) will
require specific approval from the respective target
subsidiary and the Upstream OJSC TNK-BP
Management prior to being mixed or pumped by the
Service Company.
Fluids that have a vapor pressure >1.5 psi
(10.34 kPA) are not to be pumped under any
circumstances.

750 ,
().

Apparatus: Aluminum 750 ml cylinder with


pressure gauge screwed into the neck (top).

Test Procedure:

1.

2.

1. Obtain a fresh Crude Oil or Condensate sample


,
from an adjacent producing well from the same
.
formation.

2. Sample should be poured into a sealable, opaque,



bottle 90% full. If the sample will not be tested
90%. ,
right away, further seal the lid with electrical tape.

Measure the temperature of the fluid just before

the test is performed.


.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

36

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

,
,
- 2/3 .
,
.
15 .

.
15
.

.
.
,
.

5.6.2

/ / Hydrocarbons-based fluids
tests

,

.


, ,
.

,

.

.



.

1.0.
psi (6.89 )
.



.

3.

Pour the contents of the sample bottle into the


vapor pressure tester to - 2/3 full.

4.

Screw on the top with the pressure gauge, ensuring


that it is tight and sealed.
Shake the canister vigorously for 15 seconds.
Let the pressure stabilize and record the reading.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

Shake the canister again vigorously for 15


seconds.
Let the pressure stabilize and record the reading.
This is the Vapor pressure for that specific fluid at
the recorded temperature.
Release the pressure very slowly by loosening the
cap and gauge.

5.6.2

Hydrocarbons-based fluids tests

Unless performed prior to Frac day, obtain an


analysis of the hydrocarbon fluid in each tank and
record on the QAQC form. Service Company can make
minor modifications to the form as needed for each
fluid system to ensure testing of all potential
contaminants detrimental to Frac fluid stability is done.

It is a good practice to have the diesel tested to


confirm whether or not there excessive amounts diesel
conditioners or water that will affect the hydration or
X-link times of the base fluid. This is especially critical
in Cold Weather operations.

There needs to be a reference to vapor pressure


vs. temperature for safety purposes prior to pumping
any hydrocarbon fluid. Any hydrocarbon fluid that has
a vapor pressure in excess of 1.0 psi or (6.89 ka) will
require written permission from the respective Target
Subsidiary prior to mixing or pumping.
Service Company must always check
hydrocarbons-based fluids vapor pressure prior to
mixing or pumping.

5.6.3

5.6.3
Gelled Hydrocarbons-based Fluids
/ /
Test
Gelled Hydrocarbons-based Fluids Test

If diesel is going to be used as base fluid to
, carry proppant during a Frac treatment, analysis must
be performed on diesel prior to being used.
.
:
Testing must determine the amount of:
- (
- Saturated Hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins,
, N, ISO ). N, ISO and cycloparraffins) Total should be ~75% of
~75% .
volume
- 25% (
- 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including
).
naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes)
,
- Water content since this can have
.
detrimental effects on gelling systems.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

37

(
).


20 30 .
.
.
,
(
).
.
.
,
.

, :
, 1- .

/, ,
,

.
,
35 50
.

.
5.7
/ Proppant Transport Test
.
.

,
.
.

( ).
.

,
.
- .
,
400 .

, 100
300 .

, 25 ,

.

.

- Fuel Conditioners winter diesels have


proven to be more problematic due to the addition of
Kerosene and other conditioners.
Add gel and the batch mixed portion of the
activator to the hydrocarbon fluid and mix for 20 30
minutes.
Check the fluid temperature.
Add the remaining activator and breaker. Mix
for pipe time (time it takes for fluid to reach the perfs).

Perform the lip test. Fluid must not be


choppy, chunky, or lumpy.
Place in BHT-water bath. Fluid must remain
lippy for at least pump time + fracture closure
time+1 hour.
Note All gelled hydrocarbon fluids that are
going to be used for Fracturing will require all of the
applicable QAQC Testing that is used for insuring fluid
quality. Fann 35 and Fann 50 testing will be mandatory
with the use of breakers. Proppant transport tests will
also be required.

5.7 Proppant Transport Test

This test should be performed between the Mini


Frac and the main Frac. There are two purposes for this
test. The first is to ensure the fluid is sufficiently
robust and can adequately transport the proppant for an
amount of time equal to the sum of the pump time plus
closure time. The second purpose is to determine when
the fluid completely breaks.
Heat up the water bath or heat cup to the
desired temperature. Place a sample of the linear gel in
the bath. When it reaches the desired temperature,
remove the container from the bath, mix in proppant
and stir in the blender. As soon as you stop stirring,
add the cross-linker.
If you cannot see the proppant fall, the fluid is
probably >400 cp.
If the proppant falls slowly, it probably has 100
to 300 cp.
If the proppant drops straight to the bottom of
the container, it probably has less than 25 cp and is
considered broken as far as proppant transport is
considered.
Replace the sample in the bath and continue
monitoring the fluid until it completely breaks.

5.8

/
5.8 Procedure of gelling the fluid in the tanks
Procedure of gelling the fluid in the tanks /

If the fluid passes all of the preliminary tests,
, then tanks may be gelled. TNK-BP requires that guar
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

38

.

> 3
3/.
50%,
.

, ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
, 90%.
,
5

.


,
.

gellants be mixed at a rate of >3 m3/min. Once each tank


has achieved ~50% of total hydration, begin the addition
of all remaining additives.

After tanks are gelled, repeat the base gel


viscosity test for each tank to ensure fluid is fully
hydrated. Approval to continue with the Frac treatment
cannot be made until all tanks pass the gel viscosity and
X-Link tests. Again, the Frac will not commence until
the gels are at least 90% hydrated.

If the temperature difference of linear gel in the


tanks is above 50oC, pumping must be made from all the
tanks simultaneously.
It is necessary to repeat breaker and bacteria tests
as described above on each tank, as tank contamination
could affect gel quality.

5.9
5.9 Proppant QAQC Procedure
/ Proppant QAQC Procedure
,
All Proppant that is loaded and utilized for the
, , Frac Treatments must be sieved, dry, not frozen and free
, of all debris.
.

Service Company must have the proppant
manufacturers certificates on location, as well as the
.
results of sieve testing performed by the manufacturer.
,
All Proppant or Sand that is loaded into the sand
trucks or well site proppant storage units must be
screened through a metal mesh size that does not exceed
2.5cm x 2.5cm. All Blender hoppers or proppant intake
2,5*2,5. points must also have a screen/filter that does not exceed
2.5cm x 2.5cm.
2,5*2,5.
,
All different sized proppants, coated proppants
and types of proppants must be contained into separate
.
compartments in the Sand truck and are not to be mixed
together.
(- )
All proppant required for the Frac (Mini & Main
. Frac) shall be loaded / stored into Sand delivery
equipment prior to the commencement of the Frac
treatment. Under No Circumstances will proppant be
. , - dumped into the Sand hopper directly from the bag /
( ), sack while the Frac treatment is being executed!
, Proppant that is required for Mini or Data Frac
, treatments (Proppant Slug) may be pre-loaded directly
into the sand hopper on the blender as long as it is
.
sieved, dry and free of all frozen chunks and any other
debris.
(
It is necessary to record weight (Use Weigh
, Scale and Not Proppant Sack Weight) and type of
).

proppant by compartment. Perform and record a sieve


analysis for each proppant on location. It is the
, . responsibility of the Service Company to verify the
proppant is within spec before brought to location and to
have the ability to conduct field sieve analysis on the
. Frac Location. If sieve analyses results are not within
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

39


, ,
.

,
,

/ Blenders, Treating Lines,


Pump Trucks, and Frac Manifold
Inspection
,
,

, ,
.

.
,

.




.


. 2-3
3/, 6-10 3.

,
.
5.10

5.11

/ Bucket Test





.


.
5.11.1

/ Liquid Additive Flowmeter Tests

TNK-BP specifications, then the job shall not be


pumped and the Service Company may be held liable for
the resultant downtime.

5.10

Blenders, Treating Lines, Pump Trucks


and Frac Manifold Inspection

Prior to rigging up, visually inspect the blender


tub, manifold, treating line, pump truck suctions and
manifold to make sure there is no proppant left from
previous operations. All the frac equipment must be
flushed and cleaned at the base. Frac equipment can be
cleaned on location by means of circulating into the
vacuum truck in case if the frac fleet has to move from
one location to another upon agreement with the
Customer.
This is critical for fracture treatments in the wells
with minimal rat-hole interval and if for previous frac
job the Service Company was utilizing larger size of
proppant in the treatment. In order to remove residual
proppant that may have settled in the blender and/or
manifold, clean fluid is to be circulated through the
system to an empty tank. The fluid path is to be directed
in such a way as to include the entire system. Pump at 23 m /min with 6-10 m . Do not use a high pressure pump
to pump through anything but treating iron.
3

5.11

Bucket Test

Pursuant to TNK-BP requirement, when bucket


tests are conducted, test parameters must be recorded in
the data van on the well site. If there are no records of
testing data as per flowmeters readings, the Service
Company will be penalized or payment for the
respective frac job will not be effected.

5.11.1

Liquid Additive Flowmeter Tests


It is TNK-BP requirement that all Service
Companies while frac job use Magnetic/Coriolis type
flow meters as their primary measurement device for
Liquid additives.
.

Turbines will be allowed as a backup type flow meter only!
!

Tachometer measured flow metering devices are
.
strictly prohibited by TNK-BP.

In order to ensure due control of all the additives

, flow rates by means of the computer installed in the data


van or on the blender, the magnetic flow meter (or
, Coriolis type flow meter if Magnetic is not available)
( must be installed on the blender suction line. Turbine
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

40

) .


.

,

(),

.

,

,
.

.

.

flow meter can be used on the blender suction line to


control liquid additives feed rate only in case if the
magnetic flow rate fails in the course of pumping.


. :

In order to calibrate the liquid chemicals supply


pumps it is necessary to do the following:


15.

.
(
).

20-
.
1, 2, 3
20 .
.

. .

(/3),
(/).

.,
,
.
5% .

5%,
:

..
5%,

.
.
5%,
.
+/ (
).
.

If a Hydration Unit is being used prior to the


blender, the discharge Flow Meter on the hydration unit
can be used as the Liquid Additive Rate control flow
meter but all Liquid Additive pumps will still be
required to operate under Automatic Computer control.
Liquid additive Turbine flow meters are affected
by viscosity, so the bucket test must be run with the
additive that will be pumped on the fly during the Frac.

To obtain a more accurate measurement of


additive rates and volumes, fully prime all additive flow
lines and manifolds prior to measuring the chemical
volume.

Ensure all additives are warmed to >15C.


Perform and record the beginning straps and
volumes of all liquid additives.
Set pump rate. (Usually Designed Frac Pump
Rate).
Detach hose from blender tub and place it in a
precalibrated~ 20 liter bucket. The bucket should be
calibrated and clearly marked at 1, 2, 3 liters, all the way
to 20 liters.
Begin pumping into the bucket. Do not
regulate pump controls manually! This is an automatic
test and the Liquid additives must be set into the
Automatic Mode so the computer is controlling the
rate. All Liquid Additives must be entered into the
onboard computer as Concentration (L/m3) and not
rate (L/min).
After the liquid additives pump rate is
stabilized, use a stopwatch to record the time required to
fill bucket between the successive liter marks. Error
factor within 5% is acceptable.
If the error factor is not within 5%, do the
following:
Retest additives supply pump.
If still not within 5%, recheck calibration
factors and make sure nothing is wrong with equipment.
Re-test. If still not within 5%, manually adjust
to ensure correct additive will be added. The flow meter
rate can be adjusted by either changing the calibration
factor or using a +/- % multiplier (PPU: Pulses per Unit
Volume). It is preferential to adjust the flow meter using
a +/- % multiplier.
Perform the same test procedure with any and

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

41

..
5.11.2
/
Additive auger testing

, ,


.
(
) .


.
.
,
.


.

.

,
.



,

,

.

( ,
).
,
.

,
() ,
.
.
.

.


(/3), (/).

, 1 2
,
. 5%
.
5%
.

,
.

all Backup Additive pumps.


5.11.2

Additive auger testing

Weigh all the breakers available on location for


Pre-Frac inventory A weigh scale is the only acceptable
method of measurement.

All the additive augers (including Standby) must


be calibrated.
Errors in the readings taken from additive augers
occur when operation is performed at low
concentrations. Auger size can be one of the reasons of
such errors. If an auger is too big in diameter, it
complicates its efficient performance at low rmp. In this
case the Service Company must replace augers in
compliance with minimal values of designed breaker
loading (concentration).
When work is in progress, it is prohibited to add
dry additives manually. All the dry additives must be
added through the auger feeder, with the loading
concentrations being monitored by means of the blender
computer control.
Fill the Dry additive hopper with a known weight
of dry additive so the exposed auger is completely
covered. Make sure there is enough for the test so you
do not continuously have to refill the hopper.

Set the pump rate (Usually Designed Frac Pump


Rate). Set the Dry additive auger concentrations at the
lowest concentration designed for the Frac Treatment
and insure the computer has been set on automatic.
If you are going to simulate dry additives
pumping into the blender tub, insure that you have a
bucket to collect all the breaker so as to avoid
contaminating the Frac Tank with breaker.
Start the Dry Additive Auger. Do not touch
pump controls! This is an automatic test and the Dry
additives must be set into the Automatic Mode so the
computer is controlling the rate. All Dry Additives must
be entered into the onboard computer as Concentration
(kgs/m3) and Not rate (kgs/min).
With a stopwatch, record a 1 or 2 minute test
then weigh the amount of breaker receives on a weigh
scale. If test is <5% error, proceed with the Frac
Treatment. If the test >5% error, repair or recalibrate the
dry additive auger and retest.

Perform the same test procedure for all dry


additive augers including backup augers.

/
5.12 Blender Flow Meter Test
Blender Flow Meter Test

It is allowed to test flow meters at the blender


- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

5.12

42


.

. ,

5%, ,

5%. ,
.
2 ,
, 10 3.
:
1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.


.

.
.

(
).
5%. ,
1 3/,
0.9 1.1.
.

, ,

.

, ,
13/ 10 .
.


5%


,
5%.

5% ,
,

5%. .. ,
13/,
0.95 1.05 3/,
.

, 5%,
.

5%,
, -50

+/- 20% .

5%.
.
5.13

suction and discharge during the displacement stage.


Under no circumstances will a propped Frac be pumped
before the flow meters are validated. Not only must the
ending totals be within 5%, but the pump rate during the
test cannot fluctuate more than 5%. Therefore, this test
must be recorded on the chart. This test requires 2 tanks,
with one capable of receiving no less than 10m3 of fluid.

Test procedure:
1.

Strap and record both tank volumes.

2.

Read and record all of the Clean Fluid and Slurry


Flow meter totalizers. Set the totalizers to null
(zero) prior to starting the test.
Prepare to record data for each flow meter and print
out in chart form (rate vs. time). Set the chart scales
so that 5% error is easily recognizable. E.g., if the
rate is 1 m3/min, set the scale at 0.9 to 1.1.

3.

4.
5.

Use only the suction pump.


Set the valves on the blender to isolate the tub so the
rates are not affected by tub level.

6.

Conduct test at the designed Frac rate, Test at a


minimum rate of 1 m3/min for 10 minutes if Frac
rate cannot be achieved.
Strap both tanks.

7.

Flow meter totalizers must be within 5% of the


actual volume pumped and must not show erratic rates
during the test of more than 5% from target rate.

I.e., even if the flowmeter totalizer reads within


5% of the strapped volume, the flowmeter will fail the
test if the chart indicates the rate consistently fluctuates
> +/- 5%. E.g., if the desired rate is 1.0 m3/min and the
rate is not generally maintained within a range of 0.95 to
1.05 m3/min, a retest is required.

If the error factor is not within acceptable limits,


beyond 5%, rectify the problem and retest.
If error is > 5% , job may continue but only if
Fann 50 tests have been run confirming the fluid will
still be OK if additive volumes are +/- 20%.
Job cannot progress if error is > 5%. Postpone
frac until the problem is resolved.


5.13 Blender/Hydration Unit Additive Cycling

/
Test
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

43

Blender/Hydration Unit Additive Cycling


Test

,
,

.



.
(. 3 3/)

,

.

.

,
10 .

10
.,



.

, 1,5 3/ 3
3/.
.

,

.

Once the bucket tests (Liquid & Dry) and flow


meter tests have been performed, calibrated and
accepted by the TNK-BP representative, perform a cycle
test with the blender or hydration unit.
Set all of the Liquid Additive pumps and Dry
Additive auger units at the same concentrations as when
the Bucket Tests were being performed. While
circulating the Frac Tanks at the designed Frac
Treatment rate (i.e. 3 m3/min) and all the Liquid
Additive and Dry Additive concentrations are set as per
the Frac Treatment designed concentrations, lower the
rate of the blender or hydration unit down to a rate +/half of the designed Frac treatment rate. Measure the
response time that it takes for the Liquid and Dry
additive systems to stabilize themselves. An acceptable
response time for the Liquid and Dry Additive systems
to stabilize and the correct concentration is 10 seconds.
If the response time is >15 seconds, the control modules
(hydraulic or electronic) need to be corrected and the
test performed again.

Perform the same test in reverse by taking a rate


of 1.5m3/min and increase it to 3 m3/min. All of the
same test requirements as listed above will apply.
Different rates and additive concentrations will
change from job to job so the above listed rates are only
used as examples.

5.14 Densometer Requirements /Validation.


.
Proppant Metering.

/
Densometer
Requirements / Validation. Proppant
Metering

All Frac Treatments require a Radio-Active


, Densiometer in the Low Pressure and/or High Pressure
Slurry pump line. The RA Densiometer must have the
/ . ability to deliver density readout and the ability to be
charted and recorded by the Data Recording system.

.

Provide documentation from the prior Frac
,
treatment so that the densometer or proppant screw can
5- be verified that it was ~5% error.
.

The previous job chart/graph will be acceptable
, as long it was the same equipment being used.
Densiometer, Calculated Density (Clean vs. Slurry) and
. Auger readings must be listed on this graph for

,
verification.
( /)
.

A rough check on the densiometer is possible if
,
proppant is pulled out of a multiple compartment
, proppant storage truck/unit, one compartment at a time,
, , , during the operation, during mini-frac, immediately after
, , a compartment (or bag) is emptied, after mini-frac, the
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0
5.14

44

/
.


/ Hydration Unit QAQC
Requirements


( )
,

.
,
.

.

.

,
,

:
,
.
,
.
,
.
5.15



.



.
2/3 9095%.






.
,
.

.
/
Work Conditions Required for Fracture
Treatments


.

,
.
5.16

frac engineer / supervisor must compare the weight with


the readings dispayed on the proppant meter.
5.15

Hydration Unit QAQC Requirements

On the Fly mixing has many practical benefits


to Fracturing Techniques in todays market. There can
be considerable time savings on Frac Location with the
added benefits of costs savings.
With the benefits of On The Fly mixing also
come the problems associated with it as well. The
biggest problems encountered are associated with a lack
of High Quality accurate QAQC procedures that are
applied and enforced in the field. Poor QAQC
procedures will lead to poor quality Frac Treatments
with On The Fly mixing.
TNK-BP will require the following pieces of
equipment in place prior to any Service Company
utilizing an On The Fly mixing technique and fluid
system:
Real time Electronic Viscometer.
Real Time pH meter.
Real Time Temperature meter.

All the instrumentation stated above must have a


digital display and possibility for the parameters to be
displayed and recorded by the data van on location.
Prior to an On The Fly fluid system being
pumped on any Frac Location, residence time will have
to be closely checked and documented. Base gel must be
90-95% hydrated to the Frac Designed gel loading
concentration by the time the fluid reached 2/3 of the
tubing volume.
If the service company is using Oil Based Slurry
gallant for their base polymer, a detailed graph (showing
the relationship between Sp.Gr of the Slurry Gellant and
the concentration required to meet the designed gel
loading) must be supplied on every Frac Location.
Failure to produce this document on a Frac Location will
result in the delay of the Frac Treatment until that
document is supplied. Specific Gravity tests of Slurry
gel will be required as standard QAQC procedure prior
to every Frac Treatment when used.

5.16

Work Conditions Required for Fracture


Treatments

Pumping proppant Fracs after Dark may be


allowed only upon mutual agreement between TNK-BP
and the Service Company. In this case adequate lighting
must be provided by the Service Company to ensure
safety of operations.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

45


:
-75 .,
50,
25,
10 .
,

32 ( ).
,
32,

.

Lighting on the frac site must be as follows:


Wellhead 75 lux
High pressure treating iron 50 lux
Low pressure lines 25 lux
Walkways no less than 10 lux.
No Frac / Stimulation / Pumping operations shall
begin when the Ambient (outside temperature not
including wind chill) temperature is below -32 Celsius.
If operations were ongoing prior to the temperature
falling below -32 Celsius, it will be at the sole
discretion of the TNK-BP representative whether the ongoing operations will be continued or stopped.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

46

/
FRACTURING PROCESS CONTROL
6.1 / Communication




.
,
.

.

.

.
-

.

(

),
,
.

,
.
6.2 / Frac Van
Recording & Monitor Setup

( 2).

FRACTURING PROCESS CONTROL


6.1 Communication

The number one priority is communication


between the Service Company Engineer and the TNKBP representative responsible for fracture treatments.
Others may have to leave the data van if required. Limit
the amount of personnel inside the Data Van to only
those who are directly involved in the Fracturing
Treatment.

Job will not commence without verbal approval


from the TNK-BP representative responsible for fracture
treatments.
Service Engineer must advise TNK-BP
representative in charge of fracture treatments at once if
any problems arise during the job.
If requested, the Service Company is required to
provide a portable radio and headset on the same
frequency as the Frac Team, to the TNK-BP
representative responsible for fracture treatments.
Injection test is conducted if necessary, upon
agreement with the Customers representative.

6.2 Frac Van Recording & Monitor Setup


The Data Van must be equipped with all the
necessary means for displaying/recording all of the
required parameters (see Attachment #2 hereto).

Provide real time monitoring (plotting and


( ): 2 recording) of 2 Surface Treating Pressures, 1 Annulus
, 1 , 2 Pressure, 2 Slurry Rates, 2 Clean fluid rates, all liquid
, 2 and dry additive rates and proppant density, including
, totalizers.
,
.

A minimum of 2 Proppant Concentrations and
2- Totalizers must be displayed and recorded, coming from
: 1- ; 2 2 different sources: 1- from densometer, 2 design rate
( /). (clean fluid vs. slurry). Establishing the proppant
concentration as per the number of proppant auger
! rotations is not a correct method of measuring the

density! Also, Planned Proppant Concentration line


, should be displayed in real time.
.

The Data Van operator must ensure that the


monitor display shows concentration of additives and
, .
not rates.

Scale each additive concentration so that a +/, +/- 5% variance would be easily detectable. (E.g., if the
5%. (, 2 desired additive concentration is 2 L/m3, scale the chart
/3, 0 5 /3, , from 0 to 5 L/m3 so that the range from 1.9 to 2.1 L/m3 is
1.9 2.1 /3).
easily discernible).

Conduct and record additive mass balance for
each of the fluid systems on the Service Company Mass
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

47

-.
/ Flow
Meter Monitoring
,


.

3 5
90-92%
,
. ,
, 10-

.


.
,
,


.

,
.
,

.
6.3

6.4 / Fluid samples




, ,
,


9.6.

.
.
,
.

.

,

.
2 .


50, pH
, ..
.
6.5 / Proppant Samples

Balance Spreadsheet.
6.3 Flow Meter Monitoring
Insure that the high pressure pumper operators
are following the Magnetic Slurry Flow meter rate as
their primary rate indicator.
As proppant concentrations increase during the
Frac, the mechanical pumping ability of a triplex or
Quinteplex pump reduces to 90-92% efficiency
depending on proppant concentrations. If the pumper
operators are following a Stroke Counter as their
pump rate indicator, ~10% rate reduction may have a
detrimental outcome of the Frac treatment.
Schedule the timing of the straps in such a
manner that a sufficient volume of the additive has been
pumped to have confidence the measurement is accurate
and a decision can be made from it.
At least 1 strap should be performed during the
pad prior to starting prop to ensure all additives are in
compliance and a shutdown, if necessary, can occur
before starting proppant.
If the additive rate exceeds the acceptable margin
of error as determined by Fann 50 sensitivity tests,
confirm the meter readings with another strap
immediately. If the strap verifies the error, correct the
flow rate by adjusting the additive concentration by the
percentage indicated.
6.4

Fluid samples

It is a must that fluid samples are taken at each


stage to check pH, temperature, cross-linking time,
proppant settlement speed, all the stated parameters
should be recorded in the Frac QAQC Form, Version
9.6.
All the samples must be split and labeled. The
samples must be shown to the TNK-BP representative.
Put one sample from each stage into the water bath at
BHT. Check hourly and record time at which sample is
partially and then fully broken.

Sample catchers must be a double valve


assembly located in a communized slurry flow area for
accurate sample taking. There must be 2 independent
and separate sampling points on a Frac Treatment.
Additive loading concentrations are not to be
changed during the Frac unless Fann-50 laboratory tests,
temperature and pH checks confirm the need,
i.e.,Visual Inspection alone is not sufficient.

6.5 Proppant Samples

56,
Per API RP 56, for each proppant type, catch one
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

48



.
.

.

(1) sample midway thru each bin/sand truck and record


sieve results from field lab test sieves. Save the samples
for one month for future reference. Resolve any
proppant quality problems prior to the next job.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

49

/ CONTINGENCY PLAN

CONTINGENCY PLAN


.
,
.
,

. , -
,
:

The best opportunity to pump a good frac is the


first time. Once proppant is placed into the formation, a
successful re-frac is significantly more difficult.
Therefore, pre-planning for unexpected events is a
prudent action. Events that merit aborting the job are:


.

(, , )
5%.

.
.

Loss of or significant error in the fluid or


additive flowmeters/pumps.

7.1
/ Aborting During a Job

Critical additive (cross-linker, breaker,


activator, cross-linker, spacer fluids) rates are
off by >5%.
Loss of or significant reduction in Frac pumps
rate.
Loss of proppant feed without any evident
reasons.
Loss of automated addition control of
additives.
7.1 Aborting a Job During the:


,
.

Pad the frac is not jeopardized if the job is


shut down during the pad.



,
,

1.5
,
,

Early proppant stages If a problem develops


during the early stages of proppant that might
jeopardize completing the job, over flush the
proppant well away from the wellbore by at
least 1.5 Linear Gel tubing volume to move the
proppant to the tip of the frac. Ideally, this
should allow a second first attempt at a frac.

, ,
,
,
.
,

Late proppant stages There is of course, a


point of no return where at some point in the
job, it is probably best to live with what
youve got if a problem arises. This is purely
an economic decision that the TNK-BP
representative should make jointly with the
Service Companys Frac Engineer.

Specific contingency plans should be developed


with the Service Companys involvement to better
define the specifics of where or when to abort a job
during the above stages. One overall plan is

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

50

.

.
.

recommended for all of the work conducted in that field


if the fluid types are the same. A second plan should be
generated if there is more than one fluid type.

7.2
/ Pad
Replacement during a Shutdown in a Pad

7.2 Pad Replacement during a Shutdown in a


Pad



.


.

,

.

Another contingency plan that must be developed


is pad replacement due to a shutdown during the pad.

7.3 / Pump Rate


Problems
:
:
-
,
, ,
( ,


).
.

.
-

.
a)

b) :
-
,
.
- ,


.
-
,
, ,
,

.
-

.

Based on the minifrac efficiency, the Service


Company engineer should be able to calculate the
leakoff rate during the pad.
Simply multiply the total shut-in time by the
leakoff rate, add this volume to the remaining pad and
restart the job.

7.3 Pump Rate Problems


If unable to achieve the planned rate:
a)

During the Pad:


Because the treating pressure is too high:
shut down using a Step Down test, record ISIP and
determine if the problem is underestimated Frac gradient,
excess perforation friction, near well bore tortuosity, or
excessive fluid friction. Consult Service Company
engineers for resolution. Consider redesigning job at
lower treatment rate.

- Due to equipment failure: shut down, remedy


the problem and start the job over.

b) During the Proppant Stages:


- If enough fluid and additives are available, extend the
stages proportionally to actual versus desired rate.
- If possible, re-run Frac simulator to alter proppant
schedule as necessary to achieve desired Frac geometry.

- Should there be any risk of premature screenout, if frac


design goals have to be achieved, for example, tail-in
stage of pumpimg polymer-coated proppant, then it is
recommended to stop pumping ceramic proppant and get
down to pumping polymer-coated proppant earlier than
it was planned according to frac design.

- Check the line from the sand truck silo to the augers or
blender intake for any blockage of the passageway with
frozen proppant.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

51


/ FINISHING WORK
AFTER FRACTURE TREATMENT


.
, .

.
, .
.
5%,

.

:

3.

.

.


.
,
.

/
,

,
,

.

9.6.
.

/ .
8

FINISHING WORK
TREATMENT

AFTER

FRACTURE

Conduct mass balance calculations for all


materials. Record on Service Company mass balance
form. Report results to TNK-BP Frac/Well site
Supervisor within an hour after pumping is stopped.
Compare the actual volumes of fluid, additives, and
proppant to their respective totalizers and planned
volumes. Any variance outside 5% should be resolved
before pumping the next stage or treatment.

Verify the accuracy of the proppant totalizers:


subtract the clean fluid volume from the slurry volume
to obtain m3 of proppant. To calculate tonnes of proppant
pumped, multiply the m3 of proppant times the specific
gravity of the proppant. Compare this calculated
volume to the actual weight of remaining proppant and
proppant totalizer readings.
Make sure you weigh back the proppant
remaining in the Sand Truck on location before
departing location. A Portable Weigh Scale is to be
used for this task and not a visual estimation.
TNK-BP and Service Company representative
should discuss any additive volumes/rates outside design
range and agree on corrective action to bring these
problems into compliance before next Frac.

Complete the TNK-BP QA/QC Form Version


9.6. The completed form must be included into the Final
Treatment Report.
For future reference add key treatment data into a
database for the field/reservoir and well interventions
performed there.
In the case of a screen out, collect and visually
inspect a sample of the fluid from near the wellhead.
Forward all the samples of cross-linked gel to Service
Company lab for tests and establish control over their
testing.
If a Frac Audit had been initiated by TNK-BP on
that particular treatment, the service company is required
to rectify all of the problems that were listed in the audit
conclusion and respond in writing within 3 days from
receiving the audit conclusion. If the Service company
cannot rectify the listed problems within the agreed time
frames (prior to the next Frac Treatment), written
approval to perform the next Frac Treatment will be
required from the representatives of a respective Target
Subsidiary and/or the Upstream OJSC TNK-BP
Management.



.

.

,

,
,
,
3
.

(
)

/ -
.

Any volumes or rates non-compliant with the
, frac design, if such are observed during the job or from
, the end-of-job mass balance calculations must be
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

52

,


,
.

coordinated with the TNK-BP representative before


moving the frac equipment from location, duly
addressed to and corrected before the equipment is used
on the next job.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

53


/ HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
WITH
NITROGEN
GENERAL
REQUIREMENTS
,


,
,
.
,
,
,
,

.

25
.




.

.


!


.


.

.

()
.

4
.

,
.

.

.
9

9.

HYDRAULIC
FRACTURING
WITH
NITROGEN - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Since N2 is a gas being pumped at high pressure


on surface, it brings with it a whole new set of safety
concerns not seen to the same extent as with pumping
water or hydrocarbons.
All
safety
requirements,
equipment
specifications, data recording specifications and well site
rig-up procedures listed throughout this Standard will
apply when pumping N2 on a TNK-BP well site.

Nitrogen equipment must be positioned at least


25 meters from the Wellhead and other equipment.
Prior to pumping the Service Company Job
Superintendent must define the swing arc (hazardous
radius) to prevent possible accidents in case of loss of
integrity in the wellhead or high pressure treating iron.
During the fracture treatment the personnel must stay
outside the hazardous swing arc zone.
It is prohibited to use open-flame type heating
N2 pump units on TNK-BP hazardous facilities.
Wind Indicator devices (Wind Socks) must be
used at all times when mixing N2 with any fluid.
All nitrogen tanks and connections from the
transfer pump or boost pump must have a pressure relief
valve installed. Pressure relief valves must be open at all
times and must not have locking assemblies (stop-valve
stations) on the line.
There must be a Burst Type Disk installed on
all Liquid N2 Tanks on a TNK-BP location. The Burst
Disk must get activated if the pressure rises higher than
4 atm when bleeding-off the N2 Tank.

All nitrogen tanks must be equipped with


pressure Gauges, with their readings displayed on the
control panel.
The check valve that is used in an N2 Line must
be aDart Type check valve. Flapper type check valves
are not allowed for use in an N2 HP Line.

,
TNK-BP requires that all N2 Gas or nitrified

Fluid High Pressure Lines are to be secured with the


SPM Restraint system or another equally effective
SPM restraining system. All restraining systems are to be
. approved by the Upstream OJSC TNK-BP
Management prior to their use.

.

N2 Surface temperature while being pumped
15C 35C, must be within 15 C - 35 C unless specified more
.
exactly by TNK-BP Representative.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

54

,

,
.

.
/

- .

N2 Pump Rate, Temperature and Pressure must


be recorded at all times when pumping as a stand-alone
unit or in conjunction with other units. Data must be
recorded electronically with the ability of giving that
data to TNK-BP.

Specific Flow Meter devices will require


approval from the Upstream OJSC TNK-BP
Management.

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

55

1a



(50 )
( ).


(/)

(psi/)

10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

2000 / 13,79
4000 / 27,58
6000 / 41,37
8000 / 55,16
10000 / 68,95
12000 / 82,74
14000 / 96,53

60418
33520
13535
5247
3200
1772

36795
25086
13627
6235
3822
1998
677

17533
13534
10255
6099
3701
2189
1050

8960
6015
4332
3185
2195
1610
721

9.8 /, 2% KCl
, 125 .

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

56


API RP-61.
-
,
. ,
- 54630.

(psi/)
5000 / 34,47
7500 / 51,71
10000 / 68,95
12500 / 86,18
15000 / 103,4


(% )
10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 -16/30

20/40

8,0
18,0
24,5
31,0
44,0

2,0
8,0
19,5
28,3
35,0

0,7
5,0
10,2
15,9
24,1

0,3
1,2
3,5
6,5
13,4

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

57

Attachment # 1a to TNK-BP STANDARD


Quality Assurance / Quality Control
for Hydraulic Fracturing
Proppant Specifications Intermediate Strength Proppant (ISP)

Long-term (50 hrs.) Baseline Conductivity Testing (ISP Proppant)

Proppant Pack Conductivity


(mD/ft.)

Fracture
Closure
Stress
(psi/MPa)

10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

2000 / 13,79
4000 / 27,58
6000 / 41,37
8000 / 55,16
10000 / 68,95
12000 / 82,74
14000 / 96,53

60418
33520
13535
5247
3200
1772
no data

36795
25086
13627
6235
3822
1998
677

17533
13534
10255
6099
3701
2189
1050

8960
6015
4332
3185
2195
1610
721

TNK BP Requirements to Proppant at 9.8 kg/m2, 2% KCl between Ohio


Sandstone, 125 C
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

58

Reference conductivity and permeability are measured with a single-phase fluid


under laminar flow conditions in accordance with API RP-61. In an actual fracture,
the effective conductivity will be much lower due to non-Darcy and multiphase
flow effects. For more information, please refer to SPE Paper #54630.
Crush Test Requirements ISP Proppant
Proppant Crush Test
(% fines)

Test Pressure
(psi/MPa)
5000 / 34,47
7500 / 51,71
10000 / 68,95
12500 / 86,18
15000 / 103,4

10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 -16/30

20/40

8,0
18,0
24,5
31,0
44,0

2,0
8,0
19,5
28,3
35,0

0,7
5,0
10,2
15,9
24,1

0,3
1,2
3,5
6,5
13,4

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

59

1b



(50 )
( )

(psi/)
2000 / 13,79
4000 / 27,58
6000 / 41,37
8000 / 55,16
10000 / 68,95
12000 / 82,74
14000 / 96,53


()
10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

35708
21091
8442
3775
1613
200
90

18270
12795
6445
2806
1198
225
154

8352
6538
4055
2324
1241
60
38

9.8 / (2 /), 2%
KCl , 125 (250F).

API RP-61.
-
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

60

,
. ,
- 54630.

(psi/)
5000 / 34,47
7500 / 51,71
10000 / 68,95
12500 / 86,18
15000 / 103,4


(% )
10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

8,0
22,0
38,0
48,0

3,0
19,8
35,0
43,0
49,0

2,0
13,0
21,0
33,0
39,0

1,0
6,0
12,0
24,0
31,0

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

61

Attachment # 1b to TNK-BP STANDARD


Quality Assurance / Quality Control
for Hydraulic Fracturing
LWP Proppant Specifications LWP: Light Weight Proppant
Long-term (50 hrs) Baseline Conductivity Testing (LWP Proppant)

Fracture
Closure Stress
(psi/MP)
2000 / 13,79
4000 / 27,58
6000 / 41,37
8000 / 55,16
10000 / 68,95
12000 / 82,74
14000 / 96,53

Proppant Pack Conductivity


(mD/ft)
10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data
no data

35708
21091
8442
3775
1613
200
90

18270
12795
6445
2806
1198
225
154

8352
6538
4055
2324
1241
60
38

TNK BP Requirements to Proppant at 9.8 kg/m2, 2% KCl between Ohio


Sandstone, 125 C
Reference conductivity and permeability are measured with a single-phase fluid
under laminar flow conditions in accordance with API RP-61. In an actual fracture,
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

62

the effective conductivity will be much lower due to non-Darcy and multiphase
flow effects. For more information, please refer to SPE Paper #54630.
Crush Test Requirements Light Weight Proppant

Proppant Crush Test


(% Fines)

Test Pressure
(psi/MP)
5000 / 34,47
7500 / 51,71
10000 / 68,95
12500 / 86,18
15000 / 103,4

10/14

12/18 - 12/20

16/20 - 16/30

20/40

8,0
22,0
38,0
48,0
no data

3,0
19,8
35,0
43,0
49,0

2,0
13,0
21,0
33,0
39,0

1,0
6,0
12,0
24,0
31,0

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

63

2


, .

,
.
,

Myers StimPlan.
I.


1. .
2. I .
3. II 2 .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8.
.

II.

& .
9. I .
10. II 2
.
11. III, ( )
- .
12. I.
13. II.
14. III.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

64

III.

& .

15. I - .
16. II - 2
. 2 -

.
17. I.
18. II.
IV.

& .

19. I, /3 !
20. II, /3

.
21. I, .
22. II,
.
23. , /3
.
.
V.

& .
24. I, Micromotion /3.
25. I, /3.
26. II, Micromotion /3.
27. II, /3.
28. I, Micromotion - .
29. I, - .
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

65

30. II, Micromotion - .


31. II, - .
32. I - /3.
33. II - /3.
34.C I - .
35.C II - .
36. .
37. .
38. .

- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

66

Attachment # 2 to TNK-BP STANDARD


Quality Assurance / Quality Control
for Hydraulic Fracturing

Recording Parameters registered by the Frac CC (Data Van)


Following is the List of Obligatory Recording Parameters for Service Companies
performing Frac Jobs on TNK-BP Locations.
TNK-BP requires that the data recording system has the ability to send real time
data to external PCs that utilize Myers and StimPlan modeling programs.
I.

Pressure and Time Section


1. Acquired Time Time String and Date.
2. Treating Pressure I Main Line Pressure Sensor
3. Treating Pressure II the 2nd Pressure Sensor on the Main Line
4. Annulus Pressure Annulus Pressure Sensor
5. Real-Time Friction Pressure Calculated Value
6. Real-Time Bottomhole Pressure - Calculated Value
7. Real-Time Net Pressure - Calculated Value
8. Real-Time Hydrostatic Pressure Calculated Value

II.

Slurry Rate & Totals Section


9. Slurry Rate I magnetic flow meter
10. Slurry Rate II the 2nd magnetic flow meter or turbine flow meter
11. Slurry Rate III Tachometer Combined Rate (All Pumps together) Drive
Shaft
12. Slurry Total from Discharge Rate I
13. Slurry Total from Discharge Rate II
14. Slurry Total from Discharge Rate III

III.

Clean Fluid Rate & Totals Section


15. Clean Fluid Rate I Magnetic Flow Meter
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

67

16.Clean Fluid Rate II 2nd Magnetic or Turbine Flow Meter. If there is no


2nd Flow Meter, Back-Calculate Clean Fluid Rate based on magnetic flow
meter slurry readings minus proppant volume and amount of additives
17. Clean Fluid Total Rate I.
18. Clean Fluid Total Rate II.
IV.

Proppant Concentration & Totals Section


19. Proppant Concentration I, kg/m3 Densitometer Only!
20. Calculated Proppant Concentration II, kg/m3 calculation of proppant
concentration derived from Clean Fluid Rate vs. Slurry Flow Meter
readings
21. Proppant Total I, kg Densitometer Total
22. Proppant Total II, kg Calculated Proppant Concentration Total
23. Planned Proppant Concentration, kg/m3 stage proppant concentration
plan. It is necessary in order to create a Chart with the Planned Proppant
Concentration

V.

Additives Concentration & Totals Section


24. Liquid Additive Pump I Concentration, Micromotion Flowmeter L/m3
25. Liquid Additive Pump I Concentration, Turbine Flowmeter L/m3
26. Liquid Additive Pump II Concentration, Micromotion Flowmeter L/m3
27. Liquid Additive Pump I Concentration, Turbine Flowmeter L/m3
28. Liquid Additive Pump I Total, Micromotion Flowmeter Lts
29. Liquid Additive Pump I Total, Turbine Flowmeter Lts
30. Liquid Additive Pump II Total, Micromotion Flowmeter Lts
31. Liquid Additive Pump II Total, Turbine Flowmeter Lts
32. Dry Additive Auger I Concentration kg / m3
33. Dry Additive Auger II Concentration kg / m3
34. Dry Additive Auger I Total kg
35. Dry Additive Auger II Total kg
36. Blender Discharge Pressure
37. Blender Hydraulic Pressure
38. Slurry Specific Gravity.
- / TNK-BP STANDARD
/ QAQC for Hydraulic Fracturing
12.0 / Version 12.0

68