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# . . .

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,

2009

519.2
185 73
52

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. 2009

. . .

, . . :
52 . / . . ;
. . - . . . . : , 2009. 40 .

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, 010501 ( , ),
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519.2
185 73
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. . . , 2009

1. 1.
7
2. 2.
14
3. 3.
23

32

34

37

.
. , .

- . , ,
.

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.
1960- Lisp.
Lisp , . ,
, , R-Lisp Reduce.
, Lisp-, ,
Derive, Maple Mathematica. Maple
. , , ,
.
.
Mathematica Maple,
, MATLAB . ,
. Mathematica
4

## Maple, Lisp, , MATLAB .

,
, ,
.
Symbolic Math Toolbox MATLAB , Mathematica Maple
. .
[18] , , , , .
MATLAB, Mathematica, Maple,
MathCad - . , MATLAB , Octave, SciLab.
Octave SciTE, gnuplot . , Scintilla
Text Editor, , .
Octave MatLab , MatLab, .
, Basic Perl
, , . Mathematica ( ) ( ) ().
MATLAB m-,
CGI- Perl.

- . 5

. , , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, .
, .
,
, .

1. 1.

, , .
,
x = F (x),
(1)

T
x= x(t)= x1 (t), x2 (t), . . . , xn (t) -,

T
R Rn , F (x)= F1 (x), F2 (x), . . . , Fn (x) Rn
Rn .
x Rn ,
( ) (1)
F (x ) = 0,

(2)

(1).
(1) x
u = A u,

(3)

F1
x1
F2
x1

F1
x2
F2
x2

Fn
x1

Fn
x2

DF

A=
= ..
Dx x=x
.

..
.

...
...
...
...

F1
xn
F2
xn

..
.

Fn
xn

(4)
xk =xk ,

k=1,2,...,n,

F x .
(1)
k A . ,
1. k=1, . . ., n Re k <0,
x (1) . k
, Re k >0, x (1)
.
7

:
x = F (x, ),

(5)

T
x - - R Rn , = 1 , 2 , . . . , m
Rm , . (5) ( ) n m.
(5), , , :
F (x , ) = 0,

x = x (),

A = A(),

k = k ().

A
, x , (., , [9, . 133] [10,
. 40]) D-. , , , , .
(Raus, Hurwitz) .

P () = a0 n + a1 n1 + . . . + an1 + an = 0,

(6)

, , ak =ak ()
(5),

a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0
a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0

a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0

H=
(7)
a7 a6 a5 a4 . . . 0 .
. . . . .

.. .. .. .. . . ...
0 0 0 0 . . . an
H a1 , . . . , an .
,
. k>n k<0, ak =0.
H

a1 a0 0
a a

1 = a1 , 2 = 1 0 , 3 = a3 a2 a1 , . . . , n = det(H),
a3 a2
a5 a4 a3
8

, det .

2. a0 >0.
(6)
Re k <0
,
1 > 0,

2 > 0,

...,

n > 0.

, x (5)
ak >0 (6).
2

. n=2
n=3.
.
n ,
. , ,
(6) ,
.
D- .
Dk D()=k (6)
. Dk , D( )=k. =i,
, . Dk1 Dk2
Rm P (i)=0, <<.
x
, ,
D0 . ,
k
. , ,
. [9, 10].
(5)
.
9

1. (5).
, ,
.
2. x (). , .
.
3. A (4).
4. ,
D-,
P (i)=0.
5. , , .
,
.
, .
, (5) ,
.

(n=3) , . ,
.
1. [11] (. [1215])

x = (xy),
y = y + (rz)x,
(8)

z = bz + xy.
10

2. , [12, . 366]

x = x + y,
y = y + xz,
(9)

z = z xy,
3. r>1 [13, . 138]
(
x + x + x3 + (z1)x = 0,
z = az dx2 .

(10)

4.

[14, . 79]
(
x = z (1) x,
(11)
z = z + (1x2 ) x,

5. [16]

x = y,
y = xayxz,

z = bz + x2 .

(12)

6.
[12, . 319] :

x = s(x + y xy qx ),
(13)
y = y xy f z 2 ,

z = w(x z).
7. [17], . [13, . 116],

x = y z,
y = x + y,
(14)

z = b + (x c)z.
11

8. [13, . 141],
[15] ,

x = mx + y xz,
y = x,
(15)

z = gz + gx2 ,
9. [13, . 143]

x = mx + y xz dx ,
y = x,

z = gz + g(ex 1).

(16)

x2

T x = x + M ze ,
(17)
y = x y,

z = y z/Q.
11. [13, . 138]
(

## x 2hx + (1+)x + (zz 3 ),

z = (x + z z 3 ).

(18)

12. [15,
. 86], [9, . 472] ,

x = 2hx + y gz,
y = x,
(19)

z = x f (z),
f (z)= 14z 3 22z 2 + 9z.
12

## 13. [9, . 481] :

x = x + y + z 2y ,
(20)
y = x + y + 2xy,

z = 2z(x+).
14. (20) ,
[13, . 109]

x = (z1+x )y + x,
(21)
y = (3z+1x2 )x + y,

z = 2z(v+xy),
15. , . [13, . 111] (
B=0)

x = y,
y = (x2 +3z 2 )x/8 k1 y + B cos t,
(22)

z = k2 (3x2 +z 2 )z/8 + k3 .
16. [18]
(
x=y=z6=0)

x = (1 x y z) x,
y = (1 x y z) y,
(23)

z = (1 x y z) z.
17.

[19, . 98]

x = Gx(y + z 1),
y = A y(1+x) xz,
(24)

z = z(1+x) xy/2.
13

x = Gx(y + z 1),
y = A y(1+x),
(25)

z = B z(x+).

(10).

2. 2.
(1),
x = F (x),
x(0) = x0 .
x (t) ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
,
.

.
.
(t)
( [13])

## [(t)] = lim t1 ln k(t)k .

(26)
t
(26) () t .
14

x (0)=x0
*

p2(0)

x (T)
*

p2(T)

p1(T)

p1(0)
p3(0)
x (t)

p3(T)

. 1.
( )
[20]. x0
, (1).
pj (0), j=1, n, n ,
Vn (0) . , t
pj (t).
(26)
1 kpj (t)k
j = lim ln
, j=1, n.
(27)
t t
kpj (0)k
, 1 2 . . . n ,
. n Vn (0)
Vn (t) ' Vn (0) exp[(1 + . . . +n )t].
( )
V1 (t)'V1 (0) exp[1 t].
, 1 >0 ,
. ,
V1 (t), V1 (0) Vn (t), Vn (0).
, ,
15

Vn (t),
1 + 2 + . . . + n < 0.

(28)

(28) ,
(, ). (. dissipatio )
.
, ,
. , .
(. conservatio
). ,
, ,
.
.
, (28)
1 >0. ,
. ,
. .
(28) 1 >0 k,
1 + 2 + . . . + k 0

1 + 2 + . . . + k+1 < 0.

## , k+1 <0. 0s<1,

1 + 2 + . . . + k + sk+1 = 0.

dL = k + s = k + |k+1 |1 (1 +2 + . . . +k ).

(29)

dL , , . ,
, . , , ,
, . , dL .
16

(29)
. , dL
[21].
[22], [23] .
(1)

DF
(30)
u = A(t) u ,

A(t) =
.

Dx x=x (t)
(30) . , x0 , ,

x(t) = x (t) + pj (t) = x (t) + h uj (t),
(31)
pj (t) ,
h1 uj (t)
. -, (31)
(1) h, , x(t) x (t)
h
(30). , ,
kpj (t)k , kuj (t)k
.
. , 1 >0 ku1 (t)k
e1 t , .
ku1 (t)k . , uj (t) e1 t , uj
u1 (t).
. T , .
T , ,
.
( ). ,
17

T . uj (t),
kuj (T )k=1, T , x (T ). . T .
, ,
, .
: T1 =1,
1 (T1 ) T2 (T2 >T1
1 , T2 <T1 ),
T1 T2 . m
,
t=mT ,
.
, x0 (1).
,

(1). ,
.
,
x0 .
(k)
uj =uj (kT ) , (27), t=mT
" (1)
#
(2)
(m)
ku
k
ku
k
ku
k
kpj (t)k
kuj (t)k
j
j
j
ln
= ln
= ln

.
.
.

=
(0)
(1)
(m1)
kpj (0)k
kuj (0)k
ku k ku k
ku
k
j

(1)

= ln

kuj k
(0)
kuj k

+ ln

j
(2)
kuj k
(1)
kuj k

(m)

+ . . . + ln

kuj k
(m1)
kuj
k

(27)
(k+1)
m1
k
1 X kuj
j = lim
ln
,
(k)
m mT
ku
k
k=0
j

j=1, n .

(32)

pj (0) ej , h. ej
(0)
(30), uj = ej .
18

n+n2 . n
, n n2 .
.
(0)

1. () n vj ((0)

vj = ej ), j := j (0)= 0, T . k=0.
2. n+n2 [kT, (k+1)T ].
n (1) x(kT )=x (kT ),
, n (30),
(k)
(k)
n uj =vj .
(k+1)

(k+1)

3. uj
wj
, ( )
(k+1)

= u1

(k+1)

= u2

w1
w2

(k+1)
(k+1)

u2 , w1
w1
,

...

## (k+1) (k+1) (k+1)

(k+1) (k+1) (k+1)
w1
.
,
w
w

.
.
.

un , w1

u
wn(k+1) = u(k+1)
n
n
n1
n1
(k+1)

4. j ln kwj

k.

(k+1)

## j := j (k+1)= j (k)+ ln kwj

k. (k+1)-
j-
j j (k+1) / [(k+1)T ].
(k+1)

5. wj

(k+1)
(k+1)
(k+1)
vj
= wj
/kwj
k.
k .
6. m 2 5.
7. m- j-
j

j (m)
j
=
.
mT
mT
19

, ,
, . -, 2n n
n
(0)
- v1 . 1 2. -, 3 ,
(k+1)
(k+1)
w1

u1
1 (m).

.
-, (1) , j : j =0. 1 =0, . .
[13, 24].
(1), , , , [13]. ,
x (t) (1), , x (t+ ),
(1). (1) x (t)
lim

1 kx (t+ ) x (t)k
ln
= 0.
t
kx ( ) x (0)k

(33)

, (1) ,
.
-, , , Vn (t).
,
Z t
Vn (t) ' Vn (0) exp

Z t

## trA( )d = Vn (0) exp

0

F (x (t))d ,

Vn (t) F
x (t):
n
X
Fj (x)
D(t) = divF (x (t)) = F (x (t)) =
= trA(t).

xj x=x (t)
k=1

20

D(t) D, 1 + . . . +n = D.
n=3 , 2 =0 1 +3 =D,
. n>3
.
(1)
1
1 + . . . +n lim
t t

Zt
trA( )d.

(34)

.
[25, 26]
x = F (x, x(th)),
(35)

x=x(t) t, th. (35) . ,
x(0) . (35) . . [27]. , , ,
C[h, 0]. ,
.

u = A(t) u + B(t) u(th) ,

(36)

DF
DF
A(t) =
,
B(t) =
.

Dx x=x (t)
Dx(th) x=x (t)
.

,
.
21

.
x(k+1) = f (x(k) ),

x(0) = ,

(37)

f , Rn Rn , .
:

(k+1)

=A

(k)

(k)

(k)

Df
=
.

Dx x=x(k)

(38)

. 1
,
, T =1. 2 f (37) n Df /Dx n
(38). .
(8) (25) 1.
, 1 >0.
,
1 >0. .

, [15, . 78] [28, . 60].

. 1 1/1 , , . 1
. , , ,
, - .
22

3. 3.
,
, , . ,
.

[2934].
( ,
), ( , ,
, , ), , (, ).
, , .
. , ,
.
:
x + a1 (t)x + a2 (t)x(t) = F (t),
(39)
t,

x(0) = C0 ,

x(0)

= C1 .

(40)

Zt
x(t) = (t),

x(t)

(s) ds + C1 .

(41)

, x(t)
Zt
x(t) =

(t s) (s) ds + C1 t + C0 .
0

23

(42)

(42)
Zt

Ztn
dtn

Zt2
dtn1 . . .

1
f (t1 )dt1 =
(n1)!

Zt
(t s)n1 f (s) ds.

(43)

## . (43) n=2, n=3.

, (39), (40) (41), (42)

Zt
(44)
(t) = K(t, s) (s) ds + f (t),
0

## K(t, s) = a1 (t) + a2 (t)(t s) ,

f (t) = F (t) C1 a1 (t) C1 ta2 (t) C0 a2 (t).
(44)
, (39).
, (43) [33, 34]. ,
(43) nN .
-, n.
f (t) >0
t>0
1

I0+
f (t) =
()

Zt
(t s)1 f (s) ds.

(45)

[33] .
t<0

I0
f (t) =

1
()

Z0
(s t)1 f (s) ds.
t

24

(46)

## . , (45), (46) <0 (, - () ). (1, 0)

I0+
f (t) I0
f (t), , ,
.

= (m 1) + ,

m = [] + 1,

= {},

m
m1
d
d

D0+
f (t) =
I0+
f (t) =
D0+
f (t) =
dt
dt
m Z t
d
f (s)
1
=
ds,
(1) dt
(t s)

(47)

(48)

t>0

m1

m
d
d

f (t) =
D0
f (t) =
I0
f (t) =
D0
dt
dt
m Z0
(1)m
d
f (s)
=
ds,
(1) dt
(s t)

(49)

t<0. , , . ,
3.7
3.7
D0+
f (t) D0
f (t),
=3.7, (48), (49) m=4 =0.7.
,
, [33],
(44).
-- [34].
, ,
.
25

Zb
(t) =

(50)

## K(t, s) (s) ds + f (t),

a

K f ,
. s t [a, b].
, f [a, b], K
[a, b] [a, b], . (2).

s
b

t<s
t<s
t>s
t>s

. 2. K(t, s)
(44) (50)

.
.

Rt

Rb

## K(t, s) (s) ds = f (t)

Rt
Rb
(t)= K(t, s) (s) ds+f (t) (t)= K(t, s) (s) ds+f (t)
a

,
. , K(t, s)0 s>t (. . (2))
t b,
. , ,
.
26

.
. ,
n (t)(t) n. ,
, .
.
(50), :
Zb
(t) =

## K(t, s) (s) ds + f (t).

(51)

=0 , , (t)=f (t).
A,
[a, b] C[a, b] C[a, b]:
Zb
A =

(52)

## K(t, s) (s) ds + f (t).

a

A () K(t, s). ,
0<<1,
x, y
(Ax, Ay) (x, y).

(53)

, C[a, b]
x, y
(x, y) = max |x(t) y(t)|,
atb

L2 [a, b] :
Zb
(x, y) =

2
x(t) y(t) dt

27

1/2
.

Zb Zb
M = max |K(t, s)| ,
at, sb

1/2
K 2 (t, s) dtds

B=
a

A C[a, b]
|| < 1/(M (ba)),
L2 [a, b]
|| < 1/B.
. .

x ,
Ax = x .
x , A,
(t), , , (51).
, (53),
(51)
n+1 (t) = An (s),
0 (t),
A. ,
.
n+1 (t) ,
(n+1 , ) < .
, , ,

(n+1 , n ) < .
,
{n }.
28

K(tj ,sk)=Kj k

sn=b
sk

s0=a

t
0

t 0=a

tj

t n=b

. 3. (j, k)-
.
(51)
K, , f .
n, [a, b] n , (3) ,
ba
,
,
t0 = s0 = a, tn = sn = b.
n
( , , ..) .
:
n
i
ba X 1 h
(t) =
K(t, sk1 ) (sk1 ) + K(t, sk ) (sk ) + f (t). (54)
n
2
tj = sj = a + j

k=1

t tj =sj , j=0, 1, . . . , n.
Kjk = K(sj , sk ),

j = (sj ),

fj = f (sj ).

1+n 1+n j :
#
"
n1
i
h
X
ba 1
j =
Kjk k + fj ,
j = 0, 1, . . . , n.
Kj0 0 +Kjn n +
n 2
k=1
(55)
29

(jk- Q Kjk )
(I Q) = f.
(56)
, . , n=100
.
. A =1.
.
( 1 9) ( 10 18) :
1.

a = 0,

1
cos(t+s),

b = ,

K(t, s) =

(t + s)3
K(t, s) =
,
1 + s + s2 + s3

2.

a = 0,

b = 1,

3.

a = 0,

b=

4.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) =

,
5

K(t, s) =

5
sin(5t+5s),

sh(t + s)
,
ch(1 + s)

5.

a = 0,

b = 1,

(t + s)2
K(t, s) =
,
1 + s + s2

6.

a = 0,

b = ,

K(t, s) =

7.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = s4 t2 s,

8.

a = 0,

b = ,

K(t, s) =

1
cos(t+s),

9.

a = 1,

b = 2,

10.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = sh(ts),

11.

a = 0,

b = ,

K(t, s) = sin(ts) ,

3 t2
f (t) =
4 2
f (t) =

3
sin(5t)
2

f (t) = ch(t)
f (t) =

1
cos(3t+3s),

t2
t
K(t, s) = 2 ,
s s

30

f (t) = 3 sin(t)

2
3

f (t) = 2 cos(3t)

## f (t) = 5t2 4/7

f (t) =

1
cos(t)
2

t t2
f (t) =
2 4
f (t) = t
f (t) = t

12.

a = 0,

b = ,

K(t, s) = 2 cos(ts),

13.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = s t ,

14.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = 1,

15.

a = 0,

b = ,

## K(t, s) = est sin(ts),

16.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = ets ,

f (t) = t

17.

a = 0,

b = ,

K(t, s) = e2(st) ,

f (t) = t(1+e2t )

18.

a = 0,

b = 1,

K(t, s) = ets ,

31

f (t) = t cos(t)

f (t) = t
f (t) = 2 cos(t)

f (t) = 2.

f (t) = et

,
, ,
.
. ,
, . , - ,
, .
[17] , ,
. , , ,
. ,
. , NDSolve
Mathematica 7
,
.
,
, . , Integrate Mathematica
, ,

Integrate[Cos[Sqrt[x]]]
Integrate[x Log[x], {x,1,2}]
Integrate[Sqrt[x2+y2], {x,0,1}, {y,0,1}]
. .
32

, ,
, , .
,
, .
, .
,
.

33

1. , . . :
Maple, MATLAB, LaTeX / . . , . . .
.: , 2002. 624 .
2. , . . :
Mathematica, Maple
MATLAB. / . . , . . . .: , 2007.
3. , . . / . . . .: , 2001. 264 .
4. Wolfram, S. The Mathematica book. 5-th edition. [
] / S. Wolfram. 2003. 1301 p. www.wolfram.com.
5. , . .
MatLab 5.x ( 2- ) / . . . .: -,
1999.
6. , . . MatLab 6. / . . .
.: , 2002. 592 .
7. , . . MatLab 7.
/ . . . .: -, 2006. 320 .
8. http://computers.plib.ru/math,
http://exponenta.ru,
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/matlab,
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/mathematica,
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/maple
9. , . . / . . , . . . 3- . :
, 2000. 560 .
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/ . . . 2- . .: . ., 2001.
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// Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 1963. Vol. 20. P. 130
141.
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/ . . . 2- . .:
, 2009. 320 .
14. , . / . . .: , 1990.
312 .
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, 2001. 298 .
16. , . .
/ . . //
: . . . -. . 1988. . 130138.
17. R
ossler, O. E. An equation for continuous chaos / O. E. R
ossler
// Phys. Lett. A 1976. Vol. 57, 5. P. 397398.
18. May, R. M. Nonlinear Aspects of Competition Between Two Species
/ R. M. May, W. J. Leonard // SIAM J. Appl. Math. 1975.
Vol. 29, 2. P. 243253.
19. , . . / . . . .:
. , 1999. 368 .
20. Frederickson, P. The Lyapunov dimension of strange attractors
/ P. Frederickson, J. Kaplan, J. Yorke // J. Diff. Equations 1983.
Vol. 49. P. 185194.
21. , . .
/ . . , . . . 2- . .:
, 2002. 360 .
22. Benettin, G. Lyapunov characteristic exponents for smooth dynamical
systems and for hamiltonian systems; a method for computing all of
them / G. Benettin [et al.] // Mechanica. 1980. Vol. 15, 1.
P. 930.
35

## 23. , . . / . . , . . , . . , . . // . 2005. . 41, 2.

. 268273.
24. . . / . . , . . ,
. . . 2- . .: , 1959. 926 .
25. , . - / . , . . . .: , 1967. 548 .
26. , . . / . . , . . . .: , 1971. 296 .
27. , . . / . . . .: , 1959.
28. , . .
/ . . . : , 2002. 76 .
29. , . . / . . , . . . 4- . .:
, 1976.
30. , . . .
/ . . . 2- . .: , 2006. 304 .
31. , . .
/ . . . 2- . .: , 1970. 192 .
32. , . . ,
/ . . , . . , . . , . . . 2-
. .: , 2005. 432 .
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34. , . .
/ . . . :
, 2004. 288 .
36

, .

,

?< > (* Mathematica, , ?Plot *)
?< > # Maple, , ?int
help < > % MATLAB, , help ode45
F1.

. . (**), #, %
. with(linalg):
Maple .
.
:
Integrate (* . , *)
int # , int(x/(x3+1), x); int(exp(-x)*sin(x), x=0..infinity);
, , .

Plot (* , Plot[{Sin[x], Sin[2 x], Sin[3*x]}, {x, 0, 2 Pi}] *)
plot # plot([sin(x), x-x3/6], x=0..2, color=[red,blue], style=[point,line]);
plot % , x = 0:0.1:5*pi; plot(x, sin(x))

.
:
Eigenvalues (* , Eigenvalues[{{a, b}, {c, d}}] *)
eigenvals # , with(linalg): eigenvals([[a,b],[c,d]]);
eig % , eig([1 2; 3 4])
37

CharacteristicPolynomial (* ,
22 x
CharacteristicPolynomial[{{a, b}, {c, d}}, x] *)
CoefficientList (* , CoefficientList[2+a*x+x3, x] *)
charpoly # , with(linalg): charpoly([[a,b],[c,d]], lambda);
poly % , poly([1 2; 3 4])
:
Jacob[f_, x_] := Outer[D[#1, #2]& , f, x]; (*
Mathematica , : Jacob[{y[t], -x[t]+y[t]*z[t], 1-y[t]2}, {x[t], y[t], z[t]}] *)
jacobian #, with(linalg): jacobian([r*cos(phi),r*sin(phi)], [r,phi]);
jacobian % , jacobian([x*y*z; y; x+z], [x, y, z])
Ay=b,
A nn, b ,
:
LinearSolve (* , LinearSolve[{{a, b}, {c, d}}, {p, q}] *)
linsolve # , with(linalg): linsolve([[1,2],[3,4]], [5,6]);
A\b % \ , A1 b,
, A b .

( )

ReplaceAll (* /., , {x, x2, y, z} /. x->a *)
subs # , subs(sin(x)=y, sin(x)/sqrt(1-sin(x)));
subs % , subs(x*y+z, x, 3)

. .
NDSolve (* Mathematica *)
NDSolve[{x[t]==-y[t]-x[t]2, y[t]==x[t]-y[t]3, x[0]==y[0]==1}, {x, y},
{t,20}]; ParametricPlot[Evaluate[{x[t], y[t]} /. %], {t,0,20}] (*
(x[t], x[t]), %
*)
38

## sol=NDSolve[{x[t]==x[t]*(x[t-Pi]-x[t-1]), x[t/;t<=0]==Cos[t]}, x,{t,0,8}];

Plot[Evaluate[{x[t], x[t]} /. First[sol]], {t,0,8}, PlotRange->All] (*
x(t) , x0 (t) t *)
NDSolve[{D[u[t,x],t]==D[u[t,x],x,x], u[0,x]==0, u[t,0]==Sin[t], u[t,5]==0},
u, {t,0,10}, {x,0,5}]; (* *)
Plot3D[Evaluate[u[t,x]/.%], {t,0,10}, {x,0,5}, PlotRange->All]
(* u(t,x) *)
deplot # deplot detools Maple

with(DEtools):
DEplot([diff(x(t),t)=x(t)*(1-y(t)), diff(y(t),t)=.3*y(t)*(x(t)-1)], [x(t), y(t)],
t=-7..7, [[x(0)=1.2, y(0)=1.2], [x(0)=1, y(0)=.7]], stepsize=.2);
#
ode23, ode45 % MATLAB

dde23 %
% , ddex11.m, :
function ddex11
% y 0 = y [y(t) y(t1)]
sol = dde23(@ddex11de, [1,pi], @ddex11hist, [0,8]);
figure;
plot(sol.x, sol.y)
title(DDE example);
xlabel(time t); ylabel(solution y);
function s = ddex11hist(t)
s = cos(t);
%
function dydt = ddex11de(t,y,Z) %
ylag1 = Z(:,1); ylag2 = Z(:,2);
dydt = [y(1)*(ylag2(1)-ylag1(1))];

39

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. .
28.09.2009. 60x84/16.
. "Times New Roman".
. . . 2,32. .-. . 1,5.
100 .
.
-
-

. . . .
.

. . . .
150000, , . , 14.

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