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2006

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE


OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
VOLGOGRAD STATE UNIVERSITY
CENTER FOR AMERICAN STUDIES

AMERICANA
Volume VIII
RUSSIA AND THE USA:
POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL,
CULTURAL INTERACTION
The M aterials o f the Scholar Conference
devoted to the 10 anniversary o f the Center
f o r Am erican Studies AMERICANA
Volgograd, 2006, A pril 21-23

Editors:
Dr. A.I. Kubyshkin (Editor-in-Chief); O.V. Bogatov
(Executive secretary); Dr. I.I. Kurilla; N.V. Sazanova

Volgograd 2006



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Bremer The Homes o f the New World. Impressions o f America. N. Y.

185.1. Vol. I. P. 247-251.


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6 W. Tudor to J. Adams, December 3, 1775 // Adams J. Papers. Ser. 3:


In 12 vols. / Ed. by R.J. Taylor. Cambridge (Mass.), 1977-2004. Vol. 3. P. 340. C m .
i ;1: W. Tudor to J. Adams, September 6, 1776 // Ibid. Vol. 5. P. 15.
7 Weigley R.F. The American Way o f War. A History o f United States Military
Policy. L.; N. Y., 1973. P. 13; Idem. Towards an American Army: Military Thought
from Washington to Marshall. Westport, 1974. P. 4 -5 . . : Martin J.K.,
I cnder M.E. A Respectable Army: The Military Origins o f the Republic, 1763-1789.
Arlington Heights (111.), 1982. P. 69-78.
8 CunliffeM. Soldiers and Civilians. The Martial Spirit in America. 1775-1865.
N. Y.; L., 1973. P.148-149; .. . ., 1973. . 138.
9 Hoerder D. Crowd Action in Revolutionary Massachusetts. 1765-1780.
N. Y. e. a., 1977. P. 316.
111 Longmore P.K. The Invention o f George Washington. Berkeley e. a., 1988.
P. 179; Thornton B.S., Hadson V.D. Western Cincinnatus: Washington as Farmer
and Soldier// Patriot Sage: George Washington and the American Political Tradition
/ lid. by G.L. Gregg, M. Spalding. Wilmington (Del.), 1999. P. 39-60.
11 Adams S. Writings: In 4 vols. / Ed. by H.A. Cushing. N. Y., 1968. Vol. 1.
P. 252-253.
12 Martin J.K., Lender M.E. A Respectable Army. P. 25.
.: Cress L.D. Citizens in Arms: The Army and the
Militia in American Society to the War o f 1812. Chapel Hill, 1982. P. 34-50.
13 Higginbotham R.D. The War o f American Independence. N. Y.; L., 1971.
P. 2 06-207.
14 N. Greene to M. Furman, January 4, 1780 // Greene N. The Papers / Ed. by
R.K. Showman. Chapel Hill, 1976. Vol. 5. P. 230.
15 E. Cornell to Governor Greene, September 10, 1780 // Staples W.P Rhode
Island in the Continental Congress, 1765-1790. N. Y., 1971. P. 312.
16 G. W ashington to the President o f C ongress, D ecem ber 23, 1777
// Washington G. The Writings. Vol. 10. P. 196197; G. Washington to the Committee
ofCongress with the Army, January 29, 1781 // Ibid. P. 363-365. Flexner J.T. George
Washington in the American Revolution (1775-1783). L., 1972. P. 342.
17 J. Lovell to S. Adams, January 13, 1778 //Letters ofD elegates to Congress,
1774-1789: In 26 vols. / Ed. by P.H. Smith. Washington (D.C.), 1976-2000. Vol. 8.
P. 580. (: LDC).
18 W. Livingston to G. Clinton, April 3, 1780 // Livingston W. Papers: In 5 vols.
/ Ed. by C.E. Prince e. a. Trenton, 1979-1988. Vol. 3. P. 348; Th. Burke to R. Caswell,
March 12, 1778 // LDC. Vol. 9. P. 275; Cress L.D. Citizens in Arms. P. 69.
.: Hall V.B. Politics without Parties.
Massachusetts, 1780-1789. Pittsburgh, 1972. P. 154-157.
19 Buel R. Dear Liberty. Connecticuts Mobilization for the Revolutionary War.
Middletown (Ct.), 1980. P. 301.
20 Letters o f Members o f the Continental Congress: In 8 vols. / Ed. by
E.C. Burnett. Washington (D.C.), 1933. Vol. 7. P. 407. . : Higginbotham R.D.
The War o f American Independence. N. Y.; L., 1971. P. 406.

1
.. .
. ., 2006. .1316; ..
(1648-1715)
., 2005. . 135-142.
Rosswurm S. The Philadelphia Militia, 1775-1783: Active Duty and Active
Radicalism //Arms and Independence: The Military Character o f the American Revolution
/E d. by R. Hoffman, P.J, Albert. Charlottesville (Va.), 1984. P. 77.
G.
W ashington to the President o f C ongress, D ecem ber 20, 1776.,
// Washington G The Writings from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799:
In 39 vols. / Ed. by J.C Fitzpatrick. Washington (D.C.), 1931 1944. Vol. 6. P. 403.
4 Ramsay I). History o f the United States: In 3 vols. Philadelphia 1816
1817. Vol. 2. P. 357.
5 Quarles B. The Negro in the American Revolution. N. Y., 1973. P. 33 -5 0 ,
182, 200; Skelton W.B. The Confederation Regulars: A Social Profile o f Enlisted
Service in Americas First Standing Army // William and Mary Quarterly. Vol. 46
(October 1989). P. 770-785; Langley L.D. The Americas in the A ge o f Revolution
1750-1850. New Haven, 1996. P. 49.

- 30 -

- 31 -


21 G. Morris to N. Greene, February 15, 1783 // Sparks J. The Life o f
Gouverneur Morris: In 3 vols. Boston, 1832. Vol. 1. P. 250.
22 N. Greene to the Governor ofSouth Carolina// Johnson W. Sketches o f the
Life and Correspondence ofNathanael Greene: In 2 vols. N. Y., 1973. Vol. 2. P. 388.
23 Ibid.
24 , , .
25 Journals o f the Continental Congress. 1774-1789: In 34 vols. / Ed. by
W.Ch. Ford. Washington, 1904-1937. Vol. 24. P. 295-297.
26 Washington G. Newburgh Address. Boston, 1966.
27 A. Hamilton to J. Dickinson, [September 25 -3 0 , 1783] // Hamilton A. The
Papers: In 27 vols. / Ed. by H.C. Syrett. N. Y.; L 1961-1987. Vol. 3. P. 451.
28 Commentaries on the Constitution: Public and Private: In 4 vols. Madison,
1981-1986. Vol. l.P . 302.
29 Washington G. The Writings. Vol. 26. P. 388-394; Hamilton A. The Papers.
Vol. 3. P. 379-383.
311 Myers M. Liberty without Anarchy. A History o f the Society o f the
Cincinnati. Charlottesville, 1983. P. 15-18; B.H.
// . 1973. 11. . 214.
31 S. Adams to . Gerry, April 19, 1784 // Adams S. Writings. Vol. 4. P. 298;
S. Adams to E. Gerry, April 23, 1784 // Ibid. P. 301-303. . 298.
32 Warren .. History o f the Rise. Progress and Termination o f the American
Revolution: In 3 vols. Boston, 1805. Vol. 3. P. 284.
33 FiskeJ. The Critical Period o f American History, 1783-1789. Boston; N. Y.,
1899. P. 125.
34 J. Adams to E. Gerry, August 25, 1785 //A ustin J.T. The Life ofElbridge
Gerry: In 2 vols. N. Y 1970. Vol. 1. P. 427.
35 J.Q. Adams to J. Adams, June 30, 1787 //A dam s J.Q. Writings: In 7 vols.
/E d. by W.Ch. Ford. N .Y ., 1913-1917. Vol. 1. P. 33.
36 Morris R.B. The Forging o f the Union, 1781-1789. N. Y., 1987. P. 52.
37 B.H. . . . 217.
38 Austin J.T. The Life o f Elbridge Gerry. Vol. 1 P. 420.
39 I III. . . . 273.
411 Mirabeau II.G. Considerations sur l ordre Cincinnatus. L., 1785. Passim.
41 Ph. Maz/.ei to Th. Jefferson, February 6, 1786 // Mazzei Ph. Selected
Writings and Correspondence: In 3 vols. / Ed. by M. Marchione e. a. Prato, 1983.
Vol. l.P . 516.
42 Pennsylvania Gazette. 1787. Sept. 26. / / Commentaries on the Constitution.
Vol. l.P . 253.
43 - ,
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2 .. - .. , 23 (4 ), 26 (7
) 1809 . // ... . 379-380, 382-385; Porter K.W., John Jacob Astor
Business Man. Vol. 1-2. Cambridge, 1931. Vol. 1. Doc. 41. P. 429; ..
- , 1775-1815. ., 1966. . 440-465.
3 . .. , 23 (4 ) 1809 . //
: , 1765-1815: . /. ..
, .. , , . ., 1980. . 603-604; . .. , (9) 21 1811 . // . . 452-453; Porter K.W. Op. cit.
Vol. 1. P. 454-459.
4 .. . . , 26 (7 ) 1809 . //
... . 382-385.
; .: Saul N. Distant F'riend.s: 1'he United States and Russia, 1763-1867. Lawrence
(Kansas), 1991. P. 64 -6 9 , 74.
5 (1 7 3 2 -1867): 3 . / . . . ..
. (: ). . 2. - (17991825). ., 1999. . 174-175; Porter K.W. Op. cit. Vol. I. P. 4 2 9 - , 432, 433-438.

II : -...
< 5 7 , 59, 60; .. ,
I . ., 1835. . 137-140.
7 . . 57, 59; .. - . , (13) 25 1811 .
// ... . 484-485; Porter K.W. Op. cit. Vol. 1. P. 460, 471-472.
8 . - . , (30 1810 .) 11 1811 .
// ... . 448-449; Porter .W. Op. cit. Vol. 1. P. 448-452.
9 .. - . , 27 (8 ) 1810 . //
... . 4 2 9 ^ 3 0 .
III . - . , 2 (1 4 ) 1812 .// . . 512-513.
11 .: ..
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1861, 1863. . 1-2;. . 1. . . 27-40.
12 . . 27.
13 .. - .. , 20 1822 . //
(). . 445. On. 1. . 151. . 33 -3 3 .
14 . . 33 . - 34.
15 - .. 27 1824 . // National Archives and
Record Service (NARS). Washington (D.C.) Records o f the Russian-American
Company (NARS. RRAC) R. 4. P. 16; . T. 2. - (1799-1825). ., 1999. . 383-388.
16 .. - 1 13 1824 . // NARS. RRAC. R. 29. . 160.
17
20- . XIX . 1: 3,5.
18 .. . . . 2. . 176; . . 3. :
(1825-1867). ., 1999. . 347-359.
19 ,
29 1857 . // ().
. 1-9. 1857-1868. . 4. . 13.
20
.. .
. .:
.. , 1732-1799. ., 1991. . 213-228; . , 1834-1867. ., 1991.. 167-214;.
. 3. : (1825-1867). ., 1999. . 394-497
21 New York Daily Tribune. 1867. Apr. 8.
22 New York Post. 1867. Apr. 8
23 San Antonio Daily Express. 1867. Apr. 23.
24 Daily Sentinel. 1867. Apr. 3.
25 Welch R.E. American Public Opinion and the Purchase o f Russian America
// American Slavic and East European Review. 1958. Vol. 17. December. P. 486-488;
Bailey Th.A. Why the United States purchased Alaska // Pacific Historical Review
/ 1934. March. Vol. 3. 1. P. 39-40; Reid V.H. The Purchase o f Alaska: Contemporary

- 43 - 42 -

opinion. I.ong Beach, 1940; H.H. -


. 1834-1867. . 221-258.
San Francisco chronicle. 1867. Apr. 11.
27 Connecticut Courant. 1867. Apr. 6.
28 Commercial Advertiser. 1867. Apr. 1.
29 Daily Evening Transcript. 1867. Apr. 3.
30 Alta California. 1867. Apr. 5.
31 National Intelligence. 1867. Apr. 5.
32 Boston Herald. 1867. Apr. 11.
33 Commercial Advertiser. 1867. Apr. 1; National Intelligence. 1867. Apr. 5.;
Alta California. 1867. Apr. 5.
34 .. - . .; ., 1939. . 253.

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30 50- . XIX ..// 11


. , 1987. . 73-89.
The Pioneer. A Literary Magazine / Ed. by J.R. Lowell. With an Introduction
by S. Bradley. N. Y., 1947. P. 61; . : The Southern Quarterly Review. Vol 1
1. Jan. 1842. P. 19-20.

14 http://loe.harpweek.eom//LCPoliticalCartoons/.
15 http://www.ipl.org/div/potus; .. :
// , 2000. ., 2002. . 14.
.
. . ,
. . ,
(election riots) 100 1828-1860 . .: Grimsted
D. American Mobbing, 1828-1861. Oxford, 1998. P. 184.
16 ACompilation o f the Messages and Papers o f the Presidents. Vol. II. P. 448;
. ., 2001. . 115; Remini R. A. Jackson
and the Course o f American Democracy, 1833-1845. Vol. III. N. Y., 1984. P. 159.
17 C m .: N iles Weekly Register. 1830 Dec. 11.; 1831. Dec. 11.; 1832. Dec. 8.;

3 American Whig Review. Vol. 14. 84. Dec. 1851. P. 516.


4 Turner F.J. Rise o f the New West: 1819-1829. N. Y 1906. P. 8, 189;Remini
R.V. Martin Van Buren and the Making o f the Democratic Party. N. Y., 1961. P. 196.
5 .. CLUA. ., 2004. . 166.
6 .: Davis . Old Hickory. A Life o f Andrew Jackson. N. Y., 1977. P. 71;
Watson Il.L. Liberty and Power. P. 153, 225; Remini R.V. Andrew Jackson: the Course
o f American Freedom. Vol. 2. N. Y 1982. P. 177-178; Cutlip S.M. Public Relations
History: From the XVII to the XX century. Boston, 1995. P. 51, 68 -7 1 , 82.
7 C m : Massachusetts Yeoman, Worcester. Nov. 1. 1828. Mode o f access: http://
www.rarenewspapers.com; Carrol M.E. Origins o f the Whig Party. Gloucester, 1964. P. 26.
8 C m .: The Correspondence o f A. Jackson. Vol. III. P. 224, 227, 269;
Howe D.W. The Political Culture o f the American Whigs. Chicago, 1984. P. 39.
I 4 ,
.
.. , . ,
.
. 99
( - 84) 43,1 % ( 30,5 %).
9 .: United States Telegraph. Extra. (Washington, D.C). Apr. 1. 1828. Mode
o f access: http://www.rarenewspapers.com. National Journal,
.. , , .
50 . . . .: Correspondence o f
A. Jackson: In 7 vols. / Ed. by J.S. Basset, J.F. Jameson. Washington. 1926-1935.
Vol. III. P. XV; Turner F.J. The United States, 1830-1850. P. 26 -2 7 .
111 http://loe.harpweek.eom//LCPolitiealCartoons/.
11 Ibid.
12 Ibid.
13 , , ,
. , ,
.
. 1790 .,
1793 .
, . .:
National Gazette. 1829. Jan. 10. Mode o f access: http://www.rarenewspapers.com;
Basch N.B. Marriage, Morals and Politics in the Election o f 1828 // Journal o f American
History. Vol. 80. 1993. Dec. 3. P. 890-918; ..
: // . 1994. 6. . 192; .
, . ., 1995. . 304-305.

- 56 -

1835. Dec. 12., etc.


18 Remini R.V. The Revolutionary Age o f Andrew Jackson. N. Y., 1976. P. 134;
.. . //
. ., 1985. . 207.
19 http://america-xix.org.ru/.
20 N iles Weekly Register. Dec. 7. 1833.
21 Register o f Debates. 23d Congress. 1st Session. P. 386-387; 1312-1313;
1375; 1646; Holt M. The Rise and Fall o f the American Whig Party: Jacksonian
Politics and the Onset o f the Civil War. N. Y., 2003. P. 24.
22 A Compilation o f the M essages and Papers o f the Presidents. Vol. III.
P. 1282-1283; 1291-1293; 1301-1305.
23
, , . .: National Intelligencer.
Febr. 19. 1831; Schlesinger A. The Age o f Jackson. N. Y 1963. P. 67-69, 73.
24 Nevins A. A Century o f Political Cartoons. Caricature in the United States.
N. Y., 1944. P. 42-43.
25 http://loc.harpweek.eom//LCPoliticalCartoons/.
26 Ward J.W. Op. Cit. P. 167, 172-173, 181-198; . : Harpers New
Monthly Magazine. Vol. 10. 1855 5 6 . Jan. P. 145-173.
27 C m.: Democratic Review. Vol. 7. 1840. Apr.-May. 28. P. 283-297.
28 Remini R. A. Jackson and the Course o f American Democracy, 1833-1845.
Vol. III. P. 143.

- 57 -

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iwening Post).
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40 .

.. ( )

SOUL FOR EXPORT:



XIX- XX

1 Rosen R. Forty Years o f Diplomacy. Vol. 1. N. Y 1922 P 2


2 Ibid. P. 67.
. 159 1
. . 749/1. . 119. 1868-1872. . 81-84.
4 .
5 . . 77.
6 Rosen R. Op. cit. P. 261.
7 Ibid. P. 48.
8 ,
,
, , / Rosen R. Forty Years o f
Diplomacy. Vol. I. N. Y., 1922. P. 45
9 . .
1889-1890. . 521. . 81. . 4.
111
.: .., .
: - XX . //
. . , 2004. . 79-89.
11 The New York Times, May 18, 1905. P. 4. . 1.
12 .. : . 1 (1894-1905). ACT
, 2002. . 570.
" . . ., 1917. . 15.
14 .). . . . 239.
15 . , 1917. . 15.
16 .: : 1900-1917.
. ., 1999. . 89- 189, 291 305, 359-382.
17 . . . . . 306, 309-312.
18 .. . . . 303;
. Hi'., 19 16. . 2. . 32.
1916
. 4. . 43 -4 4 , 49-50.
20 . . 1. . 2 -3 .
21 The N ew York Times. 1922. Jan. l . P. 18.

XIX .
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,
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, .

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Saturday Evening Post (), Review of Reviews
,

44.
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- 122 - 123 -



, 2004. ., 2006. . 233-281; ..

1- . // . , , . ., 2006. . 287-308.
2 Malia . Russia Under Western Eyes: From the Bronze Horseman to Lenin
Mausoleum. Cambridge, L., 2000. P. 206-207.
3 Lasch C. The American Liberals and the Russian R evolution. N. Y.; L.,
1962. P. 25.
4 ,
X IX -X X .
5 Saul N. Concord and Conflict. The United States and Russia, 1867-1914.
Lawrence, 1996. P. 326-328.
6 . .
. . : .. . ( - ).
. ., 2004. . 112-220. .: Russian Famine Experiences with
Miss Clara Barton /7 New York Public Library (NYPL). Manuscripts and Archives
Division (MAD). Isabel Hapgood Papers (IHP). Box 5.
7 . . 98, 224, 240-241.
8 . . 75.
9 . . 219, 223.
111 Hapgood I.F. Russian Rambles. Boston, N. Y., 1895. P. VII, 57-58, 64, 89,
129, 142-146, 159, 281, 332; [Hapgood I.F.]. Kennans S ib eria// Nation. 1892.
Vol. 54. January 14. P. 35-36; January 21. P. 55-57.
11 Hapgood I.F. Russian Rambles. P. 108-109
12 Engerman D. Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals
and the Romance o f Russian Development. Cambridge, 2003. P. 71.
13 Ibid. P. 71-72.
14 Saul N. Op. cit. P. 403-408.
15 Sergei Iul itch Witte: Russias Man o f the
Hour, Craftsman 1905 ., ..
. . .. . 22
1905 . // NYPL. MAD. IMP. Box 4.
16 . . 252-253. 1897 .
.. , .

.
.
,
,
. 1906 . - // NYPL. MAD. IHP. Box 3.
17 . .: ..
// XXI. 2002. 5.
. 120-125.


52.
,

,
,

.
,
(1866-1928),
Russian Studies .
1894 .
, 1895 .

, 1896 . .
. .

53.
Russian Studies
(
- , ,
),
, ,
.
X IX -X X . ,
,
.
.

1
XIX - XX .
.: .., .. :
(1881 -1 9 1 7 ) //

- 125 -


18 1917 ., . . // -
. X VIII-XX . / . . . . . ., 2001. . 601.
19 . .: Isabel Hapgood to Charles
Crane, November 7, 1916; December 3, 1916 // Bakhmeteff Archive o f Russian and
East European History and Culture (BAR). Crane Family Papers (CFP). Box 3.
20
. .: - . . 284;
.. 1917 //
, 2001. ., 2003. . 164; Parry A. Charles R. Crane, Friend ofRussia
// Russian Review. 1947. Vol. 6. 2. P. 23; Lash Ch.Op. cit. P. 5; Engerman D. Op. cit.
P. 62. .
- , .. ,
// .., .. . .
1887 . // Charles Richard Crane Memoirs
(CRCMemoirs) // BAR. Charles R. Crane Papers (CRCP). Reel 3. Box 3. P. 18.
21 Parry A. Op. cit. P. 20, 25.
22 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 18-19, 56, 70-72.
23 1904 . .. , 1906 .
-
- ( 1909 .).
1 9 0 1 -1 9 0 2 . ..
// CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. 7072; . . 486.
24 10 000 . . .: Folder 11
Philanthropy // BAR. CFP. Box 18.
25 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 86 -8 7
26 Isabel Hapgood to Charles Crane, November 7, 1916 // BAR. CFP. Box 3.
27 Eugenia Lineff to Charles Crane, 31 December, 1892 // BAR. CFP. Box I .
.: N ew York Sun. 1892.
Dec. 13; The New York Times. 1892. Dec. 22.
28 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 33-34.
29 Ibid. P. 54.
30 Harper S. The Russia I Believe in. Chicago, 1945. P. 6
31 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 57-58, 61-64; Charles
Crane to Cornelia Crane, May 1, 1900; May 23, 1900 // BAR. CRCP. Ree 1, Box 1.
32 Bocage L.J. The Public Career o f Charles R. Crane. N. Y 1962 (Unpublished
Dissertation). P. 14-15.
33 Charles Crane to Cornelia Crane, June, 1900, August 6, 1903; Ch. Crane to
T. Masaryk, January 2, 1902; T. Masaryk to Ch. Crane, February 21, 1902;
P.N. Milyoukov to Ch. Crane, 25 April, 1902 // BAR. CRCP. Reel 1, Box 1.
34 .. . ., 1991. . 145.
35 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 65.
36 Engerman D. Op. cit. P. 63.


37 Harper S. Op. cit. P. 30.
38 CRCMemoirs/ / BAR. CRCP. R eel3. . P. 73-76; Stone M. Fifty Years
a Journalist. N. Y 1921. P. 261-278.
39 ., , . The N ew York Times 2
1903 ., 1
1903 .
.
40 CRCMemoirs // BAR. CRCP. Reel 3. Box 3. P. 6 2 -6 3 , 66. ..
.
.. 1900 . ..
1902 . London Daily Telegraph
,
.
41 Charles Crane to Gilson Gardner, March 17, 1917 // BAR. CFP. Box 8.
42 . 1917 . .: ..
. . . ,
,
,
1917 . : ..
. 1914-1917: - . ., 1969;
Lasch . Op. cit.; Saul N. War and Revolution: The United States and Russia, 19141921. Lawrence, 2001.
43 . 2 1901 .,
Review o f Reviews // Library of Congress
(LC). Manuscript Division (MD). Albert Beveridge Papers (ABP). Box 282.
44 Albert Beveridge to George Lorimer ( Saturday Evening Post),
January 6, March 16, 1902; G. Lorimer to A. Beveridge. January 10; March 14,
24, 1902 // LC. MD. ABP. Box 271; A. Shaw to A. Beveridge, January 9, 1902;
A. Beveridge to A. Shaw, February 12, 1902; October 14, 1903 // LC. MD. ABP.
Box 282.
45 Albert Beveridge to Theodore Roosevelt, Octobcr 9, 1903 // LC. MD. ABP.
Box 277.
46 Beveridge A.J. The Russian Advance. N. Y.; L. 1904. P. 4 ,1 0 -1 1 ,2 1 , 35,41,
69, 74, 76, 187-194.
47 Ibid. P. 3 4 1 ,3 4 6 ,3 4 8 , 350,359.
48 Ibid. P. 426-461.
49 Ibid. P. 47, 57, 340, 3 9 1 ,4 0 2 -4 1 2 .
50 Ibid. P. 1 0 8 -1 0 9 ,3 6 8 ,3 8 0 -3 8 1 ,3 9 5 -3 9 9 .
51 Ibid. P. 424.
52 : .., .. . .
53 . .: Parry A. America Learns Russian.
A History o f the Teaching o f the Russian Language in the United States. Syracuse
University Press, 1967. P. 45-63; Byrnes R.F. Awakening American Education to the

- 127 -


World. The Role o f Archibald Cary Coolidge, 1866-1928. Notre Dame; L., 1982;
Byrnes R.F. A History o f Russian and East European Studies in the United States.
Lanhan; N. Y.; L 1994. P. 173-197.

.. ( , )


XIX - XX

- .
,
.
.
7
, 1820
1931 .: ( 5,92 ), (4,67 ),
(4,59 ), - (4,13 ),
( , - 3,44 ),
(3,34 ) (1,21 )
1892-1924 .,
20 , 14,3 (71,4 %) - ( - 1925 1954 .
4 175 . ,
2 336 ., 56 %, - - )2. ,
-
.
, , - . .,
- (Immigration
and Naturalization S ervice-IN S ),
(the Bureau o f Immigration),

.
() - (Ellis Island) -, ,
, , - (Angel
Island) - (
).
-,
I 62 1 1892 . 12 1954 .
12 (aliens),
. -
,
, .
,

- The
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
, The Contract Labor Law (1885) -

(The Immigration Act) 1891 .

(mentally disabled persons),
(paupers) , (
charges), .

1903 .; 1917 .
(illeterates).

. 11
- ,
,
- ,
( XIX .
,
) -
, ,
- 129 -

. ,
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). ,
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.
32 , , ,
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.

1924 .
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1890 .
2 %
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,
1,2
- 130 -

, 1907 .,
25 . 1932 3.

,
.

. , 1931 1954 .
(,
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.
1939 . -
1( (US Coast Guard), 1941 .
.

, . 1951 .
. 12 1954 . -
( ).
-
,
. , 1923 .
3-
-.
: 1893 . - (1888-1989);
1906 . -
(1872-1936), ; 1919 . -
, (18891972),
(1869-1940); 1930 . -
(1898-1975) . ,
, (1882-1974) - ,
-- ,
. 5-
.
-
: 18- ( - 131 -

1913 .)
() (18971962).
1911 . (
1927 .)4.
,
- .
, XIX -
XX .
,
- .
,
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W.R. Friesbi, Pie Bakery , 147
,
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, .. , ,
,
... .. ,

-,
,
...
1920- . ,
,
,
5.


XX (. . 1, 2).
, 140- 1920 .
5,4 . (3,8 %) ,
26- 6. ,
(, , --

) XIX
.
, - (
-),
1890- .,
.
1

, . (%)

1910 .

1920 .

1930 .


( - )

27 156 (26,6% )

36 8 1 6 (2 5 ,6 % )

37 5 8 7 (2 5 .6 % )


( - )

37 314 (36,6 %)

57 990 (40 %)

64 979 (44,3 %)

36 180(35,5 %)

46 414(32,3 %)

40 759 (27,8 %)

1 332 (1,3 %)

2 2 2 8 (1 ,6 % )

3 3 1 4 (2 ,3 % )

102 054

143 555

146 716

2


,

,
1930 .

1910 .

1920 .

3 858

2 697

2 227

3 264

3 491

2 937

2811

1 979

2 100

599
4 371

6 975

6 230

3 983

5 085

4 300

3 184

5 021

8 789

8 663

3 061

3 604

4 116

5 395

2 648

1 677

1 783

1 637

* 1910 .
- 133 -

42 1 560 .,
.
- ()
- -
1895 . 1900 . 307
, .
,
, , .
II ,
.
11 II
14 1896 .

,
II
. 6 ,
. ,
4 . (1 800 )
, (
. . ),
- 1898 .

932 .
,
.. ,
. 55-

.
.
4 1898 . (
). 1937
, ,
.
6
7.

- 134 -


, . .
, XII .,
- 1 1942 .
,
,

,
.
. , . 1889 .,
1910 .
. 1912-1914 .
, , (70
I
),
. ,
1 9 1 9 . - .
,
,
(
).
1923 . -
, .
( The Sikorsky Aero
Engineering Corporation), 800 .
-. 1929 . , ,
100 , ,
. , .
,
.
,
, .

, .
- 135 -


.
1930- . S-42.
1934 . S-42 ,
8.
:
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.
1939 . VS-
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S-51 ,
32 ).
.
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1956 .
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. S-64
10 10.
. , ,
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, ,

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S,
1958 .,
,
. , ()
, (a cruel
necessity), ,
, |2. ,
- 136 -


, The Colier Trophy
. .
. ,
.
- - ,
(1888-1971).
. , -,
, .
.
1911 . ,

. 1915 .,
, 150
, 11 .
, .
1917 . ,

. 1923 .
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, -.
18
,
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.
6 1930 ., , (
210 ) ( 6,2 ) |3.
1938 ., .
- .

(Air Parts Inc.),
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1934 .,
- 137 -

> ,

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. ., 1921 .
.
,
, ,
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, (!)
(1867-1945).
XX . .
- , , .

,

.
,
( 250 . .)
, ,
5 14.
,
,
. . ,
7 (
,
); 1908 .,
. , , ,
, Lake
Torpedo Boat Co.15.
, -

, . ,
,
:
.. ,
4,5 ( , ,
, ), 500 . ,
- 139 -

16.
, ,
,
, ,

,
. , ,
- ,
( ,
,
, , ),

. ,
,
.

1 Coan Peter Morton Ellis Island Interviews: In Their Own Words. Fasts on
File, Inc. N. Y 1997. P. XVIII-XIX.
2 Ibid. P. 413.
3 Ibid. P. XVI.
4 Ibid. P. 415.
5 Bucki Cecilia Frances The Pursuit o f Political Power: Class, ethnicity, and
municipal politics in interwar Bridgeport, 19151936. Vol. 1. University o f Pittsburg
Press, 1991, P. 175.
6 Ibid. P. 19.
7 Geller Herbert Bridgeport. Ethnic History Series. Vol. 3. Bridgeport, CT:
The Sunday Post, 1977-1980. P. 5-6.
8 . ,
. /, 1999. . 20.
9 Geller Herbert Bridgeport. Ethnic History Series. Vol. 3. Bridgeport, CT:
The Sunday Post, 1977-1980.
10 , . .
, . /, 1999. . 21.
11 Dorothy Cochrane, Von Hardesty, Russell Lee. The Aviation Careers o f Igor
Sikorsky. Seattle: University o f Washington Press, 1989. P. 152.
12 Ibid. P. 151.


13 Geller Herbert Bridgeport. Ethnic History Series. Vol. 3. Bridgeport, CT:
The Sunday Post, 1977-1980.
14 C orey H erbert Sub m arine. The A u to b io g ra p h y o f Sim on Lake.
N. Y.: D. Appleton - Century Company, Inc., 1938. P. 174.
15 Connecticut Post. 1994. March 19.
16 . . // . 2000.
2. . 8.

. . ( )


1 9 1 3 - 1 9 2 0 -

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1
.: . / / : Gazeta.ru.
(2006. 13 ); Ninkovich F. The Wilsonian Century: US Foreign Policy Since,
1900. Chicago, 1999; PerlmuterA. Making the World Safe for Democracy: A Century
o f Wilsonianism and Its Totalitarian Challengers. Chapel Hill, 1997.

- 153 -



XX : 4 . ., 2002. . 1. :
. ( - ...). ., 2002. . 255.
3 : . 1900-1917 1999
. 611-613.
4 Lane F. to Lane G. 1917, Feb. 9 //T h e Papers o f Woodrow Wilson / Ed.
A S. Link. Vol. 1-69. Princeton, 1966-1994. ( -P W W ). Vol. 41. P. 184.
5 J. Jusserand to A. Briand. 1917, March 3 / / Ibid. P. 316.
6 Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations o f the United States. 1916.
Supplement. Washington, 1929. P. 9 7 -9 9 ; An Address to the Senate. 1917. Jan. 22
//PW W . Vol. 40. P. 5 3 5 ,5 3 6 .
7 .: .. //
...: . 1 6 4 6 -1 9 4 5 / . .. ,
.. . ., 2001. . 395.
8 ... . 259.
9 A Memorandum by R. Lansing. 1917, March 20 // PWW. Vol. 41. P. 440.
10 Cm.: Ch. Crane to W. Wilson. 1917, March 28 // Ibid. P. 493; H. Bernstein to
W. Wilson. 1917, March 23 // Ibid. P. 457.
11 From the Diary o f J. Daniels. 1917, March 2 3 //Ibid. P. 461; An Address to
a Joint Session o f Congress. 1917, Apr. 2 // Ibid. P. 524.
12 .. . .
// , 1999. ., 2001. . 210.
13 .. //
. 1999. 6. . 116-119.
14 D. Francis to R. Lansing. 1917, May 11 // PWW. Vol. 42. P. 319.
15 ... . 689-690;
. ( - ). . 134. . 473. . 1896. . 4 -5 .
16 . . 134. . 473. . 189. . 208; . 134. . 473. . 1896. . 26,66.
17 . . 134. . 473. . 1896. . 32.
18 ..
. //
, 1999. ., 2001. . 140-141.
19 An Address to a Joint Session o f Congress. 1917, Apr. 2 / / PWW. Vol. 41.
P. 525; ... . 6 72-674.
20 . . 1-^1. ., 1937-1944. . 3. . 40.
21 . ?
XXI . ., 2002. . 273.
22 . ( - ). . 1
1957. . 11-13,21.
23 ... . 611.
24 .: L.R. Colcord to W. Wilson. 1917, Dec. 3 // PWW. Vol. 45. P. 193;
A.P. . ., 1987. . 552.
25 Unterberger .. W. Wilson and the Russian Revolution // Woodrow Wilson
and a Revolutionary World, 1913-1921 / Ed. byA.S. Link. Chapel Hill, 1982. P. 53-55.

26 An Address in Buffalo to the American Federation o f Labor. 1917. Nov. 12


// PWW. Vol. 45. P. 14.
27 An Address to a Joint Session o f Congress. 1918, Jan. 8 // Ibid. Vol. 45.
P. 5 3 4 -5 3 7 .
28 Creel G. to Wilson W. 1918, Jan. 15 // Ibid. Vol. 45. P. 596.
29 . . I. C. 212.
30 W. Wilson to F. Polk. March 10, 1 9 1 8 //PW W . Vol. 46. P. 595; N.D. Baker
to W. Wilson. 1917, Nov. 23 // Ibid. Vol. 45. P. 105.
31 Unterberger B.M. Woodrow Wilson and the Bolsheviks: The Acid Test of
Soviet-American Relations // Diplomatic History. 1987. Vol. 11, 2 (Spring). P. 71;
.., .. .
- . ., 2002. . 408.
32 Levin N.G. Woodrow Wilson and World Politics. Americas Response to
War and Revolution. N. Y., 1968. P. 7.
33 An Essay. The Road away from the Revolution // PWW. Vol. 68. P. 393-395.
34 . . ., 1997. . 334-335.
35 ... . 612.

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1 .: Patenaude . The Big Show in Bololand. The American Relief Expedition


to Soviet Russia in the Famine o f 1921. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002. P. 598600; Engerman D. Modernization from the Other Shore. American Intellectuals and the
Romance o f Russian Development. L.: Harvard University Press, 2003. P. 103-127.
2
( ). . -1. On. 1. . 509. JI. 4. . 511. JI. 32.
3 . . 1-22. On. 1. . 36. . 9 .
4 .: -
(). . 5. On. 1. . 2631. . 176;
(). . 77. On. 1. . 452. . 22; .
. -1. . 1. . 509. . 4. . 551. . 11.
5 Hoover Institution Archive (HIA), ARA Russia, 72:1.
6 . . -1. On. 1. . 511. . 32;
( ). . 101. On. 1.
. 182. . 3.
7 (). . -1064. . 7.
. 26. . 82.
*
.: ..
1921-1923 . , 2004. . 6869.
9 . . -1058. On. 1. . 105. . 200; . -1064. . 7. . 26. . 104 104 2 9 9 -2 9 9 .; . . 494. . 3. . 16. . 19; .
10 .: Rogger . Americanism and the economic development of
Russia// Comparative Studies in History and Society. July 1981. P. 384-385; Stites R.
Revolutionary Dreams: Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution.
N. Y.; Oxford, 1989. P. 145-164; Brooks J. The Press and Its Message: Images o f
America in the 1920s and 1930s // Fitzpatrick Sh., Rabinovvitch A., Stites R. (Eds.)
Russia in the Era o f NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture. Bloomington,
Indiana, 1991. P. 231-252; Engerman D. Economic Reconstruction in Soviet Russia:
The Courting o f Herbert Hoover in 1922 // International History Review 19. 4
(November 1997). P. 836-847; Patenaude B. The Big Show. P. 700-705.

- 173 -


11 . . 100. On. 1. . 73. JI. 9 6 -9 6 .
12 . . -1058. On. 1. . 105. . 200; . . -1. On. 1.
. 511. J1. 32; .
13 HI A. ARA Russia. 132: 12.
14 1. Murphy Merle F. Daily Life in Soviet Russia. Typescript. 1923. P. 71-72.
15 ;
- .
I . ARA Russia. 129: 5;
.
(). . 357. On. 1. . 13. . 8.
16 . . 100. On. 1. . 21. . 9.
17 . . 443. On. 1. .3 7 6 . . 12,13, 14, 14.; . 100. . 1 . .4 8 . .
65: . . 77. On. 1. . 452. . 22; .
18 Kelley W. Descriptive Memorandum on the Work o f the ARA District ol
Ufa. P. 4 // HIA. ARA Russia. 133: 2.
19 . . P-1064. On. 7. . 26. . 104 .
20 Kelley W. Extracts from the letters o f William J. Kelley, written during the
winter and spring o f 1922. ( - Extracts from the letters) // Hoover Institution
Archives. ( - HIA). Frank Golder Papers. 23: 5. April 18, 1922.
21 C m.: Julia Chmelevskaja: Kampfgegen den Hunger, in der Ural-Region 19211923. Amerikanischer Angriff, lokaler Widerstand und wechselseitige Anpassung //Andreas
Frings (Hg.): Neuordnungen von Lebenswelten? Studien zur Gestaltung muslimischer
Lebenswelten in der friihen Sowjetunion und in ihren Nachfolgestaaten. Mainzer Beitrage
zur Geschichte Osteuropas. Band 2. Munster: Lit Verlag, 2006. S. 51-52.
22 Kelley W. Descriptive Memorandum. P. 11-12.
23 Cm.: Fisher H. The Famine in Soviet Russia, 19 19 - 1 9 2 3 : The Operations of
the American R elief Administration. N. Y., McMillan, 1927. P. 292-293. HIA. ARA
Russia. 132: 12.
24 c m .: Julia Chmelevskaja: Kampfgegen den Hunger. S. 54-55.
25 . 1923. 1 . . : Patenaude . The B ig Show. P. 531.
,

, .
, , /
,
, [1 (.
. -1064 . 7. . 22. J1. 429).
2' .: Saul N. Distant Friends: The United States and Russia. 1763-1867.
Lawrcncc, Kansas University Press, 1991; Idem. Concord and Conflict. The United
States and Russia, 1867-1914. Lawrcnee, Kansas University Press, 1996.
27 Kelley W. Descriptive Memorandum. P. 11.
28 Ibid. P. 11-12.

29
.: .
// , : XX : .
. . , 2004. . 419.
3,1
357. .
- - (Patenaude . The B ig Show. P. 645).
31 .: ..
1921-1923 .:
? // , ... . 437.
32 HIA. ARA Russia. Appreciation Files. 529: 5, 529: 6.
33 . .
., .: Reeves F. Russia then and now,
1892-1917; my mission to Russia during the famine o f 1 891-1892, with data bearing
upon Russia o f to-day. L.; N. Y., 1917.
34 Kelley W. Letter by W. Kelley to a G.L.H. P. 4 //HIA. Frank Golder Papers.
35 Ibid. P. 2.
36 Kelley W. Extracts from the letters. 1922. March 20.
37 Cm.: Agreement between the American R e l i e f Administration and the Russian
Socialist Federative Republic // Fisher H. Famine in Soviet Russia. P. 507-510. - I lepe .: ^ ^ ^ ^ // . . IV. ., I960.
38 . . 5. On. 1. . 2631. . 26, 176; . . 77. On. 1. . 45 .
. 12, 13, 22; . 494. . 3. . 16. . 134.
39 Patenaude . The Big Show. P. 34, 42-43.

. . ( )



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5 -
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- 186 - 187 -


6 (1 9 2 0 -1 9 3 0 .). . 261.
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8 (1920-1930 .). . 261-262,265-270 .
9 . . 193,245-247.
10 . . 414.
11 . . 421.
12 . . 149-159.
13
.
14 U.S. National Archives. Microfilm Publications. ( - U.S. NAMP).
Microcopy M -316. Records o f the Department o f State relating to Internal Affairs o f
the Soviet Union, 1910 -1929. Roil 132. Doc. 861.602. Hammer/4. 1929. April 17.
Enclosure 2. Translation from Berliner Tageblatt. 1929. April 14.
15 ... . 59.
16 U.S. NAMP. M icrocopy M -316. Roll 138. Doc. 8 6 1 .6 3 7 . Harriman/4.
1928. April 24.
17 Ibid. Harriman/25. 1929. March.
'* . no: Wilkins M. The Maturing o f Multinational Enterprise: American
Business Abroad from 1914 to 1970. Cambridge (Mass.), 1975. P. 107-108.
- U.S. NAMP. Microcopy M-316. Roll 138. Doc. 861.637.
Harriman/27. 1929. July 17. (
) , -, :
,
1929 . .:
//
. 2-85159 2-72104.
19

.
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(1920-1930 .). . 421,430;
... . 235, 256,
25 8 -2 5 9 ,3 0 9 .
21 (1 9 2 0 -1 9 3 0 .). . 421.
22 U.S. NAMP. Microcopy M -316. Roll 138. Doc. 861.637. Harriman/27.
1929. July 17.
72 % . ,
. , .
.: . - . . ., 1988. . 120.
23 : , 1917-1933. . 287-288.
24 . . XI. ., 1966. . 178.
25 U .S. NAMP. M icrocopy M -316. Roll 132. D oc. 8 61.602. Hammer/3.
1 9 2 9 .April 11.
26 Sutton A.C. The Best Enemy Money Can Buy. Billings (Montana), 1986.

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1 National Archives o f Canada. Ottawa. WLM King Papers, Black Binders.
Vol. 19. Christie to King. 1940. 15 Aug.
2 .. - . .,
1958. . 359.
3
,
- 1942 ., 1947 .
,
, 19571958 .,
. - . .
4 The quest for hemispheric prosperity and security was a strong current in
American policy in the years prior to Pearl Harbor // Cuff R.D., Granatstein J.L.
American Dollars-Canadian Prosperity: Canadian-American Economic Relations
1945-1950. Samuel-Stevens. Toronto, 1978. P. 2.
- 208 -

5 Important as that was for the war, the true meaning o f the Ogdensburg meeting
was that it marked Canadas definitive move from the British military sphere to the
American//Vano, Gerard S. Canada. The Strategic and Military Pawn. N. Y., 1988. P. 87.
6 Hyde Park symbolized the convergence o f the Canadian interest with the American
search for hemispheric self-sufficiency // Cuff R.D., Granatstein J.L. Op. cit. P. 8.
7 25 1941 . 39 .
, ,
.
.: .. . .: . , 2000. . 244.
8 .: . . 246.
9 JI.B. . .: ,
1986. . 210.
10 Hilliker J., Barry D. Canadas Department o f External Affairs. Vol. 1. McGillQueens University Press. Montreal & Kingston., 1995. P. 266.
11 JI.B. . . . 214-215.
12 Documents on Canadian External Relations. Vol. 9, 392. Ottawa, 1964
1996. P. 442.
13 ,
. - . .
14 Documents on Canadian External Relations. Vol. 9, 62. P. 44-45.
15 Stacey C. P. Canada and the Age o f Conflict: AHistory o f Canadian External
Policies. Toronto, 1979. Vol. 1. 1867- 1921. P. 278.
16 Hilliker J., Barry D. Op. cit. Vol. 1. P. 266.
17 .
. . 1. ., 1946. . 277-283.
18 8 1941 . (. . - . .)
:
,
. .: .. . . 244.
19 Canada at War. 1945. 5. P. 126.
20 4- 17 1945 . ,
- , ,
, . - .
. 21 J1.. . . . 257.
22 Douglas W.A.B., Greenhous . Out o f shadows: Canada in the Second
World War. Toronto, 1977. P. 48.
23

. - . .
2
4 ,
- ,
(). - . .
25
Holmes, John W. The Shaping o f Peace: Canada and the Search for World
Order, 1943-1957. Vol. 1. Toronto: University o f Toronto Press, 1979. P. 235-236.
- 209 -


26 Hilliker J., Barry D. Op. cit. Vol. 1. P. 299.
27 Pearson, Lester B. Mike: The Memoirs o f the Rt. Hon. Lester B. Pearson.
Vol. 2. 1948-1957. Toronto, 1972. P. 32.
28 - (25 26 1945 .): . . ., 1980. . 589.
29 . . 26-28.
30 .. -
(1946 - . 50- .) // : . .
. 1. : . . -, 2005. . 19.
31 For Canadian diplomats, the single most important relationship in the
postwar world was Canadas relationship to the United States // CuffR.D., Granatstein
J.L. Op. cit. P. 186.
32 Mackenzie King: Widening the Debates / Ed. by J. English, J.O. Stubbs.
Toronto, 1978. P. 30-37.
33 C uffR .D ., Granatstein J.L. Op. cit. P. 181.
34 Holmes, John W. Op. cit. Vol. 2. 1982. P. 36.
33
.. - (1942-1953 .):
: . .... . . . , 2004. . 19.
36 Canadian diplomats intended to encourage the American commitment to
active international participation, but they also hoped to contain an excessive use o f
American power at the same time // C uffR .D ., Granatstein J.L. Op. cit. P. 188.
37 Granatstein J.L. How Britains Weakness Forced Canada into the Arms o f
the United States. Toronto: University o f Toronto Press, 1989. P. 3.
38 , Winnipeg Free Press. - . C.
39 Dexter Papers, memo, 22 Feb. 1947.
40 Wilgress dispatch o f 21 Mar. 1946 in Canadas Department o f External
Affairs XII: 2046ff.
41 External Affairs Records, file 2-AE(s), Wilgress to SSEA, 25 Apr. 1947. Cf.
42 Ibid.
43 Department o f External Affairs, file 52-F(s), The United States and the
Soviet Union. P. 1. Between ourselves
44 C uffR .D ., Granatstein J.L. Op. cit. P. 209.
45 , W.L.M. King Papers, diary, 15 Mar. 1947.
46 External Affairs Records, file 52-F(s), Pope to Reid, 28 Jan. 1948.
47 Ibid. 20 May. 1948.
48 The war and its aftermath liberated the ambitions o f a whole new generation
o f Canadian leaders, but also revealed how, more than ever before, their ambitions
depended on Washington. If the policy-makers there shared their views, or if they could
be persuaded to share them in areas where there was a difference, then just possibly
those views could be implemented // C uffR.D., Granatstein J.L. Op. cit. P. 187.
49 Stairs, Denis. The Diplomacy o f Constraint: Canada, the Korean War and
the United States. Toronto: University o f Toronto Press, 1972. P. 6-1 7 .
50 Thomson C. Louis St. Lauren Canadian. Toronto; Macmillan., 1967. P. 225.

. .


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and the nation state // Comparative studies in society and history. 1978. V. 20.
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3 The National Security Strategy o f the USA. 2002 (September). P. 13.
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- 241 -

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2 http://bd. fom. ru/report/cat/frontier/countries/U S / 11_sept/dO 1 3606
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] [ .].
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29 http://bd.fom .ru/report/m ap/projects/dom inant/dom 0537/dom t0537_3/
d053732 15.09.2005 [] [ ].
30 .
31 http://bd.fom .ru/report/m ap/projects/dom inant/dom 0537/dom t0537_3/
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15.09.2005 [] [].
-2003.
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R ussiaJJSA/ra030911 11.09.2003 [] [
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37 http://bd.fom .ru/report/cat/frontier/internationaLrelations/truck_W est/


Russia_USA/ra030903 [] [ .
].

38 http://bd.fom .ru/report/cat/frontier/international_relations/truck_W est/


1'0105 18.01.2001 [] [ ..].
39 http://wciom.ru/press/2000l21900.html 19.12.2000 -:
[.. ].

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48 http://bd.fom .ru/report/cat/frontier/international_relations/truck_W est/


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20 ., . . . . 78.
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12 Lloyd . Lords o f industry. N. Y., 1910. P. 12.
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1 Conant R alf W. The Prospects for Revolution. A Study o f Riots, Civil


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3 Ibid. P. 191.
4 The Anti-American Generation. Transaction Books, 1971. P. 3.
5 Ibid. P. 6 -8 .
6 Levitt Cyril. Children o f privilege. Student Revolt in the Sixties. A Study
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8 Collier P., Horowits D. Destructive Generation. N. Y., 1996.
9 Gitlin T. The Sixties. Years o f Hope, Days o f Rage. N. Y., 1993
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). ., 1970.
1' . . 46.
12 .. : -
. ., 1977.
13 . . 47.
14 . ?
6 0 -7 0 - . . ., 1977.
15 . . 9-10.
16 . . 35.
17 , , . ., 1979.
18 .. (
) // . . 100.
19 ..
// . . 190-192.
211 . . 243.
21 .. . ,
1982. . 137.
22 .., .. :
. , 1988. . 63.
23 : (
) // . 1990. 5.
24 . . 19.

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2 . 28.02 2005 . .: http://www.kabar.kg/rus.
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5 The Washington Post. 28.02 2005. Mode of access: http://centrasia.org/
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7 . 2005. 1 .
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11 . 13.03 2005 . : http://kg.akipress.org/news.
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access: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/nis/99nisrpt.pdf.
U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with the New
Independent States o f the Former Soviet Union. FY 2001 Annual Report. Mode o f
access: http://w w w .state.gov/docum ents/organization/17714.pdf.

U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with the New


Independent States o f the Former Soviet Union. FY 1995 Annual Report. Mode o f
access: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/nis/1995_russia_nis_assistance.html.
U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with the New
Independent States o f the Former Soviet Union. FY 1999 Annual Report. Mode o f
access: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/nis/99nisrpt.pdf.
12 Kumys and Constitutionalism. IU Law in Central Asia. Mode o f accesshttp://www.law.indiana.edu/front/special/2002kazakhstan.shtml.
. //
. 2003. 16 . . 3.
14 . : http:
//www.inform.kz/showarticle php?langnis& id=98501.
. / / 11 2004
I . . 5.

. : http://www.mediaclub.kz/node_52/laquo_raquo__6.
Aliimni discovery, focus on Kazakhstan // http: //www.americancouncils.org/
pdrs/ub_alum _disc_K azakhstan.pdf//search=, M uskie% 20felIow% 20from % 20
Kazakhstan.


1 U S A ID s 1997 C ongressional presentation. M ode o f access: http:
//www.usaid.gov/pubs/cp97/countries/kz.htrn.
2 no: Annual reports on U.S. Government Assistance to
and Cooperative Activities with the New Independent States o f the Former Soviet

- 378 -

.
U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with the New
Independent States o f the Former Soviet Union. FY 1999 Annual Report. Mode o f
access: http ://www. state, gov/www/regi on s/n is/99n isrpt.pdf.
Ibid. FY 2001 Annual Report. Mode o f access: http://www.state gov/
documents/organization/17714.pdf.

- 379 -

22 Ibid. FY 2002 Annual Report. Mode of access: http://www.state.gov/www/


n (.ions/nis/2002_russia_nis_assistance.html.
23 Ibid. FY 1996 Annual Report. Mode of access: 1996 - http://www.state.gov/
www/regions/nis/96nisrept.pdf.
24 .
. // . 1994. 3 . . 4.
25 U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with the New
Independent States o f the Former Soviet Union. FY 1998 Annual Report. Mode of
access: http://www.state.gov/www/regions/nis/rpt_fy98_nis_assistl.pdf.
26 E. // . 1994.
18 . . 4.
27 Kazakhstan shows interest in US education system. Global News Wire Asia Africa Intelligence Wire Copyright 2003 BBC Monitoring // BBC Monitoring
International Reports. 2003. June 20.

:
, ,

Th o m a s J . H e e d ( N e w J e r s e y , U S A )

TRANSNATIONAL EDUCATION AND SECURITY:


ONE MODEL
Thomas L.Friedmam, a New York Times columnist, book is titled,
The World is Flat: a Brief History o f the Twenty-first Century. He
spoke to the new global community o f2006 where economic relationships,
cultural connections and technological innovations break down national
boundaries, cultural barriers and even time and distance. We truly live in
a different age and I can not image my six grandchildren will nurture.
As we contemplate this new borderless world education will
be a major force defining, manipulating, and tuning that new transnational
universe. As we contemplate the need for a different national security
we need to revise our educational systems to adress both the new
needs as well as the new potential.
It use to be enough to teach students about their nation and others those living in distant, strange places. These others followed strange
cultures, were governed by strange laws and practices and spoke in
alien languages. With global integration common and constant all nations
are strange admixtures o f what they once were. It is now common at
my College to have students who were bom in Russia. I usually average
- 381 -

, ,

I ><>[),| : , ,

live foreign born students in each class o f twenty-five. This is our new
transnational world at my College, in New York Metropolitan area.
When I speak o f Asia I have a native-born in class, when I speak of
Africa I have a student who can tell us, first-hand, o f the lsnd and
culture, when I speak of religion o f East Europe I have a believer
within the class. This changes the educational environment and it makes
a classroom dialogue substantially different and more exciting from
what I experienced as an undergraduate in 1956.
What I stand to adress today is a model of transnational education
that I believe answers some o f our educational needs in this new world
and effectively utilizes contemporary technology to deliver it.
Shelly Fisher Fishkin, in her presidential adress to the American
Studies Association in 2004, spoke to the need for changes in how we
define and teach American Studies. Now we teach about other lands
and other cultures needs to be sharply reevaluated. Her interest was
not in how we taught about the U.S. or even how we taught about the
other, but rather, she was most interested on the many ways we straddle
two or more cultures. She spoke to the need to use borderless,
crossroads, contact zones as a new vehicle to learn about each other.
She envisions an American Studies as a place where borders both
within and outside the nation are interrogated and studied rather than
reified and reinforced. She wonders: What roles might comparative
collaborative, border crossing research play in this reconfigured field.
Most appropriate to this audiencee she notes: International scholars
who have come to the United States on Fulbright are producing some
of the most interesting books coming out of the U.S. university presses.
I believe we, Ramapo College (RC) and Volgograd State Pedsgogical
University (VSPU) with Volgograd State University (VSU), have addressed
much o f Dr.Fishkins concerns about transnational education. Ramapo and
Volgograd State Pedsgogical University have been working together since
1990 and with Volgograd State University since 2000. Five years ago we
received a grant from U.S.Department of State to assist VSPU rivise their
American Studies Center. I believe that the work we have done with VSPU
and VSU is an interesting collaboration that creates a new model in
transnational studies and worthy o f replication by others.

We do not use more common term - distant learning - because


in our experience that model often still relites upon a talking head
concept. A faculty member, often from the United States, talks at
students in a different culture, and tells the truth as known in the
U.S. It also implies an inherent inequality between the participating
schools. What we have done berween Ramapo and VSPU is predicated
on a partnership rooted in equality. The RC students learn as much
about Russia as the Russian students learn about the US. Every time I
have taught about Am erica VSPU students I have learned about
America. This semester I am team teaching with Professor Kubyshkin
o f VSU our course on the history o f World War II. I certainly learn
much about the war on the Eastern front but I also learn day after day
about the US and the West from his talks and his students questions.
Both RC and VSPU faculty actively, jointly plan, prepare and
deliver the lessons to the assembled students o f both schools.
Today with the techology o f video on the Internet we are able to
connect our classes over video/audio links no cost. When I first
investigated video links in 1990 it cost $1000 a minute to tm sm it a
satellite between the two nations. Today, for all practical purposes, it is
free. We schedule the classes to adapt to the eight hour time difference,
we cope with the varied semester schedule of classes and different
holidays between the two schools and since we work with Russian
students in an American Studies program language is not a problem.
Our first step, in 1999, was to tiy some video links for a few sessions to
see how the technology worked and how the students interests would shape
up. We learned that students, in itial ly, were quite shy about exchanging with
students eight time zones away we had to aggressively engage them in a
cross dialogue. Next, we used a pre-existing course so we, the teamed faculty,
were most comfortable with the subject matter and could best focus on
student interactions and arranging student-teamed semester research projects.
Our final goal, the most interesting to plan, was to design a brand new' course
that we would jointly tailor to the students manifest interests. Professor
Vasina at VSPU and I designed a new course in American Studies we
titeled Mutual Images: Russia and the US. It compared Russia and the US
through topics such as classic landscape paintings, poetry, iconic photography,
- 383 -

- 382 -

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films that depicted family life, rock video o f social critiques, and films that
assessed the American frontier and the Russian Eastern frontier. The students
response was transformational. This semesters course, with Professor
Kubyshkin of VSU on World War II: A Global Perspective has again been
electric. The students are engaged as we constantly compare and contrast
the events on the Eastern front with those on the Western front and the
Pacific. My American students know very little of the Eastern campaign and
in turn the Russian students know very little o f the Pacific war or even of US
actions in the west. Not only are Sasha and I learning a lot from each other
but our students are gaining much from the questions and concerns of the
students from each land.
The pattern of student reaction to the teamed, video classes is now
quite predictable. Early in the semester the students are in wonderment
that they are talking with students over six thousand miles away. In the
next stage they are excessively polite and careful about what they say they act like guests at someones Dasha. They try never to say anything
derogatory or challenging but thankfully that stage ends when they begin
working together on a joint research project. With the ease o f email and
even phone cards to make international calls at reasonable cost, they
begin to talk student to student and share their frustrations with their
Professors and school, they exchange about the travails and joys o f their
life and they share resources to complete their projects - they begin a
true dialogue. After that stage the exchanges in class take on a much
different complexion and a new level of learning and understanding
blossoms. Quickly that new freshness comes to the video discussions
and late in the semester fresh, insightful exchange abound. The semester
begins with wonderment about how similar we are, by semesters last
quater we marvel on hoh different our two cultures are.
The process o f education ends with renewed respect for both the
home culture and that o f the other. Both groups o f students evidence
not only new levels o f knowledge about each other but the process has
created a true, new level o f understanding. That to me is the most
profound source o f security for our world.
It is my dream that next year we will win a US Department of
Education grant that wil 1enable us to forge a new minor at RC: Comparative

: , ,

Cultures wherein half o f the required courses will be team taught, video
linked classes with partner schools overseas. If this new minor is as
successful, as I expect, I will next campaign for a new academic major of
similar design. Besides our excellent relationships with Volgograd State
Pedagogical University and Volgograd State University I expect to develop
new partnerships with Hungarian University and a French University. I am
most energized by the idea o f delivering a comparative course that would,
in real time link a Russian class, a French class and an American class.
I salivate on thinking of the class discussions that could erupt from such a
teaming of faculty and students.
My final dream would have our schools offer jointly a new master
degree in Comparative Cultures that would not only require substential
team ed video classes with language studies but also at least one
semester o f studies at an overseas University.
I have been teachong for some forty-four years now and have profound
faith in the power of knowledge to lead to understanding. I also profound
confidence that understanding is our best assurance of international security.

A.B. ( )


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A. Media Education and Media Literacy: Experts Opinions // MENTOR. A Media
Education Curriculum for Teachers in the Mediterranean. Paris: UNESCO, 2003.
2 Silverblatt A. Media Literacy. Westport; Connecticut; L., 2001.
3 Ibid. P. 2 -3 , 423.
4 Ibid. P. 2 -3 .
5 Potter W.J. Media Literacy Thousand Oaks. L., 2001.
6 Ibid. P. 12.
7 Ibid. P. 74.
8 Andersen N., Duncan B. & Pungente J.J. Media Education in Canada - the
Second Spring//Feilitzen C. von and Carlsson U. (Eds). Children and Media: Image.
Education. Participation. Geteborg: The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on
Children and Violence on the Screen at Nordicom, 1999. P. 139-162.
9 Worsnop C. Screening Images: Ideas for Media Education. Mississauga. 1999.
Rother L. Media Literacy and At-Risk Students: A Canadian Perspective.
Telemedium // The Journal o f Media Literacy. 2002. Vol. 48. 2.
11 Recommendations Addressed to the United Nations Educational Scientific
and Cultural Organization UNESCO // Outlooks on Children and Media GoteborgUNESCO & NORDICOM, 2001. P. 152.
12 Worsnop C. Screening Images: Ideas for Media Education. Mississauga:
Wright Communication, 1994. P. 102.
13 Ibid. P. 118.
14 Ibid. P. 146.
15 Considine D.M. and Haley G.E. Visual Messages. Englewood, Colorado:
Teachers Ideas Press, 1999.
16 Potter W.J. Op. cit.
17 Silverblatt A. Op. cit.
18 Semali L.M. Literacy in Multimedia America. N. Y.; L.: Falmer Press, 2000.
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19 Tyner . Literacy in the Digital World: Teaching and Learning in the Age o f
Information. Mahwan, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
20 Baran S.J. Introduction to Mass Communication. Boston; N. Y.: McGraw
Hill, 2002. P. 60.
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Dreamworlds: Desire, Sex, Power in Rock Video, Pack o f Lies: The
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1 Sharp L.B. Basic Consideration in Outdoor and Camping Education. N. Y.: The
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3 Stapp W.M. The Concept o f Environmental Education // The Journal ot
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6 Environmental Education in the Light o f Tbilisi Conference. Paris. UNESCO,
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1 The American Intellectual Tradition. N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997. V. II. P. 293.
2 . : JI. //
. 1997. 10. . 122.
3 Coover R. The Public Burning. N. Y.: Grove Press, 1998. P. 352.
4 Ibid. P. 211.
5 Ibid. P. 464.
6 Ibid. P. 418.
7 Ibid. P. 417.
8 Ibid. P. 183.
9 Ibid. P. 452.
10 Ibid. P. 531.
" Ibid. P. 121.
12 . . .: -, 2001. . 121.
- 426 -

: , ,

13 . . 122.
.: The American Intellectual Tradition. P. 295.
15 . . . . 121.
14 .

16 Dickstein . Gates ofEden: American culture in the sixties. N. Y.: Penguin


Books, 1989. P. 44.
17 Coover R. Op. cit. P. 407.
18 Ibid. P. 408.

B.A. ( )

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features/2005_l l_006908.php.
3
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- 440 - 441 -

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5 .: Hauptfleisch G. Doing the Continent // The San D iego Union-Tribune.
2005. April 10.
6 Gibbons J. William T. Vollmanns Real World // Bookforum. Summer 2005.
7 Hutcheon L. A Poetic o f Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction. L., 1988.
P. 105-157.
8 Ibid. P. 110.
9 . .
. Melie . La fiction de lHistoire
dans Un tombeau po u r Boris D avidovitch de Danilo Kis // http://www.fabula.org/
effet/interventions/18.php.
10 .: ..
XX . , 1999. . 21-59.
11 . , ,
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good cartoon). Wood . Parablesof a Violent World //T he New York Review Books.
Vol. 52. 20. Dec. 15. 2005 // http://www.nyboooks.com/articales/18560.
12 C.C. . ., 1997. . 152.
13 . 2005 .
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16 Bookforum. Summer 2005.
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4 Ibid.
5 Koolhaas R., ., Werlemann . S, . L, XL. N. Y . : Monacelli Press
(May 1), 1998.
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2 Lang Robert . Edgeless Cities: exploring the elusive metropolis. Brooking
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3 . // -. 2005. 4 (38). . 61.
4 . . 62.
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SUMMARY

Ivan Kurilla and Irina Pashinskaya in their article tell the story of an
acorn from George Washingtons tomb that was presented by an
American to Russian Emperor Nicholas I, planted on the Tsaritsyn
Island in Peterhof and still alive there.
Maria Filimonovas article deals with the Continental army of the
American Revolution. The author analyses the way it was looked
upon by the contemporaries. She tries to explore the reasons why
the army that won independence for the United States could not
win confidence of the Americans.

Aleksandr Petrov in his article examines Russian-American economic


relations in the Northern-Western part of America in the late
1 8 - early 19-th century. He focuses on the activities and
connections between Russian and American colonists in Alaska
in the period.

Tatyana Alentievas article refers to the perception of US President A.


Jackson among the Americans. The author mostly studies the
ways that were used by Jackson and his Administration to affect
the public opinion on his activity.
Olga Kazakova in her paper examines the materials of Russian
newspapers on outstanding political events in the USA in 18501860s. The author analyses the reflections of such events as
presidential elections in this period, the murder of President A.
Lincoln, and the selling of Alaska in 1867.

Dmitrii Kabanov in his assay studies diplomatic

activity of Russian
ambassador Roman R. Rozonov in the USA.
Viktoria Zhuravleva analyses the disputes among American academics
on the Russian Empire, its role in the world, its history, and the
prospects. She focuses on so called Russophile movement,
- 475 -

S um m ary

giving the study of the views of I.Hapgood, C.Crane, and


A. Beveridge.
Aleksandr Perevezentsevs article is focused on the Russian immigration
to New England, and the role of Russian immigrants in the history
of Connecticut.
Vladimir Romanov in his article Wilsonism and the USA Russian policy
in 1913-1920 examines arole ofthe Russian factor in formation
Woodrow Wilsons foreign policy doctrine.
Yulia Khmelevskaya focuses on the work of the American Relief
Administration (ARA) in the Ural Region of Bolshevist Russia in
the famine of 1921-1923, its perception and appreciation by the
Ural population and authorities and social and cultural problems
of this unusual cooperation.
Boris Shpotov in his article addresses to the foreign concessions in the
USSR, the difficulties they met there. On the basis of recently
published Russian archival documents and those in the US
National Archives the author proves that major troubles were
caused by limitations imposed by the Government upon carrying
out their incomes in hard currency, and by the Soviet labor
enormous demands to concessionaires.
Aleksandr Sizonenkos article is focused on the role of the Soviet
foreign minister M.Litvinov in the establishing of diplomatic
relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1933.
Ilya Sokovs article considers Canadian-Soviet relationships in 1940s. These
relationships consider in the context ofthe influence American factor
as the determinative ones. The article analyses 3 stages of these
relationships. The article gives Canadian version of the policy of
containment in respect of USSR and also in US respect.
Anton Varfolomeevs paper is devoted to new challenges and threats to
American security, and US response to them. The author reveals
the conceptual basis of the US security strategy.
Valerii Konyshev in his article gives an analysis of American experts
points on contemporary US foreign policy. He focuses on the
following controversial problems: Americas role in the world, non
proliferation of nuclear weapons, US policy towards Russia and
CIS, the war in Iraq, and the development ofNATO.

- 47 6 -

S um m ary

Elena Ryabtseva in her article highlights the problem of a countrys


image abroad. She finds out how the perceptions of different
countries and regions in the USA causes American foreign policy.
Elena Shashinas article includes analysis of the surveys conducted by
Russian sociological organizations. These materials allow the author
to demonstrate the image of the USA existing in Russian public opinion.
Andrei Ivashev in his study analyses intensification of apparent
contradictions in Russia-US relations from Eltsins Adminstration
to Putins second term. A growing tension on the matters of political
changes on the Post-Soviet area is distinctly shown. Revolutions
in Georgia and Ukraine are analyzed as powerful incentives for
Russia to make its policy in CIS more active, and that is where a
new political collision between Russia and the US begins.
Oleg Bogatovs essay makes some insights into the role of American
think tanks in the process of US foreign policy making.
Natalya Sazanovas article refers to humanitarian collaboration between
the USSR (Russia) and the United States during several last
decades. The author findes out how this kind of collaboration is
connected with national security in terms of activity of non
governmental organizations.
Vagip Abdrashitov gives a detailed study of current system of
international low, focusing on the important issue - correlation
between human rights and international security.

irina Umanskayas article is devoted to the ideology of the American


left radicalism ofthe political spectrum. The article touches upon
the problems of antimonopoly, working-class solidarity, social
equality, justice and democratization ofthe American society.
Olga Kolbasina in her paper makes an attempt to compare major Russian
(Soviet) and American studies on the issue of the youth protest
movement in the USA in 1960-s.

Oksana Pogosyan analyses L.Shtraus political philisophy and tryes to


find out its impact on the ideology of contemporary US neo
conservatives.

Alina Blohina in her article examines the role of Central and Eastern
Europe in Russian-American relations.
Victor Heyfcts considers that the Balkans in 1990th became the field for
approbation of various methods of regional conflicts settlement
- 477 -

S um m ary

by the international community because of the geographical


position, ethnic and religious components. In the authors opinion
similar differences in definitions of the basic international rules of
law can have significant influence on international relations.
Alexander Loginov in his article analyses the events of March 2005 in
Kyrgyzstan called Tulip Revolution. He studies how the
developments were perceived in the USA and Russia.
Vera Smirnova gives a detailed overview of US governmental
educational programs adopted in Kozahstan at the moment.
Thomas Heeds article is on the experience of educational
interconnection between Ramapo Colledge and two Russian
institutions in the last 15 years: Volgograd State University and
Volgograd State Pedagogical University.
Alexander Fedorovs article analyses American and Canadian modem
media education models.
Anastasiya Novikovas paper describes the current promising practices of
media education in the USA, and resources available on the Internet.
Sofiya Gilmiyarova in her article studies the history and methods of
environmental education in the USA and Russia. The report also focuses
on the specific problems of environmental education in Russia.
Alexander Lavrentiev and Anatoly Lashkevich in their study address
to the aesthetics of the Cold War in Americal literature of the
XX century.
Valery Pesterev studies Russian theme in one of the most significant
modem novels Europe Central (2005) by W.T. Vollmann. It is analyzed
in the authors context of the American writers works. This enables
the reader to comprehend the conception of history and problem of
personality in the totalitarian regime, which form the basis of the
vision of life and artistic guiding lines of W.T. Vollmann.
Galina Pticnikova in her article tumes to the problem of the cultural
globalization. She analyses this matter on the example of
interference of Russian and American architecture.
TatyanaAnisimovasarticle The New Urbanism in DwellingAspect: American
and Russian approach makes some comparisons of two basic models
of suburbanization: the Russian model and theAmerica model. The New
Urbanism is a movement, which will be of great relevance to future
planning effort in both countries, Russia and USA.

H.H.

............................................................................. 5
..

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............... 14
..


(1775-1783 .)..................................................................................... 20
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-
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XVIII - XIX ......................................33
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(1850-1860- .):
..................................................................... 58
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............................... 95
- 479 -

..

Soul for export:


XIX-XX ......................................................................105
..


XIX - XX
........................... 128
. .

1913-1920- ....... 141


..

:

(1921-1923 .)................................................................................... 155
..


(1920- .).................... 175
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.. (1933 .).......................... 189


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XIX - XX ...... 291
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60- XX

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...... 317

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..................................................................... 338

- 480 - 481 -

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................ 369

AMERICANA
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H eed Thomas J.

Transnational Education and Security: One M odel........................... 381

8
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............ 385
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.....396

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.........................................................................404
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. , 21-23 2006

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S U M M A R Y ............................................................................................................ 475

03.11 2006 . 60x 8 4 /1 6 .


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