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. . , . .


2009

511.2
22.13
357

:
. .-. , . . . ,
. .-. , . . .

, . .
357 : / . . ,
. . . : , 2009. 72 .

. ,
, , .
.
, .
.
1 2 , , .

511.2
22.13

c ..,

.., 2009
c

, 2009
c .

, 2009


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. . .
13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. () . . . . . . . . . . .
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.

4
6

. 9
. 14
.
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.
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.

15
18
22
28
34
36
38
39
43
48
51
55
56
58
66
70


. , , XIX ,

. , , , . .
.
, , . .
.
. .
.
. ,
, , .
, . . , . ,
, ,
. , .
, ,
!
, ,
, .
.
, . ,
, , .
.

,
, , , .
, , , .

.
. , . .
. . .

1.
a b , b 6= 0. , b a,
c, a = b c.
.
b|a (b a) a..b (a b).
. ,
:
a) a|b b|c, a|c;
b) a|b b|a, a = b (
);
c) a|b a|c, a|(b c) a|(k b) k.
Z ,
.
a, b Z, b 6= 0. a b
a a = bq + r, 0 6 r < |b|. q
, r a b.

.
"" , :
. a b, b 6= 0, a
a = bq + r, 0 6 r < |b|.
. a > 0, b > 0, ,
, a b.

1. n 16 3.
12 3n?
2. 24 ?
3. p ,
p = 5, p = 7?
,
x2 7yz = 10,

x3 + 14y 2 z = 19,
6

x2 10yz 2 = 8.


, .
.
. n
8n + 71
?
5n + 46
. a = 8n + 71 b = 5n + 46
d, d 5a 8b = 13. ,
, d = 13.
n, b ( a) 13.
, 13 5n + 46 , 13
5n + 20, , 13 n + 4.
8n + 71
,
,
5n + 46
n 13 9.
.
, .

1. n :
4n 7
;
2n + 3
n2 n + 3
b)
?
n+1
a)

2. n

n+7
?
2n + 3

3. , nm + st n + s. , nt + sm
n + s.
4. , n
, , + ,
, n.
5. n m , m + 3n 13. ,
11m + 7n 13.
7

6. n m , 2m n 11. ,
51m 8n 11. .
7. :
(n, m) = (17n + 11m, 3n + 2m).
. n m?
8. , , ,
.
9. , - ,
. , ,
, .
10. 1, 2, . . . , n.
+ ,
? n = 17.
11. 15 , .
4 . ,
?
12 . m, n k , mn nm , nk
k n . , mk k m .
13 . , :
1 1
+ + ... +
2 3
1 1
b) + + . . . +
3 5
a)

1
;
n
1
.
2n + 1

.
k = max 2 (m),
2 (m) 2 (. 6 "
"). , 1 n
1
1
, 2k . 1 + + . . . +

2
n
, ,
.
8

m

14. ,
n
, n
, 2 5.
15. , 2, 5, 9, 11.
16. , a3 + b3 + c3 7 (a, b, c Z), abc
7.
17. , 62k + 2k+4 17.

2. .

. a b
( (a, b) (a, b)) ,
.
a b ( (a, b)
[a, b]) ,
.
.
.

.
.
.
. : (n, m) = (5n + 3m, 13n + 8m).
. :
d = (n, m);

D = (5n + 3m, 13n + 8m).

, d 5n + 3m 13n + 8m, ,
d , , d D.
9

5n + 3m = Dt,
13n + 8m = Ds

t, s Z. n m,

n = D(8t 3s),
m = D(5s 13t),
, D d. ,
D = d.

2300
, .
. .
a, b . , a > b,
a = bq0 + r0 ,
b = r0 q 1 + r1 ,
r0 = r1 q2 + r2 ,
.....................
rn2 = rn1 qn + rn ,
rn1 = rn qn+1 .
{rn }. ,
(a, b) = (b, r1 ) = . . . = (rn1 , rn ) = rn .

(1)

, , a b, .

1. m,
(ma, mb) = m(a, b).
2. d a b. ,

a b
1
,
= (a, b).
d d
d
10

3. d = (a, b). ,
a = d a0 ,

b = d b0 ,

(a0 , b0 ) = 1.
,
. rn
"" ,
rk rk2 rk1 qk . (a, b),
(a, b) = au + bv
u v.
.
. (1).
a b, (a, b) = 1, .

1. , a b ,

1 = ax + by,

x, y Z.

2. : (a, b) = 1, c
(ac, b) = (c, b).
3. , c|ab (a, c) = 1, c|b.
4. , (a, b) = 1, a|c b|c, ab|c.
5. 4, ,
a b:
[a, b] =

11

ab
.
(a, b)

.
17x + 43y = 2.
. , ,
:

x = x0 43t,
y = y0 + 17t
( (x0 , y0 ) ).
(17, 43) = 1, u v ,
17u + 43v = 1.
x0 2u, y0 = 2v. u v :
1 = 9 8 = 9 (17 9) = 2 9 17 = 2(43 17 2) 17 = 2 43 17 5.
u = 5, v = 2 x0 = 10, y0 = 4. (x1 , y1 )
,
17(x1 x0 ) = 43(y0 y1 ).
17 43 , 17
y1 y0 43 x1 x0 . , (x1 , y1 )
t. : t
.
: x = 10 43t, y = 4 + 17t, t .

1. a b,
a) (a, b) = 2640 (a, b) = 15;
b) (a, b) +(a, b) = 35, (a, b) 6= 1;
c) (a, b) (a, b) = 630, (a, b) 6= 1?
.
2. (1035, 1105),
(611, 676), (8183, 1152).
12

3. (93, 39), (76, 28), (17, 101).


4. ,
a) 37x 28y = 11;
b) 59x + 14y = 2;
c) 63x 8y = 5;
d) 16x 28y = 13.
5. m n . ,
:
a) m n m + n;
b) m n m2 + n2 .
6. m n .

a) m + n m n;
b) m + n m2 + n2 ?
7. , (a, b) = 1 p , (a + b, a b p) = 1
(a + b, a b p) = p.
8. , a b ,
a c b
b c.
9. , (a, b) = d, (a + b c, a + b(c 1)) = d.
10. ,
.
11. p . , n = 1, 2, . . . , p 1 n
p n .
12 . rn n- 111 . . . 11. ,
(rn , rm ) = r(n,m) .
13

13 . , 22 + 1 22 + 1
.
14. , n 2n1 1, n ?
15. , n > 2, 2n 1 2n + 1 .
u
16 . , , k v
(ku + 2004, kv + 2005) 6= 1.

3.
A .
. I A ,
:
1. x1 , x2 I , x1 x2 I.
2. x I , ax I a A.
, a1 , a2 , . . . , as
A I,
,
P

i ai i
A.
, {ai }si=1
I = (a1 , a2 , . . . , as ).
, I = (a), .
,
. I
Z I (
).

1. d =(a1 , a2 , . . . , as ). ,
I = (a1 , a2 , . . . , as ) = (d).
14

2. ax+by = c , , a1 x1 +a2 x2 +. . .+as xs = b.


3. A B ,
A B ( ab, a A, b B)
A A + B ( a + b,
a A, b B). ,
a) A A A;
b) A , d.
4 . (a, b) = 1. , , (a 1)(b 1),
a b ,
(a 1)(b 1) 1
.

4. .
.

.
, p ,
, , 1 p.
. , .
.
, n

n.
. .
, , .
" ".
N = p1 p2 . . . ps + 1,
p1 , p2 , . . . , ps , , ,
, , ,
.
15

,
.
. nk = 2k + 1, n0 = 1, 2, .
.
( ).
ak + b, a b ,
(a, b) = 1, a > 0,
k ,
.
,
.
. ,
4k + 3, k .
. .
1. 4 1 3;
pi 1 (mod 4),
k
Y

pi 1 (mod 4).

i=1

2. 3, p1 , p2 , . . . , ps 4k + 3, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
N = 4p1 p2 . . . ps + 3
p1 , p2 , . . . , ps .
. , , m , , m.
.
111
. . . 11} +10m+1 k,
| {z
m

k . , m, ,
.
16

,
. [2].
.

.
. n > 1

:
n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s ,
pi n, i N.
n
n.

1. , , n
, , n x2 z 2
.
2. , , ,
.
3. Mn = 2n 1 Mm = 2m 1 , r
n m. , Mn Mm
Mr . .
4. n > 1:
n ,
a b , n|(a b), ,
n|a n|b.
5. ,
:
2n

m
2 + 1, 22 + 1 = 1, (n, m) = 1.
6 . n k , 2n > (1+n)k ,
1, 2, 22 , . . . , 2n k+1 . ,
.
17

7 . , {1, 2, . . . , n}
. .
8. , , n
p , p 1 p + 1
n .
9 . ,
, .
. :
(n + 1)! + 2, (n + 1)! + 3, . . . , (n + 1)! + n + 1.

5.
a
Q.
b
a
, a > b.

b
:

a bq0 + r0
1
1
=
= q0 +
= q0 + q r + r =
b
1 0
1
b
b
r0
r0
1
1
= q0 +
= [q0 ; q1 , . . . , qn ],
1 = . . . = q0 +
1
q1 + r0
q1 +
1
q
+
.
.
.
+
2
r1
qn
qk , rk .

.
.
.
k- :
k =

Pk
= q0 +
Qk

1
q1 +

q2 + . . . +
18

1
1
qk

, P1 = 1, Q1 = 0, 0 = q0 , P0 = q0 , Q0 = 1,

q0 q1 + 1
1 =
, P1 = q0 q1 + 1, Q1 = q1 .
q1
. ,
P2 = q0 q1 q2 + q2 + q0 ,
Q2 = q1 q2 + 1,
P3 = q0 q1 q2 q3 + q0 q1 + q0 q3 + q2 q3 + 1, Q3 = q1 q2 q3 + q1 + q3 ;
P4 , Q4 .
. k,
(k + 1)- k > 2
:
Pk+1 = qk+1 Pk + Pk1 ,
Qk+1 = qk+1 Qk + Qk1 .
, , [4].
,
, :
Pk Qk1 Pk1 Qk = (1)k1 .

(2)

. k .
, :
Pn
a
= .
Qn
b
, , (a, b) = 1,
aQn1 Pn1 b = (1)n1 .

ax + by = c (2).
ax + by = c.
, (a, b) = 1. (x, y)

x = x0 + x1 ,
y = y0 + y1 ,
19

(x0 , y0 ) ax + by = c, (x1 , y1 )
ax1 + by1 = 0.
a
.
b
aQn1 Pn1 b = (1)n1
(1)n1 c;

a (1)n1 cQn1 + b ((1)n cPn1 ) = c.


, ax + by = c
x0 = (1)n1 cQn1 ,
y0 = (1)n cPn1 .
ax + by = 0
x1 = bt,
y1 = at;

t Z.

,
x = (1)n1 cQn1 + bt,
y = (1)n cPn1 at;

t Z.

(a, b) = d > 1. , d c,
ax + by = c . d > 1
a, b, c,
a1 x + b1 y = c1 ,
a = da1 , b = db1 c = dc1 .

1.
2.

107 125 78 115


,
,
,
.
40 94 169 27

a) [1; 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2];
b) [0; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
c) [c; d, c, d, c].
20

3.
1575
;
457
127
b) [2; 3, 4, x] =
.
55
a) [x; 2, 4, 6, 8] =

4.
a) 3x 14y = 1;
b) 41x 103y = 1;
c) 75x + 37y = 4;
d) 571x + 359y = 10.

1. , Pk1 Qk+1 Pk+1 Qk1 = (1)k qk+1 .


2. , , , ,

0 < 2 < 4 < . . . , 1 > 3 > 5 > . . .


3. , q0 = 0 1 6 i 6 n
qi = q. , k < n 2
2
Pk2 + Pk+1
= pk1 Pk+1 + Pk Pk+2 .

[q0 ; q1 , q2 , . . .], qk > 0


. ,
N T ,
qk+T = qk
k > N .
,
[q0 ; q1 , q2 , . . . , qN 1 , qN , qN +1 , . . . , qN +T 1 ].

21


1. [1; 1].
2. :
a) [4; 4];
b) [1; 3];
c) [1; 2, 1].
3 . : a > 2 ,
p
a2 1 = [a 1; 1, 2a 2].

6.
Z
N.
p-
. n , n = pm s, p
, (p, s) = 1, p (n) = m
p-, p- .
:
A. p (ab) = p (a) + p (b).
B. p (a+b) > min {p (a), p (b)}, p (a) 6= p (b), .
C. p (a) = 0 , (a, p) = 1.
D. p (p) = 1.
E. p (0) = .
. AC .
p- n! .
. , , p
n!,

n
n
n
p (n!) =
+ 2 + 3 + ....
p
p
p
[x] x.
22

. , ,
,
.

. f : N C ,
:
A. a0 , f (a0 ) 6= 0.
B. a b
f (ab) = f (a)f (b).
,

N.
. , :
A. f (1) = 1.
B. f1 f2 , f1 f2
.
. f (n) , n:
n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s ,

X
d|n

f (d) =

1 + f (pi ) + f (p2i ) + . . . + f (pi i ) ,

(3)

pi |n

d n,
pi , n.
. ,
.
f (p1 1 )f (p2 2 ) . . . f (ps s ) = f (p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s ),
0 6 1 6 1 ,

0 6 2 6 2 ,
23

...,

0 6 s 6 s ,


, , .
.
X
Y

i t
t
d =
1 + pti + p2t
,
i + . . . + pi
d|n

pi |n

n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s n.
.
n
n
X
(n) =
d.
d|n

n
n
X
(n) =
1.
d|n

1. (n) (n), n = 14, 10, 63, 270, 300.


2. (p ), p .

1. n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pk k .
(n) = (1 + 1) (2 + 1) . . . (k + 1) ,
pk k +1 1
p1 1 +1 1 p2 2 +1 1
(n) =

...
.
p1 1
p2 1
pk 1
2. , (n) (n) .

24


. (n) ,
Z>0

1, = 1,

(p ) =
0, > 1.
1. f (n) .
X
(d)(d) = (1 (p1 )) . . . (1 (ps )) ,
d|n

n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pk k .
. (n) ,
f1 (n) = (n)f (n) . (3):
f1 (p) = f (p) f1 (ps ) = 0 s > 1,
.

1. , n > 1

X (d) Y
1
=
1
.
d
pi
d|n

d|n

2. ,
n > 1.

(4)

(d) 1 n = 1

d|n

2.
= 1 , 2 , . . . , s
n = n1 , n2 , . . . , ns .
S 0 n, , , Sd n, , d.
X
S0 =
(d)Sd ,
(5)
d

d ,
.
25

. 2 ,
X
X
X
0
S = n1
(d) + n2
(d) + . . . + ns
(d).
d|1

d|2

d|s

d (d) ,
n, d.
Sd .

. (n)
,
0, 1, . . . , n 1,
n.

1. (n)
n = 5, 8, 12.
2. (p), (p ), (p1 p2 ), p, p1 , p2 .
3. , (n) = n 1, n .
. n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . pk k
n.

s
Y
1
(n) = n
.
1
p
i
i=1
. (5). n : x 0, 1, . . . , n1;
x = (x, n),
S0 , . . . , Sn1 ; ni 1.
S 0 = (x, n), 1, S 0 = (n).
Sd = (x, n), d. , d
(x, n) , d n. Sd
n
x, d, Sd = . (4)
d

X
X
Y
n
(d)
1
(n) =
(d) = n
=n
1
,
d
d
pi
d|n

d|n

.
26

pi |n

. (362), (2004).
. ,
X

(d) = n.

d|n

1. n, (n) = 6.
2. , (n) , n
.
3. , (n) , n
.
4. , r , (r) = r + 1.
5.
a) n2 + 2 (n) = 1845;
b) n2 + 2 (n) = 2004.
6 . :
(1) + (2) + . . . + (n) =

hni
1

+2

hni
2

+ ... + n

hni
n

7. , :
a) (pn ) = pn pn1 , p ;
b) (n) , n > 2;
c) (m)(n) = ((m, n)) ([m, n]) .
8. 3 ,
27 . ?
9. :
a) (mn) (m)(n);
b) (mn) (m) (n)?
27

10.
a) (3x ) = 18;
x
b) (x) = ;
2
c) (3x) = (5x);
x
d) (x) = .
5
11. , (n) , n = 3, 4 6.
12. , m n, (m n) = m (n).
13. ,

d = n (n)/2 ,

d|n

n .
14. (n), , .
15 . :
X
F (n) =
f (d),
d|n

f (n) =

X
d|n

(d)F

n
d

7.
,
2, 4, 10, . . . ,
m
.
. m, 0 1.
, a b m, :
a b m;
28

m a b;
a = b + mt t.
. .
"a b m"
: a b (mod m).
, "" .
a b
a b (mod m),
m Z .
, ,
, , . ,
Z
, m. m m.
.
m .
: a ( a [a]) a + mZ.
. , m,
m.
b1 , . . . , bm ,
Z=

m
[

bi .

i=1

. ,
, m,
m.
. , m (m) .
m, , .
29

. :
A. a a (mod m).
B. a b (mod m) b c (mod m), a c (mod m).
C. a b (mod m) c d (mod m), a c b d (mod m).
D. a b (mod m), a + k b + k (mod m) k Z.
E. a b (mod m) c d (mod m), ac bd (mod m).
F. a b (mod m), k
ak bk (mod m).
G. a b (mod m), n N an bn (mod m).
H. d = (k, m), ak bk (mod m), a b (mod

m
).
d

I. P (x) n
a b (mod m), P (a) P (b) (mod m).
. .
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = 0,
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) Z[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ].
1 , 2 , . . . , n
,
f (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = 0
, m
f (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) 0 (mod m).

f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) 0 (mod m)

(6)

.
m. , (6)
30

, .
.
.
. :
x1 = x2 = 10,
y1 = y2 = 10,
xn+2 = (xn+1 + 1) xn + 1, yn+2 = (yn+1 + 1) yn + 1.
- k l xk yl ?
. , 101
. x3 = 111, x4 = 1121, y3 = 91 y4 = 919.
, i 6 3
xi xi+1 (mod 101) yi yi+1 (mod 101).
, {xi }
{yi } 101. .
xn+1 = (xn + 1) xn1 + 1 10 (mod 101),
xn+2 = (xn+1 + 1) xn + 1 (10 + 1) 10 + 1 10 (mod 101).
, yn 10 (mod 101).
, {xi } {yi }
101, , {xl } {yk }
Z.

1. :
a) 39 15 (mod 14);
b) 17 21 (mod 2);
c) 4 35 (mod 13);
d) 17 29 (mod 23)?
2. ,
a m:
a) a = 73, m = 8;
b) a = 59, m = 13;
c) a = 112, m = 15;
d) a = 75, m = 25.
31

, a m?
3. , a m:
a) a = 17, m = 3;
b) a = 28, m = 17;
c) a = 67, m = 9.
.
4. , x, :
a) 5x 35 (mod 13);
b) 7x 42 (mod 15);
c) 3x 5 (mod 7);
d) 9x 2 (mod 20).
5. m 3x9 + 5y 3 4z 5 :
a) m = 14, x 7 (mod 14), y 9 (mod 14), z 3 (mod 14);
b) m = 31, x 2 (mod 31), y 28 (mod 31), z 25 (mod 31).
,
.

1. , 8 64, 14, 38, 1, 4, 11, 25, 3 , 17, 11, 33, 19


.
2. , 36, 11, 10, 9, 2, 11
6. ,
6.
3. 7, .
32

4. a a
?
5. , . ,

.
6. , (a, m) = 1 x
m, ax + b
m.
7. , 3 9
3 9 .
8. 11.
9. 100,
101.
10. 1000, 13, 7 37.
11. , m|(a b), n > 1
an bn
nan1 0 (mod m).
ab
12. ,

an 1
,a 1
a1

= (a 1, n).

13 . p . p1 ,
p. , , , p 1 , p.
14. , .
. , 5 25.
15. , n , n
4 0, 1 2.

33

. , , , .
16. , 22 + 44 + 66 + . . . + 5050
.
17. n N, 1! + 2! + . . . + n!
.
18 . , 11 +22 +33 +. . .+20072007
.
19. p , 8p2 +1 . , 8p2 p+2
.
20. , n , n
8 7.
. , , . ,
[2].
21. , n
n
22 + 1 . ,
: 641 232 + 1. , .
22. 6.
23. , .

8. .
, , "
". , ,
, , .
. p , (a, p) = 1,
ap1 1 (mod p).
34

. a
ap a (mod p).
m.
. (a, m) = 1,
a(m) 1 (mod m).
. ,
:
1. m a
.
2.
m m.
3. , m.

1. :
a) a = 5, m = 24;
b) a = 2, m = 39;
c) a = 7, m = 6.
2. :
a) a = 3, m = 11;
b) a = 2, m = 13;
c) a = 2, m = 19.
3. , m, xp1 1 (mod p)?
4. 7122 143, 8900 29.
5. : (p 1)! 1 (mod p), p
.
35

6. p, :
a) p2 6 p2 + 6;
b) p3 6 p3 + 6;
c) 2p + 1 2p 1;
d) p2 2, 2p2 1 3p2 + 4.
.
7. , n
nn 1 (mod 8).
8. 99- a , aa a2 ?
9. , n, (n, 10) = 1, 111 . . . 1, n. 111 . . . 1, n.
10. , a1 + a2 + . . . + as 0 (mod 30),
a51 + a52 + . . . + a5s 0 (mod 30).
.
11. , (a + b)p ap + bp (mod p), p , a
.
12. a b . ,
a(b) + b(a) 1 (mod ab).

9. m
m
Z/mZ Zm .
Zm , . a, b Zm ,
a + b a + b a b a b.
36

. , ,

m , a b.
. , Zm .

Z6 :
+ 0 1 2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

0
1
2
3
4
5

0
1
2
3
4
5

0
1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5
0

2
3
4
5
0
1

3
4
5
0
1
2

4
5
0
1
2
3

5
0
1
2
3
4

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
2
1
4
5

0
2
4
0
2
4

0
3
0
3
0
3

0
4
2
0
4
2

0
5
4
3
2
1

. , .
. , a Zm , (a, m) > 1.
. a Zm ,
b Zm , a b = 1.
. , a Zm ,
(a, m) = 1.
. ,
.
, Zm .
. ,
(m) .
p . Zp
, Zp , , Zp .
.
Zm , m. ,

ax 1 (mod m)
37

a Zm ; p (. " ") , Zp ,
.
. Z/24Z . Z24 ,
.

10.
?
2000 ,
2n 2 n, . 2.
. a
n, 2n 2 n.
, , .

1. , n , p2
n p, n
n
a=1+ .
p
2 . , a a , . , a2p 1
, 2
, p , n > 2
a 1
2

p, a 1 = 1. 2.
3 . ,

Fn = a (Z/nZ) : an1 1 (mod n)


(Z/nZ) .
4. , n
a,
(n)
| Fn | 6
.
2
38

,
.
. N > 1 a :
1) aN 1 1 (mod N );
2) am 1 N m = 1, 2, . . . , N 2.
N .
. , 1
.
, .
. , (N ) 6 N 1. ,
aN 1 1 (mod N ),
(a, N ) = 1. , ord a (N ). 2 ,
ord a = N 1, , (N ) = N 1. , N
.
. , 2
m, N 1.

11.
f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a0 .
f (x) 0 (mod m).

(7)

, b (7),
, b m, (7). ,
(7)
x b (mod m)
,
f (b) 0 (mod m).
:
ax b (mod m).
39

(8)

:
d = (a, m);

a = da0 ,

m = dm0 .

d b, b = db0 . :
1. (a, m) = 1, (8) (
m).
2. (a, m) = d > 1 b d,
.
3. (a, m) = d > 1 d b, d
,
xk + m0 k (mod m),
k = 0, 1, . . . , d 1;
a0 x b0 (mod m0 ),
(8)
d.
.
, , .
c1 , c2 , . . . , cm m.
ac1 , ac2 , . . . , acm
, b m.
(8), a b (mod d).
, 0 b (mod d), .
,
a b (mod m)
,
a0 b0 (mod m0 ).
a0 x b0 (mod m0 ) x (mod m0 ),
(8) m0 .
40

, d k = +m0 k, k = 0, 1, . . . , d1,
m.
d,
(8) a m.
:
1. m.
2. ,
x a(m)1 b (mod m),
(m) .
3.
x (1)n bPn1 (mod m),
Pn1
m

.
a
4. , ,
b , a.
a, x.
.
6x 39 (mod 51).
. : (6, 51) = 3, 3, , 3. ,
, 3. 2x 13 (mod 17) 2x 4 (mod 17).
(2, 17) = 1,
x 2 (mod 17).
3 xk 2 + 17k (mod 51), k = 0, 1, 2.
:
x0 2 (mod 51),
x1 15 (mod 51),
x2 32 (mod 51).
41

.
17x 2 (mod 151).
. : (17, 151) = 1, , .
151
151
.

= [8; 1, 7, 2];
17
17
n = 3,
P0 = 8, P1 = 8 1 + 1 = 9, P3 = 9 7 + 8 = 71.

x (1)3 2 71 (mod 151),
x 9(mod 151).
. :
93x 2 (mod 17).
. , 93 8 (mod 17), :
8x 2 (mod 17).

x 2 815 246 (mod 17).
: 216 1 (mod 17), x 214 (mod 17).
, 24 1 (mod 17), ,
212 1 (mod 17).
x 22 4 (mod 17).
: x 4 (mod 17).
. ,
, . ,
2 2 2 17 (mod 17),
8x 2 (mod 17) 8x 32 (mod 17).
8,
x 4 (mod 17).
42

12. .

,
I . .
. m1 , m2 , . . . , ms
, r1 , r2 , . . . , rs .

x r1 (mod m1 ),

x r2 (mod m2 ),
(9)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

x rs (mod ms )
M = m1 m2 . . . ms .
,
, M .
,
.

M
,
Ni =
mi
(Ni , mi ) = 1 di li ,
1 = di Ni + li mi .
, , i = 1, 2, . . . , s
1 di Ni (mod mi ),
di Ni 0 (mod mj ),

a=

s
X

i 6= j.

rk dk Nk .

k=1

a mi i:
a=

s
X

rk dk Nk ri (mod mi ).

k=1

, x a (mod M ) (9).
43

. , , (9), M .
. ,

x 3 (mod 5),
x 1 (mod 7),

x 0 (mod 2).
,
.

. . .

3x 5 (mod 7),
4x 6 (mod 10),

x 1 (mod 2).

x 4 (mod 7).
: x = 4 + 7t, t Z.
, :
4(4 + 7t) 6 (mod 10).
2,
4t 0 (mod 5),
t 0 (mod 5),
t = 5s, s Z. ,
x = 4 + 7 5 s. x :
4 + 35s 1 (mod 2).
, s 1 (mod 2) s = 1 + 2v.
x = 4 + 35s = 39 + 70v x 39 (mod 70). 140
:
x 39 (mod 140), x 109 (mod 140).
44

. , , , .
.
.
. 735286 2431.
. , m .
2431 .
x 735286 (mod 2431)

x 735286 (mod 13),


x 735286 (mod 11),

x 735286 (mod 17).



735 6 (mod 13),
735 2 (mod 11),
735 4 (mod 17),

286 10 (mod 12),


286 6 (mod 10),
286 14 (mod 16).

x (6)10 (mod 13),


x (2)6 (mod 11),

x 414 (mod 17).


, :
610 = (3)5 (3)3 (4) 4 (mod 13),
26 = 25 2 2 (mod 11),
414 = (22 )7 (1)7 1 (mod 17).
,

x
x


4 (mod 13),
2 (mod 11),
1 (mod 17).
45

: x = 4 + 13t, 4 + 13t 2 (mod 11),


, t 3 (mod 11), x = 4 + 13(3 + 11s).
35 + 13 11 s 1 (mod 17),
4 (6) s 34 (mod 17),
7s 0 (mod 17),
, s = 17k.

x = 35 + 11 13 17k = 35 + 2431k.
,
2396.

. . " ".
: ,
N .
, N .
k mi , m1 m2 . . . mk > N .
, : mi ri
N mi .

x r1 (mod m1 ),

x r2 (mod m2 ),
....................

x rk (mod mk ).

a + m1 m2 . . . mk1 t,
. ,
N a

.
m1 m2 . . . mk1

[6].
.
46

. , n
: Fn , Fn+1 , Fn+2 (, Fn = 22 + 1).
,
?

1. :

7x

5
(mod
11),
x

7
(mod
12),

4x 1 (mod 9),

13x 12 (mod 23),


5x 3 (mod 7),
x 4 (mod 15),

x 2 (mod 21);
15x 6 (mod 21);
4x 16 (mod 12).
2. a :

x 5 (mod 18),
x 8 (mod 21),

x a (mod 35)?
3. , n
n 1, n + 1 n.
4. ,
:
a) 129613 1001, 359204 646, 3950
2251;
b) 347 935.
5. : " , ,
".
: " ".
n 2n , .
n, , 100
?
6. ,

x a (mod m),
x b (mod n)


m n.
47

7. x2 + 42x + 21 0 (mod 105).


8. p q n = pq. ,
x2 a (mod p) x2 a (mod q).
,
x2 a (mod n).

13.
m = pk11 pk22 . . . pks s m, (7)

f (x) 0 (mod pk11 ),

f (x) 0 (mod pk22 ),


(10)

......................

f (x) 0 (mod pks s ).


(10)
x ai (mod pki i ),
(a1 , a2 , . . . , as ) ""
(7):

x a1 (mod pk11 ),

x a2 (mod pk22 ),

...................

x as (mod pks s ).
N (7), Ni
f (x) 0 (mod pki i ),
N = N1 N2 . . . Ns .

f (x) 0 (mod pk )

(11)


f (x) 0 (mod p),
48

(12)

""
(12) (11).
. x a (mod p) (12) ,
f 0 (a) p.
, (12) "" (11). pk1 pk .
x a (mod pk1 ) f (x) 0 (mod pk1 ).
f (x) x a:
f (x) = f (a) + b1 (x a) + . . . + bn (x a)n

(13)

( b1 = f 0 (a) pk1 ). x
x = a + tpk1 . x (13)
f (a) + tpk1 f 0 (a) 0 (mod pk ),

pk1 f 0 (a)t f (a) (mod pk ),

pk1 |f (a).

pk1 :
f 0 (a)t

f (a)
(mod p),
pk1

(f 0 (a), p) = 1, t s (mod p).

x = a + tpk1 a + spk1 (mod pk )


pk , (11).
"" .
. x3 2 (mod 125).
.
. x3 2 (mod 5)
. x 3 (mod 5).
. "" x3 2 (mod 5)
x3 2 (mod 25).
x = 3+5t. f 0 (x) = 3x2 , f 0 (3) 2 (mod 5),
f (3) + 2 5t 0 (mod 25),
49

33 + 2
(mod 5),
5
t 0 (mod 5),

2t

, x 3 (mod 25).
. x3 2 (mod 25)
.
x = 3 + 25t,
2 52 t 25 (mod 125),
2t 1 (mod 5),
t 2 (mod 5).
: x 53 (mod 125).
. , .
. f (x) 0 (mod p), deg f (x) > p,
, p.
. f (x) xp x :
f (x) = (xp x) q(x) + r(x),
deg r(x) < p. ,
p

x xp1 1 0 (mod p).


, f (x) 0 (mod p) r(x) 0 (mod p)
.
.
f (x) 0 (mod 5),
f (x) = 3x7 + 2x6 + x5 3x3 x2 x 1.
. f (x) x5 x

f (x) = 3x2 + 2x + 1 x5 x + x2 1 0 (mod 5),


x2 1 0 (mod 5), , x 1 (mod 5).
50

. , , , .
. f (x) Z[x] n > 1
, a , f (x) f (a) 6= 1.
f (a) = m. f (x) m n
.
f (x) bk = a+mk,
k Z. I , bk a (mod m),

f (bk ) 0 (mod m).


, f (bk ) , m.
n
, , f (bk ) .
. :
a) 7x4 + 19x + 25 0 (mod 27),
b) 9x2 + 29x + 62 0 (mod 64).

14. .
. (a, m) = 1. a
m, x2 a (mod m),
a m.

.
1. m = p , p > 2 a
p, x2 a (mod p) .
. ,
, .
2. p
.
3. , , .
51

4 . 2 Zp .
5. p 1 ,
p = 4k + 1.
. 3 .

a
. ,
1,
p
a
a , 1, a ,
= 0,
p
p a.
, :

a
a(p1)/2 (mod p).
p
. , :

a
b
1. a b (mod p),
=
;
p
p

1
2.
= 1;
p

1
3.
= (1)(p1)/2 ;
p

ab
a
b
4.
=

;
p
p
p
2
a
5.
= 1.
p

2

. :
p

2
p2 1
= (1) 8 .
6.
p
52

, .
( ). p q
,


p1 q1
q
p
= (1) 2 2
.
q
p

p
q
,


q
p
,
p q 3 (mod 4).
. ,

2
1,
p 1 (mod 8);
=
1, p 3 (mod 8).
p

1. 19 .

7
5
,
.
2. ,
73
31
3. p 1 (mod 4). , a a
p.
2
4. ,
x a (mod p), p
a
a, 1 +
.
p

5. ,

p1
X
a
a=1

= 0,

a p.
.
.
,

195

.
101
53

. , .
, 195 94 (mod 101). ,


94
2
47
101
7
195
=
=

= (1)
=
=
101
101 101 101 47
47
47
2
1
2
=
=
=

= 1.
7
7
7
7
:


2
2
1012 1
= (1) 8 = 1;
= 1;
101
7


47
101
1
471 1011
= (1) 2 2
;
= 1.
101
47
7

1. , ,
:
a) x2 26 (mod 71),
b) x2 48 (mod 37),
c) x2 29 (mod 73),
d) x2 32 (mod 97),
e) x2 103 (mod 89),
f) x2 54 (mod 61).

2. ,

3
,
Fn

Fn = 22 + 1 .

a
3.
= 1. x2 a (mod p),
p
p 3 (mod 4).
(p+1)/2

. , a a

54


a
(mod p),
= 1.
p

4. x2 a (mod p),
p 5 (mod 8).
(p1)/4
.
1 (mod p) ,
, a
2

= 1.
p

5. 1 + 4k.
. 1 + 4k
p1 , p2 , . . . , ps . 1 + 4p21 p22 . . . p2s .
q,

1
4p21 p22 . . . p2s 1 (mod q)
= 1.
q
, q 1 (mod 4) q ,
.
6. 1 + 6k.
7. , p,
3 .
8. , ,
x2 + 1 0 (mod p), p = 4m + 1,
x = 1 2 . . . 2m (mod p).

15.
,
.
m , m = p1 p2 . . . ps m . (
a p1 , p2 , . . . ps
.)
m
:
a a a a
=
...
.
m
p1
p2
ps
55

16
.
a
.
= 1 ,
m
,
x2 a (mod m)

(14)

.
.
a (14)
, m 1.
. ,
a
(n1)/2
(mod n)
a

n
n = 221 a = 2.
,
.
. p , p a,
N
x2 a (mod p ),

> 1,



a
N =1+
.
p

(15)

p = 2, (15) 4 > 3
,
a 1 (mod 8).

16. ()
(a, m) = 1. :
a(m) 1 (mod m).
, k,
ak 1 (mod m).
56

.
a m.
, m , ord a (ordm a) (a) (m (a)). :
A. a b (mod m), ord a = ord b.
B. a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , ak1 m, k = ord a.
C. a (m).
D. an 1 (mod n), ord a n.
E. an as (mod n), n s (mod k), k = ord a.
F. n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s , an 1 (mod m) an/pi 1 m, ordm a pi i .
C F.
C.
k = ord a. (m) k :
(m) = kq + r,

0 6 r 6 k;

1 a(m) (ak )q ar ar (mod m).


, r < k, , r = 0.
F.
k = ord a n,
k = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s ,
0 6 i 6 i . , p1 1 p2 2 . . . pi i . . . ps s n
p1 1 p2 2 . . . pii 1 . . . ps s . , pi i pi i 1 , i = i .
. A, B, D E.
n

1. , Fn = 22 + 1 Fm = 22 + 1,
m 6= n, .
. , n > m p
Fn Fm .
n

22 1 (mod p),

22 1 (mod p).
57

, ordp 2 | 2m+1 , , ordp 2 | 2n ,


n

22 1 (mod p).
2. , ,
(s, ordm a) = 1, ordm as = ordm a.
3 . , n = p1 1 p2 2 . . . ps s , an 1 (mod m)
pi | n an/pi 1 m, ordm a = n.
4. ordm a = k ordm b = s, (k, s) = 1.
ordm (ab) = ks.
. , (a b)ks 1 (mod m), , ord a b
k s.
p k s. , p | k, (p, s) = 1.

k
k
k
ks
(ab) p (as ) p (bs ) p (as ) p .
, aks/p 1 m (. 2).
F 3, , ord (a b) k s.
.
cn = an bn ,

n N.

p a b. n,

cn 0 (mod p).

17.
. a
m, () a m (m).
.
m. m = 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9.
?
(). :
2, 4, p , 2p ,
p , .
, :
58

A. f (x) n ,
p.
f (x) 0 (mod p)
n .
:
xd 1, d p 1, p
d .
. ,
p1
Y
(x a) xp1 1 (mod p)
a=1

, xp1 1 xd 1 .
B. (l) p,
l.
X
(l) = d
l|d

, ,

(d) = p 1.

d|p1

P
: F (d) = l|d (l) = d, d p 1.
F (n)
,

n, n|(p 1),
F (n) =
0, n - (p 1).
C.

(d) = p 1

d|(p1)

:
(p 1) = (p 1)

X (d)
= (p 1) 1.
d

d|(p1)

, p , p (p 1).
59

D. g p.
g p2
(p2 ) = (p 1) p,
g (p + 1). ,
(p + 1)p 1 (mod p2 ).
p + 1 p2 ?
, k g p2 ,
g k 1 (mod p2 )
, ,

g k 1 (mod p),

, p 1 k, k = (p 1) t (p2 )
k. g p2 , k = p1.
, g (p + 1) (p2 ).
E. , g pk pk+1 , k > 2. , .
,
k2

g (p1)p 1 (mod pk1 ),


k2
g (p1)p 6 1 (mod pk ),
,
k2

g (p1)p

= 1 + t pk1 ,

p - t.

k1

g (p1)p

p
1 + t pk1 1 + t pk 6 1 (mod pk+1 ).

F, .
F. , 2p
p .
G. m = 2 m = 4 .
60

p?
p 1 = q11 q22 . . . qss , qi .
a, ordp a qii
i = 1, 2, . . . , s. 3, ,
p:
(p1)/q
1
6 1 (mod p),
a

(p1)/q2
a
6 1 (mod p),
.......................

(p1)/qs
a
6 1 (mod p).
a.
. (p 1) ,
:
a(p1)/2 6 1 (mod p)
, ,


a
= 1.
p

. 37.
. ,
37:
36 = 22 32 .
, a 37 ,

18
a 6 1 (mod 37),
a12 6 1 (mod 37).
a = 2. :

2
218
= 1.
37
:
25 32 5 (mod 37);
210 25 12 (mod 37);
212 48 6 1 (mod 37).
, 2 37.
61

p , g
p.

g 0 , g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g p2
p. a,
p, s , 0 6 s 6 p 2
a = g s (mod p).
s a g
p.
s = indg a.
p , :
s = ind a.
:
1. a b (mod p), ind a = ind b.
2. g s g t (mod p), s t (mod p 1).
3. ind (a b) ind a + ind b (mod p 1).
4. ind ak k ind a (mod p 1).
5. ind (1) =

p1
.
2


. , ,

axn b (mod p), (a b, p) = 1,


ind x
ind a + n ind x ind b (mod p 1).

62


1. p, p = 23, 37, 97, 89.
2. , q 2p + 1
p 4n + 1 2, p = 4n + 3 2.
3. , 4p + 1,
p , 2.
4. , 2n + 1,
n > 1, 3.
5. 1 29 ,
a, b, c, ,
b2 ac 0 (mod 29).
?
6. p . ,
a p a+p 2p.
7 .

xn a (mod p ),
p 6= 2.
8 . , m, , m p 1, Zp
(m) , m.
9. p1 , p2 , . . . , ps . , a, pi .
10 . rn nn p. , rn . .
11. , a
p.

a

?
p
63

12. , p
. ?
13. 23,
23.
14. a pn . ,
a p.
.
.
48x7 3 (mod 61).
. ,
61:
30
a 6 1 (mod 61),
a12 6 1 (mod 61),
20
a 6 1 (mod 61).
, a = 2
61.
ind 48 + 7 ind x ind 3 (mod 60).
:
21
23
25
27
29

2 (mod 61),
8 (mod 61),
32 (mod 61),
6 (mod 61),
24 (mod 61),

ind a 1
a
2

2
4

3
8

22 4 (mod 61),
24 16 (mod 61),
26 3 (mod 61),
28 12 (mod 61),
210 48 (mod 61).

4 5 6
16 32 3

7
6

8 9 10
12 24 48

:
10 + 7 ind x 8 (mod 60);
7 ind x 2 (mod 60).

64

, (7, 60) = 1, , :
7 ind x 2 3 60 182 (mod 60);
ind x 26 (mod 60);
ind x 34 (mod 60).
x:
x 234 (mod 61);
x (210 )3 24 483 24 (13)3 24 45 (mod 61).

x 45 (mod 61).
. p, , :
1. 51x7 14 (mod 89),
2. 65x5 42 (mod 89),
3. 6x5 30 (mod 97),
4. 40x8 71 (mod 97),
5. 4x5 5 (mod 67),
6. 9x8 19 (mod 67),
7. 59x3 51 (mod 71),
8. 48x7 3 (mod 61),
9. 24x11 9 (mod 61),
10. 18x5 4 (mod 79),
11. 27x11 54 (mod 79),
12. 39x5 27 (mod 37),
13. 25x7 29 (mod 37).

65



1
1.

x 3 (mod 13),
x 0 (mod 12),

x 4 (mod 5).
2.
6x 9 (mod 15),
15x 7 (mod 22).
3. 47.
4.
7x11 59 (mod 71).
2
1.

x 3 (mod 9),
x 1 (mod 2),

x 2 (mod 5).
2.
18x 9 (mod 36),
15x 18 (mod 54).
3. 59.
4.
12x5 43 (mod 47).
3
1.

x 2 (mod 7),
x 5 (mod 6),

x 1 (mod 5).
66

2.
11x 37 (mod 59),
6x 18 (mod 27).
3. 79.
4.
39x11 27 (mod 37).
4
1.

x 1 (mod 5),
x 9 (mod 11),

x 2 (mod 3).
2.
27x 9 (mod 18),
37x 1 (mod 18).
3. 37.
4.
25x13 28 (mod 97).
5
1.

x 6 (mod 7),
x 3 (mod 5),

x 1 (mod 3).
2.
12x 4 (mod 16),
28x 7 (mod 19).
3. 31.
4.
9x5 2 (mod 79).

67

6
1.

x 2 (mod 3),
x 1 (mod 5),

x 4 (mod 11).
2.
17x 24 (mod 37),
14x 21 (mod 35).
3. 29.
4.
8x7 11 (mod 53).
7
1.

x 0 (mod 3),
x 3 (mod 5),

x 2 (mod 11).
2.
39x 18 (mod 42),
19x 7 (mod 23).
3. 79.
4.
31x7 52 (mod 73).
8
1.

x 2 (mod 11),
x 0 (mod 2),

x 2 (mod 5).
2.
15x 37 (mod 97),
4x 14 (mod 26).
68

3. 83.
4.
12x7 35 (mod 61).
9
1.

x 1 (mod 12),
x 3 (mod 5),

x 0 (mod 7).
2.
6x 33 (mod 39),
17x 61 (mod 37).
3. 67.
4.
18x11 72 (mod 79).
10
1.

x 1 (mod 7),
x 3 (mod 5),

x 0 (mod 9).
2.
14x 28 (mod 49),
19x 3 (mod 71).
3. 59.
4.
2x13 27 (mod 71).

69


[1] Cohen H. A Course in Computational Algebraic Number Theory. New York:
Springer-Verlag, 1996. 546 p.
[2] Ribenboim P. The New Book of Prime Number Records. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1996. 541 p.
[3] ., .
. .: , 1987. 415 .
[4] . . . .: - , 2006. 176 c.
[5] . ., . . . .
. .: - , 2005. 319 .
[6] . . RSA. .: ,
2001. 328 .
[7] . 250
.: , 1968. 161 c.

70

. .
, . .

15.12.09. 6084/16.
. . .-. . 4,2. .-. . 4,5.
Typeset by LATEX. 150 .
;
443011, , . , 1.
. (846) 3345423.
.

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