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Example 6.1-1, page 413

A mixture of He and N2 gas is contained in a pipe at 298K and 1.0atm total pressure which is

constant throughout. At one end of the pipe at point 1, the partial pressure PA1 of He is 0.60atm

and at the other end 0.2m, PA2 is 0.20 atm. Calculate the flux of He at steady state if DAB is

0.687 x 10-4 m2/s.

R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K

PA1 = 0.6 atm

T = 298K

PA2 = 0.2 atm

z2-z1 = 0.2m

P = 1 atm

DAB = 0.687 x 10-4 m2/s

DAB for a gas is constant; P is constant meaning C is also constant; flux is constant at steady

state.

D C C A2

D P PA2

AB A1

J AZ

AB A1

Flux, J AZ

if C = P/RT

z 2 z1

RT z 2 z1

Substitute in values:

J AX

4

82.0572980.2

kgmol/m2s

Equimolar Counterdiffusion

Ammonia gas (A) is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.10m

long containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132x105 Pa pressure and

298K. At point 1, PA1 = 1.013x104 Pa and at point 2,

PA2 = 0.507x104 Pa. DAB = 0.230x10-4 m2/s.

Calculate the flux J*A and J*B at steady state.

PA1 = 1.013x104 Pa

PA2 = 0.507x104 Pa

DAB = 0.230x10-4 m2/s

T = 298K

J AZ

II

d

PCO2 =

456 mmHg

PCO2 =

76 mmHg

P = 1.0132x105 Pa

z2 z1 = 0.10 m

R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

8314.32980.1

RT z 2 z1

Example 6.2-2 page 419

Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant

temperature of 293K. The total pressure of air (assumed dry) is

1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm) and the temperature is 293K.

Water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube,

H2O

and the diffusion path z2 z1 is 0.1524 m long. Calculate the

rate of evaporation at steady state. The diffusivity of water vapor at 293K and 1 atm is

0.250x10-4 m2/s. Assume that the system is isothermal.

P = 1.01325x105 Pa = 1.0 atm

T = 293K

z2 z1 = 0.1524m

DAB = 0.250x10-4 m2/s

Water pressure in dry air, PA2 = 0 atm

R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K

PB 2 PB1 1 0 1 0.0231

0.988 atm

PB 2

1 0

ln

ln

P

1 0.0231

B1

D AB P

PA1 PA2

NA

RT z 2 z1 PBM

PBM

NA

0.250 10 1.0

4

82.0572930.15240.988

Example 6.2-3, page 419

Water in the bottom of a narrow metal tube is held at a constant temperature of 293K. The total pressure of air

(assumed dry) is 1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm) and the temperature is 293K. At a given time, t, the level is z meters from

the top. As water vapor diffuses through the air, the level drops slowly. Derive the equation for the time t F for the

level to drop from a starting point of zo m at t = 0 and zF at t = tF seconds.

We can assume a pseudo-steady state condition because the level drops slowly. Now, both NA

and z are variables.

DAB P

PA1 PA2

NA

RT z2 z1 PBM

Assuming a cross-sectional area of 1 m2, the level drops dt in dz seconds, and the leftover kgmol

of A is PAdz/MA:

dz 1

N A 1 A

M A dt

Rearranging and integrating:

tF

A zF

D P

zdz AB PA1 PA2 dt

0

M A z0

RTPBM

tF

A z F2 z 02 RTPBM

2M A D AB PPA1 PA2

HW1.1 In the lecture we showed that the molar rate of material A evaporating from a spherical

drop immersed in material B could be written as

N A 1 1 DAB P P p A,1

ln

4 r1 r2

RT

P p A, 2

where

N A is the molar rate of material A leaving

R is the ideal gas constant

the drop

T is the system temperature

r1 and r2 are two radial points away from

pA,1 is the partial pressure of A at point 1

the sphere center

pA,2 is the partial pressure of A at point 2

DAB is the diffusion coefficient P is the total

system pressure

Starting with this equation, derive the following approximate equation for the molar flux at the particle

surface, NA,1

2 DAB

cA,1 cA,2

N A,1

D1

where

D1 is the diameter of the spherical drop

cA,1 is the molar concentration of material A at the surface of the drop

cA,2 is the molar concentration of material A far from the drop

Assume point 1 is at the drops surface

Assume point 2 is very far away from the drop, so r2 >> r1

N A 1 1 D AB P P PA2

N

D P P PA2

A AB ln

ln

4 r1 r2

RT

4r1

RT

P PA1

P PA1

Now multiply the equation by 1/r1, rewrite the radius as 2/D on the right

side, substitute for surface flux, NAs, and PBM:

Stagnant B

r2

r1

Diffusing

A

PB 2 PB1

PA1 PA2

N

and N AS A 2

P

ln P PA2

4r1

ln B 2

P

P

P

B1

A1

2 D AB PA1 PA2

So we rewrite the equation as: N AS

DRT

PBM

PBM

Assume low vapor pressure, so PA1, PA2 << P and use a Taylor Series approximation ln(x) = x-1:

P PA2 P PA2

P PA2

1

is approaching 1, so ln

P PA1 P PA1

P PA1

P PA2 P PA1 PA1 PA2 PA1 PA2

P PA1

P PA1

P

Lastly, PA1 = CA1RT and PA2 = CA2RT:

Now,

so PBM P.

2 D AB P

2 D AB

2 D AB

PA1 PA2

C A1 RT C A2 RT

C A1 C A2

RTD PBM

RTD

D

where CA1 = concentration at surface of the drop and CA2 = concentration far from the drop 0

N AS

Example 6.2-4, page 421

A sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 2.0mm is suspended in a large volume of still air at 318K

and 1.01325x105 Pa (1.0atm). The surface temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to be at

318K and its vapor pressure at 318K is 0.555 mmHg. The DAB of naphthalene in air at 318K is

6.92x10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface.

r = 2.0mm

T = 318K

P = 1.01325x105 Pa

DAB = 6.92x10-6 m2/s

PBM

PA2 = 0 Pa

R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

1.0129 10 5 Pa

5

P

1.01325 10 0

ln

ln B 2

5

1.01325 10 74

PB1

NA

D AB P

6.92 10 6 1.01325 10 5

PA1 PA2

9.68 10 8 kgmol A/m2s

RT r1 r0 PBM

8314.33180.002 1.0129 105

Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 10mm. The sphere is in a

large volume of still air at 52.6C and 1atm absolute pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at

52.6C is 1.0 mmHg. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 0C is 5.16 x 10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate

of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in kg mol/s m2. [Note: the diffusivity can be corrected

for temperature by using the temperature correction factor from the Fuller et al. equation (6.2-45)]

Assumptions:

the system is at steady-state, so the radius of the sphere is not changing

point 1 is at the surface of the sphere and point 2 is very far away , so r2 >> r1

R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K

T = 325.75 K

r = 0.01 m

133.322 Pa

PA2 = 0 Pa because the air is still

1.75

T

DAB(52.6C) = DAB(0C) 2

T1

2

m /s

Now solve for N A :

P2

= (5.16 x 10-6 m2/s)(325.75/273.15)1.75 = 7.023 x 10-6

P1

N A 1 1 DAB P P PA2

ln

4 r1 r2

RT

P

P

A1

N A DAB P P PA2

ln

4r1

RT

P

P

A1

NA

7.023 10 6 1.01325 10 5 1.01325 105 133.322

= 4.34736 x 10-11 kgmol/s

ln

5

8314325.75

4 0.1

1.01325 10 0

Now solve for NA = N A /A = (4.34736 x 10-11 kgmol/s)/(4r12) = 3.46 x 10-8 kgmol/m2s

A drop of liquid toluene is kept at a uniform temperature of 25.9C and is suspended in air by a

fine wire. The initial radius r1 = 2.00mm. The vapor pressure of toluene at 25.9C is PA1 = 3.84

kPa and the density of liquid toluene is 866 kg/m3.

(a) Derive Eq. (6.2-34) to predict the time tF for the drop to evaporate completely in a large

volume of still air. Show all steps.

(b) Calculate the time in seconds for complete evaporation.

(a) Equations for flux:

NA

D P P PA2

AB A1

2

RTr

PBM

4r

and

NA

A dV

M A dt

dV

Volume of the sphere, V 4 r 3 so the derivative of volume is:

4r 2

3

dr

Plug this volume derivative into molar flux equation for dV:

A 4r 2 dr

NA

M A dt

A 4r 2 dr

D P P PA2

1

AB A1

2

M A dt

RTr

PBM

4r

Separate variables and integrate both sides:

t

r

A RT PBM

A r 2 RT PBM

dt

rdr

t

2M A D AB P PA1 PA2

(b) Now use the equation to find the time in seconds:

DAB = 0.86 x 10-4 m2/s

R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K

T = 299.05 K

= 866 kg/m3

r1 = 0.002 m

PA1 = 3840 Pa

PA2 = 0 Pa

P = 1.01325 x 105 Pa

MA = 92.14 kg/kgmol

Solve for PBM:

PBM

tevap =

PA1 PA2

= 99392.6 Pa

A

2

ln

P PA1

2M A DAB P PA1 PA2

292.140.086 10 4 3840 0

A r 2 RT PBM

The gas ammonia (A) is diffusing at steady state through N2 (B) by equimolar counterdiffusion in a conduit

1.22m long at 25C and a total pressure of 101.32 kPa abs. The partial pressure of ammonia at the left end

is 25.33 kPa and at the other end is 5.066 kPa. The cross section of the conduit is in the shape of an

equilateral triangle, the length of each side of the triangle being 0.0610m at the left end and tapering

uniformly to 0.0305m at the right end. Calculate the molar flux of ammonia. The diffusivity is DAB = 0.230 x

10-4 m2/s.

.061m

.0305m

1.22m

4

To find an equation for how b changes with the length, create a linear fit based on two points:

At the first end: (0, 0.061) and at the other end: (1.22, 0.0305)

Slope = -0.0305/1.22 = -0.025

b = -0.025L + 0.061

2

So now Area = 1 0.025 L 0.061 tan (60) = 0.000271 L2 0.001321 L + 0.001611

4

NA

DAB dPA

N A D AB dPA

2

RT dL

A

RT dL

0.000271 L - 0.001321 L 0.001611

1.22

NA

DAB

dL

2

RT

0.000271 L - 0.001321 L 0.001611

PA 2

PA1

dPA

R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K

T = 298.15 K

PA2 = 5.066 kPa

DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s

DAB PA2 PA1 0.230 10 4 5066 25330

N A 1514.8

N A = 1.24 x 10-10

8314298.15

RT

kgmol/s

Now solve for NA:

1.24 10 10

NA = N A /A =

at any point along the length, L

1 0.025L 0.06102 tan 60

4

Diffusion of Ethanol (A) Through Water (B)

Example 6.3-1, page 429

An ethanol(A)-water(B) solution in the form of a stagnant film 2.0mm thick at 293K is in contact at one

surface with an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble and water is insoluble. Hence, NB = 0. At

point 1, the concentration of ethanol is 16.8 wt % and the solution density is 1 = 972.8 kg/m3. At

point 2, the concentration of ethanol is 6.8 wt % and 2 = 988.1 kg/m3. The diffusivity of ethanol is

0.740x10-9 m2/s. Calculate the steady-state flux NA.

DAB = 0.740x10-9 m2/s

T = 293K

CA1 = 16.8

CA2 = 6.8

1 = 972.8 kg/m3

2 = 988.1 kg/m3

Meth =46.05

Mwater = 18.02

16.8

6.8

46.05

46.05

X A1

0.0732

X A2

0.0277

16.8

83

.

2

6

.

8

93.2

46.05

18.02

46.05

18.02

X B1 1 X A1 1 0.0732 0.9268

X B 2 1 X A2 1 0.0277 0.9723

Now calculate the molecular weight:

100kg

100kg

M1

20.07 kg/kgmol

M1

18.75 kg/kgmol

16.8

6.8

83.2

93.2

46.05

18.02

46.05

18.02

Now calculate CAvg:

/ M 1 2 / M 2 972.8 / 20.07 988.1 / 18.75

C avg 1

50.6 kgmol/m3

2

2

X X B1 0.9723 0.9268

X BM B 2

0.949

X B2

0.9268

ln

ln

0.9723

X B1

NA

D AB C avg

z 2 z1 x BM

9

x A1 x A2 0.740 10 50.60.0732 0.0277 8.99 10 7 kgmol/m2s

0.0020.949

An ammonia (A) water (B) solution at 278K and 4.0mm thick is in contact at one surface with an organic

liquid at this interface. The concentration of ammonia in the organic phase is held constant and is such that

the equilibrium concentration of ammonia in the water at this surface is 2.0 wt % ammonia (density of

aqueous solution 991.7 kg/m3) and the concentration of ammonia in water at the other end of the film 4.0

mm away is 10 wt% (density = 961.7 kg/m3). Water and the organic are insoluble in each other. The

diffusion coefficient of ammonia in water is 1.24 x 10-9 m2/s.

(a) At steady state, calculate the flux NA in kg mol/s m2

(b) Calculate the flux NB. Explain.

(a)

1 = 991.7 kg/m3

CA1 = 0.02

2 = 961.7 kg/m3

CA2 = 0.1

M1 = 17.9806 kg/kgmol

z1 = 0.004 m

M2 = 17.9031 kg/kgmol

z2 = 0 m

T = 278 K

Calculate Cavg:

C avg

1 991.7

1 1

961.7

3

54.435 kgmol/m

2 M 1 M 2 2 17.9806 17.9031

Calculate XBM:

Xw1 = 1-0.02 = 0.98

Xw2 = 1-0.1 = 0.9

X BM

X B 2 X B1

0.9 0.98

0.939432

ln X B 2 X B1 ln 0.9 / 0.98

D AB C avg X A1 X A2 1.24 10 9 54.4350.02 0.1

NA

=

= 1.437 x 10-6 kgmol/m2 s

z 2 z1 X BM

0 0.0040.939432

Prediction of Liquid Diffusivity

Example 6.3-2, page 432

Predict the diffusion coefficient of acetone in water at 25C and 50C using the Wilke-Chang equation. The

experimental value 1.28x10-9 m2/s at 298K.

From Appendix A.2, the viscosity of water at 25C is B = 0.8937 x 10-3 Pa s and at 50C is 0.5494 x 10-3 Pa

s. From Table 6.3-2 for CH3COCH3 with 3 carbons + 6 hydrogens + 1 oxygen.

VA = 3(0.0148) + 6(0.0037) + 1(0.0074) = 0.0740 m3 kgmol

For the water association parameter = 2.6 and MB = 18.02 kg mass/kgmol. For 25C:

1/ 2

1/ 2

D AB 1.173 10 16 M B

T

298

1/ 2

1.173 10 16 2.6 18.02

1.277 10 9 m2/s

0.6

0.6

BV A

0.89370.0740

For 50C:

D AB 1.173 10 16 M B

T

323

1/ 2

1.173 10 16 2.6 18.02

2.251 10 9 m2/s

0.6

0.6

BV A

0.54940.0740

Diffusivities of Electrolytes

Example 6.3-3, page 434

Predict the diffusion coefficients of dilute electrolytes for the following cases:

(a) For KCl at 25C, predict DAB and compare with the value in Table 6.3-1

(b) Predict the value of KCl at 18.5C. The experimental value is 1.7x10-5 cm2/s

(c) For CaCl2 predict DAB at 25C. Compare with the experimental value of 1.32x10-5 cm2/s; also,

predict Di of the ion Ca2+ and of Cl- and use Eq. 6.3-12

(a) From Table 6.3-3, + (K+) = 73.5 and - (Cl-) = 76.3:

1 / n 1 / n

1 / 1 1 / 1 1.993 10 5 cm2/s

D AB

8.928 10 10 T

8.928 10 10 298

1 / 1 /

1 / 73.5 1 / 76.3

(b) To change the temperature, we use a simple correction factor:

T = 18.5C = 291.7K

From Table A.2-4, w = 1.042 cP

T

291.7

D AB 18.5 D AB 25

1.993 10 5

1.671 10 5 cm2/s

334 w

1.042

(c) From Table 6.3-3, + (Ca2+/2) = 59.5 and - (Cl-) = 76.3, n+ = 2 and n- = 1:

59.5

DCa2 2.662 10 7 2.662 10 7

0.792 10 5 cm2/s

n

2

D AB

76.3

2.031 10 5 cm2/s

n

1

n n

2 1

1.335 10 5 cm2/s

5

5

n / D n / D 2 / 0.792 10 1 / 2.031 10

DCl 2.662 10 7

2.662 10 7

Prediction of Diffusivity of Albumin

Example 6.4-1, page 438

Predict the diffusivity of bovine serum albumin at 298K in water as a dilute solution using the modified

Polson equation (6.4-1).

T = 298 K

MA = 67500 kg/kgmol from Table 6.4-1 (pg 437)

water = 0.8937x10-3 Pa s

We can use the equation for the prediction of diffusivities for biological solutes:

9.40 10 15 T

9.40 10 15 298

D AB

7.70 10 11 m2/s

1/ 3

1/ 3

3

M A

0.8937 10 67500

This value is different from the experimental value because the shape of the molecule differs greatly from a

sphere.

Example 6.4-2, page 439

A tube or bridge of a gel solution of 1.05 wt% agar in water at 278K is 0.04 m long and connects two

agitated solutions of urea in water. The urea concentration in the first solution is 0.2 gmol urea per liter

solution and is 0 in the other. Calculate the flux of urea in kgmol/m2s at steady-state.

T = 278 K

DAB = 0.727x10-9 m2/s from Table 6.4-2 (page 440)

CA1 = 0.2 kgmol/m3

CA2 = 0 kgmol/m3

Because XA1 is less than 0.01, the solute is very dilute and XBM 1.0.

NA

D AB C A1 C A2 0.727 10 9 0.2 0

3.63 10 9 kgmol/m2s

z 2 z1

0.04

Diffusion of H2 Through Neoprene Membrane

Example 6.5-1, page 442

The gas hydrogen at 17C and 0.010 atm partial pressure is diffusing through a membrane of vulcanized

neoprene rubber 0.5 mm thick. The pressure of H2 on the other side of the neoprene is zero. Calculate the

steady-state flux, assuming that the only resistance to diffusion is in the membrane. The solubility S of H2

gas in neoprene at 17C is 0.051 m3 (STP of 0C and 1atm)/m3 solid atm and the diffusivity DAB is 1.03x10-10

m2/s at 17C.

PA1 = 0.10 atm

Solubility = 0.051 m3/m3 solid atm

PA2 = 0

-10

2

DAB = 1.03x10 m /s

z2 z1 = 0.5 mm

The equilibrium concentration at the inside surface of the rubber is:

0.051 0.01 2.28 10 5 kgmol H /m3 solid

S

C A1

PA1

2

22.414

22.414

Because PA2 on the other side of the rubber is zero, CA2 = 0:

D C C A2 1.03 10 10 2.28 10 5 0

N A AB A1

z 2 z1

0.0005

Example 6.5-2, page 443

A polyethylene film 0.00015m thick is being considered for use in packaging a pharmaceutical product at

30C. If the partial pressure of O2 outside the package is 0.21 atm and inside it is 0.01atm, calculate the

diffusion flux of O2 at steady-state. Use permeability data from Table 6.5-1. Assume that the resistances to

diffusion outside the film and inside the film are negligible compared to the resistance of the film.

From Table 6.5-1, PM = 4.17x10-12 m3 solute/(s m2 atm/m)

P P PA2 4.17 10 12 0.21 0.01

N A M A1

2.480 10 10 kgmol/m2s

22.414z 2 z1

22.4140.00015

Nitrogen gas at 2.0 atm and 30C is diffusing through a membrane of nylon 1.0 mm thick and polyethylene

8.0 mm thick in series. The partial pressure at the other side of the two films is 0 atm. Assuming no other

resistances, calculate the flux, NA at steady state.

N2

P1 = 2.0 atm

P2 = 0 atm

PN2/Ny = 0.152 x 10-12 m2/s atm

PN2/Poly = 1.52 x 10-12 m2/s atm

Diffusion of gas through a solid:

2.0 atm

NA

DAB C A1 C A2

z2 z1

S PA

where S is the solubility

22.414

When there are several solids with thicknesses L1, L2,, we can write the flux as:

PA1 PA2

1

NA

L

L

22.414

1

2

PM 1 PM 2

1

2.0 0

22.414

0.001

0.008

12

1.52 10 12

0.0152 10

1.256 10 12 kmole/m2s

0 atm

Diffusion of KCl in Porous Silica

Example 6.5-3, page 445

A sintered solid of silica 2.0mm thick is porous, with a void fraction of 0.30 and tortuosity of 4.0. The

pores are filled with water at 298K. At one face the concentration of KCl is held at 0.1 gmol/liter, and fresh

water flows rapidly past the other face. Neglecting any other resistance but that in the porous solid,

calculate the diffusion of KCl at steady-state.

= 4.0

-9

2

DAB = 1.87x10 m /s from Table 6.3-1 (page 431)

= 0.30

CA1 = 0.1 gmol/liter = 0.1 kgmol/m3

z2 z1 = 0.002 m

CA2 = 0

NA

7.01 10 9 kgmol/m2s

z 2 z1

4.0

0.002

It is desired to calculate the rate of diffusion of CO2 gas in air at steady state through a loosely packed bed

of sand at 276K and a total pressure of 1.013 x 105 Pa. The bed depth is 1.25m and the void fraction is

0.30. The partial pressure of CO2 is 2.026 x 103 Pa at the top of the bed and 0 Pa at the bottom. Use a of

1.87.

P1 = 2.026 x 105 Pa

= 1.87

PA1 = 2.026 x 103 Pa

= 0.30

PA2 = 0 Pa

T = 276K

N A AB A1

8.3142761.871.25 0

RT z 2 z1

N A 1.609 106 mol/m2s

1.25m

P2 = 0 Pa

Unsteady-State Diffusion in a Slab or Agar Gel

Example 7.1-1, page 463

A solid slab of 5.15 wt% agar gel at 278K is 10.16 mm thick and contains a uniform concentration of urea of

0.1 kgmol/m3. Diffusion is only in the x-direction through two parallel flat surfaces 10.16 mm apart. The

slab is suddenly immersed in pure turbulent water, so the surface resistance can be assumed to be

negligible; that is, the convective coefficient kc is very large. The diffusivity of urea in agar from Table 6.4-2

is 4.72x10-10 m2/s.

(a) Calculate the concentration at the midpoint of the slab (5.08mm from the surface) and 2.54mm from the

surface after 10 hours.

(b) If the thickness of the slab is halved, what would the midpoint concentration be in 10 hours?

C0 = 0.10 kgmol/m3

DAB = 4.72x10-10 m2/s

C1 = 0 for pure water

t = 10 hours * 3600 seconds = 36000 seconds

C = concentration at distance x from the center

line and at time t

C /K C

0 / 1.0 c

c

Y 1

(a)

X1 = 10.16mm/2 = 5.08mm = 0.00508 m

X = 0 (center)

10

D t

X AB 2 4.72 10 36000

0.658

X1

0.005082

Relative position, n = X/X1 = 0

Relative Resistance, m = 0

On Figure 5.3-5 Unsteady State Conduction in a Large Flat Plate when X = 0.685, m = 0, n = 0

c

c = 0.0275 kgmol/m3

Y 0.275

0.1

On Figure 5.3-5, when X = 0.658, m = 0, n = 0.00254/0.00508 = 0.5: (n is not 0 now because not at center)

c

c = 0.0172 kgmol/m3

Y 0.172

0.1

(b)

If the thickness is halved, X becomes:

10

D t

X AB 2 4.72 10 36000

2.632

X1

0.002542

Relative position, n = 0, m = 0

c

Y 0.0020

c = 0.0002 kgmol/m3

0.1

7.1-5 Unsteady State Diffusion in a Cylinder of Agar Gel Radially and Axially

A wet cylinder of agar gel at 278K containing a uniform concentration of urea of 0.1 kgmol/m3 has a

diameter of 30.48mm and is 38.1mm long with flat parallel ends. The diffusivity is 4.72 x 10-10 m2/s.

Calculate the concentration at the midpoint of the cylinder after 100h for the following cases if the cylinder

is suddenly immersed in turbulent pure water.

(a) For radial diffusion only

(b) Diffusion occurs radially and axially

Assume surface resistance is negligible; assume k = 1.0 because properties are similar

T = 278 K

C0 = 0.1 kgmol/m3

C1 = 0 for pure water

D = 4.72 x 10-10 m/s

Time, t = 100h = 360000 seconds

c k c

0 1.0 c

c

Y 1

(a)

r1 = 0.01524 m

r0 = 0 m (center line)

0.731601

0.01524

r12

Relative position at midpoint of the cylinder, n = 0/0.1524 = 0

Relative resistance, m 0 because kc is assumed to be very large

X

Using X = 0.731601, m = 0, n = 0 Y = 0.024 = c/0.1

Concentration = 0.0024 kgmol/m3

(b)

X1 = L/2 = 38.1 mm / 2 = 19.05 mm = .01905 m

D t 4.72 10 10 360000

X AB2

0.468

0.01905

r1

From Figure 5.3-7, Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in a Long Cylinder:

Using X = 0.468, m = 0, n = 0 Y = 0.375

Concentration = 0.0009 kgmol/m3

Example 7.1-2, page 465

A very thick slab has a uniform concentration of solute A of C0 = 1.0x10-2 kgmol A/m3. Suddenly, the front

face of the slab is exposed to a flowing fluid having a concentration C1 = 0.10 kgmol A/m3 and a convective

coefficient kc = 2x10-7 m/s. The equilibrium distribution coefficient K = cLi/ci = 2.0. Assuming that the slab

is a semi-infinite solid, calculate the concentration in the solid at the surface (x = 0) and x = 0.01m from the

surface after t = 30000 seconds. The diffusivity in the solid is DAB = 4x10-9 m2/s.

C1 = 0.10 kgmol/m3

kc = 2x10-7 m/s

K = 2.0

t = 3000 seconds

DAB = 4x10-9 m2/s

C0 = 0.01 kgmol.m3

Kk c

D AB

D AB t

2.02 10 7

4 10

4 10 3000 1.095

9

For x = 0.01:

0.01

0.457

2 4 10 -9 3000

From the chart 5.3-3 Unsteady State Heat Conducted in a Semi-Infinite Solid with Surface Convection:

C C0

C 0.01

C = 2.04x10-2 kgmol/m3

1Y

0.26

C1 / K C0 0.1 / 2 0.01

For x = 0

x

0

0

2 D AB t 2 4 10 -9 3000

From the chart 5.3-3 Unsteady State Heat Conducted in a Semi-Infinite Solid with Surface Convection:

C C0

C 0.01

C = 3.48x10-2 kgmol/m3

1Y

0.62

C1 / K C0 0.1 / 2 0.01

This is the same value as Ci. To calculate CLi:

C Li KCi 2.03.48 10 2 6.96 10 2 kgmol/m3

2 D AB t

A flat slab of Douglas fir wood 50.8mm thick containing 30 wt% moisture is being dried from both sides

(neglecting ends and edges). The equilibrium moisture content at the surface of the wood due to the drying

air blown over it is held at 5 wt% moisture. The drying can be assumed to be represented by a diffusivity of

3.72 x 10-6 m2/h. Calculate the time for the center to reach 10% moisture.

Assume there is no surface resistance and kc =

At t = 0, c0 = 0.3, c1 = 0.05

At t = ?, c = 0.1

DAB = 3.72 x 10-6 m2/h

Solve for Y:

0.2

c1 k c0 0.5 1.0 0.3

X1 = 25.4 mm = 0.254 m

X0 (center) = 0 m

DAB t 3.72 10 6 t

0.005766t

x12

0.254 2

Relative resistance, m = 0 because kC is large

From Chart 5.3-5, Unsteady State Heat Conduction in a Flat Plate: X = 0.75 = 0.005766t

Time, t = 130.073 hours

Vaporizing A and Convective Mass Transfer

Example 7.2-1, page 469

A large volume of pure gas B at 2 atm pressure is flowing over a surface from which pure A is vaporizing.

The liquid A completely wets the surface, which is a blotting paper. Hence, the partial pressure of A at the

surface is the vapor pressure of A at 298K, which is 0.2 atm. The ky has been estimated to be 6.78x10-5

kgmol/s m2 mol frac. Calculate NA, the vaporization rate, and also the value of ky and kG.

P = 2.0 atm

PA2 = 0 atm

PA1 = 0.2 atm

k'y = 6.78x10-5 kgmol/s m2 mol frac

First calculate the mole fraction of A:

YA2 0

To calculate ky, we must relate it to k'y:

k y y BM k y'

y BM

ky

k y'

y BM

y B 2 y B1

1 0.9

0.95

ln y B 2 y B1 ln 1.0 / 0.9

6.78 10 5

0.95

7.138 10 5

3.569 10 5 kgmol/m2 s atm

P

2.0

Now we can calculate the vaporization rate, NA:

N A k y y A1 y A2 7.138 10 5 0.10 0 7.138 10 6 kgmol/m2s

or

5

N A k G PA1 PA2 3.569 10 0.2 0 7.138 10 6 kgmol/m2s

k G y BM P k y y BM

kG

ky

A value of kG was experimentally determined to be 1.08 lbmol/h ft2 atm for A diffusing through stagnant B.

For the same flow and concentrations it is desired to predict kG and the flux of A for equimolar

counterdiffusion. The partial pressures are PA1 = 0.20 atm, PA2 = 0.05 atm, P = 1.0 atm abs total. Use

English and SI Units.

kG' P kG PBM

Solve for PBM:

P PA2

0.2 0.05

PBM A1

0.872853 atm

P PA2

1 0.05

ln

ln 1 0.2

P PA1

Plug into equation:

kG (1.0 atm) = (1.08 lbmol/h ft2 atm)(0.872853 atm)

kG(1.01x105Pa) = (1.08lbmol/hft2atm)(.872853atm)(1hr/3600sec)(1ft2/.0929 m2)(.453kgmol/lbmol)

kG = 0.9427 lbmol/h ft2 atm

kG = 1.262 x 10-8 kgmol/s m2 Pa

Now solve for flux:

PA1 = 0.2 atm = 20265 Pa

PA2 = 0.05 atm = 5066.25 Pa

NA = 0.1414 lbmol/ft2h

NA = 1.92 x 10-4 kgmol/m2s

High Flux Correction Factors

Example 7.2-2, page 472

Toluene A is evaporating from a wetted porous slab by having inert pure air at 1 atm flowing parallel to the

flat surface. At a certain point, the mass transfer coefficient, kx for very low fluxes has been estimated as

0.20 lbmol/hr ft2. The gas composition at the interface at this point is XA1 = 0.65. Calculate the flux NA and

the ratios kc/ kc or kx/ kx and k0c/ kc or k0x/ kx to correct for high flux.

First find XBM:

X BM

X B 2 X B1 1 0 1 0.65

0.619

X B2

1 0

ln

ln

1 0.65

X B1

k x'

X A1 X A2 0.20 0.65 0 0.210 lbmol/ft2 hr

X BM

0.619

To find the ratios, set up the following:

k x kc

1

1

'

1.616

'

k x k c X BM 0.619

NA

k x0 k c0 1 X A1 1 0.65

'

0.565

X BM

0.619

k x'

kc

In a wetted-wall tower an air H2S mixture is flowing by a film of water that is flowing as a thin film down a

vertical plate. The H2S is being absorbed from the air to the water at a total pressure of 1.50 atm abs and

30C. A value for kc of 9.567 x 10-4 m/s has been predicted for the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient. At a

given point, the mole fraction of H2S in the liquid at the liquid-gas interface is 2.0(10-5) and PA of H2S in the

gas is 0.05 atm. The Henrys law equilibrium relation is PA (atm) = 609xA (mole fraction in the liquid).

Calculate the rate of absorption of H2S. Hint: Call point 1 the interface and point 2 the gas phase. Then

calculate PA1 from Henrys Law and the given xA. The value of PA2 is 0.05 atm.

P = 1.50 atm

PA1 = 609 (CA1) = 609(2 x 10-5) = 0.01218 atm

PA2 = 0.05 atm

T = 30 C = 303.15 K

kc = 9.567 x 10-4 m/s

XA1 = 2 x 10-5

Henrys Law: PA = 609XA

R = 82.057 x 10-3 m3 atm/kgmol K

kc' P

kG' P

RT

k G'

9.567 10 4

3.846 10 5 kgmol/m2s atm

3

82.057 10 303.15

Mass Transfer Inside a Tube

Example 7.3-1, page 479

A tube is coated on the inside with naphthalene and has an inside diameter of 20 mm and a length of 1.10m.

Air at 318K and an average pressure of 101.3 kPa flows through this pipe at a velocity of 0.80 m/s.

Assuming that the absolute pressure remains essentially constant, calculate the concentration of naphthalene

in the exit air.

v = 0.80 m/s

D = 0.02 m

T = 318 K

z2 z1 = 1.10 m

DAB = 6.92x10-6 m2/s

PAi = 74.0 Pa

air = 1.932x10-5 Pa s from Appendix A

= 1.114 kg/m3

R = 8314 m3 Pa/kgmol K

P

74 2.799 10 5 kgmol/m3

C Ai Ai

RT 8314318

Calculate the Schmidt number:

1.932 10 5

N Sc

2.506

D AB 1.114 6.92 10 6

Calculate the Reynolds number:

D 0.020.801.114

N Re

922.6

1.932 10 5

Hence, the flow is laminar. We will use Figure 7.3-2 for laminar flow streamlines:

D

0.02

N Re N Sc

922.62.506

33.02

L 4

1.10 4

Using Figure 7.3-2 with rodlike flow:

C A C A0

0.55

C Ai C A0

If CA0 = 0,

C A C A0

CA 0

0.55

5

C Ai C A0

2.799 10 0

7.3-7 Mass Transfer from a Pipe and Log Mean Driving Force

Use the same physical conditions as in problem 7.3-2, but the velocity in the pipe is now 3.05

m/s. Do as follows:

(a) Predict the mass transfer coefficient kc (Is this turbulent flow?).

(b) Calculate the average benzoic acid concentration at the outlet. [ Note: in this case,

Eqs. (7.3-42) and (7.3-43) must be used with the log mean driving force, where A is

the surface area of the pipe.]

(c) Calculate the total kgmol of benzoic acid dissolved per second.

1.829 m

Pure Water

T = 26.1C

v = 3.05m/s

0.00635 m

1.22 m

= 996 kg/m3

= 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s

T = 26.1C

DAB = 1.245x10-9 m2/s

D = 0.00635 m

As = 2rL

V = A

8.71 10 4

N Sc

702.408

D AB 996 1.245 10 9

Calculate the Reynolds number:

D 0.006353.05996

N Re

22147

8.71 10 4

Calculate the Sherwood number:

0.83

0.33

N Sh 0.23N Re N Sc 0.000049487

Now calculate kc:

k ' 1.245 10 9

k' D

0.000049487 c

N Sh c

0.00635

D AB

(b)

CA1 = 0

CAi = 0.02948 (solubility)

CA2 = ?

So now we plug this into the log mean driving force equation:

C A2 C A1

vC A2 C A1 A K C

C C A1

ln Ai

C Ai C A2

CA1 = 0, so it cancels out of the equation:

vC A2 A K C

C A2

C Ai

ln

C Ai C A2

C A2

0.02948

ln

0.02948 C A2

(c)

Rate of benzoic acid dissolved = NA:

vC A2 C A1 3.050.001151 0

NA

1.11 10 7

2

A

0.003175

Mass Transfer From a Flat Plate

Example 7.3-2, page 481

A large volume of pure water at 26.1C is flowing parallel to a flat plate of solid benzoic acid, where L =

0.24 m in the direction of flow. The water velocity is 0.061 m/s. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is

0.02948 kgmol/m3. The diffusivity of benzoic acid is 1.245x10-9 m2/s. Calculate the mass-transfer coefficient

kL and the flux NA.

Solubility = 0.02948 kgmol/m3

T = 26.1C

L = 0.24 m

v = 0.061 m/s

Because the solution is dilute, we can use the properties of water for the solution:

= 996 kg/m3

= 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s

Calculate the Schmidt Number:

N Sc

Calculate the Reynolds number:

N Re

Now calculate JD:

D AB

D

8.71 10 4

702

996 1.245 10 9

0.240.061996 17000

8.71 10 4

0.5

J D 0.99 N Re,

L 0.9917000

0.5

0.00758

kc:

JD

k c'

N Sc 2 / 3

In this case, A is diffusing through stagnant B. We use the solubility for CA1 and CA2 = 0. Also, since the

solution is dilute, xBM 1:

k'

5.85 10 6

0.02948 0 1.726 10 7 kgmol/m2s

N A c C A1 C A2

X BM

1.0

Example 7.3-3, page 482

Calculate the value of the mass-transfer coefficient and the flux for mass transfer from a sphere of

naphthalene to air at 45C and 1 atm abs flowing at a velocity of 0.305 m/s. The diameter of the sphere is

0.0254m. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 45C is 6.92x10-6 m2/s and the vapor pressure of solid

naphthalene is 0.555 mmHg.

v = 0.305 m/s

D = 0.0254m

DAB = 6.92x10-6 m/s

PA1 = 0.555 mmHg = 74 Pa

= 1.113 kg/m3

T = 45C

= 1.93 x 10-5 Pa s

P = 1 atm

Calculate the Schmidt number:

N Sc

Calculate the Reynolds number:

N Re

Now find the Sherwood number:

D AB

D

1.93 10 5

2.505

1.113 6.92 10 6

0.02540.3051.113 446

1.93 10 5

N Sh 2 0.552N Re

0.53

N sh k c'

D

D AB

k c' N sh

N Sc 1/ 3 21.0

D AB

6.92 10 6

21.0

5.72 10 3 m/s

D

0.0254

k c'

5.72 10 3

k

2.163 10 9 kgmol/s m2 Pa

RT 8314318

Since the gas is dilute, k G kG. Using that we can solve for the flux:

N A k G PA1 PA2 2.163 10 9 73 0 1.599 10 7 kgmol/m2 s

'

G

Using the data and physical properties from Example 7.3-2, calculate the flux for a water velocity of 0.152

m/s and a plate length of L = 0.137 m. Do not assume that xBM = 1.0 but actually calculate its value.

Water at 26.1C, velocity, v = 0.152 m/sCA1

Benzoic Acid

0.137 m

Solubility, S = 0.02948 kgmol/m3

= 996 kg/m3

Mw = 18 kg/kgmol

CA1 = 0.02948 kgmol/m3

= 8.71 x 10-9 Pa s

C B1

XB1 =

= [(996 kg/m3)/(18kg/kgmol)]/[(996 kg/m3)/(18kg/kgmol) + 0.02948 kgmol/m3]

C B1 C A1

XB1 = 0.999468

XB2 = 1.0

X A1 X A2

X X B1 1.0 0.999468

X BM

B2

0.999734

1 X A2

X B2

1.0

ln

ln

ln

0.999468

1

X

X

A1

B1

Calculate Schmidt Number:

N SC

Calculate Reynolds Number:

N Re

D AB

Calculate

Kc:

8.71 10 4

702

996 1.245 10 9

0.1370.152996 23812.5

Calculate JD:

J D 0.99 N Re

0.5

8.71 10 9

0.9923812.5

0.5

2 / 3

K C' J DN SC

0.064160.152702

2 / 3

Calculate Flux:

NA

0.06416

1.2346 10 5 m/s

3.641 10 7 kgmol/m2s

X BM

0.999734

Estimate the value of the mass-transfer coefficient in a stream of air at 325.6 K flowing in a duct past the

following shapes made of solid naphthalene. The velocity of the air is 1.524 m/s at 325.6K and 202.6 kPa.

The DAB of naphthalene in air is 5.16 x 10-6 m2/s at 273K and 101.3 kPa.

(a) For air flowing parallel to a flat plate 0.152 m in length

(b) For air flowing past a single sphere 12.7 mm in diameter

0.152 m

P = 202600 Pa

R = 8314.34 m3 Pa/kgmol K

T = 325.6 K

Mw = 28.8 kg/kgmol

Correct DAB:

T

D AB 325.6 K ,202.6kPa o

T

Calculate and :

1.75

P

o

P

T

325.6

o 0.0171cP

T

273

325.6

273

N Re

0.1521.5242.155 25495.5

1.958 10 5

0.2

JD

'

C

2/3

N SC

3.51182 10 6 m2/s

0.2

J D 0.036 N Re

0.036 25495.5

N SC

M wP

28.8202600 2.155 kg/m3

8314.34325.6

RT

(a)

Calculate NRe:

202.6

101.3

0.768

1.75

D AB

0.004732

1.958 10

2.58722

2.155 3.51182 10 6

'

C

K

2.587222 / 3

KC = 0.003827 m/s

1.524

'

K

0.003827

KG C

1.41366 10 9 kgmol/m2 Pa s

RT 8314.34325.6

0.004732

(b)

Dp = 0.0127 m

Calculate Reynolds and Schmidt Numbers:

D p 0.0127 1.5242.155

N Re

2130.21

1.958 10 5

1.958 10 5

N SC

2.58722

D AB 2.155 3.51182 10 6

0.53

1/ 3

0.53 1 / 3

N SH 2 0.552 N Re

N SC 2 0.5522130.21 2.58722 46.0164

N SH

K C' D p

D AB

KG

46.0164

K C' 0.0127

3.51182 10 6

KC = 0.012725 m/s

K C'

0.012735

4.70 10 9 kgmol/m2 Pa s

RT 8314.34325.6

Example 7.3-4, page 485

Pure water at 26.1C flows at the rate of 5.514x10-7 m3/s through a packed bed of benzoic acid spheres

having diameters of 6.375mm. The total surface area of the spheres in the bed is 0.01198 m2 and the void

fraction is 0.436. The tower diameter is 0.0667m. The solubility of benzoic acid in water is 2.948x10-2

kgmol/m3.

(a) Predict the mass transfer coefficient kc.

(b) Using the experimental value of kc, predict the outlet concentration of benzoic acid in the water.

Because the solution is dilute, we can use the properties of water for the solution:

= 996 kg/m3

AS = 0.01198 m2

26.1C = 8.71 x 10-4 Pa s

= 0.436

-4

25C = 8.94 x 10 Pa s

D = 0.0667m

V = 5.514x10-7 m3/s

S = 2.948x10-2 kgmol/m3

Dp = 6.375mm

DAB(25C) = 1.21x10-9 m2/s from Table 6.3-1

Correct DAB:

3

T

299.1 0.8940 10

1.254 10 9 m2/s

D AB 26.1 D AB 25 new old 1.21 10 9

3

298 0.8718 10

Told new

Calculate the area of the column:

A D 2 0.0667 3.494 10 3 m2

4

4

Now use the area and volumetric flow to find the velocity:

v V / A 5.514 10 7 / 3.494 10 3 1.578 10 4 m/s

Calculate the Schmidt Number:

8.71 10 4

N Sc

702.6

D AB 996.7 1.245 10 9

Calculate Reynolds number:

D p 0.006375 1.578 10 4 996.7

N Re

1.150

8.71 10 4

Calculate JD:

1.09

N Re 2 / 3 1.09 1.1502 / 3 2.277

JD

.436

k c'

k c'

2/3

702.62 / 3

J D N Sc

2.277

k c' 4.447 10 6 m/s

4

v

1.578 10

Now set the log mean driving force equation can be set equal to the material balance equation on

the bulk stream:

C C A1 C Ai C A2

Ak c Ai

V C A2 C A1

C Ai C A1

ln

C Ai C A2

where CAi = 0.02948 (the solubility)

CA1 = 0

A = 0.01198 m2 (the surface area of the bed)

V = 5.514x10-7 m3/s

CA2 = 2.842 x 10-3 kgmol/m3

Pure water at 26.1C is flowing at a rate of 0.0701ft3/h through a packed bed of 0.251-in.

benzoic acid spheres having a total surface area of 0.129 ft2. The solubility of benzoic acid in

water is 0.00184 lbmol benzoic acid/ft3 solution. The outlet concentration is cA2 is 1.80 x 10-4

lbmol/ft3. Calculate the mass transfer coefficient kc. Assume dilute solution.

= 0.8718 x 10-3 Pa s

= 996.7 kg/m3

= 0.0701 ft3/hr

A = 0.129

CA1 0

CA2 = 1.80 x 10-4 lbmol/ft3

C A2 C A1

C C A1

ln Ai

C Ai C A2

where CA1 is the inlet bulk flow concentration, CA2 is the outlet bulk flow concentration, and CAi is the

concentration at the surface of the solid (which in this case equals the solubility)

So now we plug this into the log mean driving force equation:

C A2 C A1

vC A2 C A1 A K C

C C A1

ln Ai

C Ai C A2

CA1 = 0, so it cancels out of the equation:

C A2

vC A2 A K C

C Ai

ln

C Ai C A2

We can now plug in given numbers:

1.80 10 4

0.0701 1.80 10 4 0.129K C

0.00184

ln

4

0.00184 1.80 10

KC = 0.0559 ft/hr

Mass Transfer from Air Bubbles in Fermentation

Example 7.4-1, page 488

Calculate the maximum rate of absorption of O2 in a fermenter from air bubbles at 1 atm abs pressure

having diameters of 100 m at 37C into water having a zero concentration of dissolved oxygen. The

solubility of O2 from air in water at 37C is 2.26x10-7 kgmol O2/m3 liquid. The diffusivity of O2 in water at

37C is 3.25x10-9 m2/s. Agitation is used to produce the air bubbles.

Dp = 1 x 10-4 m

c,water = 6.947 x 10-4 Pa s = 6.947 x 10-4 kg/ m s

-9

2

DAB = 3.25x10 m /s

c,water = 994 kg/m3

Solubility = 2.26x10-7 kgmol O2/m3 liquid

p,air = 1.13 kg/m3

Calculate NSc:

N Sc

c

c D AB

6.947 10 4

215

994 3.25 10 9

Now calculate k L:

2 D AB

2 / 3 c g

k

0.31N Sc

2

Dp

c

1/ 3

'

L

4

9.806 2.29 10 4 m/s

2 3.25 10 9

2 / 3 994 1.13 6.947 10

0

.

31

215

4

2

1 10

994

N A k L C A1 C A2 2.29 10 4 2.26 10 7 0 5.18 10 8 kgmol O2/m2 s

'

L

1/ 3

Proof of Mass Flux Equation

Example 7.5-1, page 491

Table 7.5-1 gives the following relation: j A j B 0

Prove this relationship using the definition of the fluxes in terms of velocities.

From Table 7.5-1 (page 490), substituting A A for jA and B B for jB, and rearranging:

A A A B B B 0

A A B B A B 0

A B B and A B

A A B B A A B B 0

A A B B A A B B 0

Example 7.5-2, page 495

Pure gas A diffuses from point 1 at a partial pressure 101.32 kPa to point a distance 2.00mm away. At point

2, it undergoes a chemical reaction at the catalyst surface and A 2B. Component B diffuses back at

steady state. The total pressure is P = 101.32 kPa. The temperature is 300K and DAB = 0.15 x 10-4 m2/s.

(a) For instantaneous rate of reaction, calculate xA2 and NA.

(b) For a slow reaction where k1 = 5.63x10-3 m/s, calculate xA2 and NA.

C = P/RT = 101320/(8314*300) = 4.062 x 10-2

kgmol/m3

NB = -2NA

DAB = 0.15 x 10-4 m2/s

k1 = 5.63x10-3 m/s

catalyst surface

XA1 = PA1/P = 1.0

= 0.002 m

T = 300 K

(a)

NA

CD AB

1 X A1

4.062 10 2 0.15 10 4 1 1.0

ln

ln

2.112 10 4 kgmol A/m2s

1 X A2

0.002

1 0

(b)

Substitute X A2

NA

in for XA2:

k1' C

NA

NA

0.002

4.062 10 0.15 10 ln

CD AB

ln

1 X A1

N

1 A '

k1C

1 1.0

N

1 A

5.63 10 3 4.062 10 2

2

4

1.004 10 kgmol A/m s

Solute A is diffusing at unsteady state into a semi-infinite medium of pure B and undergoes a first-order

reaction with B. Solute A is dilute. Calculate the concentration CA at points z = 0, 4, and 10 mm from the

surface for t = 1 x 105 seconds. Physical property data are DAB = 1 x 10-9 m2/s, k = 1 x 10-4 s-1, CA0 = 1.0 kg

mol/m3. Also calculate the kg mol absorbed/m2. Find CA and Q.

For un-steady state diffusion and homogenous reaction in a semi-infinite medium,, the general solution is:

CA 1

k1'

k1'

2 exp z

k i t 1 2 exp z

ki t

erf

erf

C

D AB

D AB

2 tD AB

2 tD AB

For z1=0m:

CA 1

2 exp 0 erf 1 10 4 1 10 5 1 2 exp 0 erf 1 10 4 1 10 5

1.0

C A 1 2 exp 0 2 1 2 exp 0 0 1.0 kgmol/m3

For z2=0.004m

CA

1.0

1 10

1 10

erf

0.004

1 10 1 10

2 1 10 1 10

erf

0.004

1 10 1 10

2 1 10 1 10

exp 0.004

110

1 10 4

exp

0

.

004

2

1 10 9

4

5

exp

0

.

004

2

9

5

9

1104

1

1

C A 1 2 exp 0.004

2

2

9

9

1

10

For z2=0.01m

CA 1

1 10 4

0.01

2 exp 0.01

erf

1 10 4 1 10 5

9

1.0

1 10

2 1 10 5 1 10 9

1 10 4

0.01

4

5

1 exp 0.01

erf

10

1

10

2

1 10 9

2 1 10 5 1 10 9

1 10 4

1 10 4

1

1

C A 2 exp 0.01

1.9998 2 exp 0.01

0 1 2 0.0423291.9998

9

9

1

10

1

10

3

C A 0.0.0423 kgmol/m

1

(b)

The total amount, Q, of A absorbed up to time t is represented by:

D AB ' 1

k ' t k 't

'

Q c A0

e

k t 2 erf k t

k '

Q 1

110

9

4 '

Q 0.0332 kgmol/m

1

2

110 4 1105

Gas A diffuses from point 1 to a catalyst surface at point 2, where it reacts as follows: 2A B. Gas B

diffuses back a distance to point 1.

(c) Derive an equation for NA for a slow first-order reaction where k1 is the reaction velocity constant.

(d) Calculate NA and xA2 for part (c) where k1 0.53 x 10-2 m/s.

(c)

Begin with the convective diffusion equation:

dC A C A

N A N B where: x A C A ,

N A D AB

dz

C

C

Plugging in:

N B 12 N A

A2

dx A

dx

x A 12 N A

N A dz CD AB

dz

1 xA 2

0

x A1

x

N A CD AB

1 x A2 2

ln

1 x A1 2

N

For a slow reaction, x A2 ' A . Plugging into the flux equation and replacing C with P/RT:

k1 C

NA

2CD AB

NA

2 PD AB 1 N A RT 2k1' P

ln

RT

1 x A1 2

(d)

Plugging in the values, we get:

2 1.01325 10 5 0.2 10 4 1 N A 8.314298 2 0.53 10 2 1.01325 10 5

NA

ln

8.3142980.0013

1 0.97 2

2

4

N A 1.76 10 kgmol/m s

N

1.76 10 4

x A2 ' A

0.81479

k1C

1.01325 10 5

0.0053

8.314298

In a steel-making process using molten pig iron containing carbon, a spray of molten iron particles

containing 4.0 wt % carbon falls through a pure oxygen atmosphere. The carbon diffuses through the

molten iron to the surface of the drop, where it is assume that it reacts instantly at the surface because of the

high temperature, as follows, according to a first order reaction:

Calculate the maximum drop size allowable so that the final drop after a 2.0 second fall contains an average

of 0.1 wt % carbon. Assume that the mass transfer rate of gases at the surface is very great, so there is no

outside resistance. Assume no internal circulation of the liquid. Hence, the decarburization rate is

controlled by the rate of diffusion of carbon to the surface of the droplet. The diffusivity of the carbon in

iron is 7.5 x 10-9 m2/s (S7). Hint: use figure 5.3-13

For unsteady-state diffusion through a spherical geometry where we are looking at average temperature and

time, Figure 5.3-13 (page 377) can be used. So, to find the radius, r, we need to find Y, and X, where:

C C ave 0 0.001

Y 1

0.025

C1 C0

0 004

Because A reacts instantly, we know that C1=0. From the graph for a sphere at Y, X=0.32

Solving for r:

D t

7.5 10 9 2

X 0.32 AB2

r 0.000217 m

r1

r12

Reaction and Unsteady State Diffusion

Example 7.5-3, page 498

Pure CO2 gas at 101.32 kPa pressure is absorbed into a dilute alkaline buffer solution containing a catalyst.

The dilute, absorbed solute CO2 undergoes a first-order reaction, with k= 35 s-1 and DAB = 1.5x10-9 m2/s.

The solubility of CO2 is 2.961x10-7 kgmol/m3 Pa. The surface is exposed to the gas for 0.010 seconds.

Calculate the kgmol CO2 absorbed/m2 surface.

P = 101.32 kPa

k= 35 s-1

DAB = 1.5x10-9 m2/s

The total amount, Q, of A absorbed in time, t is:

Time, t = 0.010 seconds

'

kt = (35s-1)(0.010s) = 0.350

CA0 = Solubility*Pressure = (2.961x10-7 kgmol/m3 Pa)( 101.32 kPa) = 3.00x10-2 kgmol CO2/m3

Q 3.00 10 2 1.5 10 9 / 35 .350 12 erf 0.350 0.350 / e 0.350 1.458 10 7 kgmol CO2/m2

Diffusion of A Through Nondiffusing B and C

Example 7.5-4, page 498

At 298K and 1 atm total pressure, methane (A) is diffusing at steady state through nondiffusing argon (B)

and helium (C). At z1 = 0, the partial pressures in atm are PA1 = 0.4, PB1 = 0.4, PC1 = 0.2, and at z2 =

0.005m, PA2 = 0.1, PB2 = 0.6, PC2 = 0.3. The binary diffusivities from Table 6.2-1 are DAB = 2.02x10-5 m2/s,

DAC = 6.75x10-5 m2/s, and DBC = 7.29x10-5 m2/s. Calculate NA.

PA1 = 0.4,

PC2 = 0.3

DAB = 2.02x10-5 m2/s

PB1 = 0.4,

z2 = 0.005m

DAC = 6.75x10-5 m2/s

PC1 = 0.2

z1 = 0

DBC = 7.29x10-5 m2/s

PA2 = 0.1

T = 298K

R = 82.057 m3 atm/kgmol K

PB2 = 0.6

P = 1 atm

Find DAM:

XB

0.4

0.667

1 X A 1 0.4

XB

0.6

At point 2: X B'

0.667

1 X A 1 0.1

XC

0.2

X C'

0.333

1 X A 1 0.4

1

1

D AM '

2.635 10 5 m2/s

'

0.667

X

XB

0.333

C

2.02 10 5

6.75 10 5

D AB

D AC

Calculate PiM:

Pi1 P PA1 1.0 0.4 0.6 atm

Pi 2 P PA2 1.0 0.1 0.9 atm

At point 1: X B'

PiM

Pi 2 Pi1

0.9 0.4

0.740 atm

Pi 2 ln 0.9

ln

0.4

Pi1

D AM P

2.635 10 5 1.0

PA1 PA2

0.9 0.6 8.74 10 5 kgmol A/m2s

NA

82.0572980.0050.740

RT z 2 z1 PiM

At a total pressure of 202.6 kPa and 358 K, ammonia gas (A) is diffusing at steady state through an inert,

nondiffusing mixture of nitrogen (B) and hydrogen (C). The mole fractions at z1 = 0 are xA1 = 0.8, xB1 =

0.15, and xC1 = 0.05; and at z2 = 4.0 mm, xA1 = 0.2, xB1 = 0.6, and xC1 = 0.2. The diffusivities at 358 K and

101.3 kPa are DAB = 3.28 x 10-5 m2/s and DAC = 1.093 x 10-4 m2/s. Calculate the flux of ammonia.

For multi-component diffusion, the flux can be calculated as:

D AM C

C C

NA

z 2 z1 C AM A1 A2

Calculate DAM in m2/s:

1

1

D AM

1.9878 10 5

xC1

0.15

0.05

x B1

5

5

D AB 1 x A1 D AC 1 x A1 1.64 10 1 08 5.456 10 1 0.8

Calculate CAM:

P

202.6 10 3

C

68.0647 mol/m3

RT 8314358

C A1 Cx A1 68.0647 0.8 54.45 mol/m3

C A2 Cx A2 68.0647 0.2 13.61 mol/m3

C AM

C C A1 C C A2

C C A1

ln

C C A2

68.0647 54.45

ln

68.0647 13.61

5

D AM C

C A1 C A2 1.9878 10 68.0647 54.45molm 3 13.61molm 3 4.68 10 4

NA

z 2 z1 C AM

0.004 029.4605

N A 4.68 10 4 kgmole/m2s

Knudsen Diffusion of Hydrogen

Example 7.6-1, page 500

A H2(A) C2H6(B) gas mixture is diffusing in a pore of a nickel catalyst used for hydrogenation at

1.01325x105 Pa and 373K. The pore radius is 60 A (angstrom). Calculate the Knudsen diffusivity, DKA, of

H2.

P = 1.01325x105 Pa

T = 373K

r = 60 angstroms = 6.0x10-9

MA(H2) = 2.016

DKA

97.0r

MA

97.0 60 10

373

2.016

7.92 10 6 m2/s

Transition-Region Diffusion of He and N2

A gas mixture at a total pressure of 0.10 atm abs and 298K is composed of N2 (A) and He (B). The mixture

is diffusing through an open capillary 0.010m long having a diameter of 5x10-6 m. The mole fraction of N2

at one end is XA1 = 0.8 and at the other is XA2 = 0.2. The molecular diffusivity DAB is 6.98x10-5 m2/s at 1 atm,

which is an average value based on several investigations.

(a) Calculate the flux NA at steady state.

(b) Use the approximate equations for this case.

L = 0.010m

r = 2.5x10-6 m

P = 0.10 atm

T = 298 K

XA1 = 0.8

XA2 = 0.2

DAB = 6.98x10-5 m2/s

MA = 28.02 kg/kgmol

MB = 4.003 kg/kgmol

R = 8314.3 m3 Pa/kgmol K

(a)

1

T 2

273 2

2

4

97.0 2.5 10 6

DKA 97.0r

7.91 10 m /s

M

28

.

02

A

In an open system with no chemical reaction, the ratio of NA/NB is constant:

NB

MA

28.02

2.645

NA

MB

4.003

Now we can solve for the flux factor, :

N

1 B 1 2.645 1.645

NA

Now we can solve for the transition region NA:

D P 1 x A2 D AB / DKA

N A AB ln

RTL 1 x A1 D AB / DKA

6.98 10 1.013 10

NA

ln

6.40 10 5 kgmol/m2s

5

4

1.6458314.32980.010 1 1.6450.8 6.98 10 / 7.91 10

5

(b) If we estimate that equimolar counterdiffusion is taking place at steady state, = 1-1 = 0. We can

estimate the diffusivity, DNA:

1

1

'

DNA

3.708 10 4 m2/s

1

1

1

1

D AB

DKA

6.98 10 5

7.91 10 4

Now we can solve for the approximate flux:

D' P

3.708 10 4 1.013 10 4

0.8 0.2 9.10 10 5 kgmol/m2s

N A NA X A1 X A2

83142980.010

RTL

A mixture of nitrogen gas (A) and helium (B) at 298 K is diffusing through a capillary 0.10 m long in an

open system with a diameter of 10 m. The mole fractions are constant at XA1 = 1.0 and XA2 = 0.0. DAB =

6.98 x 10-5 m2/s at 1 atm. MA = 28.02 kg/kg mol, MB = 4.003.

(a) Calculate the Knudsen diffusivity DKA and DKB at the total pressures of 0.001, 0.1 and 10 atm.

(b) Calculate the flux NA at steady state at the pressures.

(c) Plot NA versus P on log-log paper. What are the limiting lines at lower pressures and very high

pressures? Calculate and plot these lines.

(a)

The Knudsen diffusivity for A and B will be the same at all pressures (it is independent of pressure):

T

DK 97.0r

M

A

DKA 97.0 5 10

DKB 97.0 5 10

2

298

2

0.001582 m /s

28.02

2

298

2

0.004185 m /s

4.003

(b)

For the transition region, flux is calculated using:

D P 1 x A2 DAB DKA

N A AB ln

RTL 1 x A1 DAB DKA

For P = 0.001:

1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582

6.98 10 2 0.001

2

7

NA

ln

6.21 10 kgmol/m s

2

1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582

For P = 0.1:

1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582

6.98 10 2 0.1

2

5

NA

ln

1.321 10 kgmol/m s

2

1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582

For P = 10:

1 1.6457 0 6.98 10 2 0.001582

6.98 10 2 10

2

5

NA

ln

1.68 10 kgmol/m s

2

1.64570.0821572980.1 1 1.64571 6.98 10 0.001582

(c)

Lower limit is representative of Knudsen diffusion and the upper limit is representative of molecular

diffusion.

9.3-1 Humidity from Vapor-Pressure Data

The air in a room is at 26.7C and a pressure of 101.325 kPa and contains water vapor with a partial

pressure pA = 2.76 kPa. Calculate the following:

(a) Humidity, H

(b) Saturation humidity, HS, and percentage humidity, HP.

(c) Percentage relative humidity, HR.

From the steam tables at 26.7C, the vapor pressure of water is pAs = 3.50 kPa. Also pA = 2.76 kPa and P =

101.3 kPa. For part (a):

18.02 p A

18.022.76

H

28.97 P p A 28.97101.3 2.76

For part (b)

18.02 p As

18.023.50

H

0.02226

28.97 P p As 28.97101.3 2.76

H

0.01742

H p 100

100

78.3%

Hs

0.02226

For part (c)

p

2.76

H R 100 A 100

78.9%

p As

3.50

Air entering a dryer has a temperature (dry bulb) of 60C and a dew point of 26.7C. Using the humidity

chart, determine the actual humidity H, percentage humidity HP, humid heat cs, and humid volume vH.

The dew point of 26.7C is the temperature when the given mixture is at 100% saturation. Starting at 26.7C,

and drawing a vertical line until it intersects the line for 100% humidity, a humidity of H = 0.0225 kg

H2O/kg dry air is read off the plot. This is the actual humidity of the air at 60C. Stated in another way, if

air at 60C and having a humidity of H = 0.0225 kg H2O/kg dry air is cooled, its dew point will be 26.7C.

Locating this point where H = 0.0225 and T = 60C on the chart, the percentage humidity HP is found to be

14% by linear interpolation vertically between 10 and 20% lines. The humid heat for H = 0.0225 is from Eq.

(9.3-6):

cs 1.005 1.880.0225 1.047 kJ/kg dry air K

The humid volume at 60C from Eq. (9.3-7) is

v H 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 0.0225 60 273 0.977 m3/kg dry air

An air stream at 87.8C having a humidity H = 0.030 kg H2O/kg dry air is contacted in an adiabatic

saturator with water. It is cooled and humidified to 90% saturation.

(a) What are the final values of H and T?

(b) For 100% saturation, what would be the values of H and T?

For part (a), the point H = 0.030 and T = 87.8C is located on the humidity chart. The adiabatic saturation

curve through this point is followed upward to the left until it intersects with the 90% line at 42.5C and H =

0.0500 kg H2O/kg dry air.

For part (b), the same line is followed to 100% saturation where T = 40.5C and H = 0.0505 kg H2O/kg dry

air.

A water vapo-air mixture having a dry bulb temperature of T = 60C is passed over a wet bulb, as shown in

Figure 9.3-4, and the wet bulb temperature obtained is TW = 29.5C. What is the humidity of the mixture?

The wet bulb temperature of 29.5C can be assumed to be the same as the adiabatic saturation temperature

TS, as discussed. Following the adiabatic saturation curve of 29.5C until it reaches the dry bulb temperature

of 60C, the humidity is H = 0.0135 kg H2O/kg dry air.

9.6-1 Time of Drying from Drying Curve

A solid whose drying curve is represented by Figure 9.5-1a is to be dried from a free moisture content X1 =

0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.25. Estimate the time required.

From Figure 9.5-1a for X1 = 0.38, t1 is read off as 1.28 hours. For X2 = 0.25, t2 = 3.08 hours. Hence the time

required is t = t2 t1 = 3.08 1.28 = 1.80 hours.

A solid whose drying curve is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture content X1 =

0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.25 in the constant rate drying period. Estimate the time required.

For Figure 9.5-1b, a value of 21.5 for LS/A was used to prepare the graph. From the figure, RC = 1.51 kg

H2O/m2hours. Substituting into Eq. 9.6-2:

L

21.5

0.38 0.25 1.85 hours

t S X 1 X 2

ARC

1.51

An insoluble wet granular material is to be dried in a pan 0.457 by 0.457 m and 25.4 mm deep. The material

is 25.4 mm deep in the pan, and the sides and bottom can be considered insulated. Heat transfer is by

convection from an air stream flowing parallel to the surface at a velocity of 6.1 m/s. The air is at 65.6C

and has a humidity of 0.010 kg H2O/kg dry air. Estimate the rate of drying for the constant rate period.

For a humidity of H = 0.010 and a dry bulb temperature of 65.6C, using the humidity chart, the wet bulb

temperature TW = 28.9C and HW = 0.026 by following the adiabatic saturation line to the saturated humidity.

Using Eq 9.3-7 to calculate the humid volume,

vH 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 H T 2.83 10 3 4.56 10 3 .01 65.6 273 0.974 m3/kg dry air

1.0 0.010

1.037 kg/m3

0.974

The mass velocity G is

G v 6.136001.037 22770 kg/h

Using Eq. 9.6-9

0.8

h 0.0204G 0.8 0.020422770 62.45 W/m2K

At TW = 28.9C, W = 2433 kJ/kg from the steam tables. Substituting into Eq. 9.6-8:

h

T TW 3600 62.45 65.6 28.93600 3.39 kg/m2h

RC

W

2433 1000

The total evaporation rate for a surface area of 0.457 by 0.457 m2 is

RC A 3.390.457 0.457 0.708 kg H2O / h

Example 9.7-1 Numerical Integration in Falling-Rate Period

A batch of wet solid whose drying rate is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture

content of X1 = 0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.04. The weight of the dry solid is LS = 399 kg solid and A

= 18.58 m2 of top drying surface. Calculate the time for drying. Note that the LS/A = 399/18.58 = 21.5

kg/m2.

From Figure 9.5-1b, the critical free moisture content is XC = 0.195 kg H2O/kg dry solid. Hence the drying

occurs in the constant-rate and falling-rate periods.

For the constant-rate period, X1 = 0.38 and X2 = XC = 0.195. From Figure 9.5-1b, RC = 1.51 kg H2O/m2h.

Substituting Eq. 9.6-2:

L

399

0.38 0.195 2.63 hours

t S X 1 X 2

18.581.51

ARC

For the falling-rate period, reading values of R for

various values of X from Figure 9.5-1b, the

following table was prepared. To determine this

area by numerical integration using a spreadsheet,

the calculations below are provided. The area of the

first rectangle is the average height (0.663+0.826)/2

= 0.745, times the width X = 0.045, giving 0.0335.

Other values are similarly calculated and all the

values are summed to give a total of 0.1889.

X

0.195

0.150

0.100

0.065

0.050

0.040

R

1/R

X (1/R)avg (X)( 1/R)avg

1.51 0.663 0.045 0.745

0.0335

1.21 0.826 0.050 0.969

0.0485

0.9 1.11 0.035 1.260

0.0441

0.71 1.41 0.015 2.055

0.0308

0.37 2.70 0.010 3.203

0.0320

0.27 3.70

-Total =

0.1889

L X1 dX

399

0.1889 4.06 hours

t S

X

A 2 R 18.58

The total time is 2.63 + 4.06 = 6.69 hours.

A batch of wet solid whose drying rate is represented by Figure 9.5-1b is to be dried from a free moisture

content of X1 = 0.38 kg H2O/kg dry solid to X2 = 0.04. The weight of the dry solid is LS = 399 kg solid and A

= 18.58 m2 of top drying surface. Calculate the time for drying. Note that the LS/A = 399/18.58 = 21.5

kg/m2. As an approximation, assume a straight line for the rate R versus X through the origin from point XC

to X = 0 for the falling-rate period.

RC = 1.51 kg H2O/m2h and XC = 0.195. Drying in the falling rate region is from XC to X2 = 0.040.

Substituting into Eq. 9.7-8

L X

X

3990.040 0.195

t S C ln C

ln

4.39 hours

ARC

X 2 18.581.51 0.040

This is comparable to the value of 4.06 hours obtained in Example 9.7-1 by numerical integration

10.2-1 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

What will be the concentration of oxygen dissolved in water at 298K when the solution is in equilibrium with

air at 1 atm total pressure? The Henrys law constant is 4.38x104 atm/molfrac.

Given: p A 0.21atm

p A Hx A

0.21 3.38 10 4 x A

x A 4.80 10 6 molfrac or 0.000835 parts O2 to 100 parts water

10.3-1 Equilibrium Stage Contact for CO2-Air-Water

A gas mixture at 1.0 atm pressure abs containing air and CO2 is contacted in a single-stage mixer

continuously with pure water at 293K. The two exit gas and liquid streams reach equilibrium. The inlet gas

flow rate is 100kgmol/hr, with a mole fraction of CO2 of yA2=0.20. The liquid flow rate entering is 300kgmol

water/hr. Calculate the amounts and compositions of the two outlet phases. Assume that water does not

vaporize to the gas phase.

Given: L0 L' 300kgmol / h

From Appendix A.3 at 293K -Henrys Law Constant: H 0.142 10 4 atm / molfrac

H ' H / P 0.142 10 4 / 1.0 0.142 10 4 mol frac gas / mol frac liquid

y A1 H ' x A1

0.142 10 4 x A1

x

y

x

y

L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2

1 x2

1 y1

1 x1

1 y2

4

x A1 1.41 10 , y A1 0.20

4

0.142 10 x A1

x A1

0

0.2

80

300

80

300

4

0

.

142

10

x

1 0

1 0.2

1 x A1

A1

L'

300

V'

80

L1

300kgmol / hr V1

100kgmol / hr

4

1 y A1 1 0.20

1 x A1 1 1.41 10

It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent

stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0kgmol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be

used to absorb the acetone is 90kgmolH2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total

pressure of 101.3kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gas-liquid is yA=2.53xA. Determine

the number of theoretical stages required for this separation.

Given: y AN 1 0.01

x A0 0

VN 1 30.0kgmol / h

L0 90.0kgmol / hr

Amount of entering acetone= y AN 1VN 1 0.01(30.0) 0.30kgmol / hr

Entering Air = (1 y AN 1 )VN 1 (1 0.01)(30.0) 29.7kgmol air / h

Acetone Leaving in V1= 0.10(30) 0.030kgmol / hr

Acetone Leaving in LN= 0.90(0.30) 0.27kgmol / hr

V1=29.7+0.03=29.73 kg mol air + acetone/hr

y A1

0.030

0.00101

29.73

x AN

0.27

0.00300

90.27

*Since the liquid flow does not vary significantly, the operating line is assumed to be straight.

Plot the operating line and equilibrium line and step off stages. 5.2 theoretical stages required.

It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent

stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0kgmol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be

used to absorb the acetone is 90kgmolH2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total

pressure of 101.3kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone (A) in the gas-liquid is yA=2.53xA. Determine

the number of theoretical stages required for this separation. Solve using the Kremser analytical equations

for countercurrent stage process.

Given: y AN 1 0.01

x A0 0

VN 1 30.0kgmol / h

L0 90.0kgmol / hr

Amount of entering acetone= y AN 1VN 1 0.01(30.0) 0.30kgmol / hr

Entering Air = (1 y AN 1 )VN 1 (1 0.01)(30.0) 29.7kgmol air / h

Acetone Leaving in V1= 0.10(30) 0.030kgmol / hr

Acetone Leaving in LN= 0.90(0.30) 0.27kgmol / hr

V1=29.7+0.03=29.73 kg mol air + acetone/hr

y A1

0.030

0.00101

29.73

x AN

0.27

0.00300

90.27

L

L

90.0

0

1.20

mV mV1 2.53 29.73

A A1 A2 1.20(1.19) 1.195

LN

90.27

AN

1.19

y

mx0

1 1

0.01 2.53(0)

1

1

ln N 1

1 ln

1

A A

y1 mx0

0.00101 2.53(0) 1.195 1.195

N

5.04 stages

ln A

ln 1.195

A1

The solute A is being absorbed from a gas mixture of A and B in a wetted-wall tower with the liquid flowing

as a film downward along the wall. At a certain point in the tower the bulk gas concentration yAG=0.380 mol

fraction and the bulk liquid concentration is xAL=0.100. The tower is operating at 298K and 1.013x105Pa

and the equilibrium data are as follows (x,y data given). The solute A diffuses through stagnant B in the gas

phase and then through a nondiffusing liquid.

Using correlations for dilute solutions in wetted-wall towers, the film mass-transfer coefficients for A in the

gas phase is predicted as ky=1.465x10-3kgmolA/sm2molfrac and for the liquid phase as kx=1.967x10-3kgmolA

/sm2molfrac. Calculate the interface concentrations yAi and xAi and the flux NA.

Since system is dilute: (1 y A ) iM 1

(1 x A ) iM 1

Estimate the slope: slope

k x' /(1 x A ) iM

k y' /(1 y A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 1.0

1.342

1.465 10 3 / 1.0

Plotting this, we get yAi=0.183 and xAi=0.247. Use these new values to re-estimate slope:

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )

(1 0.183) (1 0.380)

0.715

ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.183) /(1 0.380)]

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )

(1 0.100) (1 0.247)

0.825

ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.100) /(1 0.247)]

(1 y A ) iM

(1 x A ) iM

slope

k x' /(1 x A ) iM

k y' /(1 y A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 0.825

1.163

1.465 10 3 / 0.715

Plotting this, we get yAi=0.197 and xAi=0.257. Use these new values to re-estimate slope:

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )

(1 0.197) (1 0.380)

0.709

ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.197) /(1 0.380)]

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )

(1 0.100) (1 0.257)

0.820

ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.100) /(1 0.257)]

(1 y A ) iM

(1 x A ) iM

k x' /(1 x A ) iM

1.967 10 3 / 0.820

1.160

k y' /(1 y A ) iM

1.465 10 3 / 0.709

This is essentially the same slope so use the interfacial values obtained before.

slope

k y'

1.465 10 3

NA

( y AG y Ai )

(0.380 0.197) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2

(1 y A ) iM

0.820

k x'

1.967 10 3

NA

( x Ai x AL )

(0.257 0.100) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2

(1 x A ) iM

0.820

Using the same data as in Example 10.4-1, calculate the overall mass-transfer coefficient Ky, the flux, and

the percent resistance in the gas and liquid films. Do this for the case of A diffusing through stagnant B.

From the graph: yA*=0.052,

xAL=0.10,

yAG=0.380,

y Ai y *A 0.197 0.052

m'

0.923

x Ai x AL 0.257 0.100

From the previous example:

k y'

1.465 10 3

and

1 y A iM

0.709

(1 y *A ) (1 y AG )

yAi=0.197,

xAi=0.257

k x'

1.967 10 3

1 x A iM

0.820

(1 0.052) (1 0.380)

0.733

ln[(1 y ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.052) /(1 0.380)]

1

1

1

'

'

'

K y /(1 y A ) *M k y /(1 y A ) iM k x /(1 x A ) iM

(1 y A ) *M

*

A

1

1

0.923

K y' 8.90 10 4

3

3

K / 0.773 1.465 10 / 0.709 1.967 10 / 0.820

'

y

Gas film: (484/868.8)(100)=55.7%

Calculate the Flux: N A

K y'

(1 y A ) *M

( y AG y *A )

8.90 10 4

(0.380 0.052) 3.78 10 4 kgmol / sm 2

0.773

Ammonia is being absorbed in a tower using pure water at 25C and 1.0 atm abs pressure. The feed rate is

1140 lbm/h (653.2 kg/h) and contains 3.0mol% ammonia in air. The process design specifies a liquid-to-gas

mass flow rate ratio GL/GG of 2/1 and the use of 1-in metal Pall rings.Calculate the pressure drop in the

packing and gas mass velocity at flooding. Using 50% of the flooding velocity, calculate the pressure drop,

gas and liquid flows, and tower diameter.

Size the tower for the largest flows (at the bottom of the tower). Assume all ammonia is absorbed.

MW gas 28.97(0.97) 17.0(0.03) 28.61 and x ammonia 0.03(17) /( 28.61) 0.01783

492 28.64

0.07309lbm / ft 3

460

77

359

From Appendix A.2-3 for water: 0.99708gm / cm 3

L 0.99708(62.43) 62.25lbm / ft 3

v / 0.8937 / 0.99708 0.8963 centistokes

From Table 10.6-1 for 1-in Pall Rings: Fp=56ft-1.

Pflood 0.115Fp0.7 0.115(56) 0.7 1.925H 2 O / ft packing height

For Figure 10.6-5 for Random Packing: (GL / GG )( G / G ) 0.5 (2.0)(0.07309 / 62.25) 0.5 0.06853

From Figure 10.6-5 for 0.06853 and 1.925, the ordinate=1.7.

Capacity parameter equation from ordinate: (To find volumetric flow)

0.5

1.7 vG [ G /( L G )] F v

0.5

0.5

p

0.05

0.07309

vG

(56) 0.5 (0.8963) 0.05

(62.25 0.07309)

vG 6.663 ft / s

GG vG G 6.663(0.07309) 0.4870lbm /( sft 2 )

50% Flooding:

GG 0.5GG 0.2435lbm and for the liquid: GL 2.0(0.2435) 0.4870lbm / sft 2

New capacity parameter: 0.5(1.7) 0.85

From Figure 10.6-5 for Random Packing at 0.85 and 0.06853: 0.18 inches of water/ft

feedrate

1140

1

lb / s

lb m /( sft 2 ) 1.6427 ft 2

gas flow rate 3600

0.2435

2

2

AC 1.6427 ft ( / 4) D

D 1.446 ft

Total liquid flow rate: 2(1440) 2880lbm / hr

Pure liquid flow rate: 2880 25.68 2858.3 lbm / s

A tray tower is to be designed to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 293K. The entering

gas contains 20 mol% SO2 and that leaving 2mol% at a total pressure of 101.3kPa. the inert air flow rate is

150kg air/hm2, and the entering water flow rate is 6000kgwater/hm2. Assuming an overall tray efficiency of

25%, how many theoretical trays and actual trays are needed? Assume that the tower operates at 293K.

Calculate the molar flow rates:

150

6000

V'

5.18kgmol inert air / hm 2

L'

333kgmol inert water / hm 2

29

18.0

From Figure 10.6-7 (drawing of tower trays): y N 1 0.2 , y1 0.02 , x 0 0

Overall Material Balance:

x

y

x

y

L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2

1 x2

1 y1

1 x1

1 y2

xN

0.02

0

0.2

5.18

333

5.18

333

1 0

1 0.2

1 0.02

1 xN

x N 0.00355

For a portion of the tower:

y n 1

x

0.02

0

333 n 5.18

333

5.18

1 0

1 0.02

1 y n 1

1 xn

Choose several y points arbitrarily and plot the operating line.

Plot the equilibrium data from Appendix A.3.

Step off trays from bottom to top: 2.4 theoretical trays

Number of trays with 25% efficiency =0.25(2.4)= 9.6 trays

10.6-3 Minimum Liquid Flow Rate and Analytical Determination of Number of Trays

A tray tower is absorbing ethyl alcohol from an inert gas stream using pure water at 303K and 101.3 kPa.

The inlet gas stream flow rate is 100.0 kgmol/h and it contains 2.2 mol% alcohol. It is desired to recover

90% of the alcohol. The equilibrium relationship is y=mx=0.68x for this dilute stream. Using 1.5 times the

minimum liquid flow rate, determine the number of trays needed. Do this graphically and also using the

analytical equations.

Given:

y1 0.022

V1 100.00 kgmol / h

x2 0

m 0.68

Moles alcohol/h in V1 : 100-97.8=2.20.

Removing 90% moles/hr in outlet gas V2:

0.1(2.20)=0.220

y 2 0.22 / 98.02 0.002244

Plot the equilibrium line and points y1, y2, and x2.

Draw the operating line from y2, and x2 to point P for Lmin. At point P on the equilibrium line, xmax is:

x1 max y1 / m 0.022 / 0.68 0.03235

Substitute into the operating line equation to find Lmin:

x1, max

x

y

y

V ' 2

Lmin 2 V ' 1 L'min

1 x2

1 y1

1 y2

1 x1. max

0

0.22

0.03235

0.002244

'

L'min

L'min 59.24kgmol / hr

97.8

Lmin

97.8

0

1

0

.

22

1

0

.

03235

1

0

.

002244

L' 1.5L'min (1.5)(59.24) 88.86

x1

0

0.22

0.002244

97.8

88.86

x1 0.0218

97.8

88.86

1 0

1 0.22

1 0.002244

1 x1

Plot the operating line with several points. The solution is dilute, so the line is straight.

Step off trays: 4 trays.

Flow Rates:

V1 100.0

L2 L' 8886

A1 L1 / mV1 90.84 /( 0.68)(100) 1.336

A A1 A2 1.355

Calculate N:

y mx2

0.022 0

1

1

(1 1 / A) 1 / A

N

ln 1

ln

(1 1 / 1.335) 1 / 1.335 4.04

ln A y 2 mx2

ln 1.335 0.002244 0

Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross-sectional area of 0.186 m2 at 293K

and 101.32 kPa (1 atm). The inlet air contains 2.6 mol% acetone and outlet 0.5%. The gas flow is

13.65kgmol inert air/h. The pure water inlet flow is 45.36 kgmol water/h. Film coefficients for the given

flows in the tower are: k y' a 3.78 10 2 kgmol/sm3molfrac and k x' a 6.16 10 2 kgmol/sm3molfrac.

Equilibrium data are given in Appendix A.3.

a) Calculate the tower height using kya.

b) Repeat using kxa

c) Calculate Kya and the tower height.

Given:

y1 0.026

L' 45.36kgmol / h

y 2 0.005

V ' 13.65kgmol / h

x2 0

From Appendix A.3 for acetone-water and xA=0.0333 mol frac: p A 30.760 0.0395atm

y 0.0395

Equilibrium line: y A mx A

0.0395 m(0.0333)

y 1.186 x

Plot:

x

L' 2

1 x2

y

y

V ' 1 L' 1, V ' 2

1 y1

1 y2

1 x1

x1

0

0.026

0.0055

13.65

45.36

x1 0.00648

13.65

45.36

1 0

1 0.026

1 0.0055

1 x1

Plot the operating line.

Approximate the slope at y1 and x1 using trial and error:

k x' a /(1 x) iM

k x' a /(1 x1 ) i 6.16 10 2 /(1 0.00648) i

slope '

'

1.60

k y a /(1 y) iM

k y a /(1 y1 )

3.78 10 2 /(1 0.026)

y1*=0.0077

Using new points yi1=0.0154 and xi1=0.0130 continue trial and error:

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )

(1 0.0154) (1 0.026)

(1 y A ) iM

0.979

ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )] ln[(1 0.0154) /(1 0.026)]

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )

(1 0.00648) (1 0.0130)

(1 x A ) iM

0.993

ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )] ln[(1 0.00648) /(1 0.0130)]

Recalculate the slope: slope

k x' a /(1 x) iM

k y' a /(1 y ) iM

6.16 10 2 / 0.993i

3.78 10 2 / 0.929

1.61

k ' a /(1 x) iM

k ' a /(1 x1 ) i

6.16 10 2 /(1 0) i

slope x'

'x

1.62

k y a /(1 y) iM

k y a /(1 y1 )

3.78 10 2 /(1 0.005)

The slope changes very little. Plotting this line we get: y2*=0.0, yi2=0.0020, and xi2=0.0018

Using the interfacial concentrations:

( y y i1 ) ( y 2 y i 2 )

(0.026 0.0154) (0.005 0.002)

( y yi ) M

0.00602

ln[( y1 y i1 ) /( y 2 y i 2 )] ln[(0.026 0.0154) /( 0.005 0.002)]

Calculate the flow rates:

V'

13.65 / 3600

V1

3.893 10 3 kgmol / s

1 y1

1 0.026

V1 V2

V Av

V'

13.65 / 3600

2

V2

3.811 10 3 kgmol / s

1 y2

1 0.005

3.852 103 kgmol / s

2

45.36

L' L1 L2 L Av

1.260 10 2 kgmol / s

3600

VAv

a)

V

3.852 10 3

( y1 y 2 ) k y' az ( y y i ) M

z 1.911m

S

0.186

b) ( xi x) M

( xi1 x1 ) ( xi 2 x 2 )

(0.0130 0.00648) (0.0018 0)

0.00368

ln[( xi1 x1 ) /( xi 2 x 2 )] ln[(0.0130 0.00648) /( 0.0018 0)]

L

1.260 10 2

( x1 x 2 ) k x' az ( xi x) M

z 1.936m

S

0.186

(1 y1* ) (1 y1 )

(1 0.0077) (1 0.026)

c) (1 y) *M

0.983

*

ln[(1 y1 ) /(1 y1 )] ln[(1 0.0077) /(1 0.026)]

1

1

m'

1

1

1.186

'

'

'

'

2

K y a /(1 y ) *M k y a /(1 y ) iM k x a /(1 x) iM

K y a / 0.983 3.78 10 / 0.979 1.16 10 2 / 0.993

K y' a 2.183 10 2 kgmol / sm 3 molfrac

(y y )M

*

( y1 y1* ) ( y 2 y 2* )

(0.026 0.0077) (0.005 0)

0.01025

*

*

ln[( y1 y1 ) /( y 2 y 2 )] ln[(0.026 0.0077) /( 0.005 0)]

V

3.852 10 3

( y1 y 2 ) K y' az ( y y * ) M

z 1.944m

S

0.186

10.7-1 Design of an Absorption Tower with a Concentrated Gas Mixture

A tower packed with 25.4-mm ceramic rings is to be designed to absorb SO2 from air by using pure water at

293K and 1.013X105Pa abs pressure. The entering gas contains 20mol% SO2 and that leaving 2 mol%. The

inert air flow is 6.53x10-4kgmol air/s and the inert water flow is 4.20x10-2kgmol water/s. The tower crosssectional area is 0.0929 m2. For dilute SO2, the film mass-transfer coefficients at 293K are, for 25.44 rings

are: k y' a 0.0594G y0.7 Gx0.25 and k x' a 0.152Gx0.82 where kya is kgmol/sm3molfrac, kxa is kgmol/sm3molfrac,

and Gx and Gy are kg total liquid or gas, respectively, per sec per m2 tower cross section. Calculate the

tower height.

Given:

V ' 6.53 10 4 kgmolair / s

L' 4.20 10 2 kgmol / s

y1 0.20

y 2 0.02

x

y

x

y

L' 2 V ' 1 L' 1 V ' 2

1 x2

1 y1

1 x1

1 y2

x2 0

x1

0

0.02

4 0.2

2

6.53 10 4

4.2 10 2

x1 0.00355

6.53 10

4.20 10

1 0

1 0.2

1 0.02

1 x1

Operating Line:

y

x

4 0.2

2 0.00355

4

4.2 10 2

6.53 10

4.20 10

6.53 10

1

y

1 x

1 0.2

1 0.00355

Plot equilibrium data from Appendix A.3 and the operating data.

Repeat the following calculations for different y values. For y=0.2:

V'

6.53 10 4 '

V1

8.16 10 4

1 y1

1 0.2

Gy

AC

0.2

6.53 10 4 29kgair / s

64.1kgSO2 / s

1 0.2

Gy

0.3164kg / sm 2

2

0.0929m

Similarly for liquid flow:

0.00355

4.20 10 2 18

64.1

2

L'

4.2 10 '

1 0.00355

Gx

8.241

L1

0.04215

2

1 x1 1 0.00355

0.0929m

k x' a 0.152G x0.82 0.152(8.241) 0.82 0.857 , k y' a 0.0594G y0.7 G x0.25 0.0594(0.3164) 0.7 (8.241) 025 0.04496

Interface Compositions: Estimate the slope of PM by trial and error: Final yi=0.1685 and xi =000565

(1 y A ) iM

slope

(1 y Ai ) (1 y AG )

0.816

ln[(1 y Ai ) /(1 y AG )]

(1 x A ) iM

(1 x AL ) (1 x Ai )

0.995

ln[(1 x AL ) /(1 x Ai )]

k x' a /(1 x) iM

15.6

k y' a /(1 y ) iM

Calculate (1-y), (1-y)iM, and (y-yi)

V

8.16 10 4

Integrate: f ( y )

6.33

0.04496(0.0929)

k y' aS

(0.8)(0.0315)

(1 y )( y y i )

0.816

(1 y ) iM

After repeating for each y value from y1 to y2, numerically integrate to get z=1.588m.

10.8-1 Prediction of Film Coefficients for CO2 Absorption

Predict HG, HL, and HOL for absorption of CO2 from air by water in a dilute solution in a packed tower with

1 in metal Pall rings at 303K (30C) and 101.32kPa pressure. The flow rates are Gx=4.069 kg/sm2 (3000

lbm/h ft2).

From Appendix A.3-18 for CO2 at 1atm: p A 1.86 103 x A y A p A / 1.0 1.86 103 x A

From Appendix A.3-3 for air at 303K: 1.866 10 5 kg / ms and 1.166kg / m 3

From Table 6.2-1 for CO2 at 276.2K: DAB 0.142 10 4 m 2 / s

1.75

303

4

2

Correct the diffusivity to 303K: D AB 0.142 10

0.167 10 m / s

276.2

1.866 10 5

0.958

Calculate the Schmidt No: N Sc

D (1.166)(0.1670 10 4 )

From Table 10.6-1 for 1 in metal Pall rings to 1 in. Raschig rings: f p 1.34

4

HG H y

f 0.660 6.782 0.678

p

0.35

HG H y

f 0.660 6.782 0.678

p

3

From Appendix A.2-4 for water at 303K: 0.8007 10 kg / ms and 995.68kg / m 3

At 298K: 0.8937 10 3 kg / ms

0.35

0.8937 10 3 303

9

2

2.27 10 m / s

3

0.8007 10 276.2

0.8007 10 5

354.3

Calculate the Schmidt No: N Sc

D (995.68)(2.27 10 4 )

9

0.3

0.357 N Sc 0.5

Gx /

HL Hx

f 372 6.782 / 0.8937 10 3

p

0.3

4.069 / 0.8007 10 3

0.2306m

3

6

.

782

/

0

.

8937

10

0.357 354.3

HL Hx

1.34 372

0.5

H OL H Ox H L ( L / mV ) H G

H OL H Ox 0.2306 0.001575 0.2322m

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