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:

LTE

: 6M071900 ,
: . .

: -12-01

: , . .

2014
6



LTE, ,
LTE.

LTE CDMA,
, ,
.

,
LTE CDMA.

, LTE
,
.
, CDMA ,
LTE ,

.

.

,
CDMA LTE



.
- IMT2000-MC,
CDMA2000, IMT2000-MC, UMTS [3, 4],
GSM,
(
, ,
.), .

(4G),
- (, ,
)
.
,
, Long Term Evolution,
, , LTE-. ,
, , LTE-.
2009 . - TeliaSonera
Ericsson

LTE- 80 /.
( 2013 .) 145
LTE, 381
,
.
LTE, ,
, 2010 ., Kcell,
LTE WiMax,
.
,
2,52,7
WiMAX. , , LTE
2012 . .
:
,

. LTE
,
, .

8

.
.
,
, .
LTE
.
,
,
LTE.
:
-
.
. 2G 3G
,
. ,

,
4 :

2G;
,
;

.
- LTE
CDMA, ,
, .
:
LTE ;
,
LTE;
;
GSM
LTE;
LTE
.
:
, LTE
CDMA.
:
SINR
3 1;
9


LTE CDMA.
.
, :

,


;

,
;

,
,
;

10

1 LTE
LTE
. LTE
2- 3- ,
(
, , .)
;
,
[2, 5].
LTE
.

()

;

. , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
;
/
;

;
,
;

.
1.1 LTE
LTE ,
(,
seamless) ,
.
:
()
(). LTE
, LTE-
()
.
11

,
.
,
(
), LTE ,

: (),
B (Node-B, eNB)
(MME, Mobility Management Entity), , ,
(GW, Gateway), . .
MME/GW.
, ,
,
( ),
- , ,
. .
-
, IP-,
, . 12
,
,
.
(), ,
,
, ,
.
:
(S-GW, Serving Gateway) (P-GW, Packet Data
Network Gateway), , , ().
,
, .
,
IP-, , ,
, ,
.
,
LTE :

. ,
(domain),
(stratum).

(UED, User
12

Equipment Domain) (ID, Infrastructure


Domain). , , () (EUTRAN, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network)
() () (EPC, Evolved Packet Core).
-
,
LTE-.
() , ,
, , ,
/
.
1.1 LTE,
: (AS,
Access Stratum) (NAS, Non-Access Stratum).
1.1
.

1.1 LTE
UE
UTRAN Uu-;
EPC - S1-.
, Uu
S1, :
(UP, User Plane) (CP, Control Plane).

(EMM, EPC Mobility Management).
,
. ,
.
,
() ,
. :
(RNL, Radio Network Layer) (TNL,
Transport Network Layer).
X2- ( 1.2).
,
(S1-MM-)
(S1-U-)- 1.2 .
13

, , S1-
/.,
LTE,
,
. LTE .
:
,
-
(scheduling) .
IP-,
;


;

.
,
;

.
;
1.2
, ():
(PHY) ;
() MAC (Medium Access
Control);
() RLC (Radio Link Control);
(.) ()
PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol);
() RRC (Radio Resource
Control);
, (NAS);
(PHY) ;
() MAC (Medium Access
Control).

1.2

14


( NAS) ;
, :
,
.
, , 1 (L1, Layer 1)
.
:

;

;
.

;
/ ;
;

;
(
MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output);
;
.
1.3 ,
2 (L2, Layer 2) ;
, MAC-
,
. MAC .
(HARQ, Hybrid Automatic
Repeat Request)
( ARQ), ,
, (
). HARQ
.

1.3 a)
15

1.3 )
,
S1-MM, TCP SCTP .
S1-AP X2-AP.

QoS.
,
.
LTE (, UMTS)
(end-to-end bearer) :
, , ,
- -. -
: (radio bearer),
(external bearer) . , ,
,
( 1.4); LTE-
EPS- (EPS bearer, EPS - Evolved Packet System,
). IP-, , ,
IP- (VoIP),
EPS-, , ,
. IP- ( IP, ),
,
EPS-
.

1.4
,
( ) (
16

) . 1.5
,
.

1.5 ,

,
, : ,
, ,
.
:
PCCH (Paging Control Channel),
()
;
BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel),
;
CCCH (Common Control Channel),
,
RRC- (RRC-);
DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel),
,
RRC-;
MCCH (Multicast Control Channel),
( )
;
, :
DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Chanel),

;

MTCH
(Multicast
Traffic
Chanel), .

:
- , - .
PCCH
PCH (Paging Channel),
( ) .
BCCH
BCH (Broadcast Channel),
17

DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel). BCH


,
. DLSCH ,
, ,
. MCCH MTCH
MCH (Multicast Channel),
DL-SCH. MCH
.
CCCH, DCCH DTCH
DL-SCH.,
. , ,
.
BCH
PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel),
40 , .
PCH DLSCH
PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel). MCH
PMCH (Physical
Multicast Channel). :
PCFICH (Physical Control Format
Indicator Channel), PDCCH
(Physical Downlink Control Channel)
PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel)
, . . .
PDCCH PCFICH
PCH DLSCH,
. PHICH, ,
.

1.6 ,

,
, : ,
, ,
.
:

18

PCCH (Paging Control Channel),


()
;
BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel),
;
CCCH (Common Control Channel),
,
RRC- (RRC-);
DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel),
,
RRC-;
MCCH (Multicast Control Channel),
( )
;
, :
DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Chanel),

;

MTCH
(Multicast
Traffic
Chanel), .

:
- , - .
PCCH
PCH (Paging Channel),
( ) .
BCCH
BCH (Broadcast Channel),
DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel). BCH
,
. DLSCH ,
, ,
. MCCH MTCH
MCH (Multicast Channel),
DL-SCH. MCH
.
CCCH, DCCH DTCH
DL-SCH.,
. , ,
. BCH
PBCH (Physical Broadcast
Channel), 40 ,
19

. PCH DLSCH
PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared
Channel). MCH
PMCH (Physical Multicast Channel).
:
PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel),
PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel)
PHICH (Physical Hybrid
ARQ Indicator Channel) , . .
. PDCCH PCFICH
PCH
DLSCH, . PHICH,
,
.

1.7
RRC-,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
.
.

RRC-

, ,
, ()
, .
,
, .
,
, ,
, . RRC, RRC-
. RACH
PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel),
.
UL-SCH
PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel).

20

PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel)


- .

1.8
,
, LTE,
,
(. . ).

, VoIP. ,
- (. .
)
. ,
() ,
, , .

X2, .
,
;
( , .)

, .
, ,
( ,
TS 36.413). ,
- ,
LTE- .
, , GSM,
-
, LTE , , ,
. 1.11
, 1
2.

1 2 : -
21

, -
. ,
.
,

C-RNTI.

,
,
, .
, TPC (Transmit Power Control)
PUSCH PUCH
TPC-PUSCH TPC-PUCH.
GUMMEI
(Globally Unique MME Identity),

.
LTE
ECGI (E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifier),
(. .
) CI (Cell Identity).

.

1.9
, ,
(TA, Tracking Area) ,
( 1.12).
TAI
(Tracking Area Identity).
,
,
.
1.2 LTE
,


22


.
(QoS, Quality of Service)
E.800
(
),
,
.
-
,

.

.
,
, 2007 .,
Rel97/98, GSM/GPRS
.
PDP- (PDP, Packet Data Protocol),
,

. ,

IP- ,
PDP-.
, Rel97/98,
PDP- PDP-. ,
3- ,
PDP- , ,
PDP- PDP-,
. PDP-,
PDP ,
, PDP-, PDP
- . PDP
, APN
PDP .

PDP-. , ,
PDP-,
.
. PDP 1.10.

23

1.10 PDP-
, ,
, . ,
, 3- 4- ,
, ,
;
VoIP (Voice over IP) PoC (Push-to-talk over Cellular).
:
(web-browsing);
;
(MMS, Multimedia Messaging Service),
, ;
(streaming);
.

. ,
,
.
1.3 LTE

1,4 20
, . ,
,
fc:
f min= fc+BWch/2,
(1.1)
f min= fc - BWch/2

(1.2)

100 ,
; , ()
100 .

,
Ts=1/(150002048),
24

(1.3)


(radio frames)
Tf=307200 Ts=10,

(1.4)

, ,
- . : 1,
FDD 2,
TDD [4].
1 ( 1.11),
(), FDD-,
20 , 19-,

Tslot=15360Ts=0,5

(1.5)

,
, i- 2i 2i + 1.

1.11 1

: 10
10 - .
, FDD-,

.
,
.
2 .
( 1.11) (
), (hf - half-frame)
Thf=153600Ts=5,

(sf sub-frame)

Tsf=30720Ts=1,

25

(1.6)

(1.7)


, ,
, 2.1 S.

DwPTS (Downlink Pilot Time Slot)
UpPTS (Uplink Pilot Time slot), ,
GP (Guard Period).
,
.
1,4 20
,
.

1.12 2
1.4 MIMO LTE
MIMO LTE
.
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output
) ,
,

. MIMO ,
,

.
MIMO
, , .
MIMO :
.
,

.
MIMO
(22, 44) (12, 24) .
LTE :
E-UTRAN SAE (System Architecture Evolution).
26

E-UTRAN eNB.

. eNB S1
SAE, . eNB
LTE : ,


,
,
.

HSS

PCRF

IP-

SAE Anchor

-3GPP

3GPP
Anchor

MME/UPE
SGSN

2G

3G

E-UTRAN

1.13 SAE
SAE, EPC (Evolved Packet Core),
MME/UPE, UPE.
MME (Mobility Management Entity)

C-plane.
, MME (paging) eNB,
,
, ,
.
UPE (User Plane Entity)
U-plane.
27

UPE : IP, , .
SAE PS-
LTE, ,
IP- .
SAE IP ,

(UTRAN/GERAN), -3GPP (WiMAX, Wi-Fi),
, IP- (ADSL+, FTTH).
1.5 LTE UMTS/GSM 3GPP


, LTE
3GPP (UMTS/GSM/HSPA+).
LTE 3GPP
() ().
LTE 3GPP
S3, S4 S12.
MME
S-GW LTE SGSN 3G
GTP (GPRS Tunnelling Protool). GTP
( GTP-C)
( GTP-U).
S-GW
P-GW ( ) .
LTE 3GPP

(TDM),
IMS.
LTE 3GPP

MME MSC Sv
LTE (CS-);
MME SGSN S3
LTE (PS-).
LTE -3GPP

.
(cdma2000, WiMAX),
28

- IP- . LTE
-3GPP
P-GW, ePDG.
EPC IP
LTE
-3GPP IP-:
- HBM (Host
Based Mobility) MIPv4, DSMIPv6;
NBM (Network
Based Mobility) - PMIPv6.
IP-
IP-.
1.6 LTE
LTE E-UTRAN
: FDD TDD.
LTE
.
1,4 20
.
, 10 .
.
FDD 20 ,
19-, 0,5
. FDD
. FDD
.
TDD .
TDD
.
E-UTRAN
OFDMA .
OFDMA
, ,
OFDM-
,
. OFDM
, .
OFDM-
/N , N ;
.
29

,

.

1.14 OFDM
E-UTRAN :
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM. OFDM/QAM-
().
OFDM- LTE EUTRAN 1.14.

(). ,
4,7 16,7 .
E-UTRAN
:
PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel)
;
PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)
,
;
(Common Control Physical Channels)
, ;
(Broadcast Cannel) ;
(Paging Cannel) ();
DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel)
;
MCH ( Multicast Channel) - .
LTE E-UTRAN
SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access)
.
SC-FDMA 1.4.

1.15 SC-FDMA
30


E-UTRAN ,
.
,
180 ,
15 12 .

, 20 .
LTE E-UTRAN
:
PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel)
;
PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel)
;
1.7 , LTE
, LTE,
2G/3G.
,
IP. ,
LTE :
;
-;
;
;
1.8 LTE
3GPP ETSI
LTE 17
FDD 8 TDD,
1.1.
1.1 E-UTRA
,


(UL)


(DL)

1920 - 1980

2110 - 2170
31

FDD

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1850 1910
1710 1785
1710 1755
824 849
830 840
2500 2570
880 915
1749,9
1784,9
1710 1770
1427,9
1452,9
698 716
777 787
788 798

1930 1990
1805 1880
2110 2155
869 894
875 885
2620 2690
925 960
1844,9
1879,9
2110 2170

FDD
FDD
FDD
FDD
FDD
FDD
FDD

1475 1500,9

FDD

728 746
746 756
758 768

FDD
FDD
FDD

1.1
17
704 716
734 746
18
815 830
860 875
19
830 845
875 890
33
1900 1920
34
2010 2025
35
1850 1910
36
1930 1990
37
1910 1930
38
2570 2620
39
1880 1920
40
2300 2400

FDD
FDD

FDD
FDD
FDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD

, ,
LTE,
. ,
LTE-
. ,
LTE

.
2 LTE

32

2.1
(LTE) -
3G. LTE
(RAN),
, ,
, ,
, a
. , LTE
,
.
2.2
eNodeB - LTE. eNodeB
(RRM),
, , , a
UE. eNodeB
(E-UTRAN). 2.1
eNodeB .

2.1 eNodeB
:
eNodeB - E-UTRAN NodeB
EPC -
S-GW -
E-UTRAN -

MME -
UE -
2.3
BS, 2G 3G,
RAN
DBS3900 LTE
eNodeB

33

Huawei DBS3900 GSM, DBS3900 UMTS DBS3900


CDMA. LTE;
DBS3900 LTE 2G
3G, a LTE PS-
GERAN/UTRAN/CDMA2000. LTE
2G 3G;
DBS3900 LTE RAN.
RAN,
(CAPEX);
BBU3900 - DBS3900 LTE.
BBU3900 - ,
. , BBU3900
;
RRU - DBS3900 LTE. BBU3900 RRU
,
.
, ,
/, .
,
;
,
;
DBS3900 LTE , eNodeB,
3,600 (
RRC);
DBS3900 LTE .
,
,
(ICIC) , DBS3900 LTE
100 ;
DBS3900 LTE .
, 64QAM
, / (MIMO)
ICIC,
DBS3900 LTE 450 /,
- 300 /.
SON;
: DBS3900 LTE
, ,
,
EMS. ,
, ,
34

.
T

;
(ANR):
DBS3900 LTE
.
.
,
;

(PCI), :
PCI,
. .
,
.
2.4
DBS3900 LTE . DBS3900 LTE
: (BBU3900)
(RRU). BBU3900 RRU

(CPRI) .
DBS3900 LTE
BBU3900 RRU.
BBU3900 BBU3900 RRU.
DBS3900 LTE
(APM30H),
(BBC), a (TMC).
,
,
.
DBS3900 LTE, (OM), a
.

2.5

BBU3900 -
:
eNodeB MME S-GW a
;
35

CPRI RRU
;

DBS3900 LTE, (OM), a
;
OM
(LMT) iManager M2000;
2.6 BBU3900
BBU3900 19
2 U . ,
. 2.3 BBU3900.

2.2 BBU3900
BBU3900 :
LTE (LMPT);
LTE (LBBP);

(UPEU).
2.4 BBU3900.

2.3 BBU3900
DBS3900+APM30H :
BBU3900 APM30H
RRU3201 .

;
APM30H BBU3900
, a
48 DC BBU3900 RRU. , APM30H
, ;
36


BBC.
184 -, BBC, 2.5.
.
,
.
. RRU .

2.4 BBU+RRU+APM30H

2.5 BBU+RRU+APM30H+2 BBC


BBU+RRU+TMC - DBS3900 LTE
48 DC ,
BBU+RRU+TMC, BBU3900
TMC,
. RRU
.
. 2.6
BBU+RRU+TMC. 184 -,
BBC. .

37

2.6 BBU+RRU+TMC
BBU+RRU+19-
DBS3900 LTE 2G
3G, BBU3900 ,
19- 2 U BBU3900. RRU
.
BBU+RRU+19- . , BBU3900 RRU

. , LTE
2G 3G .
2.7
ATN ,

(MAN). ATN CX600
MAN ,
FMC.
,
,
, ATN,
Huawei Any Media, IP RAN
2G, 3G, Long Term Evolution /
(LTE). 2.10 ATN 950B.

2.7 ATN 950B


ATN 950B
. ATN 950B
, Huawei,
. 3,
ATN 950B,
(MAN),
.

38

2.8
ATN 950B
Ethernet:

GigabitEthernet;
8 Ethernet;
Eth- ,
Ethernet ;
Eth;
ATN 950B
/ - Eth-,
;
- Eth ;
ATN 950B E1.
E1 : PPP,
ATM, TDM.
E1 ,

. ATN ,

(MAN). ATN CX600
MAN ,
FMC.
,
,
, ATN,
Huawei Any Media, IP RAN
2G, 3G, Long Term Evolution /
(LTE).
2.7 ATN 950B. ATN 950B
,
Huawei, .
3, ATN 950B,

(MAN), .

39

RF
LTE,

.
. , ,
.
.

. , LTE
4 2012
,
c :
- ,
,

;
;

;
,
.

:
, ;

;
;
()
( ),

;
(
, , ;
/ ..), ;
;

,
,
.
3.1
40

:
,
, .. ,
, ;
,
.
,
,
,
, ,
eNodeB;

eNodeB ,

,
,
.
KPI
, .
3.2

.
, ,
.
: : 2.5 . (0,75%
), ,: 4136 /2, : 451 2
- . eNodeB
253, 250.
1800 , MIMO 22.
LTE
.
Atoll. Atoll
,
GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, LTE .
,

, ..
3.1 LTE
.
. LTE,

(DL), .
41




,
.

3.1
3.2 DL

3.2 DL

3.3 LTE


41_2.
3.4 ) - ). ,
33_3 3.1.
3.4 ): 48, )
, )
SCH-PBCH, DL UL
.

42

3.4 )

3.4 ) 48

3.4 )

3.4 ) SCH-PBCH, (DL)


(UL)
3.1 Site33_3

Site33_3

230,172; 2,626,698

2,571 m

43dBm
EIRP
53,22.7

odB
Path loss
160.01dB
Shadowing margin
4.72 dB
Indoor loss
0
Signal level
-111.51dBm
, LTE
.

.
.
- .

43

3.3 DL UL
MIM

4 LTE ..
Huawei accent P1, USB dongle E392. C
48

DL UL.
MIMO (.
Multiple Input Multiple Output) 12 22.
1800 MHz.

.
3.7 3.10 22

LTE
.

3.5 MIMO 12

3.6

3.7

3.8 MIMO 22
44

3.9

3.10
3.4 QCI
eNodeB UE QoS
LTE eNodeB.
QoS (QoS Class Identifier, QCI).
QCI QoS: ,
.
QCI, QoS,
QCI, .

.
QCI .

QCI QCI9, QCI8,
QCI6. 3.2
.
3.2 QCI
Q

C
(
I
1)
(

2)
1 GBR
2
100
10-2
2 Guaranteed 4
150
10-3
Bit Rate
3
3
50
10-3
4
5
300
10-6
45



Streaming)
On line

(Buffered Streaming)

(Live

1
6

100
300

10-6
10-6

7 Non- GBR 7
Guaranteed
Bit Rate
8
8
9
9

100

10-3

300

10-6

5
6

IMS
(Buffered Streaming)
TCP

(,
WWW, ,
, FTP, P2P
,
..)
,
(Live Streaming)
Interactive Gaming
(Buffered Streaming)
TCP

(,
WWW, ,
, FTP, P2P
,
..)


. QCI9
(Buffered Streaming), TCP (,
WWW, , , FTP, P2P ,
..)
16,3 /c, QCI6
100 /c.

3.11 QCI9

3.12 QCI8

3.13 QCI6
46

3.5
LTE
LTE
e .

, ,
/(+) ( - SINR).
FDD
[1].
[2]
SINR.
, ,
.
-
, 1.
.

-
,
.
- .
1.
,
LTE (1765-1785/1860-1880 ),
3.
.

[4].
SINR
13,3 . ., 15 ,
. SINR
Atoll.
SINR 30 %
70 %
.

, ,
/(+) ( - SINR).
FDD
. LTE
47

e
.

SINR ()
3.14 SINR
1
3.14 , SINR ,
, 30 %
10,94 ,
2,26 //.

70 %

SINR 8,83 . ,
1,9 //. ,
70 % 26 %.

LTE
[3].
3.15
3.
,
,
3.
,

.
37 %.
SINR .
3
,
47 % .
, ,
LTE
.

SINR ()
48

3.15 SINR
3
3.15 , SINR 30 %
13,55 ,
2,73 //. ,
70 % SINR 12,86 ,
2,6 //.
,

.
37 %.
SINR
.
3
,
47 % .
, ,
LTE
.
3.16
.
1.4 29,2 %
.
, 10 20
-
.

3.16 - LTE
( MIMO)
3 , -
LTE
.
1.4 29,2 %
.
49

3.6




4G (Long Term Evolution (LTE)).
3.7
LTE 4G 7-10 7.1
.
(00)
( 10-15 )


:
,
;
() ,
,
;
;


.
3.8 LTE 4G

,
, 794-799\835840 , LTE 4G
.
LTE 4G
200 , 6 , 10 , 13 , 15
LTE 4G 15 .

-10
4 , , .
50


. 100-150
. (-69)
. (LTE 4G 835-840 .
:
LONGITUDE=69,557222;
LATITUDE=42,342777.
DD800MHz 11:30 05-11-2012,
.
BTS3606 1x mobile BTS3606C
WLL + EVDO. CDMA 1X, CDMA
WLL/EVDO, DD800MHz, c,
, CDMA
. :
DD800MHz
.
M2000 c WLL+EVDO
RSSI 1X
mobile, WLL/EVDO.
:
(29.10.2012) (05.11.2012)
KPI , ,
DD800MHz. ,
.

3.17 2
, 15 .
RSSI DD800MHz ,
14:30, -
,
.
RSSI ,
RSSI .
eNodeB:
RRU performance monitoring RRU output power;
Cell performance monitoring Interference Detect;
Sector performance detect UL widefreq Scan;
51

Spectrum detect High-resolution frequency scan.


Huawei
DBS3900 LTE DD800

3.18
2 , 12 .
RSSI DD800MHz ,
14:30, -
,
.
RSSI ,
RSSI .
M2000 c 1X mobile
:
(29.10.2012) (05.11.2012)
KPI , ,
DD800MHz
RSSI DD800MHz ,
.
Average RSSI of Main Antenna(dBm) = -104 -110 dBm
Average RSSI of Diversity Antenna(dBm) = -104 -110 dBm
Main & Antenna 3 dBm
eNodeB DD800MHz
eNodeB:
RRU performance monitoring RRU output power;
Cell performance monitoring Interference Detect;
Sector performance detect UL widefreq Scan;
Spectrum detect High-resolution frequency scan.
Huawei
DBS3900 LTE DD800
,
, .
, .
40W
794-799MHz 835-840MHz 52

,
.


, LTE
4G ,
7,1 ( ) LTE 4G
( )
( ).

4 ,
,

LTE
.
-
OFDM,
.
:
;
.
LTE
, ,

eNB .
.
, ,
. 791 862
.
FDD.
4.1 .

, , ,

.

53


, 1
(//).
,
.


(, ) 1 (///),

.
LTE,
20 , FDD
3GPP Release 9 MIMO, 4.1.
4.1 LTE

MIMO
(//)
12
1,254
UL
14
1,829
22
2,93
DL
42
3,43
44
4,48
FDD 1 eNB

:
(4.1)
S (//);
W (); W = 10 .
DL:
RDL = 3,43 10 = 34,3 /.
UL:
RUL = 1,829 10 = 18,29 /.
ReNB

; eNB 3, :
(4.2)
DL:
ReNB.DL = 34,3 3 = 102,9 /.
UL:
ReNB.UL = 18,29 3 = 54,87 /.

54


LTE.

, LTE.
N :
[

],

(4.3)

f - , 71 ;
f ; LTE

,

180 , f = 180 .
N.,
:
[

(4.4)

N ;
N ,
eNB, 3;
M eNB, 3.
[


N.. :
(4.5)
N1 ,
( OFDMA N1 = 1...3);
LTE N1 = 1.
,
4.1,
1%
N.. , = 50 .

55

4.1

, eNB,
:
[ ]
(4.6)
A1
; A1 (0,04...0,2) .
,
A1 0,2 . :
[

eNB LTE
:
[
]
(4.7)
N .
20% .
. 24500 . ,
4900 , :
[

RN
eNB
eNB. :
,
(4.8)
RN = (102,9 + 54,87) 7 1104,39 (/).

.
:
,
(4.9)
- , = 30 /;
q , q = 2;
N , N = 7;
56

N , N = 30.
(/)
R./ :
R./ = R. N. ,
(4.10)
N. ;
80% N,
N. = 3920 .
R./ = 0,28 3920 = 1097,6 (/).
, RN > R./. ,
.
4.2 .

,
. ,

. ,

.
4.2.

(),
, 0,851,6
.

.

.
:
( ) .

.

57

,
,

/,

: 1 3
4 5

2
2

4.2

:
;
;
58

.
, ,
:
,
;
,
;
;
,
,
.

, .
:
, ,
.
-
- .

: ( ) .

-
.


Huawei ME 3688C 24CX Huawei 7619 OSR.
a :
a = n a + n a + at +a ,
(4.11)
n , n 3;
a , a 0,6 ;
n ;
a , a 0,02 ;
at
, at = 1 ;
a
, a 5 .
:
(4.12)
L , L 9 ;
l , 3.1 l = 2 .

59

a = 3 0,6 + 3 0,02 + 1 +5 7,8 ()



Huawei ME 3688X 24CX
Huawei 7616 OSR 7,8 .

4.3 LTE
LTE
EPC (Evolved Packet Core).
:
(Mobility Management Entity)
,

(NAS Security),
;
SGW (Serving Gateway) LTE
/
;
PGW (Public Data Network Gateway) /
/ LTE
2G, 3G, -3GPP Internet;
HSS (Home Subscriber Server) - ;
PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function) -
;
DHCP/DNS - IP-.
EPC LTE
Huawei technologies.
MME, SGW PGW
Single
RAN Huawei, 4.3 4.4.
Huawei PCS3
. ,
,
.
Huawei PCS3:
,
;
;

;
;
99,9999%;
60

2 .;

;

;
;
;

;
.
Huawei ASR 5000 PCS3

. Huawei ASR 5000 PCS3
250 .
EPC LTE
Huawei
Systems. MME, SGW
PGW Huawei ASR 5000 PCS3.

4.3 Huawei technologies


EPC Huawei PCS3
Huawei PCS30 4.4.

4.4 Cisco ASR 5000 PCS3

4.4

61

(),
(DC) ()
(0,8 0,9).

4.2.
4.2
,

.
,

Flexi Multiradio
3
790
()

Cisco ME 3600 X
1
228
24CX ()

/DC

DC

:
= DC/0,8
(4.13)
= 228/0,8 = 285 ().
,
, :
= +
(4.14)
= 790 + 285 = 1075 ().
IH :
IH = /U,
(4.15)
U , U = 220 .
IH = 1075/220 = 4,8 ().

4.5

. ,

.



, .


.
62

,
.


(On Line).
.
, -
.
( C ),
200
:
C

IP t P
, . ,
Q 1 0,008 t 20 0 C

(4.16)

C - ;
I P - ();
t P - ;
Q - ;

200 C - ;
0,008 - .

(Ip) :
Ip = IH = 4,8

(4.17)

Q 4.3.


(On Line).
.
t P ,.
Q

4.3
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0,97

0,94

0,91

0,89

0,83

0,8

0,75

0,61

4 , Q = 0,8.
( C ):
63

1
0,51

4,8 4
4,76 ().
0,8 1 0,008 25 20

4.4
,
.

UPStation GTX Liebert


9 1050 .
4.4

UPStation
PW9120
ULTimate
GXT
Liebert
Invensys
Powercom

,
1,0; 3,0
0,7;
2,0; 3,0
0,7; 1,0; 1,5; 0,7; 1,0;

1,0;
2,0; 3,0
1,5; 2,0; 3,0
1,5

220 220
220 220 220
27%,+25% 27% 20%,+27% 27%,+25% 27%,+25%
,

220 3%
220
2203%
220 3%
220 2%

3%
,

0,95
0,95
0,95
0,97
0,98

4.6


(On Line).
.
.
4.5.
4.5

64

IH,

1
2
3
4

1050
300
300
400

I :
I = IH1 + IH2 + IH3 + IH4

4,8
1,4
1,4
1,8

(4.18)

I = 4,8+1,4+1,4+1,8 = 9,4 ().


, 50 .
1,25
, :
I = IH 1,25
I.1 = 4,8 1,25 = 3,25 ()

(4.19)

I.2 = 1,4 1,25 = 1,75 ()


I.3 = 1,4 1,25 = 1,75 ()
I.4 = 1,8 1,25 = 2,25 ()
,
, 4.6.

4.6

1
47 29 1 8
2
47 29 1 2
3
47 29 1 2
4
47 29 1 3

4.7

.
4 100
65

( = 100 , ).

50505 5 .

,
.
4.8 R:
R 0,366

.
l

(lg

2l 1 4t l
lg
),
d 2 4t l

(4.20)

. -
, ;
l d - , ;

t (
), .

. ,

(4.21)

- ( =1,8);
. 1,8 100 180



0,7 . ,
:
T = (l/2) + t,

(4.22)

T = (5/2) + 0,7 = 3,2


(4.8)
( l 5 ; d = 0,05 ):
R 0,366

180
2 5 1 4 3,2 5
(lg
lg
) 32,94
5
0,05 2 4 3,2 5


4.11 :
nB

R
,
R B

66

(4.23)

B ( B =0,85);
-
( R = 4 ).
R

:
nB

32,94
10
4 0,85

(
5 ) :
l (nB 1) ,

(4.24)

l (10 1) 5 45 ().


, , :
R 0,366

.
l

lg

2 l 2
,
bt

(4.25)

. -
(), ;
l , ;
b , (b=0,02 );
t , .
(4.14)
:
. 'C ,

(4.26)

C' - ( C' =4,5).


. 4,5 100 450

().

()
:
450 2 (45) 2
R 0,366
lg
20,13 ().
45 0,02 0,7

,
67

:
R

R R
R n B R

(4.27)

R - ();
R - ();
n - ();

- (0,85);
- (0,80).

,
:
R

20,13 32,94
3,3 ().
32,94 0,8 10 20,13 0,85

, :
,

. R
R ( 3,3 < 4 ),
.

4.8 LTE

LTE
.
-
OFDM,
.
LTE
, ,

eNB .
.
, ,
. 791 862

68

.
FDD.

().
()

,
.
-
OFDM,
, 4.5.

4.5
:
: 20 ; FDD = 10/10 (DL/UL);
eNB - TRX,
TRX = 40 (46 ); DL MIMO 22;
UE - - USB-, 4 - 33 ;
DL/UL: 100%/100%.
:

(4.28)
P. ;
S. ;
G. - ,
G.: DL = 18 , UL = 0 ;
L. , L.: DL = 0,3 ;

, = 12 ;
M .
;
70%.
M: DL = 6,4 ; UL = 2,8 ;
G . ,
,
. G = 1,7 .
69

P. :
(4.29)
. -
. .

(DL) LTE ,
1,4 20 . 5 TRX
20 (43 ), 5 40
(46 ).
.: DL = 46 , UL = 33 .
DL:
P. = 46 + 18 - 0,3 = 63,7 (),
UL:
. = 33 ().
S. :
(4.30)
. - ,
.: DL = -174,4 , UL = -104,4 ;
. -
/ .
. Enhanced Pedestrian A5.
.: DL = -0,24 ; UL = 0,61 ;
L - , L: DL = 7 , UL = 2,5 ;
DL:
UL:

S. = -174,4 + (-0,24) + 7 = -167,64 (),


S. = -104,4 + 0,61 + 2,5 = -101,29 ().

(4.29) (4.30),
:
DL:
L = 63,7 (-167,64) - 12 - 6,4 - 8,- 1,7 = 205,94 (),
UL:
L = 33 (-101,29) + 18 - 0,4 - 12 - 6,4 - 8,7 + 1,7 = 126,5 ().
, DL UL
,
. , ,
.

Okumura - Hata.
, .
Okumura - Hata
:
(4.31)
:
70

(4.32)
fc - 150 1500 ;
ht - ( eNB) 30 300 ;
hr - ( ) 1
10 ;
d - 1 20 ;
A(hr) -
, .
:
fc = 800 ;
ht = 72 ;
hr = 3 .
A(hr)
:
(4.33)
(4.31) (4.32) , , d 9 .
SeNB :

71

(4.34)



:
SINR
13,3 . ., 15 ,
. SINR
Atoll. Atoll
,
GSM/GPRS/EDGE, UMTS, LTE .
,
, ..

SINR 30 % 70 %

.

, LTE ;



4G (Long Term Evolution (LTE));

,
LTE 4G ,
7,1 ( )
LTE 4G ( )
( );


UMTS LTE,
- 1
;

4 LTE
MIMO 12 22
DL UL.
1800 MHz.

LTE CDMA,
, ,
72

,
,
.

.

,

,

. -
, -
, ,
.
, ,
.
,
,
. ,
, , , ..
. ,
.
.
, ,
.

LTE.


1 ..,
LTE: ,
,., 2013 1, .67-69.
2 . ., . ., . .
[ ] // . .,
. ., . .// V -

: . . ,2007.-. 15-17.
3 . . -
GSM [ ] // .
.// V -

73

: . .
,2007.-. 20-23.
4 .., .., ..
. []// .., .., ..//
.- 2004.- 2.- C. 21-24.
5 ..,
[]// ..// .-2008. 4.-. 24-26.
6 .., .., ..

[ ]//
. .- 2007.-2(14).-.
79-82.
7 Long Term Evolution (LTE): an introduction. White Paper.[
]// Ericsson.- 2007.-16 .
8 . . :
GSM : . . . / . . , .
. , . .
9 .., .., . ,
, . : , 2006. 672.
10 ..
//
. -2001: . : .
2002. . 145-152.
11 Lux T.Detecting Multi-Fractal Properties in Asset Returns /T.
Lux//Assessment of the`Scaling Estimator`. International Journal of Modern Physics.
15 2004. P. 481-491.
12 .
[]: . ...
. . : 05.12.13/ .-.-2008.-145 .
13 .. - .
[]: /.. , ..,
...-2- .,.-.: -, 2007.-224.
14 .., ..
[ ]: / .. ,
.. . : , 2007.-210

74