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Molecular Diffusion in Gases

Molecular Diffusion of Helium in Nitrogen


Example 6.1-1, page 413
A mixture of He and N2 gas is contained in a pipe at 298K and 1.0atm total pressure which is
constant throughout. At one end of the pipe at point 1, the partial pressure PA1 of He is 0.60atm
and at the other end 0.2m, PA2 is 0.20 atm. Calculate the flux of He at steady state if DAB is
0.687 x 10-4 m2/s.
R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K
PA1 = 0.6 atm
T = 298K
PA2 = 0.2 atm
z2-z1 = 0.2m
P = 1 atm
DAB = 0.687 x 10-4 m2/s
DAB for a gas is constant; P is constant meaning C is also constant; flux is constant at steady
state.
D C C A2
D P PA2

AB A1
J AZ
AB A1
Flux, J AZ
if C = P/RT
z 2 z1
RT z 2 z1
Substitute in values:

J AX

0.687 10 0.6 0.2 5.63 10


4

82.0572980.2

kgmol/m2s

Equimolar Counterdiffusion

Example 6.2-1, page 415


Ammonia gas (A) is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.10m
long containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132x105 Pa pressure and
298K. At point 1, PA1 = 1.013x104 Pa and at point 2,
PA2 = 0.507x104 Pa. DAB = 0.230x10-4 m2/s.
Calculate the flux J*A and J*B at steady state.
PA1 = 1.013x104 Pa
PA2 = 0.507x104 Pa
DAB = 0.230x10-4 m2/s
T = 298K

J AZ

II
d

PCO2 =
456 mmHg

PCO2 =
76 mmHg

P = 1.0132x105 Pa
z2 z1 = 0.10 m
R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

D AB PA1 PA2 0.230 10 4 1.013 10 4 0.507 10 4

4.70 10 7 kgmol A/m2 s


8314.32980.1
RT z 2 z1

Diffusion of Water Through Stagnant, Nondiffusing Air


Example 6.2-2 page 419
Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant
temperature of 293K. The total pressure of air (assumed dry) is
1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm) and the temperature is 293K.
Water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube,
H2O
and the diffusion path z2 z1 is 0.1524 m long. Calculate the
rate of evaporation at steady state. The diffusivity of water vapor at 293K and 1 atm is
0.250x10-4 m2/s. Assume that the system is isothermal.
P = 1.01325x105 Pa = 1.0 atm
T = 293K
z2 z1 = 0.1524m
DAB = 0.250x10-4 m2/s

Vapor pressure of water, PA1 = 0.0231 atm


Water pressure in dry air, PA2 = 0 atm
R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K

PB 2 PB1 1 0 1 0.0231

0.988 atm
PB 2
1 0
ln
ln

P
1 0.0231
B1
D AB P
PA1 PA2
NA
RT z 2 z1 PBM

PBM

NA

0.250 10 1.0
4

82.0572930.15240.988

0.0231 0 1.595 10 7 kgmol/m2s

Diffusion in a Tube with Change in Path Length


Example 6.2-3, page 419
Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant temperature of 293K. The total pressure of air
(assumed dry) is 1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm) and the temperature is 293K. At a given time, t, the level is z meters from
the top. As water vapor diffuses through the air, the level drops slowly. Derive the equation for the time t F for the
level to drop from a starting point of zo m at t = 0 and zF at t = tF seconds.

We can assume a pseudo-steady state condition because the level drops slowly. Now, both NA
and z are variables.
DAB P
PA1 PA2
NA
RT z2 z1 PBM
Assuming a cross-sectional area of 1 m2, the level drops dt in dz seconds, and the leftover kgmol
of A is PAdz/MA:
dz 1
N A 1 A
M A dt
Rearranging and integrating:
tF
A zF
D P
zdz AB PA1 PA2 dt

0
M A z0
RTPBM

tF

A z F2 z 02 RTPBM

2M A D AB PPA1 PA2

Diffusion Through a Varying Cross-Sectional Area Evaporation Derivation


HW1.1 In the lecture we showed that the molar rate of material A evaporating from a spherical
drop immersed in material B could be written as
N A 1 1 DAB P P p A,1

ln

4 r1 r2
RT
P p A, 2
where
N A is the molar rate of material A leaving
R is the ideal gas constant
the drop
T is the system temperature
r1 and r2 are two radial points away from
pA,1 is the partial pressure of A at point 1
the sphere center
pA,2 is the partial pressure of A at point 2
DAB is the diffusion coefficient P is the total
system pressure
Starting with this equation, derive the following approximate equation for the molar flux at the particle
surface, NA,1
2 DAB
cA,1 cA,2
N A,1
D1
where
D1 is the diameter of the spherical drop
cA,1 is the molar concentration of material A at the surface of the drop
cA,2 is the molar concentration of material A far from the drop
Assume point 1 is at the drops surface
Assume point 2 is very far away from the drop, so r2 >> r1

N A 1 1 D AB P P PA2
N
D P P PA2

A AB ln

ln
4 r1 r2
RT
4r1
RT
P PA1
P PA1
Now multiply the equation by 1/r1, rewrite the radius as 2/D on the right
side, substitute for surface flux, NAs, and PBM:

Stagnant B

r2
r1
Diffusing
A

PB 2 PB1
PA1 PA2
N

and N AS A 2
P
ln P PA2

4r1
ln B 2

P
P

P
B1
A1

2 D AB PA1 PA2
So we rewrite the equation as: N AS

DRT
PBM
PBM

Assume low vapor pressure, so PA1, PA2 << P and use a Taylor Series approximation ln(x) = x-1:
P PA2 P PA2
P PA2
1

is approaching 1, so ln

P PA1 P PA1
P PA1
P PA2 P PA1 PA1 PA2 PA1 PA2

P PA1
P PA1
P
Lastly, PA1 = CA1RT and PA2 = CA2RT:

Now,

so PBM P.

2 D AB P
2 D AB
2 D AB

PA1 PA2
C A1 RT C A2 RT
C A1 C A2
RTD PBM
RTD
D
where CA1 = concentration at surface of the drop and CA2 = concentration far from the drop 0
N AS

Evaporation of a Napthalene Sphere


Example 6.2-4, page 421
A sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 2.0mm is suspended in a large volume of still air at 318K
and 1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm). The surface temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to be at
318K and its vapor pressure at 318K is 0.555 mmHg. The DAB of naphthalene in air at 318K is
6.92x10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface.
r = 2.0mm
T = 318K
P = 1.01325x105 Pa
DAB = 6.92x10-6 m2/s

PBM

Vapor pressure, PA1 = 0.555 mmHg = 74 Pa


PA2 = 0 Pa
R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

PB 2 PB1 1.01325 10 5 0 1.01325 10 5 74

1.0129 10 5 Pa
5
P
1.01325 10 0
ln
ln B 2

5
1.01325 10 74
PB1

NA

D AB P
6.92 10 6 1.01325 10 5
PA1 PA2
9.68 10 8 kgmol A/m2s
RT r1 r0 PBM
8314.33180.002 1.0129 105

6.2-5.) Mass Transfer from a Napthalene Sphere to Air


Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 10mm. The sphere is in a
large volume of still air at 52.6C and 1atm absolute pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at
52.6C is 1.0 mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 0C is 5.16 x 10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate
of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in kg mol/s m2. [Note: the diffusivity can be corrected
for temperature by using the temperature correction factor from the Fuller et al. equation (6.2-45)]
Assumptions:
the system is at steady-state, so the radius of the sphere is not changing
point 1 is at the surface of the sphere and point 2 is very far away , so r2 >> r1
R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K
T = 325.75 K
r = 0.01 m

PA1=(1.0mmHg)(1.01325 x 105 Pa/760 mmHg) =


133.322 Pa
PA2 = 0 Pa because the air is still

First calculate DAB at the new temperature:


1.75

T
DAB(52.6C) = DAB(0C) 2
T1
2
m /s
Now solve for N A :

P2
= (5.16 x 10-6 m2/s)(325.75/273.15)1.75 = 7.023 x 10-6
P1

N A 1 1 DAB P P PA2

ln
4 r1 r2
RT
P

P
A1

N A DAB P P PA2

ln
4r1
RT
P

P
A1

NA
7.023 10 6 1.01325 10 5 1.01325 105 133.322
= 4.34736 x 10-11 kgmol/s

ln
5
8314325.75
4 0.1
1.01325 10 0
Now solve for NA = N A /A = (4.34736 x 10-11 kgmol/s)/(4r12) = 3.46 x 10-8 kgmol/m2s

6.2-9 Time to Completely Evaporate a Sphere


A drop of liquid toluene is kept at a uniform temperature of 25.9C and is suspended in air by a
fine wire. The initial radius r1 = 2.00mm. The vapor pressure of toluene at 25.9C is PA1 = 3.84
kPa and the density of liquid toluene is 866 kg/m3.
(a) Derive Eq. (6.2-34) to predict the time tF for the drop to evaporate completely in a large
volume of still air. Show all steps.
(b) Calculate the time in seconds for complete evaporation.
(a) Equations for flux:

NA
D P P PA2
AB A1
2
RTr
PBM
4r

and

NA

A dV
M A dt

dV
Volume of the sphere, V 4 r 3 so the derivative of volume is:
4r 2
3
dr
Plug this volume derivative into molar flux equation for dV:
A 4r 2 dr
NA
M A dt

Now set N A equal in each equation:

A 4r 2 dr

D P P PA2
1
AB A1
2
M A dt
RTr
PBM
4r
Separate variables and integrate both sides:
t
r
A RT PBM
A r 2 RT PBM

dt

rdr
t

0 M A DAB P PA1 PA2 0


2M A D AB P PA1 PA2
(b) Now use the equation to find the time in seconds:
DAB = 0.86 x 10-4 m2/s
R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K
T = 299.05 K
= 866 kg/m3
r1 = 0.002 m

PA1 = 3840 Pa
PA2 = 0 Pa
P = 1.01325 x 105 Pa
MA = 92.14 kg/kgmol
Solve for PBM:

PBM

tevap =

PA1 PA2
= 99392.6 Pa

A
2
ln
P PA1

8660.0022 8314299.0599392.6 1388.23 seconds


2M A DAB P PA1 PA2
292.140.086 10 4 3840 0
A r 2 RT PBM

6.2-10 Diffusion in a Nonuniform Cross-Sectional Area Changing Pipe Diameter


The gas ammonia (A) is diffusing at steady state through N2 (B) by equimolar counterdiffusion in a conduit
1.22m long at 25C and a total pressure of 101.32 kPa abs. The partial pressure of ammonia at the left end
is 25.33 kPa and at the other end is 5.066 kPa. The cross section of the conduit is in the shape of an
equilateral triangle, the length of each side of the triangle being 0.0610m at the left end and tapering

uniformly to 0.0305m at the right end. Calculate the molar flux of ammonia. The diffusivity is DAB = 0.230 x
10-4 m2/s.
.061m

.0305m

1.22m

Area = 1 b 2 tan (60)


4
To find an equation for how b changes with the length, create a linear fit based on two points:
At the first end: (0, 0.061) and at the other end: (1.22, 0.0305)
Slope = -0.0305/1.22 = -0.025
b = -0.025L + 0.061
2
So now Area = 1 0.025 L 0.061 tan (60) = 0.000271 L2 0.001321 L + 0.001611
4
NA
DAB dPA
N A D AB dPA

2
RT dL
A
RT dL
0.000271 L - 0.001321 L 0.001611

Now separate and integrate both sides:


1.22

NA
DAB
dL
2
RT
0.000271 L - 0.001321 L 0.001611

PA 2

PA1

dPA

R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K
T = 298.15 K

PA1 = 25.33 kPa


PA2 = 5.066 kPa
DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s

Now plug into integrate equation:


DAB PA2 PA1 0.230 10 4 5066 25330

N A 1514.8

N A = 1.24 x 10-10
8314298.15
RT
kgmol/s
Now solve for NA:
1.24 10 10
NA = N A /A =
at any point along the length, L
1 0.025L 0.06102 tan 60
4

Molecular Diffusion in Liquids


Diffusion of Ethanol (A) Through Water (B)
Example 6.3-1, page 429
An ethanol(A)-water(B) solution in the form of a stagnant film 2.0mm thick at 293K is in contact at one
surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble and water is insoluble. Hence, NB = 0. At
point 1, the concentration of ethanol is 16.8 wt % and the solution density is 1 = 972.8 kg/m3. At
point 2, the concentration of ethanol is 6.8 wt % and 2 = 988.1 kg/m3. The diffusivity of ethanol is
0.740x10-9 m2/s. Calculate the steady-state flux NA.
DAB = 0.740x10-9 m2/s
T = 293K
CA1 = 16.8
CA2 = 6.8

1 = 972.8 kg/m3
2 = 988.1 kg/m3
Meth =46.05
Mwater = 18.02

Calculate the mole fractions, taking a basis of 100 kg:


16.8
6.8
46.05
46.05
X A1
0.0732
X A2
0.0277
16.8
83
.
2
6
.
8

93.2
46.05
18.02
46.05
18.02
X B1 1 X A1 1 0.0732 0.9268
X B 2 1 X A2 1 0.0277 0.9723
Now calculate the molecular weight:
100kg
100kg
M1
20.07 kg/kgmol
M1
18.75 kg/kgmol
16.8
6.8
83.2
93.2
46.05
18.02
46.05
18.02
Now calculate CAvg:
/ M 1 2 / M 2 972.8 / 20.07 988.1 / 18.75
C avg 1

50.6 kgmol/m3
2
2
X X B1 0.9723 0.9268
X BM B 2

0.949
X B2
0.9268
ln
ln

0.9723
X B1

NA

D AB C avg

z 2 z1 x BM

9
x A1 x A2 0.740 10 50.60.0732 0.0277 8.99 10 7 kgmol/m2s
0.0020.949

6.3-2 Diffusion of Ammonia in an Aqueous Solution


An ammonia (A) water (B) solution at 278K and 4.0mm thick is in contact at one surface with an organic
liquid at this interface. The concentration of ammonia in the organic phase is held constant and is such that
the equilibrium concentration of ammonia in the water at this surface is 2.0 wt % ammonia (density of
aqueous solution 991.7 kg/m3) and the concentration of ammonia in water at the other end of the film 4.0
mm away is 10 wt% (density = 961.7 kg/m3). Water and the organic are insoluble in each other. The
diffusion coefficient of ammonia in water is 1.24 x 10-9 m2/s.
(a) At steady state, calculate the flux NA in kg mol/s m2
(b) Calculate the flux NB. Explain.
(a)
1 = 991.7 kg/m3
CA1 = 0.02
2 = 961.7 kg/m3
CA2 = 0.1
M1 = 17.9806 kg/kgmol
z1 = 0.004 m
M2 = 17.9031 kg/kgmol
z2 = 0 m
T = 278 K
Calculate Cavg:

C avg

1 991.7
1 1
961.7
3

54.435 kgmol/m
2 M 1 M 2 2 17.9806 17.9031

Calculate XBM:
Xw1 = 1-0.02 = 0.98
Xw2 = 1-0.1 = 0.9

X BM

X B 2 X B1
0.9 0.98

0.939432
ln X B 2 X B1 ln 0.9 / 0.98

Now calculate flux:


D AB C avg X A1 X A2 1.24 10 9 54.4350.02 0.1
NA
=
= 1.437 x 10-6 kgmol/m2 s
z 2 z1 X BM
0 0.0040.939432

Prediction of Diffusivities in Liquids


Prediction of Liquid Diffusivity
Example 6.3-2, page 432
Predict the diffusion coefficient of acetone in water at 25C and 50C using the Wilke-Chang equation. The
experimental value 1.28x10-9 m2/s at 298K.
From Appendix A.2, the viscosity of water at 25C is B = 0.8937 x 10-3 Pa s and at 50C is 0.5494 x 10-3 Pa
s. From Table 6.3-2 for CH3COCH3 with 3 carbons + 6 hydrogens + 1 oxygen.
VA = 3(0.0148) + 6(0.0037) + 1(0.0074) = 0.0740 m3 kgmol
For the water association parameter = 2.6 and MB = 18.02 kg mass/kgmol. For 25C:

1/ 2

1/ 2

D AB 1.173 10 16 M B

T
298
1/ 2
1.173 10 16 2.6 18.02
1.277 10 9 m2/s
0.6
0.6
BV A
0.89370.0740

For 50C:

D AB 1.173 10 16 M B

T
323
1/ 2
1.173 10 16 2.6 18.02
2.251 10 9 m2/s
0.6
0.6
BV A
0.54940.0740

Prediction of Diffusivities of Electrolytes in Liquids


Diffusivities of Electrolytes
Example 6.3-3, page 434
Predict the diffusion coefficients of dilute electrolytes for the following cases:
(a) For KCl at 25C, predict DAB and compare with the value in Table 6.3-1
(b) Predict the value of KCl at 18.5C. The experimental value is 1.7x10-5 cm2/s
(c) For CaCl2 predict DAB at 25C. Compare with the experimental value of 1.32x10-5 cm2/s; also,
predict Di of the ion Ca2+ and of Cl- and use Eq. 6.3-12
(a) From Table 6.3-3, + (K+) = 73.5 and - (Cl-) = 76.3:
1 / n 1 / n
1 / 1 1 / 1 1.993 10 5 cm2/s

D AB
8.928 10 10 T
8.928 10 10 298
1 / 1 /
1 / 73.5 1 / 76.3
(b) To change the temperature, we use a simple correction factor:
T = 18.5C = 291.7K
From Table A.2-4, w = 1.042 cP
T
291.7
D AB 18.5 D AB 25
1.993 10 5
1.671 10 5 cm2/s
334 w
1.042
(c) From Table 6.3-3, + (Ca2+/2) = 59.5 and - (Cl-) = 76.3, n+ = 2 and n- = 1:

59.5
DCa2 2.662 10 7 2.662 10 7
0.792 10 5 cm2/s
n
2

D AB

76.3
2.031 10 5 cm2/s
n
1
n n
2 1

1.335 10 5 cm2/s
5
5
n / D n / D 2 / 0.792 10 1 / 2.031 10

DCl 2.662 10 7

2.662 10 7

Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels


Prediction of Diffusivity of Albumin
Example 6.4-1, page 438
Predict the diffusivity of bovine serum albumin at 298K in water as a dilute solution using the modified
Polson equation (6.4-1).
T = 298 K
MA = 67500 kg/kgmol from Table 6.4-1 (pg 437)
water = 0.8937x10-3 Pa s
We can use the equation for the prediction of diffusivities for biological solutes:
9.40 10 15 T
9.40 10 15 298
D AB

7.70 10 11 m2/s
1/ 3
1/ 3
3
M A
0.8937 10 67500
This value is different from the experimental value because the shape of the molecule differs greatly from a
sphere.

Diffusion of Urea in Agar


Example 6.4-2, page 439
A tube or bridge of a gel solution of 1.05 wt% agar in water at 278K is 0.04 m long and connects two
agitated solutions of urea in water. The urea concentration in the first solution is 0.2 gmol urea per liter
solution and is 0 in the other. Calculate the flux of urea in kgmol/m2s at steady-state.
T = 278 K
DAB = 0.727x10-9 m2/s from Table 6.4-2 (page 440)
CA1 = 0.2 kgmol/m3
CA2 = 0 kgmol/m3
Because XA1 is less than 0.01, the solute is very dilute and XBM 1.0.

NA

D AB C A1 C A2 0.727 10 9 0.2 0

3.63 10 9 kgmol/m2s
z 2 z1
0.04

Molecular Diffusion in Solids


Diffusion of H2 Through Neoprene Membrane
Example 6.5-1, page 442
The gas hydrogen at 17C and 0.010 atm partial pressure is diffusing through a membrane of vulcanized
neoprene rubber 0.5 mm thick. The pressure of H2 on the other side of the neoprene is zero. Calculate the
steady-state flux, assuming that the only resistance to diffusion is in the membrane. The solubility S of H2
gas in neoprene at 17C is 0.051 m3 (STP of 0C and 1atm)/m3 solid atm and the diffusivity DAB is 1.03x10-10
m2/s at 17C.
PA1 = 0.10 atm
Solubility = 0.051 m3/m3 solid atm
PA2 = 0
-10
2
DAB = 1.03x10 m /s
z2 z1 = 0.5 mm
The equilibrium concentration at the inside surface of the rubber is:
0.051 0.01 2.28 10 5 kgmol H /m3 solid
S
C A1
PA1
2
22.414
22.414
Because PA2 on the other side of the rubber is zero, CA2 = 0:
D C C A2 1.03 10 10 2.28 10 5 0
N A AB A1

4.69 10 12 kgmol H2/m2 s


z 2 z1
0.0005

Diffusion Through a Packaging Film Using Permeability


Example 6.5-2, page 443
A polyethylene film 0.00015m thick is being considered for use in packaging a pharmaceutical product at
30C. If the partial pressure of O2 outside the package is 0.21 atm and inside it is 0.01atm, calculate the
diffusion flux of O2 at steady-state. Use permeability data from Table 6.5-1. Assume that the resistances to
diffusion outside the film and inside the film are negligible compared to the resistance of the film.
From Table 6.5-1, PM = 4.17x10-12 m3 solute/(s m2 atm/m)
P P PA2 4.17 10 12 0.21 0.01
N A M A1

2.480 10 10 kgmol/m2s
22.414z 2 z1
22.4140.00015

6.5-5 Diffusion Through a Membrane in Series


Nitrogen gas at 2.0 atm and 30C is diffusing through a membrane of nylon 1.0 mm thick and polyethylene
8.0 mm thick in series. The partial pressure at the other side of the two films is 0 atm. Assuming no other
resistances, calculate the flux, NA at steady state.
N2

P1 = 2.0 atm
P2 = 0 atm
PN2/Ny = 0.152 x 10-12 m2/s atm
PN2/Poly = 1.52 x 10-12 m2/s atm
Diffusion of gas through a solid:

2.0 atm

NA

DAB C A1 C A2
z2 z1

CA can be related to the permeability: C A

S PA
where S is the solubility
22.414

The permeability of a gas in a solid, PM = DABS


When there are several solids with thicknesses L1, L2,, we can write the flux as:

PA1 PA2
1
NA

L
L
22.414
1
2

PM 1 PM 2

1
2.0 0
22.414
0.001
0.008

12
1.52 10 12
0.0152 10

1.256 10 12 kmole/m2s

0 atm

Diffusion in Porous Solids That Depends on Structure


Diffusion of KCl in Porous Silica
Example 6.5-3, page 445
A sintered solid of silica 2.0mm thick is porous, with a void fraction of 0.30 and tortuosity of 4.0. The
pores are filled with water at 298K. At one face the concentration of KCl is held at 0.1 gmol/liter, and fresh
water flows rapidly past the other face. Neglecting any other resistance but that in the porous solid,
calculate the diffusion of KCl at steady-state.
= 4.0
-9
2
DAB = 1.87x10 m /s from Table 6.3-1 (page 431)
= 0.30
CA1 = 0.1 gmol/liter = 0.1 kgmol/m3
z2 z1 = 0.002 m
CA2 = 0

NA

D AB C A1 C A2 0.30 1.87 10 9 0.1 0

7.01 10 9 kgmol/m2s

z 2 z1
4.0
0.002

6.5-6 Diffusion of CO2 in a Packed Bed of Sand


It is desired to calculate the rate of diffusion of CO2 gas in air at steady state through a loosely packed bed
of sand at 276K and a total pressure of 1.013 x 105 Pa. The bed depth is 1.25m and the void fraction is
0.30. The partial pressure of CO2 is 2.026 x 103 Pa at the top of the bed and 0 Pa at the bottom. Use a of
1.87.
P1 = 2.026 x 105 Pa
= 1.87
PA1 = 2.026 x 103 Pa
= 0.30
PA2 = 0 Pa
T = 276K

D P PA2 .142 10 4 0.30 2.026 103 0


N A AB A1

8.3142761.871.25 0
RT z 2 z1
N A 1.609 106 mol/m2s

1.25m

P2 = 0 Pa

Unsteady-State Diffusion in Various Geometries


Unsteady-State Diffusion in a Slab or Agar Gel
Example 7.1-1, page 463
A solid slab of 5.15 wt% agar gel at 278K is 10.16 mm thick and contains a uniform concentration of urea of
0.1 kgmol/m3. Diffusion is only in the x-direction through two parallel flat surfaces 10.16 mm apart. The
slab is suddenly immersed in pure turbulent water, so the surface resistance can be assumed to be
negligible; that is, the convective coefficient kc is very large. The diffusivity of urea in agar from Table 6.4-2
is 4.72x10-10 m2/s.
(a) Calculate the concentration at the midpoint of the slab (5.08mm from the surface) and 2.54mm from the
surface after 10 hours.
(b) If the thickness of the slab is halved, what would the midpoint concentration be in 10 hours?
C0 = 0.10 kgmol/m3
DAB = 4.72x10-10 m2/s
C1 = 0 for pure water
t = 10 hours * 3600 seconds = 36000 seconds
C = concentration at distance x from the center
line and at time t
C /K C
0 / 1.0 c
c
Y 1

C1 / K C0 0 / 1.0 0.1 0.1


(a)
X1 = 10.16mm/2 = 5.08mm = 0.00508 m
X = 0 (center)
10
D t
X AB 2 4.72 10 36000
0.658
X1
0.005082
Relative position, n = X/X1 = 0
Relative Resistance, m = 0

On Figure 5.3-5 Unsteady State Conduction in a Large Flat Plate when X = 0.685, m = 0, n = 0
c

c = 0.0275 kgmol/m3
Y 0.275
0.1
On Figure 5.3-5, when X = 0.658, m = 0, n = 0.00254/0.00508 = 0.5: (n is not 0 now because not at center)
c

c = 0.0172 kgmol/m3
Y 0.172
0.1
(b)
If the thickness is halved, X becomes:
10
D t
X AB 2 4.72 10 36000
2.632
X1
0.002542
Relative position, n = 0, m = 0
c
Y 0.0020

c = 0.0002 kgmol/m3
0.1

7.1-5 Unsteady State Diffusion in a Cylinder of Agar Gel Radially and Axially

A wet cylinder of agar gel at 278K containing a uniform concentration of urea of 0.1 kgmol/m3 has a
diameter of 30.48mm and is 38.1mm long with flat parallel ends. The diffusivity is 4.72 x 10-10 m2/s.
Calculate the concentration at the midpoint of the cylinder after 100h for the following cases if the cylinder
is suddenly immersed in turbulent pure water.
(a) For radial diffusion only
(b) Diffusion occurs radially and axially
Assume surface resistance is negligible; assume k = 1.0 because properties are similar
T = 278 K
C0 = 0.1 kgmol/m3
C1 = 0 for pure water
D = 4.72 x 10-10 m/s
Time, t = 100h = 360000 seconds
c k c
0 1.0 c
c
Y 1

c1 k c0 0 1.0 0.1 0.1


(a)
r1 = 0.01524 m
r0 = 0 m (center line)

DAB t 4.72 10 10 360000

0.731601
0.01524
r12
Relative position at midpoint of the cylinder, n = 0/0.1524 = 0
Relative resistance, m 0 because kc is assumed to be very large
X

From Figure 5.3-7, Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in a Long Cylinder:


Using X = 0.731601, m = 0, n = 0 Y = 0.024 = c/0.1
Concentration = 0.0024 kgmol/m3
(b)
X1 = L/2 = 38.1 mm / 2 = 19.05 mm = .01905 m
D t 4.72 10 10 360000
X AB2
0.468
0.01905
r1
From Figure 5.3-7, Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in a Long Cylinder:
Using X = 0.468, m = 0, n = 0 Y = 0.375

For both axial and radial diffusion, Y = YxYy = (0.375)(0.24) = 0.009


Concentration = 0.0009 kgmol/m3

Unsteady-State Diffusion in a Semi-Infinite Slab


Example 7.1-2, page 465
A very thick slab has a uniform concentration of solute A of C0 = 1.0x10-2 kgmol A/m3. Suddenly, the front
face of the slab is exposed to a flowing fluid having a concentration C1 = 0.10 kgmol A/m3 and a convective
coefficient kc = 2x10-7 m/s. The equilibrium distribution coefficient K = cLi/ci = 2.0. Assuming that the slab
is a semi-infinite solid, calculate the concentration in the solid at the surface (x = 0) and x = 0.01m from the
surface after t = 30000 seconds. The diffusivity in the solid is DAB = 4x10-9 m2/s.
C1 = 0.10 kgmol/m3
kc = 2x10-7 m/s
K = 2.0

t = 3000 seconds
DAB = 4x10-9 m2/s
C0 = 0.01 kgmol.m3

Kk c
D AB

D AB t

2.02 10 7
4 10

4 10 3000 1.095
9

For x = 0.01:

0.01

0.457
2 4 10 -9 3000
From the chart 5.3-3 Unsteady State Heat Conducted in a Semi-Infinite Solid with Surface Convection:
C C0
C 0.01
C = 2.04x10-2 kgmol/m3
1Y

0.26
C1 / K C0 0.1 / 2 0.01
For x = 0
x
0

0
2 D AB t 2 4 10 -9 3000
From the chart 5.3-3 Unsteady State Heat Conducted in a Semi-Infinite Solid with Surface Convection:
C C0
C 0.01
C = 3.48x10-2 kgmol/m3
1Y

0.62
C1 / K C0 0.1 / 2 0.01
This is the same value as Ci. To calculate CLi:
C Li KCi 2.03.48 10 2 6.96 10 2 kgmol/m3
2 D AB t

7.1-6 Drying of Wood Unsteady State Diffusion in a Flat Plate


A flat slab of Douglas fir wood 50.8mm thick containing 30 wt% moisture is being dried from both sides
(neglecting ends and edges). The equilibrium moisture content at the surface of the wood due to the drying
air blown over it is held at 5 wt% moisture. The drying can be assumed to be represented by a diffusivity of
3.72 x 10-6 m2/h. Calculate the time for the center to reach 10% moisture.
Assume there is no surface resistance and kc =
At t = 0, c0 = 0.3, c1 = 0.05
At t = ?, c = 0.1
DAB = 3.72 x 10-6 m2/h
Solve for Y:

c1 k c 0.5 1.0 0.1

0.2
c1 k c0 0.5 1.0 0.3

Solve for X for the graph:


X1 = 25.4 mm = 0.254 m
X0 (center) = 0 m

DAB t 3.72 10 6 t

0.005766t
x12
0.254 2

Relative position, n = 0 at the center


Relative resistance, m = 0 because kC is large
From Chart 5.3-5, Unsteady State Heat Conduction in a Flat Plate: X = 0.75 = 0.005766t
Time, t = 130.073 hours

Convective Mass Transfer Coefficients


Vaporizing A and Convective Mass Transfer
Example 7.2-1, page 469
A large volume of pure gas B at 2 atm pressure is flowing over a surface from which pure A is vaporizing.
The liquid A completely wets the surface, which is a blotting paper. Hence, the partial pressure of A at the
surface is the vapor pressure of A at 298K, which is 0.2 atm. The ky has been estimated to be 6.78x10-5
kgmol/s m2 mol frac. Calculate NA, the vaporization rate, and also the value of ky and kG.
P = 2.0 atm
PA2 = 0 atm
PA1 = 0.2 atm
k'y = 6.78x10-5 kgmol/s m2 mol frac
First calculate the mole fraction of A:

YA1 PA / P 0.2 / 2.0 0.1


YA2 0
To calculate ky, we must relate it to k'y:

k y y BM k y'

y BM

ky

k y'
y BM

y B 2 y B1
1 0.9

0.95
ln y B 2 y B1 ln 1.0 / 0.9

6.78 10 5

7.138 10 5 kgmol/m2 s mole fraction


0.95

Now we can calculate kG:

7.138 10 5
3.569 10 5 kgmol/m2 s atm
P
2.0
Now we can calculate the vaporization rate, NA:
N A k y y A1 y A2 7.138 10 5 0.10 0 7.138 10 6 kgmol/m2s
or
5
N A k G PA1 PA2 3.569 10 0.2 0 7.138 10 6 kgmol/m2s
k G y BM P k y y BM

kG

ky

7.2-1 Flux and Conversion of Mass-Transfer Coefficient

A value of kG was experimentally determined to be 1.08 lbmol/h ft2 atm for A diffusing through stagnant B.
For the same flow and concentrations it is desired to predict kG and the flux of A for equimolar
counterdiffusion. The partial pressures are PA1 = 0.20 atm, PA2 = 0.05 atm, P = 1.0 atm abs total. Use
English and SI Units.
kG' P kG PBM
Solve for PBM:
P PA2
0.2 0.05
PBM A1

0.872853 atm
P PA2
1 0.05
ln
ln 1 0.2
P PA1
Plug into equation:
kG (1.0 atm) = (1.08 lbmol/h ft2 atm)(0.872853 atm)
kG(1.01x105Pa) = (1.08lbmol/hft2atm)(.872853atm)(1hr/3600sec)(1ft2/.0929 m2)(.453kgmol/lbmol)
kG = 0.9427 lbmol/h ft2 atm
kG = 1.262 x 10-8 kgmol/s m2 Pa
Now solve for flux:
PA1 = 0.2 atm = 20265 Pa
PA2 = 0.05 atm = 5066.25 Pa

N A kG' PA1 PA2 0.92470.2 0.05 .1414

N A kG' PA1 PA2 1.262 10 8 20265 5066.25 1.92 10 4

NA = 0.1414 lbmol/ft2h
NA = 1.92 x 10-4 kgmol/m2s

Mass Transfer Under High Flux Conditions


High Flux Correction Factors
Example 7.2-2, page 472
Toluene A is evaporating from a wetted porous slab by having inert pure air at 1 atm flowing parallel to the
flat surface. At a certain point, the mass transfer coefficient, kx for very low fluxes has been estimated as
0.20 lbmol/hr ft2. The gas composition at the interface at this point is XA1 = 0.65. Calculate the flux NA and
the ratios kc/ kc or kx/ kx and k0c/ kc or k0x/ kx to correct for high flux.
First find XBM:
X BM

X B 2 X B1 1 0 1 0.65

0.619
X B2
1 0
ln
ln

1 0.65
X B1

To find the flux, NA, use:

k x'
X A1 X A2 0.20 0.65 0 0.210 lbmol/ft2 hr
X BM
0.619
To find the ratios, set up the following:
k x kc
1
1
'

1.616
'
k x k c X BM 0.619
NA

So k x 1.616k x' 1.6160.2 0.323 lbmol/ft2 hr; and

k x0 k c0 1 X A1 1 0.65
'

0.565
X BM
0.619
k x'
kc

So k x0 0.565k x' 0.5650.2 0.113 lbmol/ft2 hr

7.2-3 Absorption of H2S by Water


In a wetted-wall tower an air H2S mixture is flowing by a film of water that is flowing as a thin film down a
vertical plate. The H2S is being absorbed from the air to the water at a total pressure of 1.50 atm abs and
30C. A value for kc of 9.567 x 10-4 m/s has been predicted for the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient. At a
given point, the mole fraction of H2S in the liquid at the liquid-gas interface is 2.0(10-5) and PA of H2S in the
gas is 0.05 atm. The Henrys law equilibrium relation is PA (atm) = 609xA (mole fraction in the liquid).
Calculate the rate of absorption of H2S. Hint: Call point 1 the interface and point 2 the gas phase. Then
calculate PA1 from Henrys Law and the given xA. The value of PA2 is 0.05 atm.
P = 1.50 atm
PA1 = 609 (CA1) = 609(2 x 10-5) = 0.01218 atm
PA2 = 0.05 atm
T = 30 C = 303.15 K
kc = 9.567 x 10-4 m/s
XA1 = 2 x 10-5
Henrys Law: PA = 609XA
R = 82.057 x 10-3 m3 atm/kgmol K

kc' P
kG' P
RT

k G'

9.567 10 4
3.846 10 5 kgmol/m2s atm
3
82.057 10 303.15

N A kG PA1 PA2 3.846 10 5 0.01218 0.05 1.455 10 6

NA = 1.455 x 10-6 kgmol/m2s

Mass Transfer for Flow Inside Pipes


Mass Transfer Inside a Tube
Example 7.3-1, page 479
A tube is coated on the inside with naphthalene and has an inside diameter of 20 mm and a length of 1.10m.
Air at 318K and an average pressure of 101.3 kPa flows through this pipe at a velocity of 0.80 m/s.
Assuming that the absolute pressure remains essentially constant, calculate the concentration of naphthalene
in the exit air.
v = 0.80 m/s
D = 0.02 m
T = 318 K
z2 z1 = 1.10 m
DAB = 6.92x10-6 m2/s

PAi = 74.0 Pa
air = 1.932x10-5 Pa s from Appendix A
= 1.114 kg/m3
R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K

Calculate the concentration, CAi:


P
74 2.799 10 5 kgmol/m3
C Ai Ai
RT 8314318
Calculate the Schmidt number:

1.932 10 5
N Sc

2.506
D AB 1.114 6.92 10 6
Calculate the Reynolds number:
D 0.020.801.114
N Re

922.6

1.932 10 5
Hence, the flow is laminar. We will use Figure 7.3-2 for laminar flow streamlines:
D
0.02
N Re N Sc
922.62.506
33.02
L 4
1.10 4
Using Figure 7.3-2 with rodlike flow:
C A C A0
0.55
C Ai C A0
If CA0 = 0,
C A C A0
CA 0
0.55

CA = 1.539 x 10-5 kgmol/m3


5
C Ai C A0
2.799 10 0

7.3-7 Mass Transfer from a Pipe and Log Mean Driving Force
Use the same physical conditions as in problem 7.3-2, but the velocity in the pipe is now 3.05
m/s. Do as follows:
(a) Predict the mass transfer coefficient kc (Is this turbulent flow?).
(b) Calculate the average benzoic acid concentration at the outlet. [ Note: in this case,
Eqs. (7.3-42) and (7.3-43) must be used with the log mean driving force, where A is
the surface area of the pipe.]
(c) Calculate the total kgmol of benzoic acid dissolved per second.
1.829 m
Pure Water
T = 26.1C
v = 3.05m/s

0.00635 m
1.22 m

= 996 kg/m3
= 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s
T = 26.1C
DAB = 1.245x10-9 m2/s

Solubility = 0.2948 kgmol/m3


D = 0.00635 m
As = 2rL
V = A

Calculate the Schmidt number:

8.71 10 4
N Sc

702.408
D AB 996 1.245 10 9
Calculate the Reynolds number:
D 0.006353.05996
N Re

22147

8.71 10 4
Calculate the Sherwood number:
0.83
0.33
N Sh 0.23N Re N Sc 0.000049487
Now calculate kc:
k ' 1.245 10 9
k' D
0.000049487 c
N Sh c

0.00635
D AB
(b)
CA1 = 0
CAi = 0.02948 (solubility)
CA2 = ?

So now we plug this into the log mean driving force equation:
C A2 C A1
vC A2 C A1 A K C
C C A1
ln Ai

C Ai C A2
CA1 = 0, so it cancels out of the equation:

k c' 1.59 10 4 m/s

vC A2 A K C

C A2
C Ai

ln

C Ai C A2

Now plug in:

3.05C A2 0.003175 2 1.59 10 4

C A2
0.02948
ln

0.02948 C A2

CA2 = 0.001151 kgmol/m3


(c)
Rate of benzoic acid dissolved = NA:
vC A2 C A1 3.050.001151 0
NA

1.11 10 7
2
A
0.003175

Mass Transfer for Flow Outside Solid Surfaces


Mass Transfer From a Flat Plate
Example 7.3-2, page 481
A large volume of pure water at 26.1C is flowing parallel to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid, where L =
0.24 m in the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.061 m/s. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is
0.02948 kgmol/m3. The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245x10-9 m2/s. Calculate the mass-transfer coefficient
kL and the flux NA.
Solubility = 0.02948 kgmol/m3
T = 26.1C
L = 0.24 m

DAB = 1.245x10-9 m2/s


v = 0.061 m/s

Because the solution is dilute, we can use the properties of water for the solution:
= 996 kg/m3
= 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s
Calculate the Schmidt Number:

N Sc
Calculate the Reynolds number:

N Re
Now calculate JD:

D AB
D

8.71 10 4
702
996 1.245 10 9

0.240.061996 17000
8.71 10 4

0.5
J D 0.99 N Re,
L 0.9917000

0.5

Now solve for

0.00758

kc:

JD

k c'

N Sc 2 / 3

k c' 5.85 10 6 m/s

In this case, A is diffusing through stagnant B. We use the solubility for CA1 and CA2 = 0. Also, since the
solution is dilute, xBM 1:
k'
5.85 10 6
0.02948 0 1.726 10 7 kgmol/m2s
N A c C A1 C A2
X BM
1.0

Mass Transfer From a Sphere


Example 7.3-3, page 482
Calculate the value of the mass-transfer coefficient and the flux for mass transfer from a sphere of
naphthalene to air at 45C and 1 atm abs flowing at a velocity of 0.305 m/s. The diameter of the sphere is
0.0254m. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 45C is 6.92x10-6 m2/s and the vapor pressure of solid
naphthalene is 0.555 mmHg.
v = 0.305 m/s
D = 0.0254m
DAB = 6.92x10-6 m/s
PA1 = 0.555 mmHg = 74 Pa
= 1.113 kg/m3
T = 45C
= 1.93 x 10-5 Pa s
P = 1 atm
Calculate the Schmidt number:

N Sc
Calculate the Reynolds number:

N Re
Now find the Sherwood number:

D AB
D

1.93 10 5

2.505
1.113 6.92 10 6

0.02540.3051.113 446
1.93 10 5

N Sh 2 0.552N Re

0.53

Now solve for kc:


N sh k c'

Now solve for kG:

D
D AB

k c' N sh

N Sc 1/ 3 21.0

D AB
6.92 10 6
21.0
5.72 10 3 m/s
D
0.0254

k c'
5.72 10 3
k

2.163 10 9 kgmol/s m2 Pa
RT 8314318

Since the gas is dilute, k G kG. Using that we can solve for the flux:
N A k G PA1 PA2 2.163 10 9 73 0 1.599 10 7 kgmol/m2 s
'
G

7.3-1 Mass Transfer from a Flat Plate to a Liquid


Using the data and physical properties from Example 7.3-2, calculate the flux for a water velocity of 0.152
m/s and a plate length of L = 0.137 m. Do not assume that xBM = 1.0 but actually calculate its value.
Water at 26.1C, velocity, v = 0.152 m/sCA1
Benzoic Acid
0.137 m

DAB = 1.245 x 10-9 m2/s


Solubility, S = 0.02948 kgmol/m3
= 996 kg/m3

Mw = 18 kg/kgmol
CA1 = 0.02948 kgmol/m3
= 8.71 x 10-9 Pa s

Solve for XBM:


C B1
XB1 =
= [(996 kg/m3)/(18kg/kgmol)]/[(996 kg/m3)/(18kg/kgmol) + 0.02948 kgmol/m3]
C B1 C A1
XB1 = 0.999468
XB2 = 1.0
X A1 X A2
X X B1 1.0 0.999468
X BM
B2

0.999734
1 X A2
X B2
1.0
ln
ln
ln

0.999468
1

X
X
A1

B1
Calculate Schmidt Number:

N SC
Calculate Reynolds Number:

N Re

D AB

Calculate

Kc:

8.71 10 4
702
996 1.245 10 9

0.1370.152996 23812.5

Calculate JD:

J D 0.99 N Re

0.5

8.71 10 9

0.9923812.5

0.5

2 / 3
K C' J DN SC
0.064160.152702

2 / 3

Calculate Flux:

NA

0.06416
1.2346 10 5 m/s

K C' C A1 C A2 1.2346 10 5 0.2948 0

3.641 10 7 kgmol/m2s
X BM
0.999734

7.3-4 Mass Transfer to Definite Shapes Flat Plate and a Sphere


Estimate the value of the mass-transfer coefficient in a stream of air at 325.6 K flowing in a duct past the
following shapes made of solid naphthalene. The velocity of the air is 1.524 m/s at 325.6K and 202.6 kPa.
The DAB of naphthalene in air is 5.16 x 10-6 m2/s at 273K and 101.3 kPa.
(a) For air flowing parallel to a flat plate 0.152 m in length
(b) For air flowing past a single sphere 12.7 mm in diameter

Air at 325.6K, 202.6 kPa, v = 1.524 m/s

0.152 m

P = 202600 Pa
R = 8314.34 m3 Pa/kgmol K
T = 325.6 K
Mw = 28.8 kg/kgmol
Correct DAB:

T
D AB 325.6 K ,202.6kPa o
T
Calculate and :

1.75

P
o
P

T
325.6
o 0.0171cP

T
273

325.6

273

N Re

0.1521.5242.155 25495.5
1.958 10 5

0.2

JD

'
C

2/3
N SC

3.51182 10 6 m2/s

0.1958 cP = 1.958 x 10-5 kg/m s

0.2
J D 0.036 N Re
0.036 25495.5

N SC

M wP
28.8202600 2.155 kg/m3

8314.34325.6
RT

(a)
Calculate NRe:

Because NRe > 15000:

202.6

101.3

0.768

1.75

D AB

0.004732

1.958 10
2.58722
2.155 3.51182 10 6

'
C

K
2.587222 / 3

KC = 0.003827 m/s
1.524
'
K
0.003827
KG C
1.41366 10 9 kgmol/m2 Pa s
RT 8314.34325.6

0.004732

(b)
Dp = 0.0127 m
Calculate Reynolds and Schmidt Numbers:
D p 0.0127 1.5242.155
N Re

2130.21

1.958 10 5

1.958 10 5
N SC

2.58722
D AB 2.155 3.51182 10 6

Because 0.6 < NSC < 2.7:


0.53
1/ 3
0.53 1 / 3
N SH 2 0.552 N Re
N SC 2 0.5522130.21 2.58722 46.0164

N SH

K C' D p
D AB
KG

46.0164

K C' 0.0127
3.51182 10 6

KC = 0.012725 m/s

K C'
0.012735

4.70 10 9 kgmol/m2 Pa s
RT 8314.34325.6

Mass Transfer of a Liquid in a Packed Bed


Example 7.3-4, page 485
Pure water at 26.1C flows at the rate of 5.514x10-7 m3/s through a packed bed of benzoic acid spheres
having diameters of 6.375mm. The total surface area of the spheres in the bed is 0.01198 m2 and the void
fraction is 0.436. The tower diameter is 0.0667m. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is 2.948x10-2
kgmol/m3.
(a) Predict the mass transfer coefficient kc.
(b) Using the experimental value of kc, predict the outlet concentration of benzoic acid in the water.
Because the solution is dilute, we can use the properties of water for the solution:
= 996 kg/m3
AS = 0.01198 m2
26.1C = 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s
= 0.436
-4
25C = 8.94 x 10 Pa s
D = 0.0667m
V = 5.514x10-7 m3/s
S = 2.948x10-2 kgmol/m3
Dp = 6.375mm
DAB(25C) = 1.21x10-9 m2/s from Table 6.3-1
Correct DAB:
3
T
299.1 0.8940 10
1.254 10 9 m2/s
D AB 26.1 D AB 25 new old 1.21 10 9

3
298 0.8718 10
Told new
Calculate the area of the column:
A D 2 0.0667 3.494 10 3 m2
4
4
Now use the area and volumetric flow to find the velocity:
v V / A 5.514 10 7 / 3.494 10 3 1.578 10 4 m/s
Calculate the Schmidt Number:

8.71 10 4
N Sc

702.6
D AB 996.7 1.245 10 9
Calculate Reynolds number:
D p 0.006375 1.578 10 4 996.7
N Re

1.150

8.71 10 4
Calculate JD:
1.09
N Re 2 / 3 1.09 1.1502 / 3 2.277
JD

.436

Then, assuming k c = kc for dilute solutions,


k c'
k c'
2/3
702.62 / 3
J D N Sc
2.277
k c' 4.447 10 6 m/s

4
v
1.578 10
Now set the log mean driving force equation can be set equal to the material balance equation on
the bulk stream:
C C A1 C Ai C A2
Ak c Ai
V C A2 C A1
C Ai C A1
ln

C Ai C A2
where CAi = 0.02948 (the solubility)
CA1 = 0
A = 0.01198 m2 (the surface area of the bed)
V = 5.514x10-7 m3/s
CA2 = 2.842 x 10-3 kgmol/m3

7.3-5 Mass Transfer to Packed Bed and Driving Force

Pure water at 26.1C is flowing at a rate of 0.0701ft3/h through a packed bed of 0.251-in.
benzoic acid spheres having a total surface area of 0.129 ft2. The solubility of benzoic acid in
water is 0.00184 lbmol benzoic acid/ft3 solution. The outlet concentration is cA2 is 1.80 x 10-4
lbmol/ft3. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient kc. Assume dilute solution.
= 0.8718 x 10-3 Pa s
= 996.7 kg/m3
= 0.0701 ft3/hr
A = 0.129

CAi = 0.00184 lbmol/ft3


CA1 0
CA2 = 1.80 x 10-4 lbmol/ft3

Log mean driving force equation: N A A A K C

C A2 C A1

C C A1
ln Ai

C Ai C A2
where CA1 is the inlet bulk flow concentration, CA2 is the outlet bulk flow concentration, and CAi is the
concentration at the surface of the solid (which in this case equals the solubility)

Material Balance on the bulk stream: N A A vC A2 C A1


So now we plug this into the log mean driving force equation:
C A2 C A1
vC A2 C A1 A K C
C C A1
ln Ai

C Ai C A2
CA1 = 0, so it cancels out of the equation:
C A2
vC A2 A K C
C Ai

ln

C Ai C A2
We can now plug in given numbers:
1.80 10 4
0.0701 1.80 10 4 0.129K C
0.00184

ln
4
0.00184 1.80 10

KC = 0.0559 ft/hr

Mass Transfer to Suspensions of Small Particles


Mass Transfer from Air Bubbles in Fermentation
Example 7.4-1, page 488
Calculate the maximum rate of absorption of O2 in a fermenter from air bubbles at 1 atm abs pressure
having diameters of 100 m at 37C into water having a zero concentration of dissolved oxygen. The
solubility of O2 from air in water at 37C is 2.26x10-7 kgmol O2/m3 liquid. The diffusivity of O2 in water at
37C is 3.25x10-9 m2/s. Agitation is used to produce the air bubbles.
Dp = 1 x 10-4 m
c,water = 6.947 x 10-4 Pa s = 6.947 x 10-4 kg/ m s
-9
2
DAB = 3.25x10 m /s
c,water = 994 kg/m3
Solubility = 2.26x10-7 kgmol O2/m3 liquid
p,air = 1.13 kg/m3
Calculate NSc:

N Sc

c
c D AB

6.947 10 4
215
994 3.25 10 9

Now calculate k L:

2 D AB
2 / 3 c g

k
0.31N Sc
2
Dp
c

1/ 3

'
L

4
9.806 2.29 10 4 m/s
2 3.25 10 9
2 / 3 994 1.13 6.947 10

0
.
31

215
4
2

1 10
994

Assuming k L = kL for dilute solutions,


N A k L C A1 C A2 2.29 10 4 2.26 10 7 0 5.18 10 8 kgmol O2/m2 s
'
L

1/ 3

Molecular Diffusion Plus Convection and Chemical Reaction


Proof of Mass Flux Equation
Example 7.5-1, page 491
Table 7.5-1 gives the following relation: j A j B 0
Prove this relationship using the definition of the fluxes in terms of velocities.
From Table 7.5-1 (page 490), substituting A A for jA and B B for jB, and rearranging:

A A A B B B 0
A A B B A B 0

A B B and A B

A A B B A A B B 0

A A B B A A B B 0

Thus the identity is proved.

Diffusion and Chemical Reaction at a Boundary


Example 7.5-2, page 495
Pure gas A diffuses from point 1 at a partial pressure 101.32 kPa to point a distance 2.00mm away. At point
2, it undergoes a chemical reaction at the catalyst surface and A 2B. Component B diffuses back at
steady state. The total pressure is P = 101.32 kPa. The temperature is 300K and DAB = 0.15 x 10-4 m2/s.
(a) For instantaneous rate of reaction, calculate xA2 and NA.
(b) For a slow reaction where k1 = 5.63x10-3 m/s, calculate xA2 and NA.
C = P/RT = 101320/(8314*300) = 4.062 x 10-2
kgmol/m3
NB = -2NA
DAB = 0.15 x 10-4 m2/s
k1 = 5.63x10-3 m/s

PA2 = XA2 = 0 because no A can exist next to the


catalyst surface
XA1 = PA1/P = 1.0
= 0.002 m
T = 300 K
(a)

NA

CD AB

1 X A1
4.062 10 2 0.15 10 4 1 1.0
ln

ln
2.112 10 4 kgmol A/m2s

1 X A2
0.002
1 0

(b)
Substitute X A2

NA
in for XA2:
k1' C
NA

NA

0.002

4.062 10 0.15 10 ln

CD AB

ln

1 X A1
N
1 A '
k1C

1 1.0

N
1 A
5.63 10 3 4.062 10 2

2
4
1.004 10 kgmol A/m s

7.5-7 Unsteady State Diffusion and Reaction


Solute A is diffusing at unsteady state into a semi-infinite medium of pure B and undergoes a first-order
reaction with B. Solute A is dilute. Calculate the concentration CA at points z = 0, 4, and 10 mm from the
surface for t = 1 x 105 seconds. Physical property data are DAB = 1 x 10-9 m2/s, k = 1 x 10-4 s-1, CA0 = 1.0 kg
mol/m3. Also calculate the kg mol absorbed/m2. Find CA and Q.
For un-steady state diffusion and homogenous reaction in a semi-infinite medium,, the general solution is:

CA 1
k1'
k1'
2 exp z
k i t 1 2 exp z
ki t
erf
erf
C
D AB

D AB
2 tD AB

2 tD AB

For z1=0m:
CA 1
2 exp 0 erf 1 10 4 1 10 5 1 2 exp 0 erf 1 10 4 1 10 5
1.0
C A 1 2 exp 0 2 1 2 exp 0 0 1.0 kgmol/m3

For z2=0.004m

CA

1.0

1 10
1 10

erf
0.004
1 10 1 10
2 1 10 1 10

erf
0.004
1 10 1 10
2 1 10 1 10

110 0 0.2822642 0.28226 kgmol/m3


exp 0.004
110

1 10 4
exp

0
.
004

2
1 10 9

4
5
exp
0
.
004

2
9
5
9

1104
1
1
C A 1 2 exp 0.004

2
2
9
9
1

10

For z2=0.01m

CA 1
1 10 4
0.01
2 exp 0.01
erf
1 10 4 1 10 5
9
1.0
1 10
2 1 10 5 1 10 9

1 10 4
0.01
4
5
1 exp 0.01

erf

10
1

10

2
1 10 9
2 1 10 5 1 10 9

1 10 4
1 10 4
1
1
C A 2 exp 0.01
1.9998 2 exp 0.01
0 1 2 0.0423291.9998
9
9
1

10
1

10

3
C A 0.0.0423 kgmol/m
1

(b)
The total amount, Q, of A absorbed up to time t is represented by:
D AB ' 1
k ' t k 't
'
Q c A0
e
k t 2 erf k t

k '

Plugging in and solving for Q, we get:

Q 1

110 1 10 110 erf 1 10 110 1 10 110 e

110
9

4 '

Q 0.0332 kgmol/m

1
2

110 4 1105

7.5-11 Effect of Slow Reaction Rate on Diffusion

Gas A diffuses from point 1 to a catalyst surface at point 2, where it reacts as follows: 2A B. Gas B
diffuses back a distance to point 1.
(c) Derive an equation for NA for a slow first-order reaction where k1 is the reaction velocity constant.
(d) Calculate NA and xA2 for part (c) where k1 0.53 x 10-2 m/s.
(c)
Begin with the convective diffusion equation:
dC A C A
N A N B where: x A C A ,
N A D AB

dz
C
C
Plugging in:

N B 12 N A

A2
dx A
dx
x A 12 N A
N A dz CD AB
dz
1 xA 2
0
x A1
x

N A CD AB

1 x A2 2
ln

1 x A1 2
N
For a slow reaction, x A2 ' A . Plugging into the flux equation and replacing C with P/RT:
k1 C
NA

2CD AB

NA

2 PD AB 1 N A RT 2k1' P
ln

RT
1 x A1 2

(d)
Plugging in the values, we get:
2 1.01325 10 5 0.2 10 4 1 N A 8.314298 2 0.53 10 2 1.01325 10 5
NA
ln

8.3142980.0013
1 0.97 2

2
4
N A 1.76 10 kgmol/m s

Solving for the mole fraction:


N
1.76 10 4
x A2 ' A
0.81479
k1C
1.01325 10 5
0.0053
8.314298

7.5-10 Diffusion and Chemical Reaction of Molten Iron in Process Metallurgy


In a steel-making process using molten pig iron containing carbon, a spray of molten iron particles
containing 4.0 wt % carbon falls through a pure oxygen atmosphere. The carbon diffuses through the
molten iron to the surface of the drop, where it is assume that it reacts instantly at the surface because of the
high temperature, as follows, according to a first order reaction:
Calculate the maximum drop size allowable so that the final drop after a 2.0 second fall contains an average
of 0.1 wt % carbon. Assume that the mass transfer rate of gases at the surface is very great, so there is no
outside resistance. Assume no internal circulation of the liquid. Hence, the decarburization rate is
controlled by the rate of diffusion of carbon to the surface of the droplet. The diffusivity of the carbon in
iron is 7.5 x 10-9 m2/s (S7). Hint: use figure 5.3-13

For unsteady-state diffusion through a spherical geometry where we are looking at average temperature and
time, Figure 5.3-13 (page 377) can be used. So, to find the radius, r, we need to find Y, and X, where:
C C ave 0 0.001
Y 1

0.025
C1 C0
0 004
Because A reacts instantly, we know that C1=0. From the graph for a sphere at Y, X=0.32
Solving for r:
D t
7.5 10 9 2

X 0.32 AB2
r 0.000217 m
r1
r12

Unsteady State Diffusion and Reaction in a Semi-Infinite Medium


Reaction and Unsteady State Diffusion
Example 7.5-3, page 498
Pure CO2 gas at 101.32 kPa pressure is absorbed into a dilute alkaline buffer solution containing a catalyst.
The dilute, absorbed solute CO2 undergoes a first-order reaction, with k= 35 s-1 and DAB = 1.5x10-9 m2/s.
The solubility of CO2 is 2.961x10-7 kgmol/m3 Pa. The surface is exposed to the gas for 0.010 seconds.
Calculate the kgmol CO2 absorbed/m2 surface.
P = 101.32 kPa
k= 35 s-1
DAB = 1.5x10-9 m2/s
The total amount, Q, of A absorbed in time, t is:

Solubility of CO2 is 2.961x10-7 kgmol/m3 Pa


Time, t = 0.010 seconds

Q C A0 DAB / k ' k ' t 12 erf k ' t k ' t / e k t


'

kt = (35s-1)(0.010s) = 0.350
CA0 = Solubility*Pressure = (2.961x10-7 kgmol/m3 Pa)( 101.32 kPa) = 3.00x10-2 kgmol CO2/m3

Q 3.00 10 2 1.5 10 9 / 35 .350 12 erf 0.350 0.350 / e 0.350 1.458 10 7 kgmol CO2/m2

Multicomponent Diffusion of Gases


Diffusion of A Through Nondiffusing B and C
Example 7.5-4, page 498
At 298K and 1 atm total pressure, methane (A) is diffusing at steady state through nondiffusing argon (B)
and helium (C). At z1 = 0, the partial pressures in atm are PA1 = 0.4, PB1 = 0.4, PC1 = 0.2, and at z2 =
0.005m, PA2 = 0.1, PB2 = 0.6, PC2 = 0.3. The binary diffusivities from Table 6.2-1 are DAB = 2.02x10-5 m2/s,
DAC = 6.75x10-5 m2/s, and DBC = 7.29x10-5 m2/s. Calculate NA.
PA1 = 0.4,
PC2 = 0.3
DAB = 2.02x10-5 m2/s
PB1 = 0.4,
z2 = 0.005m
DAC = 6.75x10-5 m2/s
PC1 = 0.2
z1 = 0
DBC = 7.29x10-5 m2/s
PA2 = 0.1
T = 298K
R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K
PB2 = 0.6
P = 1 atm
Find DAM:

XB
0.4

0.667
1 X A 1 0.4
XB
0.6
At point 2: X B'

0.667
1 X A 1 0.1
XC
0.2
X C'

0.333
1 X A 1 0.4
1
1
D AM '

2.635 10 5 m2/s
'
0.667
X
XB
0.333
C
2.02 10 5
6.75 10 5
D AB
D AC
Calculate PiM:
Pi1 P PA1 1.0 0.4 0.6 atm
Pi 2 P PA2 1.0 0.1 0.9 atm
At point 1: X B'

PiM

Pi 2 Pi1
0.9 0.4

0.740 atm
Pi 2 ln 0.9

ln

0.4
Pi1

Now solve for NA:


D AM P
2.635 10 5 1.0
PA1 PA2
0.9 0.6 8.74 10 5 kgmol A/m2s
NA
82.0572980.0050.740
RT z 2 z1 PiM

7.5-8 Multicomponent Diffusion


At a total pressure of 202.6 kPa and 358 K, ammonia gas (A) is diffusing at steady state through an inert,
nondiffusing mixture of nitrogen (B) and hydrogen (C). The mole fractions at z1 = 0 are xA1 = 0.8, xB1 =
0.15, and xC1 = 0.05; and at z2 = 4.0 mm, xA1 = 0.2, xB1 = 0.6, and xC1 = 0.2. The diffusivities at 358 K and
101.3 kPa are DAB = 3.28 x 10-5 m2/s and DAC = 1.093 x 10-4 m2/s. Calculate the flux of ammonia.
For multi-component diffusion, the flux can be calculated as:
D AM C
C C
NA
z 2 z1 C AM A1 A2
Calculate DAM in m2/s:
1
1
D AM

1.9878 10 5

xC1
0.15
0.05
x B1

5
5
D AB 1 x A1 D AC 1 x A1 1.64 10 1 08 5.456 10 1 0.8
Calculate CAM:
P
202.6 10 3
C

68.0647 mol/m3
RT 8314358
C A1 Cx A1 68.0647 0.8 54.45 mol/m3
C A2 Cx A2 68.0647 0.2 13.61 mol/m3

C AM

C C A1 C C A2
C C A1

ln
C C A2

68.0647 54.45 68.0647 13.61 29.4605 mol/m3


68.0647 54.45
ln

68.0647 13.61

Substituting back in and solving for flux:


5
D AM C
C A1 C A2 1.9878 10 68.0647 54.45molm 3 13.61molm 3 4.68 10 4
NA
z 2 z1 C AM
0.004 029.4605

N A 4.68 10 4 kgmole/m2s

Knudsen Diffusion of Gases


Knudsen Diffusion of Hydrogen
Example 7.6-1, page 500
A H2(A) C2H6(B) gas mixture is diffusing in a pore of a nickel catalyst used for hydrogenation at

1.01325x105 Pa and 373K. The pore radius is 60 A (angstrom). Calculate the Knudsen diffusivity, DKA, of
H2.
P = 1.01325x105 Pa
T = 373K
r = 60 angstroms = 6.0x10-9
MA(H2) = 2.016

DKA

97.0r
MA

97.0 60 10

373

2.016

7.92 10 6 m2/s

Flux Ratios for Diffusion of Gases In Capillaries


Transition-Region Diffusion of He and N2
A gas mixture at a total pressure of 0.10 atm abs and 298K is composed of N2 (A) and He (B). The mixture
is diffusing through an open capillary 0.010m long having a diameter of 5x10-6 m. The mole fraction of N2
at one end is XA1 = 0.8 and at the other is XA2 = 0.2. The molecular diffusivity DAB is 6.98x10-5 m2/s at 1 atm,
which is an average value based on several investigations.
(a) Calculate the flux NA at steady state.
(b) Use the approximate equations for this case.
L = 0.010m
r = 2.5x10-6 m
P = 0.10 atm
T = 298 K
XA1 = 0.8

XA2 = 0.2
DAB = 6.98x10-5 m2/s
MA = 28.02 kg/kgmol
MB = 4.003 kg/kgmol
R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

(a)
1

T 2
273 2
2
4
97.0 2.5 10 6
DKA 97.0r
7.91 10 m /s
M
28
.
02

A
In an open system with no chemical reaction, the ratio of NA/NB is constant:
NB
MA
28.02

2.645
NA
MB
4.003
Now we can solve for the flux factor, :
N
1 B 1 2.645 1.645
NA
Now we can solve for the transition region NA:
D P 1 x A2 D AB / DKA
N A AB ln
RTL 1 x A1 D AB / DKA

6.98 10 1.013 10

1 1.6450.2 6.98 10 5 / 7.91 10 4


NA
ln
6.40 10 5 kgmol/m2s
5
4
1.6458314.32980.010 1 1.6450.8 6.98 10 / 7.91 10
5

(b) If we estimate that equimolar counterdiffusion is taking place at steady state, = 1-1 = 0. We can
estimate the diffusivity, DNA:
1
1
'
DNA

3.708 10 4 m2/s
1
1
1
1
D AB
DKA
6.98 10 5
7.91 10 4
Now we can solve for the approximate flux:
D' P
3.708 10 4 1.013 10 4
0.8 0.2 9.10 10 5 kgmol/m2s
N A NA X A1 X A2
83142980.010
RTL

7.6-4 Transition-Region Diffusion in Capillary


A mixture of nitrogen gas (A) and helium (B) at 298 K is diffusing through a capillary 0.10 m long in an
open system with a diameter of 10 m. The mole fractions are constant at XA1 = 1.0 and XA2 = 0.0. DAB =
6.98 x 10-5 m2/s at 1 atm. MA = 28.02 kg/kg mol, MB = 4.003.
(a) Calculate the Knudsen diffusivity DKA and DKB at the total pressures of 0.001, 0.1 and 10 atm.
(b) Calculate the flux NA at steady state at the pressures.
(c) Plot NA versus P on log-log paper. What are the limiting lines at lower pressures and very high
pressures? Calculate and plot these lines.
(a)
The Knudsen diffusivity for A and B will be the same at all pressures (it is independent of pressure):
T

DK 97.0r
M
A

DKA 97.0 5 10

DKB 97.0 5 10

2
298
2

0.001582 m /s
28.02

2
298
2

0.004185 m /s
4.003

(b)
For the transition region, flux is calculated using:
D P 1 x A2 DAB DKA
N A AB ln
RTL 1 x A1 DAB DKA
For P = 0.001:
1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582
6.98 10 2 0.001
2
7
NA
ln
6.21 10 kgmol/m s
2
1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582
For P = 0.1:
1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582
6.98 10 2 0.1
2
5
NA
ln
1.321 10 kgmol/m s
2
1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582
For P = 10:
1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582
6.98 10 2 10
2
5
NA
ln
1.68 10 kgmol/m s
2
1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582

(c)
Lower limit is representative of Knudsen diffusion and the upper limit is representative of molecular
diffusion.

9.3 Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity


9.3-1 Humidity from Vapor-Pressure Data
The air in a room is at 26.7C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa and contains water vapor with a partial
pressure pA = 2.76 kPa. Calculate the following:
(a) Humidity, H
(b) Saturation humidity, HS, and percentage humidity, HP.
(c) Percentage relative humidity, HR.
From the steam tables at 26.7C, the vapor pressure of water is pAs = 3.50 kPa. Also pA = 2.76 kPa and P =
101.3 kPa. For part (a):
18.02 p A
18.022.76
H

0.01742 kg H2O/ky dry air


28.97 P p A 28.97101.3 2.76
For part (b)
18.02 p As
18.023.50
H

0.02226
28.97 P p As 28.97101.3 2.76
H
0.01742
H p 100
100
78.3%
Hs
0.02226
For part (c)
p
2.76
H R 100 A 100
78.9%
p As
3.50

9.3-2 Use of Humidity Chart


Air entering a dryer has a temperature (dry bulb) of 60C and a dew point of 26.7C. Using the humidity
chart, determine the actual humidity H, percentage humidity HP, humid heat cs, and humid volume vH.
The dew point of 26.7C is the temperature when the given mixture is at 100% saturation. Starting at 26.7C,
and drawing a vertical line until it intersects the line for 100% humidity, a humidity of H = 0.0225 kg
H2O/kg dry air is read off the plot. This is the actual humidity of the air at 60C. Stated in another way, if
air at 60C and having a humidity of H = 0.0225 kg H2O/kg dry air is cooled, its dew point will be 26.7C.
Locating this point where H = 0.0225 and T = 60C on the chart, the percentage humidity HP is found to be
14% by linear interpolation vertically between 10 and 20% lines. The humid heat for H = 0.0225 is from Eq.
(9.3-6):
cs 1.005 1.880.0225 1.047 kJ/kg dry air K
The humid volume at 60C from Eq. (9.3-7) is
v H 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 0.0225 60 273 0.977 m3/kg dry air

9.3-3 Adiabatic Saturation of Air


An air stream at 87.8C having a humidity H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg dry air is contacted in an adiabatic
saturator with water. It is cooled and humidified to 90% saturation.
(a) What are the final values of H and T?
(b) For 100% saturation, what would be the values of H and T?
For part (a), the point H = 0.030 and T = 87.8C is located on the humidity chart. The adiabatic saturation
curve through this point is followed upward to the left until it intersects with the 90% line at 42.5C and H =
0.0500 kg H2O/kg dry air.
For part (b), the same line is followed to 100% saturation where T = 40.5C and H = 0.0505 kg H2O/kg dry
air.

9.3-4 Wet Bulb Temperature and Humidity


A water vapo-air mixture having a dry bulb temperature of T = 60C is passed over a wet bulb, as shown in
Figure 9.3-4, and the wet bulb temperature obtained is TW = 29.5C. What is the humidity of the mixture?
The wet bulb temperature of 29.5C can be assumed to be the same as the adiabatic saturation temperature
TS, as discussed. Following the adiabatic saturation curve of 29.5C until it reaches the dry bulb temperature
of 60C, the humidity is H = 0.0135 kg H2O/kg dry air.

9.6 Calculation Methods for Constant-Rate Drying Period


9.6-1 Time of Drying from Drying Curve
A solid whose drying curve is represented by Figure 9.5-1a is to be dried from a free moisture content X1 =
0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.25. Estimate the time required.
From Figure 9.5-1a for X1 = 0.38, t1 is read off as 1.28 hours. For X2 = 0.25, t2 = 3.08 hours. Hence the time
required is t = t2 t1 = 3.08 1.28 = 1.80 hours.

9.6-2 Drying Time from Rate-of-Drying Curve


A solid whose drying curve is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture content X1 =
0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.25 in the constant rate drying period. Estimate the time required.
For Figure 9.5-1b, a value of 21.5 for LS/A was used to prepare the graph. From the figure, RC = 1.51 kg
H2O/m2hours. Substituting into Eq. 9.6-2:
L
21.5
0.38 0.25 1.85 hours
t S X 1 X 2
ARC
1.51

9.6-3 Prediction of Constant Rate Drying


An insoluble wet granular material is to be dried in a pan 0.457 by 0.457 m and 25.4 mm deep. The material
is 25.4 mm deep in the pan, and the sides and bottom can be considered insulated. Heat transfer is by
convection from an air stream flowing parallel to the surface at a velocity of 6.1 m/s. The air is at 65.6C
and has a humidity of 0.010 kg H2O/kg dry air. Estimate the rate of drying for the constant rate period.
For a humidity of H = 0.010 and a dry bulb temperature of 65.6C, using the humidity chart, the wet bulb
temperature TW = 28.9C and HW = 0.026 by following the adiabatic saturation line to the saturated humidity.
Using Eq 9.3-7 to calculate the humid volume,
vH 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 H T 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 .01 65.6 273 0.974 m3/kg dry air

The density for 1.0 kg dry air + 0.010 kg H2O is


1.0 0.010

1.037 kg/m3
0.974
The mass velocity G is
G v 6.136001.037 22770 kg/h
Using Eq. 9.6-9
0.8
h 0.0204G 0.8 0.020422770 62.45 W/m2K
At TW = 28.9C, W = 2433 kJ/kg from the steam tables. Substituting into Eq. 9.6-8:
h
T TW 3600 62.45 65.6 28.93600 3.39 kg/m2h
RC
W
2433 1000
The total evaporation rate for a surface area of 0.457 by 0.457 m2 is
RC A 3.390.457 0.457 0.708 kg H2O / h

9.7 Calculation Methods for Falling-Rate Drying Period


Example 9.7-1 Numerical Integration in Falling-Rate Period
A batch of wet solid whose drying rate is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture
content of X1 = 0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.04. The weight of the dry solid is LS = 399 kg solid and A
= 18.58 m2 of top drying surface. Calculate the time for drying. Note that the LS/A = 399/18.58 = 21.5
kg/m2.
From Figure 9.5-1b, the critical free moisture content is XC = 0.195 kg H2O/kg dry solid. Hence the drying
occurs in the constant-rate and falling-rate periods.
For the constant-rate period, X1 = 0.38 and X2 = XC = 0.195. From Figure 9.5-1b, RC = 1.51 kg H2O/m2h.
Substituting Eq. 9.6-2:
L
399
0.38 0.195 2.63 hours
t S X 1 X 2
18.581.51
ARC
For the falling-rate period, reading values of R for
various values of X from Figure 9.5-1b, the
following table was prepared. To determine this
area by numerical integration using a spreadsheet,
the calculations below are provided. The area of the
first rectangle is the average height (0.663+0.826)/2
= 0.745, times the width X = 0.045, giving 0.0335.
Other values are similarly calculated and all the
values are summed to give a total of 0.1889.

X
0.195
0.150
0.100
0.065
0.050
0.040

R
1/R
X (1/R)avg (X)( 1/R)avg
1.51 0.663 0.045 0.745
0.0335
1.21 0.826 0.050 0.969
0.0485
0.9 1.11 0.035 1.260
0.0441
0.71 1.41 0.015 2.055
0.0308
0.37 2.70 0.010 3.203
0.0320
0.27 3.70
-Total =
0.1889

Substituting into Eq. 9.6-1


L X1 dX
399
0.1889 4.06 hours
t S

X
A 2 R 18.58
The total time is 2.63 + 4.06 = 6.69 hours.

Approximation of Straight Line for Falling-Rate Period


A batch of wet solid whose drying rate is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture
content of X1 = 0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.04. The weight of the dry solid is LS = 399 kg solid and A
= 18.58 m2 of top drying surface. Calculate the time for drying. Note that the LS/A = 399/18.58 = 21.5
kg/m2. As an approximation, assume a straight line for the rate R versus X through the origin from point XC
to X = 0 for the falling-rate period.
RC = 1.51 kg H2O/m2h and XC = 0.195. Drying in the falling rate region is from XC to X2 = 0.040.
Substituting into Eq. 9.7-8
L X
X
3990.040 0.195
t S C ln C
ln
4.39 hours
ARC
X 2 18.581.51 0.040
This is comparable to the value of 4.06 hours obtained in Example 9.7-1 by numerical integration

10.2 Equilibrium Relations between Phases


10.2-1 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water
What will be the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water at 298K when the solution is in equilibrium with
air at 1 atm total pressure? The Henrys law constant is 4.38x104 atm/molfrac.
Given: p A 0.21atm
p A Hx A
0.21 3.38 10 4 x A
x A 4.80 10 6 molfrac or 0.000835 parts O2 to 100 parts water

10.3 Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages


10.3-1 Equilibrium Stage Contact for CO2-Air-Water
A gas mixture at 1.0 atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is contacted in a single-stage mixer
continuously with pure water at 293K. The two exit gas and liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas
flow rate is 100kgmol/hr, with a mole fraction of CO2 of yA2=0.20. The liquid flow rate entering is 300kgmol
water/hr. Calculate the amounts and compositions of the two outlet phases. Assume that water does not
vaporize to the gas phase.
Given: L0 L' 300kgmol / h

V ' V (1 y A ) 100(1 0.20) 80kgmol / hr


From Appendix A.3 at 293K -Henrys Law Constant: H 0.142 10 4 atm / molfrac
H ' H / P 0.142 10 4 / 1.0 0.142 10 4 mol frac gas / mol frac liquid
y A1 H ' x A1
0.142 10 4 x A1

Total Material Balance:


x
y
x
y
L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2
1 x2
1 y1
1 x1
1 y2

4
x A1 1.41 10 , y A1 0.20
4
0.142 10 x A1
x A1
0
0.2

80
300
80
300
4

0
.
142

10
x
1 0
1 0.2
1 x A1
A1

Total Flow Rates:


L'
300
V'
80
L1

300kgmol / hr V1

100kgmol / hr
4
1 y A1 1 0.20
1 x A1 1 1.41 10

10.3-2 Absorption of Acetone in a Countercurrent Stage Tower


It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent
stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0kgmol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be
used to absorb the acetone is 90kgmolH2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total
pressure of 101.3kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gas-liquid is yA=2.53xA. Determine
the number of theoretical stages required for this separation.
Given: y AN 1 0.01

x A0 0

VN 1 30.0kgmol / h

L0 90.0kgmol / hr

Acetone Material Balance:


Amount of entering acetone= y AN 1VN 1 0.01(30.0) 0.30kgmol / hr
Entering Air = (1 y AN 1 )VN 1 (1 0.01)(30.0) 29.7kgmol air / h
Acetone Leaving in V1= 0.10(30) 0.030kgmol / hr
Acetone Leaving in LN= 0.90(0.30) 0.27kgmol / hr
V1=29.7+0.03=29.73 kg mol air + acetone/hr
y A1

0.030
0.00101
29.73

LN=0.90+0.27=90.27 kg mol water + acetone/h


x AN

0.27
0.00300
90.27

*Since the liquid flow does not vary significantly, the operating line is assumed to be straight.
Plot the operating line and equilibrium line and step off stages. 5.2 theoretical stages required.

10.3-3 Number of Stages by Analytical Equations


It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent
stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0kgmol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be
used to absorb the acetone is 90kgmolH2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total
pressure of 101.3kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gas-liquid is yA=2.53xA. Determine
the number of theoretical stages required for this separation. Solve using the Kremser analytical equations
for countercurrent stage process.
Given: y AN 1 0.01

x A0 0

VN 1 30.0kgmol / h

L0 90.0kgmol / hr

Acetone Material Balance:


Amount of entering acetone= y AN 1VN 1 0.01(30.0) 0.30kgmol / hr
Entering Air = (1 y AN 1 )VN 1 (1 0.01)(30.0) 29.7kgmol air / h
Acetone Leaving in V1= 0.10(30) 0.030kgmol / hr
Acetone Leaving in LN= 0.90(0.30) 0.27kgmol / hr
V1=29.7+0.03=29.73 kg mol air + acetone/hr
y A1

0.030
0.00101
29.73

LN=0.90+0.27=90.27 kg mol water + acetone/h


x AN

0.27
0.00300
90.27

The equilibrium relation is: y=2.53xA so m=2.53

L
L
90.0

0
1.20
mV mV1 2.53 29.73

A A1 A2 1.20(1.19) 1.195
LN
90.27

AN

1.19

mVN 1 2.53 30.0


y
mx0
1 1
0.01 2.53(0)
1
1
ln N 1
1 ln
1

A A
y1 mx0
0.00101 2.53(0) 1.195 1.195
N

5.04 stages
ln A
ln 1.195
A1

10.4 Mass Transfer between Phases

10.4-1 Interface Compositions in Interphase Mass Transfer


The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in a wetted-wall tower with the liquid flowing
as a film downward along the wall. At a certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration yAG=0.380 mol
fraction and the bulk liquid concentration is xAL=0.100. The tower is operating at 298K and 1.013x105Pa
and the equilibrium data are as follows (x,y data given). The solute A diffuses through stagnant B in the gas
phase and then through a nondiffusing liquid.
Using correlations for dilute solutions in wetted-wall towers, the film mass-transfer coefficients for A in the
gas phase is predicted as ky=1.465x10-3kgmolA/sm2molfrac and for the liquid phase as kx=1.967x10-3kgmolA
/sm2molfrac. Calculate the interface concentrations yAi and xAi and the flux NA.
Since system is dilute: (1 y A ) iM 1

(1 x A ) iM 1

Plot the equilibrium data and point P at (0.1,0.38)


Estimate the slope: slope

k x' /(1 x A ) iM
k y' /(1 y A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 1.0
1.342
1.465 10 3 / 1.0

Plotting this, we get yAi=0.183 and xAi=0.247. Use these new values to re-estimate slope:

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )
(1 0.183) (1 0.380)

0.715
ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.183) /(1 0.380)]
(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )
(1 0.100) (1 0.247)

0.825
ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.100) /(1 0.247)]

(1 y A ) iM
(1 x A ) iM
slope

k x' /(1 x A ) iM
k y' /(1 y A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 0.825
1.163
1.465 10 3 / 0.715

Plotting this, we get yAi=0.197 and xAi=0.257. Use these new values to re-estimate slope:

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )
(1 0.197) (1 0.380)

0.709
ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.197) /(1 0.380)]
(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )
(1 0.100) (1 0.257)

0.820
ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.100) /(1 0.257)]

(1 y A ) iM
(1 x A ) iM

k x' /(1 x A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 0.820
1.160
k y' /(1 y A ) iM
1.465 10 3 / 0.709
This is essentially the same slope so use the interfacial values obtained before.
slope

Calculate flux through each phase:


k y'
1.465 10 3
NA
( y AG y Ai )
(0.380 0.197) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2
(1 y A ) iM
0.820

k x'
1.967 10 3
NA
( x Ai x AL )
(0.257 0.100) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2
(1 x A ) iM
0.820

10.4-2 Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients from Film Coefficients


Using the same data as in Example 10.4-1, calculate the overall mass-transfer coefficient Ky, the flux, and
the percent resistance in the gas and liquid films. Do this for the case of A diffusing through stagnant B.
From the graph: yA*=0.052,

xAL=0.10,

yAG=0.380,

y Ai y *A 0.197 0.052
m'

0.923
x Ai x AL 0.257 0.100
From the previous example:
k y'
1.465 10 3
and

1 y A iM
0.709
(1 y *A ) (1 y AG )

yAi=0.197,

xAi=0.257

k x'
1.967 10 3

1 x A iM
0.820

(1 0.052) (1 0.380)
0.733
ln[(1 y ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.052) /(1 0.380)]
1
1
1
'
'
'
K y /(1 y A ) *M k y /(1 y A ) iM k x /(1 x A ) iM

(1 y A ) *M

*
A

1
1
0.923

K y' 8.90 10 4
3
3
K / 0.773 1.465 10 / 0.709 1.967 10 / 0.820
'
y

The percent resistance:


Gas film: (484/868.8)(100)=55.7%
Calculate the Flux: N A

K y'
(1 y A ) *M

Liquid Film: 44.3%

( y AG y *A )

8.90 10 4
(0.380 0.052) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2
0.773

10.6 Absorption in Plate and Packed Towers

10.6-1 Pressure Drop and Tower Diameter for Ammonia Absorption


Ammonia is being absorbed in a tower using pure water at 25C and 1.0 atm abs pressure. The feed rate is
1140 lbm/h (653.2 kg/h) and contains 3.0mol% ammonia in air. The process design specifies a liquid-to-gas
mass flow rate ratio GL/GG of 2/1 and the use of 1-in metal Pall rings.Calculate the pressure drop in the
packing and gas mass velocity at flooding. Using 50% of the flooding velocity, calculate the pressure drop,
gas and liquid flows, and tower diameter.
Size the tower for the largest flows (at the bottom of the tower). Assume all ammonia is absorbed.
MW gas 28.97(0.97) 17.0(0.03) 28.61 and x ammonia 0.03(17) /( 28.61) 0.01783

492 28.64
0.07309lbm / ft 3

460

77
359

From Appendix A.2-4 for water: 0.8937cp


From Appendix A.2-3 for water: 0.99708gm / cm 3

L 0.99708(62.43) 62.25lbm / ft 3
v / 0.8937 / 0.99708 0.8963 centistokes
From Table 10.6-1 for 1-in Pall Rings: Fp=56ft-1.
Pflood 0.115Fp0.7 0.115(56) 0.7 1.925H 2 O / ft packing height
For Figure 10.6-5 for Random Packing: (GL / GG )( G / G ) 0.5 (2.0)(0.07309 / 62.25) 0.5 0.06853
From Figure 10.6-5 for 0.06853 and 1.925, the ordinate=1.7.
Capacity parameter equation from ordinate: (To find volumetric flow)
0.5

1.7 vG [ G /( L G )] F v
0.5

0.5
p

0.05

0.07309
vG
(56) 0.5 (0.8963) 0.05

(62.25 0.07309)

vG 6.663 ft / s
GG vG G 6.663(0.07309) 0.4870lbm /( sft 2 )

50% Flooding:
GG 0.5GG 0.2435lbm and for the liquid: GL 2.0(0.2435) 0.4870lbm / sft 2
New capacity parameter: 0.5(1.7) 0.85
From Figure 10.6-5 for Random Packing at 0.85 and 0.06853: 0.18 inches of water/ft

feedrate
1140
1

lb / s
lb m /( sft 2 ) 1.6427 ft 2
gas flow rate 3600
0.2435

2
2
AC 1.6427 ft ( / 4) D
D 1.446 ft

Solving for Diameter: AC

Ammonia in outlet water: 0.01783(1440) 25.68lb


Total liquid flow rate: 2(1440) 2880lbm / hr
Pure liquid flow rate: 2880 25.68 2858.3 lbm / s

10.6-2 Absorption of SO2 in a Tray Tower


A tray tower is to be designed to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 293K. The entering
gas contains 20 mol% SO2 and that leaving 2mol% at a total pressure of 101.3kPa. the inert air flow rate is
150kg air/hm2, and the entering water flow rate is 6000kgwater/hm2. Assuming an overall tray efficiency of
25%, how many theoretical trays and actual trays are needed? Assume that the tower operates at 293K.
Calculate the molar flow rates:
150
6000
V'
5.18kgmol inert air / hm 2
L'
333kgmol inert water / hm 2
29
18.0
From Figure 10.6-7 (drawing of tower trays): y N 1 0.2 , y1 0.02 , x 0 0
Overall Material Balance:
x
y
x
y
L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2
1 x2
1 y1
1 x1
1 y2

xN
0.02
0
0.2
5.18
333
5.18
333

1 0
1 0.2
1 0.02
1 xN
x N 0.00355
For a portion of the tower:
y n 1
x
0.02
0
333 n 5.18
333
5.18

1 0
1 0.02
1 y n 1
1 xn
Choose several y points arbitrarily and plot the operating line.
Plot the equilibrium data from Appendix A.3.
Step off trays from bottom to top: 2.4 theoretical trays
Number of trays with 25% efficiency =0.25(2.4)= 9.6 trays

10.6-3 Minimum Liquid Flow Rate and Analytical Determination of Number of Trays
A tray tower is absorbing ethyl alcohol from an inert gas stream using pure water at 303K and 101.3 kPa.
The inlet gas stream flow rate is 100.0 kgmol/h and it contains 2.2 mol% alcohol. It is desired to recover
90% of the alcohol. The equilibrium relationship is y=mx=0.68x for this dilute stream. Using 1.5 times the
minimum liquid flow rate, determine the number of trays needed. Do this graphically and also using the
analytical equations.
Given:
y1 0.022

V1 100.00 kgmol / h

x2 0

m 0.68

V ' V1 (1 y1 ) 100.0(1 0.022) 97.8kgmol inert / hr


Moles alcohol/h in V1 : 100-97.8=2.20.
Removing 90% moles/hr in outlet gas V2:
0.1(2.20)=0.220

V2 V '0.220 97.8 0.22 98.02


y 2 0.22 / 98.02 0.002244
Plot the equilibrium line and points y1, y2, and x2.
Draw the operating line from y2, and x2 to point P for Lmin. At point P on the equilibrium line, xmax is:
x1 max y1 / m 0.022 / 0.68 0.03235
Substitute into the operating line equation to find Lmin:
x1, max
x
y
y
V ' 2
Lmin 2 V ' 1 L'min
1 x2
1 y1
1 y2
1 x1. max

0
0.22
0.03235
0.002244
'
L'min
L'min 59.24kgmol / hr
97.8
Lmin
97.8

0
1

0
.
22
1

0
.
03235
1

0
.
002244

Solve for L and x:


L' 1.5L'min (1.5)(59.24) 88.86

x1
0
0.22
0.002244
97.8
88.86
x1 0.0218
97.8
88.86

1 0
1 0.22
1 0.002244
1 x1
Plot the operating line with several points. The solution is dilute, so the line is straight.
Step off trays: 4 trays.
Flow Rates:
V1 100.0

L2 L' 8886

V2 V ' /(1 y 2 ) 97.8 /(1 0.002244) 98.02

L1 L' / mV1 88.86 /(1 0.0218) 90.84

Calculating A for analytical solution:


A1 L1 / mV1 90.84 /( 0.68)(100) 1.336

A2 L2 / mV2 88.86 /( 0.068)(98.02) 1.333

A A1 A2 1.355
Calculate N:
y mx2

0.022 0

1
1
(1 1 / A) 1 / A
N
ln 1
ln
(1 1 / 1.335) 1 / 1.335 4.04
ln A y 2 mx2

ln 1.335 0.002244 0

10.6-4 Absorption of Acetone in a Packed Tower

Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross-sectional area of 0.186 m2 at 293K
and 101.32 kPa (1 atm). The inlet air contains 2.6 mol% acetone and outlet 0.5%. The gas flow is
13.65kgmol inert air/h. The pure water inlet flow is 45.36 kgmol water/h. Film coefficients for the given
flows in the tower are: k y' a 3.78 10 2 kgmol/sm3molfrac and k x' a 6.16 10 2 kgmol/sm3molfrac.
Equilibrium data are given in Appendix A.3.
a) Calculate the tower height using kya.
b) Repeat using kxa
c) Calculate Kya and the tower height.
Given:
y1 0.026

L' 45.36kgmol / h

y 2 0.005

V ' 13.65kgmol / h

x2 0

From Appendix A.3 for acetone-water and xA=0.0333 mol frac: p A 30.760 0.0395atm
y 0.0395
Equilibrium line: y A mx A
0.0395 m(0.0333)
y 1.186 x
Plot:

Overall Material Balance:

x
L' 2
1 x2

y
y
V ' 1 L' 1, V ' 2

1 y1
1 y2
1 x1

x1
0
0.026
0.0055
13.65
45.36
x1 0.00648
13.65
45.36

1 0
1 0.026
1 0.0055
1 x1
Plot the operating line.
Approximate the slope at y1 and x1 using trial and error:
k x' a /(1 x) iM
k x' a /(1 x1 ) i 6.16 10 2 /(1 0.00648) i
slope '
'

1.60
k y a /(1 y) iM
k y a /(1 y1 )
3.78 10 2 /(1 0.026)
y1*=0.0077
Using new points yi1=0.0154 and xi1=0.0130 continue trial and error:
(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )
(1 0.0154) (1 0.026)
(1 y A ) iM

0.979
ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.0154) /(1 0.026)]
(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )
(1 0.00648) (1 0.0130)
(1 x A ) iM

0.993
ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.00648) /(1 0.0130)]
Recalculate the slope: slope

k x' a /(1 x) iM
k y' a /(1 y ) iM

6.16 10 2 / 0.993i
3.78 10 2 / 0.929

1.61

Repeat this process for y2 and x2:


k ' a /(1 x) iM
k ' a /(1 x1 ) i
6.16 10 2 /(1 0) i
slope x'
'x

1.62
k y a /(1 y) iM
k y a /(1 y1 )
3.78 10 2 /(1 0.005)
The slope changes very little. Plotting this line we get: y2*=0.0, yi2=0.0020, and xi2=0.0018
Using the interfacial concentrations:
( y y i1 ) ( y 2 y i 2 )
(0.026 0.0154) (0.005 0.002)
( y yi ) M

0.00602
ln[( y1 y i1 ) /( y 2 y i 2 )] ln[(0.026 0.0154) /( 0.005 0.002)]
Calculate the flow rates:
V'
13.65 / 3600

V1

3.893 10 3 kgmol / s
1 y1
1 0.026
V1 V2

V Av
V'
13.65 / 3600
2
V2

3.811 10 3 kgmol / s

1 y2
1 0.005

3.893 103 3.811103


3.852 103 kgmol / s
2
45.36
L' L1 L2 L Av
1.260 10 2 kgmol / s
3600

VAv

a)
V
3.852 10 3
( y1 y 2 ) k y' az ( y y i ) M

(0.0260 0.005) 3.78 10 2 z (0.00602)


z 1.911m
S
0.186

b) ( xi x) M

( xi1 x1 ) ( xi 2 x 2 )
(0.0130 0.00648) (0.0018 0)

0.00368
ln[( xi1 x1 ) /( xi 2 x 2 )] ln[(0.0130 0.00648) /( 0.0018 0)]

L
1.260 10 2
( x1 x 2 ) k x' az ( xi x) M

(0.00648 0) 6.16 10 2 z (0.00368)


z 1.936m
S
0.186

(1 y1* ) (1 y1 )
(1 0.0077) (1 0.026)
c) (1 y) *M

0.983
*
ln[(1 y1 ) /(1 y1 )] ln[(1 0.0077) /(1 0.026)]
1
1
m'
1
1
1.186
'
'

'

'
2
K y a /(1 y ) *M k y a /(1 y ) iM k x a /(1 x) iM
K y a / 0.983 3.78 10 / 0.979 1.16 10 2 / 0.993
K y' a 2.183 10 2 kgmol / sm 3 molfrac

(y y )M
*

( y1 y1* ) ( y 2 y 2* )
(0.026 0.0077) (0.005 0)

0.01025
*
*
ln[( y1 y1 ) /( y 2 y 2 )] ln[(0.026 0.0077) /( 0.005 0)]

V
3.852 10 3
( y1 y 2 ) K y' az ( y y * ) M

(0.0260 0.005) 2.183 10 2 z (0.01025)


z 1.944m
S
0.186

10.7 Absorbtion of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Towers


10.7-1 Design of an Absorption Tower with a Concentrated Gas Mixture
A tower packed with 25.4-mm ceramic rings is to be designed to absorb SO2 from air by using pure water at
293K and 1.013X105Pa abs pressure. The entering gas contains 20mol% SO2 and that leaving 2 mol%. The
inert air flow is 6.53x10-4kgmol air/s and the inert water flow is 4.20x10-2kgmol water/s. The tower crosssectional area is 0.0929 m2. For dilute SO2, the film mass-transfer coefficients at 293K are, for 25.44 rings
are: k y' a 0.0594G y0.7 Gx0.25 and k x' a 0.152Gx0.82 where kya is kgmol/sm3molfrac, kxa is kgmol/sm3molfrac,
and Gx and Gy are kg total liquid or gas, respectively, per sec per m2 tower cross section. Calculate the
tower height.
Given:
V ' 6.53 10 4 kgmolair / s
L' 4.20 10 2 kgmol / s

y1 0.20
y 2 0.02

Overall Material Balance:


x
y
x
y
L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2
1 x2
1 y1
1 x1
1 y2

x2 0

x1
0
0.02
4 0.2
2
6.53 10 4
4.2 10 2
x1 0.00355
6.53 10
4.20 10

1 0
1 0.2
1 0.02
1 x1
Operating Line:
y
x
4 0.2
2 0.00355
4

4.2 10 2
6.53 10
4.20 10
6.53 10
1

y
1 x
1 0.2
1 0.00355

Set y=0.04, x=0.000332. Choose other values of y and plug in for x.


Plot equilibrium data from Appendix A.3 and the operating data.
Repeat the following calculations for different y values. For y=0.2:
V'
6.53 10 4 '
V1

8.16 10 4
1 y1
1 0.2

Gy

mass flow of air SO2 '


AC

0.2
6.53 10 4 29kgair / s
64.1kgSO2 / s
1 0.2

Gy
0.3164kg / sm 2
2
0.0929m
Similarly for liquid flow:

0.00355
4.20 10 2 18
64.1
2
L'
4.2 10 '
1 0.00355

Gx
8.241
L1

0.04215
2
1 x1 1 0.00355
0.0929m

k x' a 0.152G x0.82 0.152(8.241) 0.82 0.857 , k y' a 0.0594G y0.7 G x0.25 0.0594(0.3164) 0.7 (8.241) 025 0.04496
Interface Compositions: Estimate the slope of PM by trial and error: Final yi=0.1685 and xi =000565

(1 y A ) iM

slope

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )
0.816
ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )]

(1 x A ) iM

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )
0.995
ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )]

k x' a /(1 x) iM

15.6
k y' a /(1 y ) iM
Calculate (1-y), (1-y)iM, and (y-yi)
V
8.16 10 4
Integrate: f ( y )

6.33
0.04496(0.0929)
k y' aS
(0.8)(0.0315)
(1 y )( y y i )
0.816
(1 y ) iM
After repeating for each y value from y1 to y2, numerically integrate to get z=1.588m.

10.8 Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Packed Towers


10.8-1 Prediction of Film Coefficients for CO2 Absorption
Predict HG, HL, and HOL for absorption of CO2 from air by water in a dilute solution in a packed tower with
1 in metal Pall rings at 303K (30C) and 101.32kPa pressure. The flow rates are Gx=4.069 kg/sm2 (3000
lbm/h ft2).
From Appendix A.3-18 for CO2 at 1atm: p A 1.86 103 x A y A p A / 1.0 1.86 103 x A
From Appendix A.3-3 for air at 303K: 1.866 10 5 kg / ms and 1.166kg / m 3
From Table 6.2-1 for CO2 at 276.2K: DAB 0.142 10 4 m 2 / s
1.75

303
4
2
Correct the diffusivity to 303K: D AB 0.142 10
0.167 10 m / s
276.2

1.866 10 5

0.958
Calculate the Schmidt No: N Sc
D (1.166)(0.1670 10 4 )
From Table 10.6-1 for 1 in metal Pall rings to 1 in. Raschig rings: f p 1.34
4

0.226 N Sc 0.5 G x 0.5 G y

HG H y
f 0.660 6.782 0.678
p

0.35

0.226 N Sc 0.5 G x 0.5 G y

HG H y
f 0.660 6.782 0.678

p
3
From Appendix A.2-4 for water at 303K: 0.8007 10 kg / ms and 995.68kg / m 3
At 298K: 0.8937 10 3 kg / ms
0.35

From Table 6.3-1 for CO2 in water at 25C: DAB 2 10 9 m 2 / s

0.8937 10 3 303
9
2

Adjust to 303K: D AB 2.00 10


2.27 10 m / s
3
0.8007 10 276.2

0.8007 10 5

354.3
Calculate the Schmidt No: N Sc
D (995.68)(2.27 10 4 )
9

0.3
0.357 N Sc 0.5
Gx /

HL Hx
f 372 6.782 / 0.8937 10 3
p
0.3

4.069 / 0.8007 10 3

0.2306m
3
6
.
782
/
0
.
8937

10

For dilute air: V G y / MW 0.5424 / 28.97 0.01872kgmol / sm2


0.357 354.3
HL Hx

1.34 372

0.5

For water: L Gx / MW 4.069 / 18.0 0.2261kgmol / sm2


H OL H Ox H L ( L / mV ) H G

H OL H Ox 0.2306 (0.2261 / 1.86 10 3 (0.01872)) 0.2426


H OL H Ox 0.2306 0.001575 0.2322m