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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical

Transmission System
V100R007C10

Product Description
Issue

01

Date

2013-12-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations
of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address:

Huawei Industrial Base


Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website:

http://www.huawei.com

Email:

support@huawei.com

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Product Description

About This Document

About This Document


Product Version
The following table lists the product versions applicable to this documentation.
Product Name

Product Version

OptiX OSN 500

V100R007C10

iManager U2000

V200R001C00

Intended Audience
This document describes the OptiX OSN 500 in terms of network application, functions,
hardware structure, software architecture, features, and technical specifications.
This document is intended for:
l

Network planning engineers

Data configuration engineers

System maintenance engineers

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol

Description
DANGER indicates a hazard with a high level or medium
level of risk which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
WARNING indicates a hazard with a low level of risk
which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate
injury.

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

Symbol

About This Document

Description
CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation that,
if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss,
performance deterioration, or unanticipated results.
Provides a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time.
Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement
important points in the main text.

GUI Conventions
Convention

Meaning

Boldface

Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are


in boldface. For example, click OK.

>

Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs.


For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Updates in Issue 01 (2013-12-30) Based on Product Version


V100R007C10
This document is the first issue for product version V100R007C10. Compared with issue 02 of
product version V100R007C00, version 01 of product version V100R007C10 includes the
following updates:
l

Updated the mapping product versions.

Updates in Issue 02 (2013-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R007C00


This document is the second issue for product version V100R007C00. Compared with issue 01
of product version V100R007C00, version 02 includes the following updates in
V100R007C00SPC100:
l

Deleted the original description of MPLS-TP Ring Protection Switching (MRPS) in the
"Quick Reference" and "Network Level Protection" sections.

Updates in Issue 01 (2013-04-30) Based on Product Version V100R007C00


This is the first document issue for the V100R007C00 product version. Compared with the
document issue for the V100R006C01 product version, this issue has the following updates:

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

About This Document

Added MPLS-TP Ring Protection Switching (MRPS) in sections "Quick Reference" and
"Network Level Protection". (MPLS-TP is short for multiprotocol label switching transport
profile.)

Updates in Issue 02 (2013-01-18) Based on Product Version V100R006C01


This document is the second issue for product version V100R006C01. Compared with issue 01
of product version V100R006C01, version 02 includes the following updates in
V100R006C01SPC100:
l

Updated the number of supported FE electrical ports in sections "Quick Reference" and
"Access Capacities."

FE8F boards' support for FE electrical ports is added to sections "Types of Supported
Services" and "Board Category."

Updates in Issue 01 (2012-10-31) Based on Product Version V100R006C01


This document is the first issue for product version V100R006C01. Compared with issue 1 of
product version V100R006C00, this issue incorporates the following updates:
l

Added the 4xchannelized STM-1 service processing board CQ1.

l
l

Updated the service access capability of the equipment according to the new boards.

Optimized the structure and related description of the "Product Positioning and Features",
"Quicklook", "Networking and Application Scenarios" sections.

Updates in Issue 01 (2012-04-30) Based on Product Version V100R006C00


This issue is used for first office application (FOA) of V100R006C00.

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Product Description

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii
1 Product Positioning and Features...............................................................................................1
1.1 Product Positioning.........................................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Product Features.............................................................................................................................................................2

2 Quick Reference.............................................................................................................................5
3 System Architecture and Service Access.................................................................................15
3.1 System Architecture.....................................................................................................................................................16
3.2 Service Types...............................................................................................................................................................17
3.2.1 Types of Supported Services.....................................................................................................................................17
3.2.2 Access Capacities......................................................................................................................................................18

4 Product Features...........................................................................................................................19
4.1 Services Supported.......................................................................................................................................................20
4.1.1 Service Overview .....................................................................................................................................................20
4.2 Redundancy and Protection..........................................................................................................................................26
4.2.1 Equipment Level Protection......................................................................................................................................26
4.2.2 Network Level Protection..........................................................................................................................................27
4.3 Synchronization............................................................................................................................................................40
4.3.1 Requirements for Clock Synchronization..................................................................................................................40
4.3.2 Clock and Time Synchronization..............................................................................................................................41

5 Hardware and Structure.............................................................................................................50


5.1 Chassis..........................................................................................................................................................................51
5.1.1 Chassis Structure.......................................................................................................................................................51
5.1.2 Cross-Connect and Slot Access Capacity..................................................................................................................53
5.2 Board Category.............................................................................................................................................................54

6 Networking and Application Scenarios..................................................................................57


6.1 Basic Network Topologies...........................................................................................................................................58
6.2 Typical Application of Pure Packet Networking..........................................................................................................59

7 Network Management System..................................................................................................65


7.1 Network Management..................................................................................................................................................66
7.2 DCN Management........................................................................................................................................................68
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7.3 Synchronization Between the NMS and NEs...............................................................................................................68

8 Operation and Maintenance......................................................................................................71


8.1 Maintenance Support....................................................................................................................................................75
8.1.1 TP-Assist...................................................................................................................................................................75
8.1.2 MPLS OAM..............................................................................................................................................................76
8.1.3 MPLS-TP OAM........................................................................................................................................................77
8.1.4 ETH OAM.................................................................................................................................................................77
8.1.5 ATM OAM................................................................................................................................................................79
8.1.6 RMON.......................................................................................................................................................................80
8.1.7 Port Mirroring............................................................................................................................................................80
8.2 Upgrade Methods.........................................................................................................................................................81

9 Security Management.................................................................................................................83
9.1 Authentication Management.........................................................................................................................................84
9.2 Authorization Management..........................................................................................................................................84
9.3 Network Security Management....................................................................................................................................84
9.4 System Security Management......................................................................................................................................86
9.5 Log Management..........................................................................................................................................................86

10 Technical Specifications...........................................................................................................88
10.1 General Specifications................................................................................................................................................89
10.2 Function/Feature Indicators........................................................................................................................................90
10.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board........................................................................................................97
10.4 Optical Port Specifications.........................................................................................................................................97
10.5 Colored Optical Ports...............................................................................................................................................102
10.6 Electrical Port Specifications....................................................................................................................................106
10.7 Indicator Status Explanation.....................................................................................................................................107
10.8 Safety Certification...................................................................................................................................................112
10.9 Environmental Specifications...................................................................................................................................112
10.9.1 Storage Environment.............................................................................................................................................112
10.9.2 Transportation Environment..................................................................................................................................114
10.9.3 Operating Environment (For the Chassis That Is Installed in a Cabinet)..............................................................117
10.9.4 Operating Environment (For the Chassis That Is Installed on a Wall)..................................................................121

11 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection...................................................................127


12 Standard Compliance.............................................................................................................128
12.1 ITU-T Recommendations.........................................................................................................................................129
12.2 IETF Standards.........................................................................................................................................................130
12.3 IEEE Standards.........................................................................................................................................................133
12.4 Environment Related Standards...............................................................................................................................134
12.5 MEF Standards.........................................................................................................................................................135
12.6 Safety Standards.......................................................................................................................................................135
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12.7 EMC Standards.........................................................................................................................................................136


12.8 Protection Standards.................................................................................................................................................137

A Glossary......................................................................................................................................138

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Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

Product Positioning and Features

About This Chapter


The OptiX OSN 500 is of a pure packet architecture, and supports a variety of service access
modes. It completes Huawei's optical transmission system, and sharpens the competitive edges
of Huawei's optical transmission products.
1.1 Product Positioning
This section describes product positioning and networking application.
1.2 Product Features
This section describes the equipment features in terms of architecture and technology.

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

1.1 Product Positioning


This section describes product positioning and networking application.
The OptiX OSN 500 is a packet-oriented new-generation multi-service CPE optical transmission
system, which is positioned at the access layer among Huawei's end-to-end multi-service
transmission platform (MSTP) product series. This system is characterized by its low power
consumption and compact structure.
The OptiX OSN 500 supports multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), MPLS-transport profile
(MPLS-TP), pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3), Ethernet, and ATM technologies.
With these technologies, a pure PTN network can be provisioned.
As the access layer equipment, the OptiX OSN 500 is networked with other OptiX OSN
equipment to provide a complete solution covering the backbone layer, aggregation layer, and
access layer. The complete solution meets 2G/3G/LTE base station backhaul and enterprise
leased service access demands. Figure 1-1 illustrates the network application of the OptiX OSN
500.
Figure 1-1 Network application of the OptiX OSN 500
Access layer

Convergence
node

Convergence/Backbo
ne layer

E1/FE/GE
ATM/IMA
E1

E1/FE/GE

E1
E1/STM-1
FE
ATM/IMA
E1/GE

E1
FE

OptiX OSN 500

OptiX OSN
3500/7500 II

Enterprise
leased service

NodeB

BTS

RNC

BSC

1.2 Product Features


This section describes the equipment features in terms of architecture and technology.

High Availability, Low Power Consumption, and Compact Structure


The OptiX OSN 500 is access layer equipment, which features high availability, low power
consumption, and compact structure. The OptiX OSN 500 supports:
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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

Network-level protection such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) automatic


protection switching (APS), Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), Ethernet ring
protection switching (ERPS), link aggregation group (LAG), Multi-Link Point-to-Point
Protocol (ML-PPP), linear multiplex section protection (LMSP), and link-state pass
through (LPT), which significantly improves equipment reliability.

A maximum power consumption of 100 W, and a typical power consumption of only 35


W

Dimensions (H x W x D) of 44 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm, and installation in an ETSI or


19-inch cabinet, or open rack, or on a wall or desk.

Pure Packet Architecture and Multi-Service Transmission Support


The OptiX OSN 500 supports service bearing in the PTN domain. The solution improves based
on the service changes that take place due to radio mobile network evolution. Therefore, this
solution can meet the transmission requirements of not only 2G and 3G networks, but also the
future LTE and 4G networks. Its access and transmission of ATM/Ethernet/MPLS/MPLS-TP
services meet multi-service application demands.

End-to-End Service Configuration, One-Click Commissioning, and One-Click


Fault Locating (TP-Assist)
Compared with legacy TDM networks, PTN networks have the following characteristics in terms
of O&M:
l

Lack of overheads indicating the physical states of networks. When a fault occurs on a PTN
network, no visual and fast indicator is available to locate the fault.

Networking diversity and complication, which require powerful O&M capabilities

To address those issues, the equipment uses the TP-Assist to provide more O&M means and
simplify O&M operations for PTN networks during installation, commissioning, service
configuration, fault locating, and routine maintenance. With the TP-Assist, PTN networks have
the SDH-like O&M capabilities, which reduce the technical requirements for O&M personnel
and improve O&M efficiency.

Hierarchical OAM
The OptiX OSN 550 supports the hierarchical OAM functions and have the SDH-like O&M
capabilities. It can quickly detect and locate faults at each layer.
The hierarchical OAM functions include ETH-OAM, MPLS tunnel/PW OAM, and MPLS-TP
tunnel/PW OAM. Figure 1-2 shows the application of hierarchical OAM.

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Product Description

1 Product Positioning and Features

Figure 1-2 Application of hierarchical OAM


P

PE1

PE2
CE3

CE1

CE4

CE2
P
Ethernet Port OAM
ETH Layer

P
Ethernet Port OAM

Ethernet Service OAM

MEP

MEP
MPLS/MPLS-TP PW OAM

PW Layer

MEP

MEP
MPLS/MPLS-TP Tunnel OAM

Tunnel Layer

MEP

MIP

MIP

OptiX OSN 550/500

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MEP

OptiX OSN 3500/7500 II

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

2 Quick Reference

Quick Reference

This chapter describes the product overview, including product photos, hardware, software, and
functions and features.
Table 2-1 lists the overview of the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 2-1 Overview of the OptiX OSN 500
Item

Description

Appearan
ce

Chassis dimensions (H x W x D): 44 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm

Board

l System control, switching, and timing board: CSHD


l Packet processing boards: EF8F, EM6T, EM6F, CQ1, and MD1
l Auxiliary board: FAN
l Power supply boards: PIU and UPM
For services and ports supported by the preceding boards, see Table 5-3.

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Packet
functions
and
features

See Table 2-2.

Switching
capacity

7.2 Gbit/s

Equipmen
t-level
protection

l 1+1 backup for input power

Intelligent
fan speed
adjustmen
t

Supports the automatic adjustment of fan speed based on the highest temperature
of the board in the chassis.

l Fan protection (The failure in a single fan does not affect the operation of
the other fans.)

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2 Quick Reference

Item

Description

Managem
ent ports
and
auxiliary
ports

Interface Type

Description

Connector

External clock
port

120-ohm external
clock port, which can
work in 2048 kbit/s
mode or 2048 kHz
mode

RJ45

External time
port/Port for
monitoring an
outdoor cabinet

l External time port:


The equipment
provides two
external time input/
output ports.

RJ45

l Port for monitoring


an outdoor cabinet:
The equipment
provides one port
for monitoring and
managing an
outdoor cabinet.

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Power supply
port

Power supply port


connecting to two
-48/-60 V DC power
supplies

Network
management port

Ethernet NM port/NM RJ45


serial port, which is
connected to a network
management system
(NMS)

Alarm input/
output port

3-input/1-output alarm
port

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4-pin terminal block

RJ45

OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

2 Quick Reference

Table 2-2 OptiX OSN 500 functions and features


Ite
m

Description

MP
LS
sup
port
capa
bilit
y
(MP
LS
stan
ds
for
Mul
tipr
otoc
ol
Lab
el
Swit
chin
g.)

The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement
MPLS functions.

PW
E3
sup
port
capa
bilit
y

The packet switching unit of the CSHD board works with a service board to implement
PWE3 functions.

l Setup mode: static tunnels


l Protection: 1:1 tunnel automatic protection switching (APS)
l Operation, administration and maintenance (OAM): supports Tunnel OAM and
multiprotocol label switching transfer profile (MPLS-TP) tunnel OAM. Tunnel
OAM complies with ITU-T Y.1711, and MPLS-TP tunnel OAM complies with
ITU-T G.8113.1.

l Service categories
TDM PWE3 services (circuit emulation services [CESs])
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) PWE3 services
ETH PWE3 services
l Setup mode: static pseudo wires (PWs)
l Supports single-segment PWs (SS-PWs) and multi-segment PWs (MS-PWs).
l PW encapsulation mode: Ethernet or Ethernet Tagged Mode
l PW control word: supported
l Protection: 1:1 PW APS
l OAM: supports MPLS PW OAM and MPLS-TP PW OAM. MPLS PW OAM
complies with ITU-T Y.1711, and MPLS-TP PW OAM complies with ITU-T G.
8113.1.

Pac
ket
syst
em
perf
orm
ance

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See Table 10-2.

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Ite
m

Description

Serv
ice

Service Type

Ethernet service:
l Supports the MPLS
technology.
l Supports the VLAN
technology.

2 Quick Reference

Maximum
Receiving
Capability

Service Port
Description

Connector

FE (electrical
port): 22

10/100BASE-T
(X)

RJ-45

FE (optical
port): 18

l 100BASEBX

LC

l 100BASEFX

l Supports the QinQ


technology.

l 100BASELX

l Supports Native ELine services based on


PORT, PORT
+VLAN, PORT
+VLAN+VLAN Pri,
and PORT+QinQ.
l Supports E-Line
services based on
PWE3 (VPWS
services).
l Supports Native ELAN services based on
the IEEE 802.1d
bridge, IEEE 802.1q
bridge, and IEEE
802.1ad bridge.
l Supports E-LAN
services based on
PWE3 (VPLS
services).

l 100BASEVX
l 100BASEZX
GE: 6

GE optical port:

LC

l 1000BASESX
l 1000BASELX
l 1000BASEVX
l 1000BASEZX
GE electrical
port:
1000BASE-T

RJ-45

l Supports the following


Ethernet data frame
formats: IEEE 802.3
and Ethernet II.
l Supports jumbo
frames.
l Supports the
maximum
transmission unit
(MTU) of 960 to 9600
bytes (1620 bytes by
default).

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Ite
m

2 Quick Reference

Description
E1 service:
l Service types:
TDM PWE3 (CES
E1)
ATM PWE3
Fractional CES E1
ML_PPP E1
l Encapsulation
formats:
CESoPSN
SAToP
l Compression of idle
timeslots: supported
only for CESoPSN
encapsulation
l E1 coding format:
HDB3

l CES E1:
80xE1
l Channelize
d STM-1:
8xSTM-1

l CES E1:
75/120-ohm
smart E1
port
l Channelized
STM-1:
optical port
of the Ie-1,
S-1.1, L-1.1,
or L-1.2
type, and
STM-1 SFP
electrical
port (SFP
stands for
small formfactor
pluggable.)

l CES E1: Anea


96
l Channelized
STM-1: LC
optical port
and SAA
straight female

l L/M/R bit processing:


supported for CES
services
l CES ACR: supported

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Ite
m

2 Quick Reference

Description
ATM/IMA service:
l Supports ATM PWE3
services.

80xE1

75/120-ohm
smart E1 port

Anea 96

l Supports ATM traffic


management.
l Supports the following
ATM encapsulation
modes:
N-to-one VPC
N-to-one VCC
One-to-one VPC
One-to-one VCC
l Supports a maximum
of 31 concatenated
ATM cells.
l Supports the following
ATM OAM: F4 (VP
layer) and F5 (VC
layer).
l Supports inverse
multiplexing over
ATM (IMA).
Prot
ectio
n

Tunnel
APS

Complies with the ITU-T Y.1720 and ITU-T G.8131 standards.


l Maximum number of protection groups: 32
l Switching duration: 50 ms (for two tunnel APS protection groups
with 16 PWs per group after a link is faulty bidirectionally)
NOTE
l Tunnel APS and pseudo wire (PW) APS share 32 protection group resources.
l MPLS tunnel APS and MPLS-transport profile (MPLS-TP) tunnel APS share
32 protection group resources.

PW APS

Complies with the ITU-T Y.1720 and ITU-T G.8131 standards.


l Maximum number of protection groups: 32
l Maximum number of members bound into a PW: 512
l Switching duration: 50 ms (for a protection pair that contains eight
members or six PW APS protection groups after a link is faulty
bidirectionally)
NOTE
l Tunnel APS and PW APS share 32 protection group resources.
l MPLS PW APS and MPLS-TP PW APS share 32 protection group resources.

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2 Quick Reference

Description
MSTP

Complies with the IEEE 802.1s standard.


l Maximum number of instances per port: 1
l Maximum number of port groups: 1
l Maximum number of ports provided by all port groups: 16

ERPS

Supports ERPS that complies with ITU-T G.8032/Y.1344.


l Maximum number of protection groups: 8
l Switching duration: 50 ms at an optical port and 2s at an
electrical port if the number of nodes on a ring network is not more
than 16 and the link is faulty bidirectionally
NOTE
Only Native ETH services support ERPS.

LPT

Complies with the Huawei proprietary protocol.


l Maximum number of services that support LPT: 16
l Point-point and point-multipoint LPT
l Switching duration:
300 ms if the fault is on the NNI side and is detected using PW
OAM
300 ms at an optical port and 3s at an electrical port if the
fault is on the UNI side

LAG

Complies with the IEEE 802.3ad and IEEE 802.1AX standards.


l LAG protection
l A maximum of eight LAGs. Each LAG has a maximum of eight
members.
l Switching duration:
Manual/Static LAG: 50 ms at an optical port and 2s at an
electrical port if the link is interrupted bidirectionally
Static LAG: 3s if the link is interrupted unidirectionally

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Multilink
Point-toPoint
Protocol
(ML-PPP)

Complies with the IETF RFC 1661 and IETF RFC 1990 standards.

Linear
multiplex
section
protection
(MSP)

Complies with the ITU-T G.841 and ITU-T G.842 standards.

l Total number of PPP links: 504


l Number of ML-PPP groups: 64
l Number of member links in an ML-PPP group: 16

l Maximum number of protection groups: 4


l Switching duration: 50 ms

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


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Product Description

Ite
m

Description

Mai
nten
ance

MPLS/
MPLS-TP
operation,
administra
tion, and
maintenan
ce (OAM)

2 Quick Reference

Complies with the ITU-T Y.1711 and ITU-T G.8113.1 standards.


l Tunnel OAM and PW OAM
l MPLS OAM: connectivity verification (CV), fast failure detection
(FFD), backward defect indication (BDI), forward defect indication
(FDI), ping, and traceroute
l MPLS-TP OAM: continuity check (CC), remote defect indication
(RDI), alarm indication signal (AIS), loopback (LB), linktrace (LT),
PW loss measurement (LM), and two-way delay measurement (DM)
l Maximum sum of the number of tunnels supporting OAM and the
number of PWs supporting OAM: 64
NOTE
MPLS tunnel OAM, MPLS PW OAM, MPLS-TP tunnel OAM, and MPLS-TP
PW OAM share resources.

ETH
OAM

Complies with the IEEE 802.3ah and IEEE 802.1ag standards.


l Ethernet service OAM: supports continuity check (CC), loopback
(LB), linktrace (LT), alarm indication signal (AIS), loss
measurement (LM), and delay measurement (DM).
l Ethernet port OAM: supports OAM auto-discovery, link
performance monitoring, fault detection, remote loopback, and selfloop detection and looped-port blocking.
l Maximum number of MDs/MAs/MEP/MIPs: 32
NOTE
l Only Native E-Line services support LM and DM.
l LM and DM are based on IEEE 802.1ag, implemented by referring to the
ITU-T Y.1731 standard.

ATM
OAM

Supports the following ATM OAM functions: CC, LB, RDI, and AIS.

RMON

Supports port-level and service-level RMON functions, in compliance


with RFC 2819. Supports four RMON management groups: Ethernet
statistics group, Ethernet history group, Ethernet alarm group, and
Ethernet history control group.
Port level:
l Basic Ethernet performance
l Extended Ethernet performance
Service level:
l L2VPN (private line service)
l Transit tunnel
l PW

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Ite
m

2 Quick Reference

Description
Simple
Network
Managem
ent
Protocol
(SNMP)

Queries port information and port/service performance statistics using


a standard SNMP terminal.

Port
mirroring

Supports port mirroring that enables Ethernet service analysis and


service fault diagnosis without affecting the services.
l Supports local port mirroring.
l Supports mirroring in the egress direction of a UNI port.
l Supports mirroring in the ingress direction of UNI and NNI ports.
l Supports mirroring of PORT+VLAN services in the ingress direction
of a UNI port.

Syn
chro
niza
tion

Synchrono
us
Ethernet
clock

l Synchronous Ethernet clock that complies with ITU-T G.8261 and


ITU-T G.8262.
l Port receiving/transmitting synchronous Ethernet clocks: FE/GE
l Clock source selection algorithm based on the synchronization status
message (SSM) protocol
l Clock frequency stability (hold-over mode): less than 50 ppb
NOTE
SFP electrical modules do not support synchronous Ethernet clocks.
When working in 10BASE-T mode, FE/GE ports do not support synchronous
Ethernet clocks.

IEEE
1588v2

l Supports the OC, BC, TC, and BC+TC clock models. The TC model
can work in two modes: E2E TC and P2P TC.
l Supports the delay deviation compensation for line transmission in
two modes: length deviation compensation and time deviation
compensation. The length deviation compensation value ranges from
0 m to 12000 m, and the time deviation compensation value ranges
from 0 ns to 65535 ns.
l Supports two 1PPS+ToD or DCLS external time ports, which use
the RS-422 level. Each port supports compensation for propagation
delay on its connected cable. The compensation can be set to a value
ranging from 0 s to 10 s in steps of 10 ns or less. ToD supports
cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs).
l Supports the setting of the input/output mode at time ports.
NOTE
SFP electrical modules do not support IEEE 1588v2.

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Ite
m

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Description
IEEE 1588
ACR

l The IEEE 1588 ACR slave recovers synchronous clocks from IEEE
1588 packets.
l The quality level of IEEE 1588 ACR clocks can be converted into
that of synchronous Ethernet clocks.
NOTE
SFP electrical modules do not support IEEE 1588 ACR.

IEEE CES
ACR

l Supports the clock recovery function in absolute mode.


l Maximum number of CES ACR clocks: 4
l The clock performance complies with the ITU-T G.823 Traffic
template.

Physical
layer
clocks

l Supports external and internal clock sources. The port impedance is


120 ohms or 75 ohms (a converter can be used to provide a 75-ohm
clock port).
l Supports non-synchronization status message (SSM), standard SSM,
and extended SSM protocols.
l Supports the locked, holdover, and free-run modes.

Oth
ers

QoS

l DiffServ
Supports simple traffic classification by specifying PHB service
classes for service flows based on their QoS information (C-VLAN
priorities, S-VLAN priorities, DSCP values, or MPLS EXP values)
carried by packets.
l Complex traffic classification
Supports complex traffic classification based on C-VLAN IDs, SVLAN IDs, C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN priorities, C-VLAN IDs
+ C-VLAN priorities, S-VLAN IDs + S-VLAN priorities, or DSCP
values carried by packets, and V-UNI ingress policies.
l QoS policies
Supports port policies and V-UNI ingress policies.
l Access control list (ACL) policy
Passes or discards packets in a flow that matches rules specified by
a port policy or V-UNI ingress policy.
l CAR
Provides the CAR function for traffic flows at ports and V-UNI
ingresses.
l Shaping
Provides traffic shaping for a specific port, PW ingress, prioritized
queue, or traffic flow.
l Congestion management
Supports tail drop and WRED dropping.
l Queue scheduling policies
Supports SP, WRR, and SP+WRR.

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3 System Architecture and Service Access

System Architecture and Service Access

About This Chapter


The chapter describes the equipment's system architecture and service access.
3.1 System Architecture
The OptiX OSN 500 is a pure packet device. This section describes its functional units and the
relationship between these units.
3.2 Service Types
This section describes the maximum service access capabilities, service ports, and boards
providing specific service types for the OptiX OSN 500.

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3 System Architecture and Service Access

3.1 System Architecture


The OptiX OSN 500 is a pure packet device. This section describes its functional units and the
relationship between these units.
The OptiX OSN 500 consists of the following functional units: service interface unit, packet
switching unit, system control and communication unit, clock unit, auxiliary interface unit, fan
unit, and power supply unit.
Figure 3-1 System architecture of OptiX OSN 500

Power
supply
unit
Packet
switching
unit

-48 V/-60 V DC

Fan
unit

Ethernet
signal

Packet service

Service
interface
unit

NMS

Clock
unit

Auxiliary
interface
unit

DCN

External clock

External alarm

System control and


communication unit
Backplane

Optical/Electrical service

Cross-connect bus

Control and communication bus & Clock bus

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Table 3-1 Function units of the OptiX OSN 500


Function Unit

Function

Service interface
unit

Packet services:
l Receives/Transmits time division multiplexing (TDM) E1/
channelized STM-1 signals.
l Receives/Transmits ATM/inverse multiplexing over ATM (IMA)
E1 signals.
l Receives/Transmits FE/GE signals.

Packet switching
unit

l Processes Ethernet services and forwards packets.


l Processes MPLS labels and forwards packets.
l Processes PW labels and forwards packets.

System control and


communication unit

l Performs system communication and control.


l Configures and manages the system.
l Collects alarms and monitors performance.
l Processes overhead bytes.
l Traces clock sources and provides clock signals for the system.

Clock unit

l Provides the input/output port for external clocks.


l Provides the input/output port for external time.
l Provides the time synchronization function.
Auxiliary interface
unit

l Provides the external alarm input/output port.

Power supply unit

l Connects to -48 V/-60 V DC power supplies.


l Provides DC power to the local NE.

Fan unit

l Cools the NE.

3.2 Service Types


This section describes the maximum service access capabilities, service ports, and boards
providing specific service types for the OptiX OSN 500.

3.2.1 Types of Supported Services


Different boards providing a wide variety of service ports can be deployed on the OptiX OSN
500.
Table 3-2 lists the services supported by the OptiX OSN 500.

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Table 3-2 Types of supported services


Servi
ce
Cate
gory

Service
Type

Service
Rate

Board

Reference Standard

Packe
t

GE service
(optical
port)

1000 Mbit/s

CSHD/EM6F

IEEE 802.3z

GE service
(electrical
port)

1000 Mbit/s

CSHD/EM6T/EM6F

FE service
(optical
port)

100 Mbit/s

CSHD/EF8F/EM6F

FE service
(electrical
port)

10/100
Mbit/s

CSHD/EF8F/EM6T/
EM6F

ATM/IMA/
E1 CES
service

2.048 Mbit/
s

CSHD/MD1

IEEE 802.3u

ITU-T G.703
ITU-T G.823

3.2.2 Access Capacities


This section describes the access capacities of the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 3-3 Access capacities of the OptiX OSN 500

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GE
(Optical
Port)

GE
(Electrical
Port)

FE (Optical
Port)

FE
(Electrical
Port)

ATM/IMA/
E1 CES

Channelize
d STM-1
CES

18

22

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Product Features

About This Chapter


This chapter describes equipment features in terms of available service types, protection, and
synchronization.
4.1 Services Supported
The OptiX OSN 500 supports Ethernet packet services, CES services, and ATM/IMA services.
4.2 Redundancy and Protection
The OptiX OSN 500 supports multiple redundancy and protection schemes.
4.3 Synchronization
The OptiX OSN 500 supports IEEE 1588v2, synchronous Ethernet clock, 2 MHz, and 2 Mbit/
s clocks and can provide an end-to-end clock transport solution when deployed with MSTP or
PTN products.

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4.1 Services Supported


The OptiX OSN 500 supports Ethernet packet services, CES services, and ATM/IMA services.

4.1.1 Service Overview


This section describes the packet service types supported by the equipment.

Ethernet Services (E-Line and E-LAN)


The OptiX OSN 500 supports point-to-point E-Line services and multipoint-to-multipoint ELAN services.
Standardization organizations such as ITU-T, IETF and MEF stipulate the model frames for L2
Ethernet services. Table 4-1 lists these model frames. In this document, the L2 Ethernet services
are of the model frame stipulated by MEF.
Table 4-1 Comparison among L2 Ethernet services stipulation
Service Type

Service
Multiplex
ing

Transport
Tunnel

IETF
Model

ITU-T
Model

MEF
Model

Poin
t-topoin
t
serv
ice

Line

Physically
isolated

Physically
isolated

EPL

E-Line

Virtual
Line

VLAN

VLAN

EVPL

MPLS

VPWS

Mul
tipoi
nttomult
ipoi
nt
serv
ice

LAN

Physically
isolated

Physically
isolated

EPLAN

Virtual
LAN

VLAN

Physically
isolated

EVPLAN

VLAN

MPLS

VPLS

E-LAN

Table 4-2 lists the E-Line and E-LAN services supported by the OptiX OSN 500.

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Table 4-2 E-Line and E-LAN services supported by the OptiX OSN 500
Service
E-Line

Service Type
Native Ethernet
services

Point-to-point transparently transmitted E-Line service


VLAN-based E-Line services
QinQ-based E-Line services

E-LAN

ETH PWE3
services

E-Line services carried by PWs (VPWS services)

Native Ethernet
services

E-LAN services based on IEEE 802.1d bridges


E-LAN services based on IEEE 802.1q bridges
E-LAN services based on IEEE 802.1ad bridges

ETH PWE3
services

E-LAN services carried by PWs (VPLS services)

E-Line Service
Figure 4-1 illustrates the E-Line service provided by the OptiX OSN equipment.
Company A has two branches in City 1 and City 3. Company B has two branches in City 2 and
City 3. Company C has two branches in City 1 and City 2. The branches of Companies A, B,
and C require data communication. The OptiX OSN equipment can separately provide a private
line service for Companies A, B, and C to meet the communication requirement. In addition,
the service data is completely isolated.
Figure 4-1 E-Line service

Metro
carrier Ethernet

Nationwide/Global
carrier Ethernet

Metro
carrier Ethernet

Company A

Company A

Company C

Metro
carrier Ethernet

City 1

City 3
E-Line1
E-Line2
E-Line3

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City 2
Company C

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E-LAN Service
Figure 4-2 illustrates the E-LAN service provided by the OptiX OSN equipment.
Company Z is headquartered in City 3. Branch A of the company is located in City 1 and City
2, and Branch B of the company is located in City 1, City 2, and City 3. Branch A and Branch
B do not communicate with each other, and the data of them should be separated from each
other. The headquarters, however, need to communicate with all the branches and need to access
the Internet.
The OptiX OSN equipment can be used to provide the E-LAN service. Different VLAN tags
are used to identify service data from different branches. In this manner, the headquarters can
communicate with the branches and the data from different branches is isolated. In addition, the
VLAN is used to isolate the Internet data accessed by the headquarters from the internal service
data.
Figure 4-2 E-LAN service

ISP

Metro
carrier Ethernet

Nationwide/Global
carrier Ethernet

Branch B

Headquarter

Branch A

Metro
carrier Ethernet

Metro
carrier Ethernet

Branch B
City 3

City 1

VLAN1
VLAN2
VLAN3

City 2
Branch A

Branch B

Branch A

CES Services
The circuit emulation service (CES) helps to solve the problem of insufficient optical fiber
resources in the access ring and allows TDM services to be transparently transmitted across the
pure packet mode.
At the physical layer on the UNI side, the OptiX OSN equipment is interconnected with a CE
through the following physical channels for accessing CES services:
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Channelized STM-1

E1

4 Product Features

Figure 4-3 Networking diagram of the CES


Framed E1

-Service TS

Idle TS

PSN
LSP
PW

AC
CE1
(BTS)

AC

PE1

Native TDM
service

Packet transmission equipment

CE2
(BSC)

PE2

TDM PWE3

Framed E1

Native TDM
service

TDM PWE3 packet

Emulation Mode
The OptiX NG-SDH series equipment supports two types of CES services: structure-aware TDM
circuit emulation service over packet switched network (CESoPSN) CES and structure-agnostic
TDM over packet (SAToP) CES.
In the case of CESoPSN CES:
l

The equipment senses the frame format, frame alignment mode, and timeslot information
in the TDM circuit.

The equipment processes the overheads and extracts the payloads in TDM frames. Then,
the equipment loads timeslots to the packet payload in a certain sequence. As a result, the
services in each timeslot are fixed and visible in packets.

In the case of SAToP CES:


l

The equipment does not sense any format in the TDM signal. Instead, it considers TDM
signals as bit flows at a constant rate, and therefore the entire bandwidth of TDM signals
is emulated.

The overheads and payloads in TDM signals are transparently transmitted.

Service Type
CES services are classified into UNI-UNI CES services and UNI-UNI CES services by service
implementation point.
l

UNI-UNI CES services


As shown in Figure 4-4, a single OptiX OSN NE completes access of TDM services.

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Figure 4-4 UNI-UNI CES services

PSN

NE
TDM link

BTS

BSC

UNI-NNI CES services


As shown in Figure 4-5, the OptiX OSN NEs set UNI-NNI CES services. In the case of a
UNI-NNI CES service, the OptiX OSN NEs access customer TDM services through E1
ports; CES PWs are created between the OptiX OSN NEs to emulate end-to-end TDM
services.
Figure 4-5 UNI-NNI CES services
NE
BTS1
NE
PSN
BSC

NE
TDM link
PW

BTS2

Tunnel

ATM/IMA Services
The OptiX OSN equipment supports ATM/IMA services in packet mode.

ATM Services
ATM stands for asynchronous transfer mode, which is implemented based on cells. In ATM
mode, the ATM PWE3 technology is used to emulate ATM services on a packet switched
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network (PSN). Therefore, traditional ATM services can traverse the PSN. ATM service
networks can be classified into three types: one-to-one, N-to-one or ATM-TRANS, according
to the encapsulation mode of ATM PWE3 packets.
Figure 4-6 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in one-to-one cell encapsulation mode)
PSN
PW
AC

AC
CE1

LSP

PE1

CE2

PE2

ATM PWE3
1-to-1 ATM
PWE3
service

1-to-1 ATM
PWE3
service

Packet transmission equipment

RNC

NodeB

Figure 4-7 Typical application of ATM PWE3 (in N-to-one cell encapsulation mode)

CE1
PSN
PW
AC

AC
CE2

PE1

LSP

PE2

CE4

ATM PWE3

CE3

N-to-1 ATM
PWE3
service

Packet transmission equipment

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PWE3
service

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NOTE

The cell encapsulation modes at both ends of a PW must be the same.

IMA Services
The inverse multiplexing for ATM (IMA) technology multiplexes multiple low-speed ATM
links into a high-speed link.
The IMA technology provides inverse multiplexing of an ATM cell stream over multiple lowspeed links and retrieves the original stream at the far-end from these physical links. Figure
4-8 shows how IMA transmits services.
Figure 4-8 IMA transmission
Link 1
Link 2
ATM cell stream

Link 3

ATM cell stream

IMA group

The IMA technology helps to group multiple physical links to form a higher bandwidth logical
link whose rate is approximately the sum of the link rates. When the member links in the IMA
group are dynamically added/deleted, or fail/recover, the logical link changes only in bandwidth.
The services on the logical link are not interrupted only when the bandwidth of the logical link
is not lower than the required minimum bandwidth.
With the IMA technology, the transport network can transmit ATM services from customer
equipment on an IMA group formed by multiple low-speed links (for example, the three E1 links
shown in Figure 4-9), therefore increasing link bandwidth utilization and providing link
protection.
Figure 4-9 Application of the IMA technology

IMA group

NodeB

E1 link
Packet transmit equipment

4.2 Redundancy and Protection


The OptiX OSN 500 supports multiple redundancy and protection schemes.

4.2.1 Equipment Level Protection


The equipment supports several equipment level protection schemes.
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Power Redundancy
1+1 backup for power supply: two channels of -48 V DC power supplies are connected by using
one PIU board for backup.
As shown in Figure 4-10, the OptiX OSN 500 is configured with a pair of DC power supplies
for backup. Normal operations are not affected if any external -48 V DC power supply fails.
Figure 4-10 DC power redundancy for the OptiX OSN 500 chassis

XXXX

PIU

FAN

SLOT 3

XXXX

XXXX

Mutual backup DC input

SLOT 4

SLOT 2

Fan Redundancy
Three air-cooling fans dissipate the heat generated by the system. The failure of a single fan
does not affect the operation of other fans.

4.2.2 Network Level Protection


This section describes packet domain protection schemes.

PW APS
This section defines PW APS and describes its purpose.

Definition
PW APS is a function that protects PWs based on the APS protocol. When the working PW is
faulty, PW APS switches services to a preconfigured protection PW.
The PW APS function supported by the OptiX OSN equipment has the following features:
l

End-to-end protection for PWs.

The working PW and protection PW are carried in different tunnels but have the same local
and remote PEs.

The protection PW in the PW APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic.

The PW OAM (based on ITU-T Y.1711) or MPLS-TP OAM (based on ITU-T G.8113.1)
mechanism is used to detect faults in PWs, and the ingress and egress nodes exchange APS
protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
PW APS improves the reliability of service transmission in PWs.
As shown in Figure 4-11, when the PW OAM mechanism detects a fault in the working PW,
services are switched to the protection PW for transmission.
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Figure 4-11 Example of PW APS

PE2

Working PW
PE1

PE4
Protection PW

PE3
Protect switching
PE2

Working PW
PE1

PE4
Protection PW

PE3
Service
Packet transmission equipment

Tunnel APS
This section defines tunnel APS and describes the purpose of using this feature.

Definition
Tunnel APS is a function that protects tunnels based on the APS protocol. When the working
tunnel is faulty, tunnel APS switches services to a preconfigured protection tunnel.
Tunnel APS supported by the OptiX OSN equipment has the following features:
l

Provides end-to-end protection for tunnels.

The working tunnel and protection tunnel have the same ingress and egress nodes.

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The protection tunnel in the Tunnel APS protection pair does not carry extra traffic.

The MPLS OAM (based on ITU-T Y.1711) or MPLS-TP OAM (based on ITU-T G.8113.1)
mechanism is used to detect faults in tunnels, and the ingress and egress nodes exchange
APS protocol packets to achieve protection switching.

Purpose
Tunnel APS is used to improve the reliability of service transmission over tunnels. Tunnel APS
is used in two typical scenarios: co-sourced and co-sinked tunnels, and co-sourced tunnels with
different sinks. Figure 4-12 and Figure 4-13 show the typical application scenarios.
For co-sourced and co-sinked tunnels, a tunnel APS protection group is created between PE1
and PE2. Generally, services are transmitted on the working tunnel. When the working tunnel
is faulty, APS occurs and the services are switched to the protection tunnel.
Figure 4-12 Typical application of tunnel APS (for co-sourced and co-sinked tunnels)
PSN
NodeB

Tunnel APS
PE1

Tunnel APS

Tunnel1

PE2

RNC

Tunnel2

NodeB

Working Tunnel
Protection Tunnel

For co-sourced tunnels with different sinks, tunnel APS works with MC-LAG to implement
cross-equipment protection. As shown in Figure 4-13, PE1 is an access-layer NE, and PE2 and
PE3 are NEs at the backbone convergence layer. A tunnel APS protection group is created
between PE1 and PE2 and between PE1 and PE3. Generally, services are transmitted on the
working tunnel. When the working tunnel is faulty, APS occurs and the services are switched
to the protection tunnel.

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Figure 4-13 Typical application of tunnel APS (for co-sourced tunnels with different sinks)
PE2

PE1

Tunnel APS
PSN

MC-LAG

NodeB

RNC

S
PE3

Working Tunnel
Protection Tunnel
Multi-chassis synchronous communication
A
S

Active (carrying services)


Standby (not carrying services)

ERPS
Ethernet technologies are applied more widely than ever before, and ring networking using
packet Ethernet boards is more and more deployed. Under the context, Ethernet ring protection
switching (ERPS) can be used to protect LAN services on packet Ethernet ring networks.
When an Ethernet ring network is configured with ERPS, under normal conditions, the ring
protection link (RPL) owner node blocks its port on a certain side so that services are transmitted
through the port on the other side. In this manner, service loops are prevented. If a ring link or
a ring node fails, the RPL owner unblocks the preceding port and then the services are transmitted
through the unblocked port.
ERPS has the following characteristics in its implementation:
l

Specifies an RPL and blocks its ports to prevent loops.

Defines R-APS messages to transmit ring network status information so as to ensure


consistent protection operations performed on ring nodes.

Figure 4-14 shows networking of a single Ethernet ring protection (ERP) ring.

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Figure 4-14 A single ERP ring


NE 1 RPL neighbor
node

NE 1 RPL neighbor
node

RPL

RPL

NE 2

Protection
switching
4

Topology

NE 4

NE 2

RPL
owner node

Topology

NE 4
RPL
owner node

NE 3

NE 3
Blocked port
Ethernet service direction

Link down

As shown in Figure 4-14, NE4 is the RPL owner node and NE1 is a neighbor node. The link
between NE1 and NE4 is the RPL.
l

Under normal conditions, NE4 blocks the port connected to NE1, and NE1 also blocks the
port connected to NE4a. Services are transmitted along the route NE1 <-> NE2 <-> NE3
<-> NE4.

If the link between NE1 and NE2 fails, NE4 and NE1 unblock their ports so that services
can be transmitted along the route NE1 <-> NE4 <-> NE3 <-> NE2.
NOTE

a: If ERPS V1 is used, NE1 does not block the port connected to NE4.

Figure 4-15 shows networking of tangent ERP rings.


Figure 4-15 Tangent ERP rings
NE 1

NE 1 RPL neighbor
node

RPL neighbor
node
RPL

RPL

NE 2

ERP ring
1
topology

NE 4

NE 2

RPL
owner node

ERP ring
1
topology

NE 4
RPL
owner node

3
Protection
switching

NE 3

NE 3

NE 5

ERP ring
2
topology

NE 7

NE 5

RPL neighbor
node

ERP ring
2
topology

NE 7
RPL neighbor
node

RPL

RPL
Blocked port

RPL
NE 6 owner node

Ethernet service direction

RPL
NE 6 owner node

Link down

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As shown in Figure 4-15, ERP ring 1 is tangent to ERP ring 2 at NE3. On ERP ring 1. NE4 is
the RPL owner node and NE1 is a neighbor node. The link between NE1 and NE4 is the RPL
link. On ERP ring 2, NE6 is the RPL owner node and NE7 is a neighbor node. The link between
NE6 and NE7 is the RPL.
l

Under normal conditions:


On ERP ring 1, NE4 blocks the port connected to NE1, and NE1 also blocks the port
connected to NE4. Services are transmitted along the route NE1 <-> NE2 <-> NE3 <> NE4.
On ERP ring 2, NE6 blocks the port connected to NE7, and NE7 also blocks the port
connected to NE6. Services are transmitted along the route NE7 <-> NE3 <-> NE5 <> NE6.

If the link between NE1 and NE2 fails:


On ERP ring 1, NE4 and NE1 unblock their ports so that services can be transmitted
along the route NE1 <-> NE4 <-> NE3 <-> NE2.
On ERP ring 2, ports connecting NE6 and NE7 are still blocked, and services are
transmitted along the route NE7 <-> NE3 <-> NE5 <-> NE6.

Figure 4-16 shows networking of interconnected ERP rings.


Figure 4-16 Interconnected ERP rings
NE 1

NE 1

NE 2

RPL

RPL

RPL
owner node
1

NE 3

Protection
switching
NE 4

NE 4
3

ERP ring
2
topology

ERP ring
2
topology
5

RPL neighbor
node

RPL
owner node
RPL

NE 3

ERP ring
1
topology

ERP ring
1
topology
2

NE 2

RPL neighbor
node

RPL
owner node

RPL neighbor
node

NE 5

RPL neighbor
node

RPL
owner node
Blocked port

NE 5

RPL

NE 5

Ethernet service direction

Link down

As shown in Figure 4-16, ERP ring 1 and ERP ring 2 are interconnected at NE3 and NE4. On
ERP ring 1, NE2 is the RPL owner node and NE1 is a neighbor node. The link between NE1
and NE2 is the RPL. On ERP ring 2, NE5 is the RPL owner node and NE6 is a neighbor node.
The link between NE5 and NE6 is the RPL.
l

Under normal conditions: On ERP ring 1, NE2 blocks the port connected to NE1, and NE1
also blocks the port connected to NE2. Services are transmitted along the route NE2 <->
NE4 <-> NE3 <-> NE1. On ERP ring 2, NE5 blocks the port connected to NE6, and NE6
also blocks the port connected to NE5. Services are transmitted along the route NE1 <->
NE3 <-> NE4 <-> NE2.

If the link between NE1 and NE3 fails: On ERP ring 1, NE1 and NE2 unblock their ports
so that services can be transmitted along the route NE1 <-> NE2 <-> NE4 <-> NE3. On

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ERP ring 2, ports connecting NE5 and NE6 are still blocked, and services are transmitted
along the route NE3 <-> NE5 <-> NE6 <-> NE4.

LAG
As the Ethernet technology is widely applied in the metropolitan area network (MAN) and the
wide area network (WAN), carriers propose increasingly higher requirements on the bandwidth
and reliability of access links that use the Ethernet technology. Hardware upgrades can increase
Ethernet link bandwidth but also incur high expenditure. In addition, hardware upgrades are less
flexible than software upgrades. To increase bandwidth at a low expenditure and flexibly, the
link aggregation technology is developed.
Link aggregation has the following characteristics:
l

With no need for hardware upgrades, link aggregation binds several Ethernet ports as a
higher-bandwidth logical port.

The link backup mechanism of the link aggregation technology provides higher link
transmission reliability.

Link aggregation functions between adjacent NEs and is independent of the network
topology.

The logical link aggregating several physical links is called a link aggregation group (LAG).
NOTE

Link aggregation is also called port aggregation because each link corresponds to two specific ports at two
ends in Ethernet transmission.

As shown in Figure 4-17, two adjacent NEs are interconnected through three pairs of Ethernet
ports. Three physical Ethernet links are bound as a logical link, called a LAG.
Figure 4-17 LAG
Link 1
Link 2
Ethernet
packet

Link 3

Ethernet
packet

LAG

LPT
This section defines LPT and provides the purpose of this feature.

Definition
Link-state pass through (LPT) detects a fault that occurs at a service access node or on a service
network and then instructs the equipment at both ends of the network to switch to a backup
network. LPT ensures normal data transmission. As shown in Figure 4-18, LPT-enabled NE1
and NE2 will disconnect their access links from router A and router B if access link 1, access
link 2, or the service network becomes faulty. When router A and router B detect a link fault
between them, they immediately switch to the backup network.
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Figure 4-18 Typical application of LPT

Backup network

Service network
NE1
Router A

NE2

Access link 1

Access link 2 Router B

Working link
Protection link

Purpose
LPT enabled access equipment detects link faults and immediately switches to a backup network.

MSTP
This topic defines MSTP and describes the purpose of this feature.

Definition
The spanning tree protocol (STP) is used in network loops. This protocol uses algorithms to
break a loop network into a loop-free tree network to prevent packets from cycling endlessly in
the loop network. See Figure 4-19.
Figure 4-19 Diagram of the STP
Switch A

Switch B

Switch A

Switch C

Switch B

Switch C
Root: Switch A

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The rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP) is an optimized version of STP. RSTP stabilizes
network topology more quickly than STP. RSTP is compatible with STP. STP packets and RSTP
packets can be differentiated by the bridge that uses the RSTP for calculating the spanning tree.
Compared with STP and RSTP, MSTP maximizes link bandwidth usage by setting up several
independent spanning trees.

Purpose
STP/RSTP meets the following requirements:
l

Any activated bridge topology can be configured as a single spanning tree. Redundant data
loops between two stations in a network topology should be removed.

The spanning tree topology can be configured to protect against bridge faults or route
interruptions. Temporary data loops can be prevented by automatically accepting the
bridges and bridge ports of the bridges that are newly added into the LAN.

A topology that has been activated can be predicted and repeated. In addition, the topology
can be selected by managing algorithm parameters.

Operations to the end stations are transparent. For example, the end stations do not know
whether they are attached to a single LAN or a bridged LAN.

A small part of the available link bandwidth is used to create and maintain a spanning tree.
Bandwidth does not increase with the expanding network scale.

STP/RSTP have shortcomings that have become apparent as VLAN technology has developed.
After the STP/RSTP is enabled, a loop network is broken into a single spanning tree and the
blocked links do not carry any traffic. This wastes bandwidth.
MSTP has fixed this defect in STP and RSTP in addition to stabilizing the network topology.
MSTP provides a load sharing mechanism that enables the traffic of different VLANs to be
transmitted over their respective trails.
l

MSTP divides a switching network into different regions, called MST regions. Multiple
spanning trees that are independent of each other exist in each region. Each spanning tree
is called a multiple spanning tree instance (MSTI).

When MSTP is enabled, VLAN mapping tables specify the mapping relationships between
VLANs and MSTIs. Each VLAN in an MST region corresponds to one MSTI and only this
MSTI can transmit data for this VLAN. One MSTI, however, may be mapped to multiple
VLANs.

Consider the network in Figure 4-20 as an example. VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 packets are
transmitted over the network. When STP/RSTP is enabled, a single spanning tree that uses switch
A as the root switch is generated and the links between switch B and switch C are blocked.
Hence, the bandwidth of this link is not utilized.

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Figure 4-20 Limitations of the STP/RSTP


Host A

Switch A

VLAN 1
VLAN 2

Host B

Switch B

Switch C

Host C

Blocked port
Spanning tree
Root switch

If MSTP is enabled and this network is an MST region, then VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 are each
mapped to an MSTI. Figure 4-21 shows the network topology. On the ring:
l

MSTI 1 uses switch A as the root switch to forward packets of VLAN 1.

MSTI 2 uses switch C as the root switch to forward packets of VLAN 2.

Different VLANs are forwarded over different trails and all VLAN packets are forwarded
correctly. Load sharing is achieved.

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Figure 4-21 MSTP improvement


Host A

Switch A

VLAN 1
VLAN 2

Host B

Switch B

Switch C

Switch A

Host C

Switch A

VLAN 1

VLAN 1

VLAN 2

VLAN 2
Switch B

Switch C

Switch B

MSTI 1 -> VLAN 1

Switch C

MSTI 2 -> VLAN 2

Root switch

NOTE

The OptiX OSN 500 supports only the MSTP that generates a common and internal spanning tree (CIST). The
OptiX OSN 500 does not support the load sharing function that is forwards packets of different VLANs over
different trails.

As shown in Figure 4-22, when equipment uses two different trails to access the OptiX OSN
equipment, you can configure the OptiX OSN equipment ports connected to the user network
into a port group. This port group, together with a switch on the user network, can run the MSTP.
If a service access link becomes faulty, MSTP generates a spanning tree topology to provide
protection for a user network that is configured with multiple access points.

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Figure 4-22 Typical MSTP scenario on the OptiX OSN equipment

Root

Root

Port group
CIST
Blocked Port

ML-PPP
This section defines ML-PPP and describes the purpose of using this feature on transport
networks.

Definition
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol based on the Serial Line Interface
Protocol (SLIP). PPP provides a standard method for encapsulating multiple types of protocol
datagrams (including IP, IPX, and AppleTalk) on a point-to-point link.
The Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (ML-PPP) is an extended PPP protocol. It is used to bind
multiple low-rate PPP links into a virtual ML-PPP link. An ML-PPP link is also called a Multilink
Protocol (MP) group. ML-PPP also supports packet splitting and recombination, therefore
effectively reducing the transmission latency and increasing the maximum transfer unit (MTU)
for a link.
Using the ML-PPP function brings a network the following benefits:
l

Increased bandwidth

Load sharing and link backup

Lower latency

Purpose
ML-PPP links can bear MPLS tunnels so that the MPLS tunnels can traverse a TDM transport
network.
As shown in Figure 4-23, MPLS packets in the MPLS tunnel are encapsulated in E1s and
transmitted over the ML-PPP link through the TDM network. At the TDM network edge, the
MPLS packets are decapsulated from E1s.
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Figure 4-23 Using an ML-PPP link to transmit services through a TDM network
MPLS tunnel

Ingress

Transit

FE/GE

Payload
MPLS
FE/GE

E1

TDM
network

Transit
E1

Payload
MPLS
ML-PPP
E1

Egress
FE/GE

Payload
MPLS
FE/GE

Packet transmission equipment

Linear MSP
The packet-based linear MSP uses the MSOH bytes K1 and K2 to implement automatic
protection switching and thus to protect services. The OptiX OSN equipment supports 1:1
packet-based linear MSP.

1:1 Packet-based linear MSP


1:1 packet-based linear MSP requires one working path and one protection path. Common
services are transmitted in the working path. When the working path becomes faulty, the service
in this path is switched to the protection path. Figure 4-24 shows the application of 1:1 packetbased linear MSP.
NOTE

The extra traffic can not be transmitted in the protection path.

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Figure 4-24 1:1 Packet-based linear MSP


NE A

Working path

NE B

Common
service

Common
service

Protection path

Protection switching
NE A
Common
service

Working path

NE B
Common
service

Protection path

Purpose
The packet-based linear MSP scheme uses the MSOH bytes K1 and K2 to implement automatic
protection switching once the working path fails, and thus to protect services.

4.3 Synchronization
The OptiX OSN 500 supports IEEE 1588v2, synchronous Ethernet clock, 2 MHz, and 2 Mbit/
s clocks and can provide an end-to-end clock transport solution when deployed with MSTP or
PTN products.
When the OptiX OSN 500 uses IEEE 1588v2 to implement phase synchronization, it supports
the following NE clock types: OC, TC, BC and TC+BC.

4.3.1 Requirements for Clock Synchronization


This section describes frequency and phase synchronization requirements of service networks.
A service network, especially a radio access network (RAN), has stringent requirements for
clock synchronization, and clock signals transmitted over a transport network must meet these
requirements.

Clock synchronization requirements of mobile communication networks


Table 4-3 lists clock synchronization requirements of mobile communication networks based
on the wireless access mode.
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Table 4-3 Clock synchronization requirements of mobile communication networks


Wireless Access Mode

Precision of Frequency
Synchronization

Precision of Phase
Synchronization

GSM

0.05 ppm

Phase synchronization is
not required.

WCDMA

0.05 ppm

Phase synchronization is
not required.

TD-SCDMA

0.05 ppm

1.5 us

CDMA2000

0.05 ppm

3 us

WiMax FDD

0.05 ppm

Phase synchronization is
not required.

WiMax TDD

0.011 ppm/3.5G, 7 carrier


wave

1 us

LTE FDD

0.05 ppm

Phase synchronization is
not required.

LTE TDD

0.05 ppm

1.5 us

Phase synchronization requirements of other common systems


Billing and network management systems also require phase synchronization. Table 4-4 lists
the phase synchronization requirements of some common systems.
Table 4-4 Phase synchronization requirements of other common systems
System

Phase Synchronization Precision

Billing system

500 ms

Communication network management


system

500 ms

Signaling system No. 7

1 ms

Positioning system

1 us (equivalent to a positioning precision of


300 m)

4.3.2 Clock and Time Synchronization


This section describes synchronization features including clock synchronization and
synchronous Ethernet clock.

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Synchronous Ethernet Clock


The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology that extracts clock signals from serial bit streams
on an Ethernet line, and transmits the extracted clock signals with services to implement the
transfer of the clock signals.

Definition
The synchronous Ethernet clock is a technology of frequency synchronization over the physical
layer. The system directly extracts the clock signal from the serial bit stream on the Ethernet
line, and transmits the data to each board by using the clock signal to realize the transfer of clock
information.

Purpose
As SDH networks are evolving into data networks, carrier-level large-scale networks require
synchronous Ethernet to transmit clock signals. The networkwide synchronous transmission idea
of the SDH system needs to be introduced to the Ethernet design. Clock signals are transmitted
from the core to the edge by using the Ethernet physical layer, which ensures synchronization
for all types of real-time services.
In a TDM network or packet network, Figure 4-25 shows the typical network to which
synchronous Ethernet is applied networkwide. BITS1 and BITS2 respectively transmit clock
signals to NE1 and NE2 through external clock ports. NE1 and NE2 transmit the clock signals
to NE3. NE3 transmits the clock signals from the convergence layer to access-layer NEs. The
access-layer NEs transmit the clock signals to NodeBs. In this manner, networkwide clock
synchronization is achieved.

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Figure 4-25 Typical network to which synchronous Ethernet is applied networkwide


BITS2

BITS1

Clock information

Clock information

NE1

GE
ring

NE3

2.5 Gbit/s
chain

622 Mbit/s
chain

NE5

NE6

NE2
Convergence
layer

NE4

155 Mbit/s
chain

NE7
Access
layer

Node B

Node B

Node B

OptiX OSN convergence


equipment
OptiX OSN access
equipment
Clock information

In a packet network, Figure 4-26 shows a typical network that uses both synchronous Ethernet
and IEEE 1588 ACR. BITS1 and BITS2 respectively transmit clock signals to Router1 and
Router2 through external clock ports. Because Router1 and Router2 need to transmit the clock
signals to convergence-layer NEs (NE1 and NE2) through a non-transport network, they convert
the clock signals into IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals. After the IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals
traverse the non-transport network and reach NE1 and NE2, the two NEs restore the signals into
synchronous Ethernet clock signals and transmit them to NE3. NE3 transmits the clock signals
to access-layer NEs. The access-layer NEs transmit the clock signals to NodeBs. In this manner,
networkwide clock synchronization is achieved.
NOTE

Currently, the equipment supports only the conversion of IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals into synchronous
Ethernet signals.

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Figure 4-26 Typical network that uses both synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 ACR
BITS1

BITS2

Clock
information

Clock
information

Router1

Router2

IEEE 1588 ACR

NE1

Synchronous
ethernet clock

NE3

NE5

NE6

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Node B

Node B

NE2

Converge
nce layer

NE4

NE7

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Access
layer

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Node B

OptiX OSN convergence


equipment
OptiX OSN access
equipment
Clock information

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IEEE 1588v2
This section provides the definition of IEEE 1588v2 and describes its purpose.

Definition
The IEEE 1588v2 defines a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked
Measurement and Control Systems. It defines the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize
independent clocks running on separate nodes of a distributed measurement and control system
to a high degree of accuracy and precision. The IEEE 1588v2 standard supports time
synchronization accuracy in the submicrosecond range.
Synchronization involves clock synchronization (also called frequency synchronization) or time
synchronization. The IEEE 1588v2 standard mainly applicable to time synchronization, and it
can also be used for clock synchronization.
l

Clock synchronization
To achieve synchronization of clocks for two devices, the pulses of the clocks must be at
the same frequency and keep a constant phase difference.

Time synchronization
To achieve time synchronization, the pulses of the clocks must be at the same frequency
and have a very small phase difference as required, and the times indicated by the clocks
must be measured in the same timescale. The commonly used timescales include universal
coordinated time (UTC) and international atomic time (TAI, from the French name Temps
Atomique International).

Purpose
In the applications on transmission networks, the IEEE 1588v2 standard provides an approach
to 1588v2 time synchronization on a network basis, with a synchronization accuracy in the
microsecond range; as well, the IEEE 1588v2 standard helps in transparent transmission of
1588v2 time signals. As such, the IEEE 1588v2 standard, as an alternative to the global
positioning system (GPS) or other complex timing systems, can be used to provide 1588v2 time
for NodeBs or eNodeBs. Figure 4-27 illustrates an application example wherein the IEEE
1588v2 standard helps to synchronize the time of NodeBs distributed in a CDMA2000 or TDSCDMA communication system.

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Figure 4-27 Time synchronization of NodeBs implemented by the IEEE 1588v2 standard
RNC

NodeB

BITS

NodeB
PTP node

NodeB
Time
synchronization

IEEE 1588 ACR


This section defines IEEE 1588 ACR and describes the purpose of using this feature.

Definition
IEEE 1588 adaptive clock recovery (ACR) is a technology used to achieve frequency
synchronization between the clock equipment that supports the IEEE 1588v2 standard. To be
specific, the master equipment encapsulates the local system clock into a Sync packet as a
timestamp and transmits the Sync packet to a packet switched network (PSN), which forwards
the Sync packet to the slave equipment. On receiving the Sync packet, the slave equipment
extracts the timestamp from the Sync packet and recovers the clock frequency by using the ACR
algorithm. In this way, the clock frequency of the PTP equipment at the two ends of a PSN is
synchronized.
IEEE 1588 ACR achieves only frequency synchronization but not time synchronization.

Purpose
With the IEEE 1588 ACR technology applied on a transport network, the clock frequency is
carried in an IEEE 1588v2 packet, which traverses an asynchronous PSN. As a result, the clock
frequency of the equipment at the two ends of the PSN is synchronized.
In the network as shown in Figure 4-28, the PTP node on the RNC side encapsulates the clock
frequency of the building integrated timing supply (BITS) equipment into an IEEE 1588v2
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packet, which traverses the asynchronous PSN. On receiving the IEEE 1588v2 packet, the PTP
nodes on the NodeB side recover the clock frequency of the BITS equipment from the IEEE
1588v2 packet by using the ACR algorithm, and send the clock frequency to the NodeBs. In this
way, the clock frequencies of the NodeBs are synchronized with the clock frequency of the RNC.
Figure 4-28 IEEE 1588 ACR frequency synchronization

BITS

NodeB

PSN
NodeB

RNC

NodeB
PTP node
Frequency
synchronization

Router/Switch
Transparent
transmission of
frequency

Equipment on a transport network supports the conversion of IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals
from a non-transport network into synchronous Ethernet clock signals to achieve networkwide
frequency synchronization.
As shown in Figure 4-29, BITS1 and BITS2 respectively transmit clock signals to Router1 and
Router 2 through external clock ports. Because Router1 and Router2 need to transmit the clock
signals to convergence-layer NEs (NE1 and NE2) through a non-transport network, they convert
the clock signals into IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals. After the IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals
traverse the non-transport network and reach NE1 and NE2, the two NEs restore the signals into
synchronous Ethernet clock signals and transmit them to NE3. NE3 transmits the clock signals
to access-layer NEs. The access-layer NEs transmit the clock signals to NodeBs. In this manner,
networkwide frequency synchronization is achieved.
NOTE

Currently, the equipment supports only the conversion of IEEE 1588 ACR clock signals into synchronous
Ethernet signals.

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Figure 4-29 Typical network that uses both synchronous Ethernet and IEEE 1588 ACR
BITS1

BITS2

Clock
information

Clock
information

Router1

Router2

IEEE 1588 ACR

NE1

Synchronous
ethernet clock

NE3

NE5

NE6

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Node B

Node B

NE2

Converge
nce layer

NE4

NE7

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Access
layer

Synchronous
ethernet clock

Node B

OptiX OSN convergence


equipment
OptiX OSN access
equipment
Clock information

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CES ACR
This section defines CES ACR and describes the purpose of using this feature.

Definition
CES ACR uses the adaptive clock recovery (ACR) technology to recover clock synchronization
information carried by CES packets. CES ACR is available in two types: standard and enhanced.
In a standard CES ACR solution, the source end (Master) uses the local clock information as
the timestamp in a Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) packet header and encapsulates the local
clock information in a CES packet. The sink end (Slave) recovers the clock using the timestamp
in the packet. This method prevents signal impairment during the transmission.
The OptiX OSN equipment adopts the enhanced timestamp clock solution. That is, clocks can
be recovered based on SN in CES packets rather than timestamps in RTP packet headers. See
Figure 4-30.
Figure 4-30 CES ACR clock solution
Slave

Master
SN

E1

Processing

SN

CES

CES

Processing

E1

Primary
reference
clock

PSN
E1

BTS

E1

CES

PE1

Packet transmission equipment

PE2

BSC

SN: Sequnce Number

Purpose
In the packet domain, CES ACR is mainly used to transparently transmit E1 clocks in the PSN.

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5 Hardware and Structure

Hardware and Structure

About This Chapter


This section describes the chassis, boards, and external components of the equipment.
5.1 Chassis
This section describes the structure, slot layout, and access capacity of the chassis.
5.2 Board Category
This section describes the boards that the equipment supports. Different boards provide the
equipment with different functions.

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5 Hardware and Structure

5.1 Chassis
This section describes the structure, slot layout, and access capacity of the chassis.

5.1.1 Chassis Structure


This section describes the structure of the chassis and equipment labels.

Chassis Structure and Board Installation Area

H
D

Board
installation
area

W
3
2

SLOT SLOT
5
6
(PIU) (FAN)

SLOT 4(EXT)

SLOT 3(EXT)
SLOT 2(CSHD)
4

1 Power supply board area


2 Fan board area

3 Extended board area


4 System control, switching,
and timing board area

NOTE

An OptiX OSN 500 NE can automatically save its NE ID, extended ID, IP address, and subnet mask to its
backplane. After a new system control, switching, and timing board replaces an original one, the NE
automatically uses the saved information. Therefore, you do not need to set the NE ID, extended ID, IP
address, and subnet mask for the substitute board.

Description of Labels
Table 5-1 lists the description of the labels on the chassis and the boards in the chassis. The
actual labels may be different depending on the configurations of the chassis and boards.
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Table 5-1 Description of labels


Label

/ QUALIFICATION CARD

Label Name

Description

ESD protection label

Indicates that the


equipment is
sensitive to static
electricity.

Grounding label

Indicates the
grounding position
of the chassis.

Fan warning label

Indicates that the


fan leaves cannot
be touched when
the fan is rotating.

Power port warning


label

Indicates that you


must read the
operation
instructions before
connecting a
power cable.

Qualification card

Indicates that the


equipment is
qualified.

RoHS label

Indicates that the


equipment
contains certain
hazardous
substances
specified in RoHS.
The equipment
needs to be
recycled after the
environmentfriendly use period
of 50 years expires.

HUAWEI

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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD.

MADE IN CHINA

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Label

5 Hardware and Structure

Label Name

Description

Product nameplate
label

Indicates the
product name and
certification.

Ventilation Design
The chassis is densely covered with small air holes. Through these holes, air is let in from the
left and out from the right by fans.
NOTE

Ensure the smooth flow of air inside and around the equipment. Do not block the air intake vents and air
exhaust vents of subracks when cabling. Keep the top of subracks clean.

Figure 5-1 Ventilation design of the OptiX OSN 500

5.1.2 Cross-Connect and Slot Access Capacity


This section provides switching capacities and slot access capacities of the OptiX OSN 500 in
packet mode.

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Switching Capacities
Table 5-2 lists packet switching capacities of the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 5-2 Switching capacities of the OptiX OSN 500
Board

Maximum Switching Capacity (Gbit/s)

CSHD

7.2

Access Capacities of Slots


Figure 5-2 provides access capacities of slots on the OptiX OSN 500.
Figure 5-2 Access capacities of slots on the OptiX OSN 500
SLOT
5
(PIU)

SLOT
6
(FAN)

SLOT 3

2.5Gbit/s
SLOT 2

SLOT 4

2.5Gbit/s

2.5Gbit/s

5.2 Board Category


This section describes the boards that the equipment supports. Different boards provide the
equipment with different functions.
Table 5-3 lists the boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500.

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Table 5-3 Boards supported by the OptiX OSN 500


Board
Classific
ation

Boar
d
Acro
nym

Board Name

Port Type

Valid Slot

System
control,
switching,
and
timing
board

TNH1
CSH
D

Packet system
control,
switching, and
timing board

l One Ethernet NM port

Slot 2

l Supports
7.2 Gbit/s
packet
switching
capacity.

l 1-input/1-output external clock


port

l Provides
two GE/FE
SFP
optical/
electrical
ports, four
FE
electrical
ports, and
sixteen E1
ports.
l Performs
system
communica
tion and
control.
Packet
processin
g board

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l One NM serial port


l 3-input/1-output alarm port

l 2-input/2-output external time


port
l Four FE electrical ports:
10/100BASE-T(X)
l Two GE/FE optical/electrical
ports that use any of the
following types of SFP
modules:1000BASE-SX/
1000BASE-LX/1000BASEVX/1000BASE-ZX/1000BaseT/100BASE-BX/100BASEFX/100BASE-LX/100BASEVX/100BASE-ZX
l 16 E1 ports

TNM
1MD1

32xsmart E1
service
processing
board

75/120-ohm E1 port

Slots 3 to 4

TNM
1EM6
T

FE/GE
processing
board

l Four FE electrical ports:


10/100BASE-T(X)

Slots 3 to 4

l Two GE electrical ports


(compatible with FE electrical
ports): 1000BASE-T

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Board
Classific
ation

Power
supply
board

Fan board

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5 Hardware and Structure

Boar
d
Acro
nym

Board Name

Port Type

Valid Slot

TNM
1EM6
F

FE/GE
processing
board

l Four FE electrical ports:


10/100BASE-T(X)

Slots 3 to 4

TNM
1CQ1

4-port
channelized
STM-1 service
processing
board

l Four STM-1 SFP optical/


electrical ports of the S-1.1,
L-1.1, or L-1.2 optical type or
of SFP electrical modules

Slots 3 and 4

TNM
1EF8
F

8xFE
processing
board

l Eight FE SFP optical/electrical


ports: 100BASE-BX/
100BASE-FX/100BASE-LX/
100BASE-VX/100BASE-ZX/
100BASE-T

Slots 3 to 4

UPM

Uninterruptibl
e power
module

l One 110 V/220 V AC power


input port

Slot 21

TNC1
PIU

Power supply
board

One -48 V/-60 V DC power input


port

Slot 5

TNC1
FAN

Fan board

N/A

Slot 6

l Two ports that use any of the


following types of SFP
modules:1000BASE-SX/
1000BASE-LX/1000BASEVX/1000BASE-ZX/1000BaseT/100BASE-BX/100BASEFX/100BASE-LX/100BASEVX/100BASE-ZX

l Two -48 V DC power output


ports

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6 Networking and Application Scenarios

Networking and Application Scenarios

About This Chapter


The OptiX OSN 500 supports various service networking topologies, applicable to a wide range
of scenarios.
6.1 Basic Network Topologies
OptiX OSN 500s can form the following network topologies: chain, ring, tangent rings, and ring
with chain.
6.2 Typical Application of Pure Packet Networking
This section describes the typical application of pure packet networking.

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6.1 Basic Network Topologies


OptiX OSN 500s can form the following network topologies: chain, ring, tangent rings, and ring
with chain.
The OptiX OSN 500 supports separate and combined configurations of the following types:
terminal multiplexer (TM), add/drop multiplexer (ADM), and multiple add/drop multiplexer
(MADM).
OptiX OSN 500s can support a wide range of network topologies. In addition, OptiX OSN
500s can be interconnected with other OptiX OSN equipment, OptiX DWDM equipment, and
OptiX Metro equipment to provide a complete transport network solution. See Table 6-1.
Table 6-1 Network topologies supported by OptiX OSN 500s and corresponding legends
Network Topology

Legend

Chain

Ring

Tangent rings

Intersecting rings

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Network Topology

6 Networking and Application Scenarios

Legend

Ring with chain

6.2 Typical Application of Pure Packet Networking


This section describes the typical application of pure packet networking.
Figure 6-1 shows a pure packet network, on which the following base station services are
transmitted:
l

2G base station services

3G ATM base station services

3G IP base station services

LTE base station services

Figure 6-1 Pure packet networking


E1/T1
E1/STM-1

ATM/IMA
E1

FE
ATM/IMA
E1/GE

10GE
S-GW/MME
Packet ring
Signal flow

OptiX OSN 550/ OptiX OSN


500
3500/7500 II

NodeB

BTS

Aggregation
RNC
switch

BSC

Router

Networking Solution
When numerous Ethernet services and a few E1 services coexist, the pure packet networking
solution using the expenditure-effective PTN technology is used to meet multi-service
transmission demands and improve the price performance ratio of network buildout and
maintenance.
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FE services and GE services are transmitted in pure packet mode over the PTN network,
which reduces the transmission expenditure per bit.

E1 services are transmitted in TDM/ATM PWE3 mode over the PTN network since the
TDM network is unavailable in the pure packet networking solution.

3G IP base station services are transmitted to the OptiX OSN 500 in FE mode, and
encapsulated into PWE3 packets. The PWE3 packets are then aggregated to the OptiX OSN
3500/7500 II in end-to-end mode.

LTE base station services are transmitted to the OptiX OSN 500 in GE mode, and
encapsulated into PWE3 packets. The PWE3 packets are then aggregated to the OptiX OSN
3500/7500 II in end-to-end mode.

2G base station services and 3G ATM base station services are transmitted to the OptiX
OSN 500 in TDM E1/T1 mode and ATM/IMA E1 mode respectively. These services are
then encapsulated into PWE3 packets. Finally, the PWE3 packets are aggregated to the
OptiX OSN 3500/7500 II in end-to-end mode.

Service Types

Table 6-2 lists the service types and their transmission modes.
Table 6-2 Service types and their transmission modes for a pure PTN network
UNI-side
Device

Service Port

Encapsulation
Mode

Transmission
Technology

Service
Topology

3G IP base
station

FE

PWE3

MPLS/MPLSTP

VPWS, VPLS

LTE base
station

GE

PWE3

MPLS/MPLSTP

VPWS, VPLS

2G base station

TDM E1/T1

PWE3

MPLS/MPLSTP

End-to-end P2P
connection

3G ATM base
station

ATM/IMA E1

PWE3

MPLS/MPLSTP

End-to-end P2P
connection

NOTE

l A 3G/LTE base station and an RNC/S-GW/MME exchange services, base station management
information, and signaling. Base station management information and signaling due to their importance
are preferentially processed in the transmission network. Therefore, base station management
information and signaling are assigned a VLAN called the management VLAN, and services are
assigned a VLAN called the service VLAN. The management VLAN has a higher priority than the
service VLAN.
l To prevent VLAN conflicts, VLANs must be planned by considering all base stations. Generally, the
base stations managed by the same RNC/S-GW/MME are grouped into multiple switch areas. All base
stations in the same switch area share one management VLAN and one service VLAN. Base stations
in different switch areas have different management VLANs and service VLANs. See Figure 6-2.
l On the same OptiX OSN 500, the management VLAN and service VLAN are mapped to different
PWs, and the PWs are carried by the same tunnel to save label resources.

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Figure 6-2 VLAN plan

RNC/S-GW/MME

Transmission network

NodeB/eNodeB
Switch area 1:
Management VLAN=68, Pri=6
Service VLAN=78, Pri=4

NodeB/eNodeB
Switch area 2:
Management VLAN=88, Pri=6
Service VLAN=98, Pri=4

NodeB/eNodeB
Switch area 3:
Management VLAN=1008, Pri=6
Service VLAN=1118, Pri=4

Protection
The PTN network is protected by the PW 1:1 APS or tunnel 1:1 APS mechanism. To achieve
dual-homing at the convergence layer, a 1:1 APS protection group with the same source but
different sinks needs to be configured, as shown in Figure 6-3.

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Figure 6-3 PW/Tunnel 1:1 APS

el
hann
ing c
k
r
o
W

Prote
ction

PW

Tunnel

chan

nel

Co-sourced but not co-sinked 1:1 PW APS

Co-sourced but not co-sinked 1:1 tunnel APS

OptiX OSN 550/500

OptiX OSN 3500/7500 II

OAM
The OptiX OSN 500 supports the hierarchical OAM functions for PTN networks, including ETH
OAM, MPLS OAM, and MPLS-TP OAM. Figure 6-4 shows the application of hierarchical
OAM.

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Figure 6-4 Application of hierarchical OAM on a Hybrid network


P

PE1

PE2
CE3

CE1

CE4

CE2
P

Ethernet Port OAM


ETH Layer

Ethernet Port OAM

Ethernet Service OAM

MEP

MEP
MPLS/MPLS-TP PW OAM

PW Layer

MEP

MEP
MPLS/MPLS-TP Tunnel OAM

Tunnel Layer

MEP

MIP

MIP

MEP

OptiX OSN 550/500

OptiX OSN 3500/7500 II

NOTE

For higher network bandwidth utilization, generally only CC/CV OAM is enabled for a tunnel. In addition,
to limit tunnel APS protection switching within 50 ms, the detection packet transmission interval is set to
3.3 ms.

QoS
As the service access node, an OptiX OSN 500 is generally connected to multiple base stations.
Each base station has different priorities of management data and service data. The QoS function
is used for managing traffic of different services from different base stations. Table 6-3 lists the
QoS functions for the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 6-3 QoS functions for the OptiX OSN 500 on a pure PTN network
Network
Position

Point of Application

QoS Function

Ingress node

Ingress direction of the


UNI port

VUNI ingress policies: traffic classification and


committed access rate (CAR)

PW ingress

CAR for PWs, the VLAN Pri field being mapped


to the LSP EXP field

Egress direction of the


NNI port

Weighted random early detection (WRED)


congestion management, SP+WRR scheduling
(SP is short for strict priority and weighted round
robin for WRR.)

Ingress direction of the


NNI port

Services being transmitted to different priority


queues based on their LSP EXP fields

Transit node

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Network
Position

Egress node

6 Networking and Application Scenarios

Point of Application

QoS Function

Egress direction of the


NNI port

WRED congestion management, SP+WRR or SP


+WFQ scheduling (WFQ is short for weighted
fair queuing.)

Ingress direction of the


NNI port

Services being transmitted to different priority


queues based on their LSP EXP fields

Egress direction of the


UNI port

WRED, SP+WRR or SP+WFQ scheduling, the


LSP EXP field being mapped to the VLAN Pri
field

Ingress direction of the


UNI port

VUNI ingress policies: traffic classification and


CAR

Synchronization
The synchronous Ethernet clock is used for network-wide synchronization.
l

As shown in Figure 6-5, clock synchronization information from the two building
integrated timing supplies (BITSs) is injected into the two OptiX OSN 3500/7500 II nodes
on the aggregation ring. The master BITS provides a higher-priority clock source and the
slave BITS provides a lower-priority clock source.

The base stations derive clock synchronization information from the OptiX OSN 500 by
means of the retiming E1 clock, synchronous Ethernet clock, or 2M external clock.

Figure 6-5 Clock synchronization on a pure PTN network

Master
BITS

ATM/IMA
E1/FE/2M
external clock

Slave
BITS

Physical synchronization route


Physical synchronization protection route

BITS

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7 Network Management System

Network Management System

About This Chapter


The OptiX OSN 500 is uniformly managed by the transmission network management system
(NMS) and local craft terminal (LCT) through the ETH port. The OptiX OSN 500 supports the
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
The NMS maintains the OSN, SDH, Metro, and DWDM network elements (NEs) on an entire
network. The NMS can implement end-to-end configurations for packet services.
The OptiX OSN 500 complies with ITU-T Recommendations. The equipment adopts a
management information model and an object-oriented management technology. With the NMS,
the equipment can exchange information with the NE software through the communication
module to manage alarms and performance events in a centralized manner. In addition, end-toend configuration on the management plane can be achieved.
The OptiX OSN 500 supports SNMPv2/SNMPv3, which allows a third-party NMS to monitor
equipment performance.
7.1 Network Management
This chapter describes the network management system, inter-NE communication management,
and intra-NE communication management.
7.2 DCN Management
Reliable network management ensures proper running of a network, and therefore transmission
of network management data becomes very critical. The data communication network (DCN)
is a network management data communication channel, with which users can remotely manage
and maintain NEs.
7.3 Synchronization Between the NMS and NEs
With the time synchronization function, consistency is maintained between the NE time and the
U2000 server time. In this way, the U2000 is able to record the correct time at which alarms
occur and the correct time at which the abnormal events are reported by NEs.

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7.1 Network Management


This chapter describes the network management system, inter-NE communication management,
and intra-NE communication management.
Figure 7-1 shows the typical network management application of the OptiX OSN 500.
l

Network management system: U2000 and U2000 LCT

Inter-NE communication management:


The NEs at sites A and C are gateway NEs (GNEs) and are connected to the external
DCN through a switch or router. All the other NEs are non-GNEs that communicate
with the NMS through GNEs.
The NEs between sites A and D are connected with fibers and use the HWECC or IP
over DCC protocol to exchange information over ESC/OSC channels.
The NEs between sites E and C are connected with fibers and use the HWECC or IP
over DCC protocol to exchange information over ESC channels.
The NEs between sites F and C are connected with fibers and use the HWECC or IP
over DCC protocol to exchange information over inband channels.
Some NEs between sites A and F (NEs connected to an optical or electrical transmission
device, such as NEs at site B) are connected with network cables, and use the HWECC
or IP over DCC protocol to exchange information over Ethernet channels (at NM_ETH
ports).

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Intra-NE communication management: The master and slave subracks implement intra-NE
communication for each NE at sites A-D. One NE at site A has three subracks (one master
is connected to two slaves).

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Figure 7-1 Network management


Secondary
U2000

Primary
U2000
External DCN

Switch

Router
NON-GNE
Site D
GNE
Site A

Site E
GNE
Site C

Master

Slave

NON-GNE

NON-GNE
Site F
NON-GNE
Site B

Slave

OptiX OSN 8800


Subrack

Fiber

OptiX OSN 1800

U2000
Web LCT

OptiX OSN 550/500

Network cable

NOTE

Figure 7-1 illustrates a network that has Huawei equipment deployed at different layers: NEs at sites AD are OptiX OSN 8800 NEs, NEs at site E are OptiX OSN 1800 NEs, and NEs at site F are OptiX OSN
550/500 NEs.

Network management involves the following aspects:

Network Management System


The network management system (NMS) provides unified management for OptiX equipment.
In compliance with associated ITU-T Recommendations, the NMS uses a standard information
management model and object-oriented management technology.
The NMS manages alarms, performance, configurations, communication, security, and
topologies of the entire optical transmission system. The NMS also gives users end-to-end
management capabilities. An NMS helps to improve network quality, lower maintenance costs,
and ensure efficient utilization of network resources.
The NMS includes two sets of network management software: iManager U2000 (U2000) and
iManager U2000 LCT (U2000 LCT). The U2000 is usually installed at a network management
center, and most equipment is managed remotely. The LCT provides the ability to configure and
maintain individual NEs. The LCT is usually installed on a PC for local access to equipment.

Inter-NE Communication Management


Inter-NE communication management is implemented based on data communication networks
(DCNs). A DCN consists of NMSs, GNEs, non-GNEs, and the connections between them. Both
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NMSs and NEs are nodes of a DCN. The DCN between the NMSs and NEs is called the external
DCN, and the DCN between NEs is called the internal DCN.
l

An external DCN is a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN) and uses
the TCP/IP protocol for communication. It provides communication between NMSs and
between the NMS server and GNEs.

An internal DCN uses the HWECC or TCP/IP protocol to provide communication between
NEs. NEs support inband DCN and outband DCN. The outband DCN uses DCC overhead
bytes as physical DCN channels. The inband DCN uses Ethernet service channels as
physical DCN channels.

7.2 DCN Management


Reliable network management ensures proper running of a network, and therefore transmission
of network management data becomes very critical. The data communication network (DCN)
is a network management data communication channel, with which users can remotely manage
and maintain NEs.
Table 7-1 lists the DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports.
Table 7-1 DCN solutions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports
DC
N
Sol
uti
on

Purpose and Benefit

Feature

Networking Technology

Inb
and
DC
N

NM information is
transmitted through the
service channels
provided by managed
equipment. Therefore,
no extra equipment or
DCN is required. This
reduces operating
expenditure.

l Flexible networking:
NM information is
encapsulated into
Ethernet frames and
carries a fixed VLAN
ID to get separated
from the service data.
The NM information
is transmitted with
services on service
channels.

l HWECC
l IP

l VLAN priorities can


be set.

7.3 Synchronization Between the NMS and NEs


With the time synchronization function, consistency is maintained between the NE time and the
U2000 server time. In this way, the U2000 is able to record the correct time at which alarms
occur and the correct time at which the abnormal events are reported by NEs.
When NEs report alarms and abnormal events to the U2000, the time at which such alarms and
events occur is based on the NE time. If the NE time is incorrect, then the wrong time with regard
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to the occurrence of alarms is recorded in the U2000. This may cause trouble in fault location.
In addition, the wrong time with regard to the occurrence of abnormal events is recorded in the
NE security logs. To ensure the NE time accuracy, the U2000 provides three time
synchronization schemes: synchronizing with the U2000 server, synchronizing with the NTP
server and synchronizing with the standard NTP server and synchronizing with the standard
NTP server.
l

If you use the scheme of synchronizing with the U2000 server, all NEs use the U2000 server
time as the standard time. The NE time can be synchronized with the U2000 server time
manually or automatically. The U2000 server time refers to the system time of the
workstation or computer where the U2000 server is located. This scheme features easy
operation, and is applicable in networks that require a low accuracy with regard to time.

If you use the scheme of synchronizing with the NTP server or synchronizing with the
standard NTP server, the NE time and the U2000 time are synchronized with the NTP server
time or the standard NTP server time automatically. The NTP server can be the U2000
server or a special time server. This scheme enables the U2000 and NEs to have a time
accuracy of one nanosecond in theory, and applies to a network with high requirement for
time accuracy.

NTP Network Application


Figure 7-2 shows a network in which NTP is used to ensure synchronization across the network.
Figure 7-2 Network using NTP to ensure synchronization

The highest-level time


server

Time server

NMS server

The middle-level time


server
Clients

NE2
NE1
NE3

NE5

NE4

As shown in Figure 7-2, the equipment in the network can be classified into three categories:
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The highest-level time server: the 0-level time server

The middle-level time server: the 1- or 2-level time server that obtains time information
from the higher-level time server and provides time information for the lower-level time
server

Clients: obtaining time information only

In application, the server and clients can be configured as follows:


l

Choose the NMS server as the time server for NEs. The NMS server can be set as the
highest-level time server, or set to obtain time information from other time servers.

NEs can only be set as the client, obtaining time information from the specified time server.

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Operation and Maintenance

About This Chapter


Routine equipment maintenance and troubleshooting are essential to ensure that a network runs
properly. The OptiX OSN 500 provides strong maintenance capabilities.
Table 8-1 lists the maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports.
Table 8-1 Maintenance functions that the OptiX OSN 500 supports
Applica
tion
Scenari
o

Function

Description

Routine
maintena
nce

Alarm and
performance
management

l Provides audible and visual alarms warn of emergencies


to help network administrators take prompt action.
l Provides running status indicators and alarm indicators
on all boards to help administrators locate and handle
faults quickly.
l Provides the alarm input and output function to facilitate
alarm collection for external devices.
l Dynamically monitors the operation and alarm status of
all NEs using the NMS.
l Stores results of sixteen consecutive 15-minute
performance monitoring events, that is, four hours of
performance events divided into 15-minute segments.
l Stores results of six consecutive 24-hour performance
monitoring events, that is, six days of performance
events divided into 24-hour segments.

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Function

Description

RMON

l Monitors data from different network segments on a


transmission network. RMON supplements simple
Ethernet performance management tools, and can be
used on a wide range of networks.

Upgrade and
loading of board
software and NE
software

l Supports in-service upgrades and loading of board


software and NE software.
l Supports remote loading of board software and field
programmable gate array (FPGA).
l Supports error-proof loading and resumable loading.

Voltage check

l Measures input voltages and detects undervoltage and


overvoltage states.

Automatic search
for optical fibers

l Supports the fiber auto-discovery function on the NMS.

Automatic
shutdown of lasers

l SDH single-mode optical ports support the ALS


function.
l Packet Ethernet boards support the setting of upper
threshold or lower threshold of input optical power.

Port impedance
query

l Supports the query of port impedance on the NMS.

Optical module
information query

l Allows the NMS to query information about optical


modules, including single-mode/multi-mode, rate level,
supplier, production date, and wavelength.

Power
consumption
control

l Computes system power consumption.


l Monitors the total power consumption of an NE, and
reports an alarm if the total power consumption exceeds
the power consumption threshold of the NE.
l Supports the query of the power consumption of an NE/
board by using the NMS.

OAM

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Storage of the ID
and IP address of
an NE

The backplane stores IDs and IP addresses of NEs, and the


SCC board reads these from the backplane.

Port information
query

Queries communication protocols in use, status, functions,


and names of ports used for external communication and
physical ports connected to networks.

ETH OAM

l Uses outband packets to detect and monitor the


connectivity and performance of service trails. The
process does not affect services.

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Function

Description

ATM OAM

l Detects and locates ATM faults, and monitors ATM


performance.

MPLS OAM

l Detects and locates faults on an MPLS network, and


works with MPLS APS to protect services.
l MPLS OAM mechanisms include tunnel OAM and PW
OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and
PW OAM operates at the PW layer.

MPLS-TP OAM

l MPLS-TP OAM can detect, identify, and locate faults


on packet switched networks, and notify NEs of the
faults, so the NEs can implement protection switching.
l MPLS-TP OAM mechanisms include tunnel OAM and
PW OAM. Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer,
and PW OAM operates at the PW layer.

Fault
locating

One-click data
collection

l Provides a one-click data collection function for fault


data to reduce data collection time before service
recovery.
l Users can collect fault data selectively and can stop a
collection process manually.

Loopback

l Service boards support inloops and outloops on ports to


facilitate fault location.

Remote
maintenance

l Maintenance personnel can use a public telephone


network to remotely maintain the OptiX OSN 500
equipment.

PRBS

l An NE enabled with the PRBS function can be used as


an instrument to transmit and receive unframed services
in order to analyze whether service paths are faulty.
l An NE enabled with the PRBS function can be used to
analyze itself or the entire network.
l The PRBS function substitutes for a test instrument
during deployment or fault location.
NOTE
Only MD1 boards support PRBS tests on E1 ports.

Warm/Cold resets

l System control, switching, and timing boards and


service boards support warm and cold resets.

Hot swap

l Service boards and fan boards support hot swapping.


l Pluggable optical modules can be hot-swapped.
l Service cables and auxiliary cables can be hot-swapped.

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Other

8 Operation and Maintenance

Function

Description

Port mirroring

Supports port mirroring that enables Ethernet service


testing and service fault diagnosis without affecting the
services.

Quick fault
rectification

A traditional NE database backup may end up with a failure.


The quick fault rectification function uses NMS
configuration data as the data restoration source to rebuild
the NE configuration database.

Hot patch loading

Supports the hot patch loading function. Running software


can be upgraded without being interrupted.

Alarm reporting
upon removal of
important
peripheral storage
devices

When a CF storage card is removed, the equipment reports


a security alarm.

NSF

NSF stands for Non-interrupted Service Forwarding. When


the control plane of the equipment is faulty, the NSF
function ensures that the data services are not interrupted,
ensuring transmission of the key services on the network.

8.1 Maintenance Support


This section describes the maintenance functions and features in the packet domain.
8.2 Upgrade Methods
If the current version of the OptiX OSN 500 cannot meet customer requirements, upgrade the
equipment to a higher version. The available upgrade methods are package loading and package
diffusion.

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8.1 Maintenance Support


This section describes the maintenance functions and features in the packet domain.

8.1.1 TP-Assist
With the explosive growth of service traffic, metropolitan area networks (MANs) now mainly
carry data services, such as video services, Internet services, and voice over IP (VoIP) services,
instead of traditional voice services. Compared with connection-oriented SDH networks, packet
switched networks (PSNs) feature more flexible networking, complex configurations, and higher
technical requirements on operation and maintenance personnel. TP-Assist dramatically
simplifies PSN operation and maintenance, facilitating deployment of large-scale networks.
Unlike an SDH network, a packet network brings the following challenges:
l

More types of network topologies and more complex and time-consuming configurations,
which impose higher requirements on O&M personnel.

Lack of overheads that indicate the physical status of a network to real-time monitor
services or form a complete alarm system. Once a network is faulty, it is hard to locate the
fault.

TP-Assist supports a wide variety of transmission devices, complies with OAM standards, and
integrates Huawei's powerful NMS U2000 and unique operation and maintenance experience.
It applies to all stages of the network life cycle.
TP-Assist

Network planning

Service configuration

Network topology
planning

End-to-end service
deployment

Service and hardware


configuration planning

Automatic deployment of
alarm management

Service commissioning

One-click service
connectivity test

Routine maintenance

Fault diagnosis

Performance monitoring
and statistics

Intelligent fault diagnosis

Service path visualization

IP ping response

One-click service
performance test
Service loop detection
Automatic test with no
need for any instrument

Network planning: provides powerful network planning tools and professional network
planning service.

Service configuration:
Deploys services across microwave and optical fibers in an end-to-end manner.
Automatically deploys alarm management when services are being deployed,
simplifying alarm deployment. Alarms can be reported upon a service interruption.

Service commissioning:
Provides one-click service connectivity and performance tests.
Automatically tests the delay, throughput, and packet loss rate with no need for any test
instruments.

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Routine maintenance: monitors performance and collects performance statistics by port,


flow classification, VLAN, VUNI, VUNI group, PW, tunnel, and queue priority.

Fault diagnosis:
Provides the quick fault diagnosis function, which diagnoses faults at the service, PW,
or tunnel layer by checking connectivity, performance, and configurations.
Provides the IP ping function to test end-to-end connectivity, facilitating quick fault
location.
Locates looped points, checks whether a loop forms due to incorrect service
configurations, and automatically disables looped services in a ring network storm,
therefore minimizing the impact of looped services on the network.

8.1.2 MPLS OAM


The MPLS OAM mechanism supported by the equipment includes tunnel OAM and PW OAM.
Tunnel OAM operates at the tunnel layer, and PW OAM operates at the PW layer. Tunnel OAM
and PW OAM both provide the complete fault detection and locating mechanism.

Tunnel OAM
l

Description
The tunnel OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects
at the tunnel layer of an MPLS network. The equipment triggers the protection switching
based on the OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection
can be achieved.

Objectives and benefits


As a key bearer technology for the scalable next generation network (NGN), MPLS
provides multi-service capabilities with ensured QoS. In addition, MPLS introduces a
unique network layer (tunnel), which may cause some faults. Therefore, an MPLS network
must have the OAM capability.
By providing a tunnel OAM mechanism independent of any upper layer or lower layer, the
tunnel OAM supports the following features:
Provides query-on-demand and consecutive detections so that at any moment you can
learn whether the monitored tunnel has defects.
Detects, analyzes, and locates any defect that occurs, and notifies the NMS of the
relevant information.
Triggers a protection switching immediately after a defect or fault occurs on a link.
Monitors the performance events indicating packet loss ratio, delay, and jitter in real
time and reports them to the NMS.

PW OAM
l

Description
The PW OAM mechanism helps to effectively detect, identify, and locate internal defects
at the PW layer of a network. The equipment triggers the protection switching based on the
OAM detection status. Therefore, quick fault detection and service protection can be
achieved.

l
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Objectives and benefits


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The equipment performs PW encapsulation on service packets, and then transmits the
service packets over tunnels. The network consists of two layers: tunnel and PW. Tunnels
use tunnel OAM for maintenance and management, and PWs use PW OAM for
maintenance and management. Currently, the equipment can detect the connectivity of a
certain PW through ping packets, and then reports the result to the NMS.

8.1.3 MPLS-TP OAM


MPLS-TP OAM is defined by MPLS-TP. It is compatible with existing MPLS OAM standards
and focuses on particularity of transport networks.
MPLS-TP OAM is available in two technical solutions: solution based on bidirectional
forwarding detection (BFD) extension and solution based on ITU-T G.8113.1. This section
describes the solution based on ITU-T G.8113.1 extension.
ITU-T G.8113.1-compliant MPLS-TP OAM applies to most data communication equipment
and packet switching equipment, and therefore can provide end-to-end OAM for PSNs
consisting of data communication equipment and packet switching equipment.
Figure 8-1 Application of MPLS-TP OAM on a PSN consisting of data communication
equipment and packet switching equipment

MPLS-TP OAM

PSN
NodeB

RNC

PW1
PW2

NE1

MPLS tunnel

NodeB

NE2
RNC

Packet transmission equipment

Equipment with MPLS-TP OAM functionality can meet carrier-class data transmission needs.

8.1.4 ETH OAM


ETH OAM enhances Ethernet Layer 2 maintenance functions and it strongly supports service
continuity verification, service deployment commissioning, and network fault locating.
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Definition
Based on the MAC layer, the ETH OAM protocol performs OAM operations for the Ethernet
by transmitting OAM packets. This protocol is irrelevant to the transmission medium. The OAM
packets are processed only at the MAC layer, having no impact on the other layers of the Ethernet.
In addition, as a low-rate protocol, the ETH OAM protocol occupies low bandwidths. Therefore,
this protocol does not affect services carried on links.
ITU-T and IEEE have researches on ETH OAM. Currently, Huawei Ethernet service processing
boards have realized the ETH OAM function, which complies with IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE
802.3ah. Wherein, IEEE 802.1ag define Ethernet service OAM standards, and IEEE 802.3ah
defines Ethernet port OAM standards. As shown in Figure 8-2, the combination of IEEE 802.1ag
and IEEE 802.3ah provides a complete Ethernet OAM solution.
Figure 8-2 Application of IEEE 802.1ag and IEEE 802.3ah
IEEE
802.3ah

CE
1

Router1

IEEE
802.3ah

IEEE 802.1ag

P
CE3

CE2

PE2

PE1
P

Router2

Access Layer

Router3

CE4

Access Layer
Core Layer

Custom Layer

Custom Layer

OptiX NE

Ethernet service OAM focuses on the maintenance of end-to-end Ethernet links. Based on
services, Ethernet service OAM implements end-to-end detection in the unit of
"maintenance domain" and performs segmental management on each network segment that
is involved in the same service on a network.

Ethernet port OAM focuses on the maintenance of point-to-point Ethernet link between
two directly-connected devices in Ethernet in the first mile (EFM). Ethernet port OAM
does not focus on a specific service. It maintains the point-to-point Ethernet link by
performing OAM auto-discovery, link performance monitoring, fault check, remote
loopback, and selfloop check.

Purpose
With the continuous development of the Ethernet, especially when LANs evolve to WANs,
operators pay more attention to equipment maintainability. Solutions to operations,
administration and maintenance (OAM) in the transmission network are required urgently.
Therefore, ETH OAM is developed.
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A comparison of ETH OAM and existing OAM and fault locating methods is provided as
follows:
l

When a loopback is performed at a port, all packets on the port are looped back. Therefore,
the loopback method cannot be used if only a specific service needs to be looped back.

ETH OAM can detect hardware faults.

ETH OAM can detect and locate faults automatically.

8.1.5 ATM OAM


This section provides the definition of ATM OAM and describes its purpose.

Definition
ATM OAM is used for detecting and locating ATM faults, and monitoring ATM performance.
In this document, ATM OAM refers to OAM only at the ATM layer and implements various
OAM functions by means of specific ATM OAM cells.

Purpose
ATM OAM provides segment-based ATM OAM between the CE and the PE and end-to-endbased ATM OAM between CEs.
As shown in Figure 8-3, ATM OAM cells are transmitted and detected between the CE and the
PE, or between the CEs to monitor the ATM link.
Figure 8-3 Typical application of ATM OAM
CE1
(NodeB)

PE1

CE2

PE2

(RNC)

ATM cell stream (VP level or VC level)

Segment check

Segment check

End-to-end check

Packet transmission
equipment

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8.1.6 RMON
By using the remote monitoring (RMON), you can transmit network monitoring data between
different network sections.
Currently, the management of the Ethernet performance for transmission products is relevantly
simple. In the case of the management of Ethernet ports, the management of the performance
data of the ports is required. What's more, as the network is becoming complex, a method for
managing network sections is required. Thus, the RMON emerges and the RMON should have
the following features:
l

All statistics data is saved at the agent and the out-of-service operation on the manager is
supported.

History data is saved for the fault diagnosis.

Errors are detected and reported.

Detailed data is provided.

Multiple management stations are supported.

Based on the preceding purposes, the RMON defines a serial of statistic formats and functions
to realize the data exchange between the control stations and detection stations that complies
with the RMON standards. To meet the requirements of different networks, the RMON provides
flexible detection modes and control mechanism. What's more, the RMON provides error
diagnosis, planning and information receiving of the performance events of the entire network.

8.1.7 Port Mirroring


For the existing complex networks, OptiX OSN equipment has already provided various
effective fault diagnosis methods. However, the methods require path overheads or even
interrupt service. Therefore, a fast fault diagnosis method that does not affect services is urgently
required. Port mirroring effectively addresses this requirement.
Port mirroring has the following features:
l

Port mirroring applies to online fault diagnosis. It replicates the traffic at one port to another
port, and then an analyzer is used to locate faults.

After port mirroring is used, traffic can be monitored in real time using an analyzer.

As shown in Figure 8-4, a port on NE1 is the mirror source port and another port on NE1 is the
mirror destination port. NE1 replicates the traffic at the mirror source port to the mirror
destination port. An analyzer is used to analyze the traffic or to monitor the traffic in real time
without affecting the services.

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Figure 8-4 Typical networking for port mirroring

Mirror Source
Function Point

Analyst

NodeB
Mirror
Observation Point

NE1
(Monitored/Monitor)

NE2

NE3

Normal Service
RNC

Mirror Service

8.2 Upgrade Methods


If the current version of the OptiX OSN 500 cannot meet customer requirements, upgrade the
equipment to a higher version. The available upgrade methods are package loading and package
diffusion.
Table 8-2 lists the upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 8-2 Upgrade methods available for the OptiX OSN 500

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Upgrade
Method

Package Loading

Package Diffusion

Definition

With a software package


description file, a software package
functions as a logical package of
required software. This logical
package can be uploaded to
upgrade an entire NE.

With a software package


description file, a software package
functions as a logical package of
required software. The logical
package is diffused and almost
synchronously loaded to all NEs on
a network. This upgrade method is
more efficient.

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Upgrade
Method

Package Loading

Package Diffusion

Application
scenario

l One NE needs to be upgraded.

l More than one NE needs to be


upgraded.

l System control boards and other


boards must support package
loading.
l There are CF cards on system
control boards.

Characteristic

l System control boards and other


boards must support package
loading.
l There are CF cards on system
control boards.

l All the boards on an NE can be


upgraded on a unified GUI.

l All the boards on an NE can be


upgraded on a unified GUI.

l There is no need to care about


which boards to upgrade or
which files to update.

l There is no need to care about


which boards to upgrade or
which files to update.
l Software packages are diffused.
l Network load and network
bandwidth are both shared.

Applicable
version

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V100R005C00 and later versions


support this upgrade method.

V100R005C00 and later versions


support this upgrade method.

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9 Security Management

Security Management

About This Chapter


The OptiX OSN 500 allows NE security management to be implemented by various means.
9.1 Authentication Management
For security concerns, only an authenticated user can log in to an NE.
9.2 Authorization Management
Authorization management allows different authorities for different users when they operate an
NE. This effectively protects an NE against inappropriate operations.
9.3 Network Security Management
The security of transmitting data between the NMS and NEs, and in networks, is the precondition
for the NMS to manage the NEs.
9.4 System Security Management
The system provides necessary security policies that are executed forcibly.
9.5 Log Management
The OptiX OSN 500 supports system security log management and Syslog management.

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9.1 Authentication Management


For security concerns, only an authenticated user can log in to an NE.
l

NE login management: You can successfully log in to an NE only after entering the correct
user name and password.

NE user switching: One client allows only one user to operate an NE at a time. For this
reason, if multiple NE users log in to an NE, the NE users need to be switched to ensure
that the configuration data is unique.

Forcibly logging other users out of an NE: To avoid errors owing to simultaneous
configuration by multiple users, or to prevent other users from illegally logging in to an
NE, one user can forcibly log a lower-level user out from the NE.

NE login locking: After the locking function is enabled, a user whose level is lower than
that of the current user is not allowed to log in to an NE.

NE configuration locking: You can lock the function of configuring certain function
modules on an NE to prevent other users from configuring the modules.

You can query users that have logged in to an NE.

9.2 Authorization Management


Authorization management allows different authorities for different users when they operate an
NE. This effectively protects an NE against inappropriate operations.
l

Management of NE users
Five user authority levels are available in an ascending order: monitoring level,
operation level, maintenance level, system level, and debugging level.
Based on network management systems, NE users are classified into LCT NE users,
EMS NE users, CMD NE users, and general NE users.
You can create a user, assign an authority level for the user, and specify the user flag.
You can change a user name, a password, an authority level, and a user flag.
You can delete a user.

Management of NE user groups:


By default, five user groups are available with authorities in an ascending order: monitor
group, operator group, maintenance personnel group, administrator group, and super
administrator group.
You can change the group to which a user belongs.

9.3 Network Security Management


The security of transmitting data between the NMS and NEs, and in networks, is the precondition
for the NMS to manage the NEs.
Communication between the NMS and NEs can be implemented based on the Access Control
List (ACL), Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), or Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service
(RADIUS) protocol.
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ACL Protocol
ACL rules are configured to filter received IP packets. This controls the data traffic on networks
and protects against malicious attacks.
You can set basic ACL rules or advanced ACL rules, based on the required system security level.
l

For an NE that requires a low security level, you can configure basic ACL rules so that the
NE checks only the source addresses of received IP packets.

For an NE that requires a high security level, you can configure advanced ACL rules. In
this case, the NE checks the source addresses, sink addresses, source ports, sink ports, and
protocol types of received IP packets.

If both basic and advanced ACL rules are configured, an NE uses only advanced ACL rules to
check received IP packets.
In addition, ACL rules support the following operations:
l

Queries of ACL rules

Modification of ACL rules

Deletion of ACL rules

SSL Protocol
The SSL protocol is used to protect the integrity and security of data.

RADIUS Protocol
RADIUS provides a complete network security solution. After a RADIUS server verifies that
the user name and password of a user are valid, the server allows a certain authority for the user,
and provides services to the user.
Carriers' RADIUS servers manage all the user accounts and user attributes of the 500. To log in
to an OptiX OSN 500 NE, you must apply for a user account to the carrier. When you attempt
to log in to an OptiX OSN 500 NE, the RADIUS server verifies the user name and password
that you have entered. If the verification fails, a login error is reported.
The OptiX OSN 500 supports the shielding function when being connected to a network port
management device. That is, when being connected to a network port on an OptiX OSN 500
NE, a network port management device manages only the connected OptiX OSN 500 NE, and
cannot access the other devices that are connected to the OptiX OSN 500 NE through ECCs.
With this function, even if an OptiX OSN 500 NE in the insecure domain is accessed illegally,
the NEs that are connected to the OptiX OSN 500 NE will not be illegally operated.

Security FTP
Security File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) works at the secure shell (SSH) connection layer, and
extends support for FTP security based on SSH-provided fundamental services like encryption
and authentication.
l

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In security, FTP transmits plain text and supports only password authentication, whereas
SFTP transmits cipher text and supports both password authentication and cipher key
authentication. Authentication by cipher key is safer than authentication by password.
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SFTP needs to perform encryption and decryption and theoretically has a lower
transmission efficiency than FTP. However, benefiting from specialized improvement
design, SFTP generally has a higher transmission efficiency than FTP.

SFTP can load packages, upload/download databases, upload log files, and upload/
download a single file. NEs can work only as SFTP clients and cannot work as SFTP
servers. In addition, SFTP works based on TCP connections and requires IP routes between
NEs and SSH servers. Therefore, SFTP service can be deployed only at gateway NEs.

9.4 System Security Management


The system provides necessary security policies that are executed forcibly.
l

Account management: You can create/modify/delete/query accounts.

Uniqueness and complexity of accounts: All accounts held in an NE are unique. An account
consists of 4 to 16 characters.

Length and complexity of passwords: A password consists of 8 to 16 characters and contains


all the following types of characters: lowercase character, uppercase character, digit, and
special character. A password cannot be any of the five recently used passwords, the user
name, or reversed user name.

Active periods of passwords: Each password has an active period. After the active period
of a password expires, the password can be used for only three logins. For a common user's
password, the shortest active period is one day. A common user can change the password
only after the shortest active period expires.

Storage of encrypted passwords: Encrypted by using the message digest algorithm 5 (MD5)
or SHA256, passwords are held in a system. SHA256 is used by default when a user is
created or the system password is changed.

Querying about online users: An administrator account can query online users.

9.5 Log Management


The OptiX OSN 500 supports system security log management and Syslog management.

System Security Log Management


The system security log of an NE records all operations and operation results on the NE. By
querying the system security log, an administrator can trace and check operations of users.
l

You can query the system security log of an NE.

You can forward the system security log to the Syslog server.

Syslog Management
The Syslog service is used for the security management of NEs. Different information is
transmitted to the Syslog server in a format compliant with the Syslog protocol so that
maintenance personnel can monitor NEs easily.
The OptiX OSN 500 supports the following functions related to the Syslog protocol:
l
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Enabling and disabling the Syslog protocol


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Setting the transmission mode of the Syslog protocol to UDP (by default) or TCP

Adding or deleting Syslog servers

Configuration of multiple Syslog servers and transmission of logs to multiple servers at the
same time

Reporting relevant alarms when the Syslog server fails to communicate with NEs

Figure 9-1 illustrates log transmission on a network by means of the Syslog protocol. To ensure
the security of system logs, at least two Syslog servers are required on a transmission network.
NEs communicate with Syslog servers by running the IP protocol. NEs communicate with each
other in many modes, such as HWECC, IP over DCC, and OSI over DCC.
Figure 9-1 Log transmission by means of the Syslog protocol
NE B

NMS

NE C
(client)

NE A
(client)

TCP/IP
Syslog server B

Real-time
security log
Syslog server A

NE D

NOTE

A Syslog server is a workstation or server that stores the system logs of all NEs on a network.
Forwarding gateway NEs receive system logs from other NEs, and then forward these system logs to Syslog
servers, for example, NE A and NE C in Figure 9-1.

When NEs communicate in IP mode, each NE can directly communicate with two different
Syslog servers by running the IP protocol. Therefore, you need to configure the IP addresses
and port numbers of the Syslog servers on an NE. The NE transmits the system log to two Syslog
servers by using the automatic routing function of the IP protocol. You do not need to configure
any forwarding gateway NE.
When NEs communicate in ECC mode, the NEs that are not directly connected to Syslog servers
cannot communicate with Syslog servers. The logs of these NEs need to be transmitted to the
gateway NEs that can communicate with Syslog servers directly. Then, the gateway NEs forward
the logs to Syslog servers. Therefore, you need to configure forwarding gateway NEs. For
example, you can configure NE A as the forwarding NE of NE D.

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10

10 Technical Specifications

Technical Specifications

About This Chapter


This chapter describes general specifications, function/feature indicators, port specifications,
optical module specifications, indicator status explanation, and environment indicators of the
equipment.
10.1 General Specifications
This section lists the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power
supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability.
10.2 Function/Feature Indicators
This section lists the equipment's function/feature indicators.
10.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board
This section lists the power consumption and weight of each board that the equipment supports.
10.4 Optical Port Specifications
This section lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's FE/GE optical ports.
10.5 Colored Optical Ports
This topic lists the parameters specified for the colored optical ports of the OptiX OSN
equipment.
10.6 Electrical Port Specifications
This section lists the equipment's electrical port specifications. The equipment's electrical ports
include CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports and Ethernet electrical ports.
10.7 Indicator Status Explanation
This section provides status explanation for indicators on boards.
10.8 Safety Certification
The OptiX OSN 500 has passed many safety certifications.
10.9 Environmental Specifications
The OptiX OSN 500 requires proper environments for storage, transportation, and operation.

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10 Technical Specifications

10.1 General Specifications


This section lists the chassis dimensions, weight, power consumption, heat consumption, power
supply performance, electromagnetic compatibility, and reliability.
Table 10-1 lists the general specifications of the OptiX OSN 500.
Table 10-1 General specifications of the OptiX OSN 500
Item

Description

Dimensions

44 mm x 442 mm x 220 mm (H x W x D)

Weight

2 kg (net weight of a chassis that contains one fan board and one PIU board)

Power
consumptio
n

l Maximum power consumption: 100 W


l Typical power consumption: 35 W
Board configuration for typical power consumption: 1 x CSHD + 1 x FAN
+ 1 x PIU.
SLOT SLOT
5
6
(PIU) (FAN)

SLOT 1(CSHD)

Heat
consumptio
n

l Maximum heat consumption: 341 BTU/h

Power
supply
performanc
e

l Power supply mode: DC

Fuse
capacity

10 A

Electromag
netic
compatibilit
y

Complies with EMC Class A.

Predicted
reliability

l System availability: 0.9999976

l Typical heat consumption: 120 BTU/h

l Rated voltage: -48 V or -60 V


l Voltage range: -38.4 V to -72 V

l Annual average repair rate: < 1.5%


l Mean time to repair (MTTR): 2 hours
l Mean time between failures (MTBF): 94.50 years

NOTE

In the case of OptiX OSN 500 equipment, power consumption is generally transformed into heat
consumption. Hence, heat consumption (BTU/h) and power consumption (W) can be converted to each
other in the formula: Heat consumption (BTU/h) = Power consumption (W) / 0.2931 (Wh).

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10 Technical Specifications

10.2 Function/Feature Indicators


This section lists the equipment's function/feature indicators.
Table 10-2 lists the OptiX OSN 500's function/feature indicators.
Table 10-2 Packet system performance specifications

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It
e
m

Specifications

Pr
ot
ec
tio
n

MPLS/
MPLS-TP
tunnel
automatic
protection
switching
(APS)

32

MPLS/
MPLS-TP
PW APS

Numbe
r of
MPLS/
MPLSTP PW
APS
protecti
on
groups

32

Numbe
r of
bound
membe
rs

512

NOTE
Tunnel APS, MPLS PW APS, MPLS-TP tunnel APS, and MPLS-TP PW APS share
resources.

NOTE
Tunnel APS, MPLS PW APS, MPLS-TP tunnel APS, and MPLS-TP
PW APS share resources.

Link-state
pass
through
(LPT)

16

Link
aggregatio
n group
(LAG)

Numbe
r of
LAGs

Numbe
r of
membe
rs in a
LAG

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It
e
m

Specifications

Multiple
Spanning
Tree
Protocol
(MSTP)

M
ai
nt
en
an
ce

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10 Technical Specifications

Numbe
r of
instanc
es
support
ed by a
port

Numbe
r of port
groups

Numbe
r of
ports
provide
d by
port
groups

16

Ethernet
ring
protection
switching
(ERPS)

Linear
multiplex
section
protection
(LMSP) on
the packet
plane

MPLS/
MPLS-TP
tunnel
OAM

64

MPLS/
MPLS-TP
PW OAM

64

NOTE
Tunnel OAM, MPLS PW OAM, MPLS-TP tunnel OAM, and MPLS-TP PW OAM
share resources.

NOTE
Tunnel OAM, MPLS PW OAM, MPLS-TP tunnel OAM, and MPLS-TP PW OAM
share resources.

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It
e
m

Specifications

ETH OAM

Se
rv
ic
es

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10 Technical Specifications

Numbe
r of
mainten
ance
domain
s (MDs)

32

Numbe
r of
mainten
ance
associat
ions
(MAs)

32

Numbe
r of
mainten
ance
associat
ion end
points
(MEPs)

32

Numbe
r of
mainten
ance
associat
ion
interme
diate
points
(MIPs)

32

ATM
OAM

l Number of local services: 96

E-Line
services

1k

l Number of remote services: 192

NOTE
Native ETH services and ETH PWE3 services (VPWSs) share resources.

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It
e
m

Specifications

E-LAN
services

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10 Technical Specifications

Numbe
r of ELAN
services
(ELAN
VSIs)
support
ed by an
NE
(VSI is
short
for
virtual
switch
instanc
e.)

l Native ETH services: 1

Numbe
r of
logical
ports
support
ed by a
VSI

l Native ETH services: 1k

Numbe
r of
virtual
usernetwor
k
interfac
es (VUNIs)
support
ed by an
NE
(VPLS)

Number of V-UNIs

Number of VLANs

32

4096

64

2047

128

1023

256

511

512

255

1024

127

Numbe
r of split
horizon
groups
support
ed by a
VSI

l Native ETH services: 1

l ETH PWE3 services (VPLSs): 16


NOTE
Native ETH services and ETH PWE3 services (VPLSs) cannot coexist
on the same NE.

l ETH PWE3 services (VPLSs): 64

l ETH PWE3 services (VPLSs): 3

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e
m

Specifications

Numbe
r of
logical
ports
support
ed by an
NE

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10 Technical Specifications

1k

CES
services

126

ATM
services

Numbe
r of
local
services

96

Numbe
r of
remote
services

192

M
ult
iLi
nk
Po
int
to
Po
int
Pr
ot
oc
ol
(
M
LP
P
P)

Number of
ML-PPP
groups
supported
by an NE

64

Number of
PPP links
supported
by an NE

504

Number of
member
links
supported
in an MLPPP group

16

IG
M
P
sn

Number of
multicast
groups

512

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It
e
m

Specifications

oo
pi
ng

Number of
members
in a
multicast
group

1K

Q
oS

Number of
port
weighted
random
early
discard
(WRED)
policies

Number of
virtual
usernetwork
interface
(V-UNI)
ingress
policies

256

Number of
port
policies

256

Number of
Differentia
ted
Services
(DiffServ)
domains

Number of
port flows

512

Number of
V-UNI
ingress
flows

512

Number of
traffic
classificati
on rules

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e
m

Ot
he
rs

10 Technical Specifications

Specifications

Number of
access
control
lists
(ACLs)

512

Number of
Tunnels

l Unidirectional: 1K
l Bidirectional: 512
NOTE
l One bidirectional Tunnel is counted as two unidirectional Tunnels.
l If Tunnels do not carry PWs, the sum of PWs and Tunnels must not exceed 1K.
If Tunnels carry PWs, the Tunnels are not counted and the number of carried
PWs must not exceed 1K. Therefore, if each Tunnel carries one PW, the number
of Tunnels and the number of PWs can both be 1K.

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Number of
static PWs

1K

Number of
MS-PWs

128

Number of
QinQ links

1K

MAC
addresses

Numbe
r of
static
MAC
address
es
support
ed by an
E-LAN

512

Numbe
r of
MAC
address
es
support
ed by ELAN
services

16K

NOTE
If Tunnels do not carry PWs, the sum of PWs and Tunnels must not exceed 1K. If
Tunnels carry PWs, the Tunnels are not counted and the number of carried PWs
must not exceed 1K. Therefore, if each Tunnel carries one PW, the number of
Tunnels and the number of PWs can both be 1K.

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e
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10 Technical Specifications

Specifications

Numbe
r of
MAC
address
es
support
ed by an
NE
VLAN ID
range
supported
by a port

16K

1 to 4094

10.3 Power Consumption and Weight of Each Board


This section lists the power consumption and weight of each board that the equipment supports.
Table 10-3 lists the power consumption and weight of each board that the OptiX OSN 500
supports.
Table 10-3 Power consumption and weight of each board that the OptiX OSN 500 supports
Board

Power Consumption (Room


temperature (25C))(W)

Weight (kg)

CSHD

32.2

1.00

MD1

12.2

0.50

EM6T

10.4

0.37

EM6F

11.3

0.40

EF8F

23

0.55

CQ1

16

0.50

PIU

0.5

0.12

FAN

2.3

0.20

10.4 Optical Port Specifications


This section lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's FE/GE optical ports.
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Specifications of STM-1 Optical Ports


Table 10-4 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's STM-1 optical ports.
Table 10-4 Specifications of the STM-1 two-fiber bidirectional optical ports
Item

Value

Nominal bit rate

155520 kbit/s

Optical port type

S-1.1

L-1.1

L-1.2

Transmission distance
(km)

15

40

80

Operating wavelength
range (nm)

1261 to 1360

1263 to 1360

1480 to 1580

Optical fiber type

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Launched optical power


range (dBm)

-15 to -8

-5 to 0

-5 to 0

Receiver sensitivity
(dBm)

-28

-34

-34

Minimum overload
(dBm)

-8

-10

-10

Minimum extinction ratio


(dB)

8.2

10

10

NOTE
Format of optical port type is defined as follows: transmission distance-signal rate.fiber type
Explanation for optical port type "S-1.1" is as follows: "S" represents short distance; the first digit "1"
represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm).
Explanation for optical port type "L-1.1" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1"
represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "1" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1310 nm).
Explanation for optical port type "L-1.2" is as follows: "L" represents long distance; the first digit "1"
represents STM-1 signals; the second digit "2" represents ITU-T G.652 fibers (1550 nm).

Table 10-5 lists the specifications for the single-fiber bidirectional optical interfaces of the
OptiX OSN 500's STM-1 optical ports.
Table 10-5 Specifications for the single-fiber bidirectional optical interfaces of the STM-1
optical ports

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Parameter

Value

Nominal bit rate

155520 kbit/s

Line code pattern

NRZ

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Parameter

Value

Type of optical interface

S-1.1

L-1.1

Transmission distance
(km)

15

40

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Operating transmit
wavelength (nm)

1550

1310

1550

1310

Operating receive
wavelength (nm)

1310

1550

1310

1550

Launched optical power


range (dBm)

-15 to -8

-5 to 0

Receiver sensitivity
(dBm)

-32

-32

Minimum overload
(dBm)

-8

-10

Minimum extinction
ratio (dB)

8.5

10

Specifications of FE Optical Ports


Table 10-6 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's FE optical ports.
Table 10-6 Specifications of the FE two-fiber bidirectional optical ports

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Item

Value

Optical port
type

100BASE-FX

100BASE-LX

100BASE-VX

100BASE-ZX

Optical fiber
type

Multi-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Transmissio
n distance
(km)

15

40

80

Operating
wavelength
(nm)

1270 to 1380

1261 to 1360

1263 to 1360

1480 to 1580

Mean
launched
power (dBm)

-19 to -14

-15 to -8

-5 to 0

-5 to 0

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Item

Value

Receiver
minimum
sensitivity
(dBm)

-30

-28

-34

-34

Minimum
overload
(dBm)

-14

-8

-10

-10

Minimum
extinction
ratio (dB)

10

8.2

10

10

Table 10-7 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's FE single-fiber bidirectional optical
ports.
Table 10-7 Specifications of the FE single-fiber bidirectional optical ports
Parameter

Value

Type of optical interface

100Base-BX

Transmission distance
(km)

15

40

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Operating transmit
wavelength (nm)

1550

1310

1550

1310

Operating receive
wavelength (nm)

1310

1550

1310

1550

Launched optical power


range (dBm)

-15 to -8

-5 to 0

Receiver sensitivity
(dBm)

-32

-32

Minimum overload
(dBm)

-8

-10

Minimum extinction
ratio (dB)

8.5

10

Specifications of GE Optical Ports


Table 10-8 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's GE optical ports.
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Table 10-8 Specifications of the GE two-fiber bidirectional optical ports


Item

Value

Optical port
type

1000BASE-SX

1000BASE-LX

1000BASE-VX

1000BASE-ZX

Optical fiber
type

Multi-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Transmission
distance (km)

0.5

10

40

80

Operating
wavelength
(nm)

770 to 860

1270 to 1355

1270 to 1355

1500 to 1580

Mean
launched
power (dBm)

-9.5 to -2.5

-9 to -3

-5 to 0

-2 to +5

Receiver
minimum
sensitivity
(dBm)

-17

-20

-23

-23

Minimum
overload
(dBm)

-3

-3

-3

Minimum
extinction
ratio (dB)

NOTE

With different SFP modules, the equipment provides GE optical ports with different types and transmission
distances.

Table 10-9 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's GE single-fiber bidirectional optical
ports.
Table 10-9 Specifications of the GE single-fiber bidirectional optical ports

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Paramete
r

Value

Type of
optical
interface

1000BASE-LX

1000BASE-VX

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Paramete
r

Value

Transmiss
ion
distance
(km)

10

40

Type of
fiber

Single-mode LC

Single-mode LC

Operating
transmit
wavelengt
h (nm)

1490

1310

1490

1310

Operating
receive
wavelengt
h (nm)

1310

1490

1310

1490

Launched
optical
power
range
(dBm)

-9 to -3

-2 to 3

Receiver
sensitivity
(dBm)

-19.5

-23

Minimum
overload
(dBm)

-3

-3

Minimum
extinction
ratio (dB)

10.5 Colored Optical Ports


This topic lists the parameters specified for the colored optical ports of the OptiX OSN
equipment.

GE Optical Port
Table 10-10 lists the parameters specified for the colored GE optical ports of the OptiX OSN
equipment that comply with ITU-T G.694.1.

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Table 10-10 Parameters specified for colored GE optical ports (CWDM)


Parameter

Value
CWDM

Nominal bit
rate

1,250,000 kbit/s

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Transmission
distance (km)

40

80

Launched
optical power
range (dBm)

0 to 5

0 to 5

Operating
wavelength
range (nm)

1471 to 1611, in steps of


20

1471 to 1611, in steps of 20

Receiver
sensitivity
(dBm)

-19

-28

Minimum
-3
overload (dBm)

-9

Minimum
extinction ratio
(dB)

8.2

8.2

10GE Optical Port


Table 10-11 and Table 10-12 list the parameters specified for the colored 10GE optical ports
of the OptiX OSN equipment that comply with ITU-T G.694.1.
Table 10-11 Parameters specified for colored 10GE optical ports (CWDM)
Parameter

Value
CWDM

Nominal bit rate

l LAN mode: 10,312,500 kbit/s


l WAN mode: 9,953,280 kbit/s

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Transmission distance (km)

70

Launched optical power


range (dBm)

0 to 4

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Parameter

10 Technical Specifications

Value
CWDM

Operating wavelength range


(nm)

1471 to 1611, in steps of 20

Receiver sensitivity (dBm)

l 1451 nm to 1551 nm: -23


l 1571 nm: -22
l 1591 nm to 1611 nm: -21

Minimum overload (dBm)

-9

Minimum extinction ratio


(dB)

8.2

Table 10-12 Parameters specified for colored 10GE optical ports (DWDM)
Parameter

Value
DWDM

Nominal bit rate

l LAN mode: 10,312,500 kbit/s


l WAN mode: 9,953,280 kbit/s

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Transmission
distance (km)

40

80

Launched optical
power range
(dBm)

-1 to +2

-1 to +3

Central frequency
(THz)

192.1 to 196.0

192.1 to 196.0

Central frequency
deviation (GHz)

10

10

Receiver
sensitivity (dBm)

-17

-24

Minimum
overload (dBm)

-1

-9

Minimum
extinction ratio
(dB)

9.5

8.2

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STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 Optical Port


Table 10-13 and Table 10-14 list the parameters specified for the colored STM-1/STM-4/
STM-16 optical ports of the OptiX OSN equipment that comply with ITU-T G.694.1.
Table 10-13 Parameters specified for colored STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 optical ports (CWDM)
Parameter

Value
CWDM

Nominal bit
rate

155,520 kbit/s (STM-1), 622,080 kbit/s (STM-4), 2,488,320 kbit/s


(STM-16)

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Transmission
distance (km)

40

80

Launched
optical power
range (dBm)

0 to 5

0 to 5

Operating
wavelength
range (nm)

1471 to 1611, in steps of


20

1471 to 1611, in steps of 20

Receiver
sensitivity
(dBm)

-19

-28

Minimum
-3
overload (dBm)

-9

Minimum
extinction ratio
(dB)

8.2

8.2

Table 10-14 Parameters specified for colored STM-16 optical ports (DWDM)
Parameter

Value
DWDM

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Nominal bit rate

2,488,320 kbit/s (STM-16)

Type of fiber

Single-mode LC

Transmission distance
(km)

120

Launched optical power


range (dBm)

-1 to +3

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Parameter

10 Technical Specifications

Value
DWDM

Central frequency (THz)

192.1 to 196.0

Central frequency
deviation (GHz)

10

Receiver sensitivity (dBm)

-28

Minimum overload (dBm)

-9

Minimum extinction ratio


(dB)

8.2

10.6 Electrical Port Specifications


This section lists the equipment's electrical port specifications. The equipment's electrical ports
include CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports and Ethernet electrical ports.

Specifications of STM-1 Electrical Ports


Table 10-15 lists the specifications of the
OptiX OSN 500's STM-1 electrical ports.
Table 10-15 Specifications of STM-1 electrical ports
Item

Value

Bit rate

155520 kbit/s

Code pattern

CMI

Connector

SAA straight female

Signal bit rate at the output port

Complies with ITU-T G.703.

Permitted frequency deviation at


the input port
Allowed attenuation at the input
port
Input jitter tolerance

Specifications of CES/ATM/IMA Service Electrical Ports


Table 10-16 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical
ports.
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Table 10-16 Specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's CES/ATM/IMA service electrical ports
Item

Value

Standard compliance

ITU-T G.703/G.823

Nominal bit rate (kbit/s)

2048

Code pattern

HDB3

Impedance (ohm)

75

120

Pair in each direction

One coaxial pair

One symmetrical pair

Port type

Anea 96

Specifications of Ethernet Electrical Ports


Table 10-17 lists the specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's Ethernet electrical ports.
Table 10-17 Specifications of the OptiX OSN 500's Ethernet electrical ports
Service Port

Port Rate

Code Pattern

Port Type

GE/FE electrical
port

10BASE-T

Manchester coding
signals

RJ45

GE/FE electrical
port

100BASE-T(X)

MLT-3 coding
signals

GE electrical
port

1000BASE-T

4D-PAM5 coding
signals

10.7 Indicator Status Explanation


This section provides status explanation for indicators on boards.
NOTE

There is no indicator on the OptiX OSN 500 chassis.

Table 10-18 provides status explanation for indicators on the boards that the OptiX OSN 500
supports.
Table 10-18 Status explanation for indicators on the boards that the OptiX OSN 500 supports

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Indicator

State

Meaning

Applicable Board

STAT

On (green)

The board is working


properly.

CSHD/MD1/EM6T/
EM6F/EF8F/CQ1

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Indicator

10 Technical Specifications

State

Meaning

On (red)

The board hardware


is faulty.

Off

l The board is not


working or
created.

Applicable Board

l There is no power
supplied to the
board.
PROG

Blinks on (green) and


off at 100 ms
intervals

Software is being
loaded to the board
during the power-on
or resetting process
of the board.

Blinks on (green) and


off at 300 ms
intervals

The board software is


in BIOS boot state
during the power-on
or resetting process
of the board.

Blinks on (red) and


off at 100 ms
intervals

The BOOTROM
self-check fails
during the power-on
or resetting process
of the board.

On (green)

l The upper layer


software is being
initialized.

CSHD/EM6T/EM6F

l The software is
running properly.

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Indicator

10 Technical Specifications

State

Meaning

On (red)

l The memory selfcheck fails or


loading upper
layer software
fails during the
power-on or
resetting process
of the board.

Applicable Board

l The logic file or


upper layer
software is lost
during the
running process
of the board.
l The pluggable
storage card is
faulty.

SYNC

SRV

Off

The board is not


powered on or works
in low-power mode.

On (green)

The clock is working


properly.

On (red)

The clock source is


lost or a clock
switchover occurs.

On (green)

The system/service is
normal.

On (red)

A critical or major
alarm occurs in the
system/service.

On (yellow)

A minor or remote
alarm occurs in the
system/service.

Off

l For a CSHD
board, there is no
power supplied to
the system.

CSHD

CSHD/EM6T/
EM6F/EF8F/CQ1

l For a service
board, no service
is configured.

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Indicator

State

Meaning

Applicable Board

ACT1/ACT2

On or blinks (yellow)

The GE1/GE2 port is


receiving or
transmitting data.

CSHD

Off

The GE1/GE2 port is


not receiving or
transmitting data.

On (green)

The GE1/GE2 port is


connected correctly,
but is not receiving or
transmitting data.

Blinks (yellow)

The GE1/GE2 port is


receiving or
transmitting data.

Off

The GE1/GE2 port is


not connected or is
abnormal.

On (green)

The GE1/GE2 port is


connected correctly.

Off

The GE1/GE2 port is


disconnected.

On (red)

The optical port has


an R_LOS alarm.

Blinks (red) three


times every second

The receive optical


power on the optical
port is too strong.

Blinks (red) once


every second

The receive optical


power on the optical
port is too week.

Blinks (red) once


every three seconds

The optical port


receives an MS_RDI
alarm.

Off

The optical port does


not have the R_LOS
alarm.

On (green)

Power is being
supplied.

Off

Power is off or power


supplies are
connected
incorrectly.

LINK1/LINK2
(EM6F)

LINK1/LINK2
(CSHD)

LOS1/LOS2/LOS3/
LOS4

PWRA/PWRB

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10 Technical Specifications

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EM6F

CSHD

CQ1

PIU

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FAN

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10 Technical Specifications

On (green)

The FAN board is


working properly.

On (red)

The FAN board is


free of critical/major
alarms.

On (yellow)

The FAN board is


free of minor alarms.

Off

The FAN board is not


powered on or is not
installed.

ALM

On (red)

The rectifier module


is faulty. In normal
situations, the
indicator is off.

Vout

On (green)

The output of the


rectifier module is
normal.

RUN

Flashing (green)

The entire power


system is normal.

ALM

On (red)

The entire power


system is faulty. In
normal situations,
the indicator is off.

L/A

On (green)

The port is connected


correctly (link up),
but is not receiving or
transmitting data.

Blinks (red) three


times every second,
300 ms on and 300
ms off

The port on the board


receives too strong
power.

Blinks (red) once


every second, 300 ms
on and 700 ms off

The port on the board


receives too weak
power.

Blinks (orange)

The port is connected


correctly (link up),
and is receiving and
transmitting data.

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FAN

Rectifier module of
UPM

Monitoring module
of UPM

EF8F

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Off

10 Technical Specifications

The optical fiber is


not connected to the
port, or the port is
abnormal (link
down/LOS).

10.8 Safety Certification


The OptiX OSN 500 has passed many safety certifications.
Table 10-19 lists the safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 500 has passed.
Table 10-19 Safety certifications that the OptiX OSN 500 has passed
Item

Standard

Electromagnetic compatibility

l CE certification
l ETSI EN 301 489-1
l ETSI EN 301 489-4
l CISPR 22
l EN 55022

Surge protection

l ITU-T K.27
l ETSI EN 300 253
l CE certification

Safety

l ETSI EN 60215
l ETSI EN 60950
l IEC 60825
l GB 4943
Environmental protection

l RoHS

10.9 Environmental Specifications


The OptiX OSN 500 requires proper environments for storage, transportation, and operation.

10.9.1 Storage Environment


The storage environment for the OptiX OSN 500 complies with the ETSI EN 300 019-1-1 and
NEBS GR-63-CORE standards.

Climate
Table 10-20 lists climate requirements.
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Table 10-20 Climate requirements


Item

Specification

Atmospheric pressure

70 kPa to 106 kPa

Temperature

-40C to +70C

Temperature change rate

1C/min

Relative humidity

5% to 100%

Solar radiation

1120 W/m2

Heat radiation

600 W/m2

Waterproofing Requirements
Requirements for storing equipment on site: Generally, the equipment must be stored indoors.
No water should remain on the floor or leak into equipment crates. The equipment should be
placed away from areas where water leakage is possible (for example, do not place near
automatic fire-fighting extinguishing and heating systems).
Ensure that all the following four conditions are met if the equipment is stored outdoors:
l

Crates are intact.

Proper rain-proofing measures are taken to prevent water from entering crates.

No water is on the ground where crates are placed and water is not seeped into crates.

Crates are not exposed to direct sunlight.

Biological Environment
l

Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete).

Control and exclude rodents (such as mice).

Air Cleanliness
l

The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive, or corrosive


dust.

Table 10-21 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances.

Table 10-21 Density requirements for mechanically active substances

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Mechanically Active Substance

Content

Suspended dust

5.00 mg/m3

Precipitable dust

20.0 mg/(mh)

Sand particles

300 mg/m3

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Table 10-22 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

Table 10-22 Density requirements for chemically active substances


Chemically Active Substance

Content

SO2

0.30 mg/m3

H2S

0.10 mg/m3

NO2

0.50 mg/m3

NH3

1.00 mg/m3

CL2

0.10 mg/m3

HCL

0.10 mg/m3

HF

0.01 mg/m3

O3

0.05 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 10-23 lists requirements for mechanical stress.
Table 10-23 Requirements for mechanical stress
Item

Sub-item

Specification

Sinusoidal
vibration

Displacement

1.5 mm

Acceleration

5 m/s2

Frequency range

2 Hz to 9 Hz

9 Hz to 200 Hz

Static pressure

Static pressure = Product weight x


(Maximum number of stacked layers that is
specified on the product package - 1) x 5 x
9.8 (N)

Static load

NOTE
Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is
stacked in the specified manner.

10.9.2 Transportation Environment


The transportation environment for the OptiX OSN 500 complies with the ETSI EN 300 019-1-2
standard.

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Climate
Table 10-24 lists climate requirements.
Table 10-24 Climate requirements
Item

Specification

Atmospheric pressure

55 kPa to 106 kPa

Temperature

-40C to +70C

Temperature change rate

1C/min

Relative humidity

5% to 95%

Solar radiation

1120 W/m2

Heat radiation

600 W/m2

Waterproofing Requirement
Ensure that the following conditions are met when transporting the equipment:
l

Crates are intact.

Proper rain-proofing measures are taken for vehicles to prevent water from entering crates.

No water is present in vehicles.

Biological Environment
l

Avoid multiplication of microbes (such as eumycete and mycete).

Control and exclude rodents (such as mice).

Air Cleanliness
l

The air must be free from explosive, electric-conductive, magnetic-conductive, or corrosive


dust.

Table 10-25 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances.

Table 10-25 Density requirements for mechanically active substances

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Mechanically Active Substance

Content

Suspended dust

No requirement

Precipitable dust

3.0 mg/(m2h)

Sand particles

100 mg/m3

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Table 10-26 lists the density requirements for chemically active substances.

Table 10-26 Density requirements for chemically active substances


Chemically Active Substance

Content

SO2

1.00 mg/m3

H2S

0.50 mg/m3

NOx

1.00 mg/m3

NH3

3.00 mg/m3

CL2

HCL

0.50 mg/m3

HF

0.03 mg/m3

O3

0.10 mg/m3

Mechanical Stress
Table 10-27 lists requirements for mechanical stress.
Table 10-27 Requirements for mechanical stress
Item

Sub-item

Specification

Random
vibration

Acceleration spectral
density

1 m2/s3

-3 dB/oct

Frequency range

5 Hz to 20 Hz

20 Hz to 200 Hz

Shock response
spectrum I (weight of
sample > 50 kg)

100 m/s2, 11 ms, 100 times for each panel

Shock response
spectrum II (weight
of sample 50 kg)

180 m/s2, 6 ms, 100 times for each panel

Static pressure

Static pressure = Product weight x (Maximum


number of stacked layers that is specified on the
product package - 1) x 5 x 9.8 (N)

Shock

Static load

NOTE
A shock response spectrum is a graphical representation of an arbitrary transient acceleration input, such
as shock in terms of how the equipment responds to that input.
Static load is the pressure from the upside that the packaged equipment can tolerate when equipment is
stacked in the specified manner.

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10.9.3 Operating Environment (For the Chassis That Is Installed in


a Cabinet)
The operating environment for the OptiX OSN 500 complies with the ETSI EN 300 019-1-3
class3.2 standard.

Climate
Table 10-28 and Table 10-29 list climate requirements.
Table 10-28 Requirements on temperature and humidity during operation
Operating Temperature

Relative Humidity

Long-term operating
temperature: -5C to
+55C

Longterm operating
range: 5% to 85%

Extended operating
temperature: -5C to
+65C

Short-term operating
range: 5% to 95%

NOTE
The temperature and humidity are measured 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m ahead of a chassis. Longterm operating indicates that the continuous operating time of the equipment does not exceed 96 hours and
the accumulated annual operating time does not exceed 15 days.
Extended operating indicates that the continuous operating time of the equipment does not exceed 4 hours
per day and the accumulated annual operating time does not exceed 90 days.

To improve equipment reliability, ensure that the equipment room is equipped with a precise air
conditioner, which controls temperature and humidity within the following ranges:
l

Temperature range: 15C to 30C

Humidity range: 40% to 75%


NOTE

Do not install an air conditioner right above equipment, to prevent air blowing directly from the air
conditioner vent into the equipment. Install an air conditioner as far away from a window as possible, to
prevent humid air blowing from the window to the equipment.

Table 10-29 Other climate requirements

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Item

Specification

Altitude

-60 m to 4000 m

Atmospheric pressure

70 kPa to 106 kPa

Temperature change rate

0.5C/min

Solar radiation

700 W/m

Heat radiation

600 W/m

Wind speed

5 m/s

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NOTE

Between 1800 m and 4000 m of altitude, the equipment operating temperature decreases by 1C for every
increase of 220 m in altitude.

Water Resistance and Dust Resistance


l

If a cabinet is installed indoors or in a corridor that is free from rain, the cabinet must meet
the requirements of IP31 rating protection. (The first numeral "3" indicates that the cabinet
can prevent a solid object with a diameter equal to or greater than 2.5 mm from entering
the cabinet. The second numeral "1" indicates that vertically falling drops shall have no
harmful effects.)

Ensure that there is no mouse in an equipment room, preventing mouse urine from entering
a cabinet.

Table 10-30 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances during equipment
operation.
Table 10-30 Density requirements for mechanically active substances during equipment
operation
Mechanically Active
Substance

Content

Suspended dust

0.4 mg/m3

Precipitable dust

15 mg/(m2h)

Sand particles

300 mg/m3

Corrosion Protection
Sites must meet the following anti-corrosion requirements:
l

Sites must be kept away from pollution sources. If pollution sources cannot be avoided,
sites must be located in the perennial upwind direction of the pollution sources, or cabinets
providing sufficient protection must be used.
For sources of heavy pollution such as metal smelting plants and coal mines, keep a
minimum distance of 5 km.
For sources of medium pollution such as chemical factories, rubber factories,
electroplating factories, agricultural fertilizer factories, paper mills, and power plants,
keep a minimum distance of 3.7 km.
For sources of light pollution such as food factories, leather factories, daily necessities
factories, and livestock farms, keep a minimum distance of 2 km.

Equipment rooms must be kept 3.7 km away from the seaside or salt lakes, and must be
kept away from roads or sand fields with dusts flying around. If this requirement cannot
be met, cabinets providing sufficient protection must be used.

Equipment rooms must be isolated from sewer outlets, sewage treatment tanks, and
industrial/heating boilers, to prevent corrosive gases from eroding components and circuit
boards.

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Do not install network boxes in underground garages or other garages. If a network box
can be installed only in a garage, install it at a well-ventilated place and avoid car exhausts,
or select a network box providing sufficient protection.

Power on equipment within seven days after it is installed in a cabinet.

Table 10-31 shows the content limits on corrosive gases.


Table 10-31 Content limits on corrosive gases
Item

Content

SO2

0.30 mg/m3

H2S

0.10 mg/m3

NH3

1.00 mg/m3

Cl2

0.10 mg/m3

HCl

0.10 mg/m3

HF

0.01 mg/m3

O3

0.05 mg/m3

NOX

0.50 mg/m3

The requirements for relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents are provided as follows:
NOTE

The relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents must be below 80%. If the relative humidity exceeds
80%, the anti-corrosion measures that the equipment provides can only decrease but not eliminate corrosion
risks.

If the humidity control measures that equipment rooms provide cannot keep the relative humidity
in the equipment rooms below 80%, adopt appropriate measures listed in Table 10-32.
Table 10-32 Measures for maintaining the relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents
below 80%

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Heat
Dissipati
on
Method
That
Equipme
nt Uses

Heat
Dissipat
ion
Method
That
Cabinet
s Use

Suggestion

Remarks

Natural
dissipatio
n

Natural
dissipatio
n

None

None

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Heat
Dissipati
on
Method
That
Equipme
nt Uses

Heat
Dissipat
ion
Method
That
Cabinet
s Use

Suggestion

Remarks

Natural
dissipatio
n

Fan
cooling

Ensure that equipment's air intake vents do


not face cabinets' air intake vents, and keep a
distance greater than 150 mm between the two
types of air intake vents, to prevent damp/cold
air from entering the equipment.

None

Natural
dissipatio
n

Using
open
racks

Air conditioners and fans must not blow


directly towards equipment, to prevent damp/
cold air from entering the equipment.

None

Fan
cooling

Natural
dissipatio
n

l Keep a distance greater than 150 mm


between equipment's air intake vents and
cabinets' air intake vents, to prevent damp/
cold air from entering equipment.

None

l Ensure that cabinets have appropriate air


intake vents, to prevent a large amount of
damp/cold air from entering cabinets.
Fan
cooling

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Fan
cooling

l Ensure that equipment's air intake vents do


not face cabinets' air intake vents, and
keep a distance greater than 150 mm
between the two types of air intake vents,
to prevent damp/cold air from entering the
equipment.

When the ambient


temperature
exceeds 30C, the
relative humidity
is below 80% in
most areas. In
l Ensure that cabinets have appropriate air addition, the
intake vents, to prevent a large amount of temperature at
cabinets' air outlets
damp/cold air from entering cabinets.
is higher than the
l Cabinets must use temperature-controlled ambient
fans, to prevent damp/cold air from
temperature.
entering cabinets. To be specific, fans start Therefore, it is
at high temperature and stop at low
recommended that
temperature. It is recommended that fans fans stop when the
start when the temperature at cabinets' air temperature at
outlets exceeds 40C and stop when the
cabinets' air outlets
temperature is lower than 35C.
is lower than 35C.

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Heat
Dissipati
on
Method
That
Equipme
nt Uses

Heat
Dissipat
ion
Method
That
Cabinet
s Use

Suggestion

Remarks

Fan
cooling

Using
open
racks

l The humidity control measures that


equipment rooms provide must ensure that
the relative humidity in the equipment
rooms is below 80%; otherwise, corrosion
risks cannot be avoided.

None

l Air conditioners must not blow cold air


directly towards equipment, to prevent the
relative humidity at equipment's air intake
vents from increasing.
l If equipment rooms use air conditioners to
decrease temperature, close doors
immediately after your entrance, to
prevent damp air from condensing.

Mechanical Stress
Table 10-33 lists requirements for mechanical stress.
Table 10-33 Requirements for mechanical stress
Item

Sub-item

Specification

Sinusoidal
vibration

Velocity

5 mm/s

Acceleration

2 m/s

Frequency range

5 Hz to 62 Hz

62 Hz to 200 Hz

Shock response spectrum


II

Half-sine waveform, 30 m/s, 11 ms, 3 in


each direction

Shock

NOTE
A shock response spectrum is a graphical representation of an arbitrary transient acceleration input, such
as shock in terms of how the equipment responds to that input.

10.9.4 Operating Environment (For the Chassis That Is Installed on


a Wall)
The operating environment for the OptiX OSN 500 complies with the ETSI EN 300 019-1-3
class3.2 standard.
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Climate
Table 10-34 and Table 10-35 list climate requirements.
Table 10-34 Requirements on temperature and humidity during operation
Operating Temperature

Relative Humidity

Long-term operating
temperature: -5C to
+55C

Longterm operating
range: 5% to 85%

Extended operating
temperature: -5C to
+65C

Short-term operating
range: 5% to 95%

NOTE
The temperature and humidity are measured 1.5 m above the floor and 0.4 m ahead of a chassis. Longterm operating indicates that the continuous operating time of the equipment does not exceed 96 hours and
the accumulated annual operating time does not exceed 15 days.
Extended operating indicates that the continuous operating time of the equipment does not exceed 4 hours
per day and the accumulated annual operating time does not exceed 90 days.

To improve equipment reliability, ensure that the equipment room is equipped with a precise air
conditioner, which controls temperature and humidity within the following ranges:
l

Temperature range: 15C to 30C

Humidity range: 40% to 75%


NOTE

Do not install an air conditioner right above equipment, to prevent air blowing directly from the air
conditioner vent into the equipment. Install an air conditioner as far away from a window as possible, to
prevent humid air blowing from the window to the equipment.

Table 10-35 Other climate requirements


Item

Specification

Altitude

-60 m to 4000 m

Atmospheric pressure

70 kPa to 106 kPa

Temperature change rate

0.5C/min

Solar radiation

700 W/m

Heat radiation

600 W/m

Wind speed

5 m/s

NOTE

Between 1800 m and 4000 m of altitude, the equipment operating temperature decreases by 1C for every
increase of 220 m in altitude.

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Water Resistance
l

Water resistance requirements for network boxes are provided as follows:


If a network box is installed indoors or in a corridor that is free from rain, the network
box must meet the requirements of IP31 rating protection. (The first numeral "3"
indicates that the network box can prevent a solid object with a diameter equal to or
greater than 2.5 mm from entering the network box. The second numeral "1" indicates
that vertically falling drops shall have no harmful effects.)
If a network box is installed in a corridor that is exposed to rain, the network box must
meet the requirements of IP55 rating protection. ("IP" indicates international protection
rating. The first numeral "5" indicates the rating for preventing solid objects from
entering network boxes. That is, ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but dust shall
not penetrate in a quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of equipment or to
impair safety. The second numeral "5" indicates the rating for preventing water from
entering network boxes. That is, water projected in jets against the enclosure from any
direction shall have no harmful effects.)

Requirements for installing network boxes are provided as follows:


Equipment must be installed in a position away from water drips (outdoor units and
water pipes of air conditioners, sewer pipes, or windows).
Equipment must be installed in a position not exposed to rain.
Equipment must not be installed in light-current wells or directly on the corridor ground
on the first floor.
Equipment must not be mounted on a wall that is near to windows.
Route cables/fibers into network boxes only from the bottom sides. In addition,
waterproof the connection between cables/fibers and network boxes, to prevent rain
from entering network boxes along cables/fibers.

Dust Resistance
For dusty areas, network boxes with air filters are recommended (to improve equipment
reliability) and the network boxes must meet the requirements of IP51 rating protection. (The
first numeral "5" indicates the rating for preventing solid objects from entering network boxes.
That is, ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but dust shall not penetrate in a quantity to
interfere with satisfactory operation of equipment or to impair safety.)
NOTE

For network boxes with air filters, clear the air filters periodically.

Table 10-36 lists the density requirements for mechanically active substances during equipment
operation.
Table 10-36 Density requirements for mechanically active substances during equipment
operation

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Mechanically Active
Substance

Content

Suspended dust

0.4 mg/m3

Precipitable dust

15 mg/(m2h)

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Mechanically Active
Substance

Content

Sand particles

300 mg/m3

Corrosion Protection
Sites must meet the following anti-corrosion requirements:
l

Sites must be kept away from pollution sources. If pollution sources cannot be avoided,
sites must be located in the perennial upwind direction of the pollution sources, or network
boxes providing sufficient protection must be used.
For sources of heavy pollution such as metal smelting plants and coal mines, keep a
minimum distance of 5 km.
For sources of medium pollution such as chemical factories, rubber factories,
electroplating factories, agricultural fertilizer factories, paper mills, and power plants,
keep a minimum distance of 3.7 km.
For sources of light pollution such as food factories, leather factories, daily necessities
factories, and livestock farms, keep a minimum distance of 2 km.

Installation sites must be kept 3.7 km away from the seaside or salt lakes, and must be kept
away from roads or sand fields with dusts flying around. If this requirement cannot be met,
network boxes providing sufficient protection must be used.

Installation sites must be isolated from sewer outlets, sewage treatment tanks, and
industrial/heating boilers, to prevent corrosive gases from eroding components and circuit
boards.

Do not install network boxes in underground garages or other garages. If a network box
can be installed only in a garage, install it at a well-ventilated place and avoid car exhausts,
or select a network box providing sufficient protection.

Power on equipment within seven days after it is installed in a network box.

Table 10-37 shows the content limits on corrosive gases.


Table 10-37 Content limits on corrosive gases

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Item

Content

SO2

0.30 mg/m3

H2S

0.10 mg/m3

NH3

1.00 mg/m3

Cl2

0.10 mg/m3

HCl

0.10 mg/m3

HF

0.01 mg/m3

O3

0.05 mg/m3
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Item

Content

NOX

0.50 mg/m3

The requirements for relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents are provided as follows:
NOTE

The relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents must be below 80%. If the relative humidity exceeds
80%, the anti-corrosion measures that the equipment provides can only decrease but not eliminate corrosion
risks.

If the humidity control measures that network boxes provide cannot keep the relative humidity
in the network boxes below 80%, adopt appropriate measures listed in Table 10-38.
Table 10-38 Measures for maintaining the relative humidity at equipment's air intake vents
below 80%
Heat
Dissipati
on
Method
That
Equipme
nt Uses

Heat
Dissipat
ion
Method
That
Networ
k Boxes
Use

Suggestion

Remarks

Natural
dissipatio
n

Natural
dissipatio
n

None

None

Natural
dissipatio
n

Fan
cooling

Ensure that equipment's air intake vents do


not face network boxes' air intake vents, and
keep a distance greater than 150 mm between
the two types of air intake vents, to prevent
damp/cold air from entering the equipment.

None

Fan
cooling

Natural
dissipatio
n

l Keep a distance greater than 150 mm


between equipment's air intake vents and
network boxes' air intake vents, to prevent
damp/cold air from entering equipment.

None

l Ensure that network boxes have


appropriate air intake vents, to prevent a
large amount of damp/cold air from
entering the network boxes.

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Heat
Dissipati
on
Method
That
Equipme
nt Uses

Heat
Dissipat
ion
Method
That
Networ
k Boxes
Use

Suggestion

Remarks

Fan
cooling

Fan
cooling

l Ensure that equipment's air intake vents do


not face network boxes' air intake vents,
and keep a distance greater than 150 mm
between the two types of air intake vents,
to prevent damp/cold air from entering the
equipment.

When the ambient


temperature
exceeds 30C, the
relative humidity
is below 80% in
most areas. In
addition, the
temperature at
network boxes' air
outlets is higher
than the ambient
temperature.
Therefore, it is
recommended that
fans stop when the
temperature at
network boxes' air
outlets is lower
than 35C.

l Ensure that network boxes have


appropriate air intake vents, to prevent a
large amount of damp/cold air from
entering the network boxes.
l Network boxes must use temperaturecontrolled fans, to prevent damp/cold air
from entering the network boxes. To be
specific, fans start at high temperature and
stop at low temperature. It is
recommended that fans start when the
temperature at network boxes' air outlets
exceeds 40C and stop when the
temperature is lower than 35C.

Mechanical Stress
Table 10-39 lists requirements for mechanical stress.
Table 10-39 Requirements for mechanical stress
Item

Sub-item

Specification

Sinusoidal
vibration

Velocity

5 mm/s

Acceleration

2 m/s

Frequency range

5 Hz to 62 Hz

62 Hz to 200 Hz

Shock response spectrum


II

Half-sine waveform, 30 m/s, 11 ms, 3 in


each direction

Shock

NOTE
A shock response spectrum is a graphical representation of an arbitrary transient acceleration input, such
as shock in terms of how the equipment responds to that input.

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11 Energy Saving and Environmental Protection

Energy Saving and Environmental


Protection

The OptiX OSN 500 complies with RoHS directive (2002/95/EC) and WEEE directive (2002/96/
EC).

Energy Saving
The OptiX OSN 500 adopts a variety of technologies to reduce equipment energy.
l

Uses an easy scheme for board design.

Replaces ordinary chips with ASIC chips that require low power consumption.

Uses highly efficient power modules.

Environmental Protection
The equipment is designed according to the requirements of environmental protection. The
equipment complies with RoHS directive.
l

The equipment is amply packaged while materials as conserved. The size of the package
containing the equipment and accessories is at most three times the size of the net
equipment.

The product is also designed for easy unpacking. All hazardous substances contained in
the packaging decompose easily.

Every plastic component that weighs over 25 g is labeled according to the standards of ISO
11469 and ISO 1043-1 to ISO 1043-4.

All components and packages of the equipment are provided with standard labels for
recycling.

Plugs and connectors are easy to find, and the associated operations can be performed by
using simple tools.

All the attached materials, such as labels, are easy to remove.

Certain types of identifying information, such as silkscreens, are printed on front panels or
subracks.

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12 Standard Compliance

Standard Compliance

About This Chapter


This section lists the standards that the OptiX OSN 500 complies with.
12.1 ITU-T Recommendations
This section lists the ITU-T Recommendations that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.2 IETF Standards
This section lists the IETF standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.3 IEEE Standards
This section lists the IEEE standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.4 Environment Related Standards
This section lists the environment related standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies
with.
12.5 MEF Standards
This section lists the MEF standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.6 Safety Standards
This section lists the safety standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.7 EMC Standards
This section lists the EMC Standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
12.8 Protection Standards
This section lists the protection standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.

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12.1 ITU-T Recommendations


This section lists the ITU-T Recommendations that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-1 ITU-T Recommendations

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Recommendatio
n

Description

ITU-T G.664

Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport


systems

ITU-T G.702

Digital hierarchy bit rates

ITU-T G.703

Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces

ITU-T G.704

Synchronous frame structures used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and


44,736 kbit/s hierarchical levels

ITU-T G.706

Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) procedures


relating to basic frame structures defined in Recommendation G.704

ITU-T G.773

Protocol suites for Q-interfaces for management of transmission


systems

ITU-T G.7710

Common equipment management function requirements

ITU-T G.781

Synchronization layer functions

ITU-T G.810

Definitions and terminology for synchronization networks

ITU-T G.811

Timing characteristics of primary reference clocks

ITU-T G.812

Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in


synchronization networks

ITU-T G.813

Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC)

ITU-T G.7043/Y.
1343

Virtual concatenation of plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH)


signals

ITU-T G.8010

Architecture of Ethernet layer networks

ITU-T G.8011

Ethernet over Transport - Ethernet services framework

ITU-T G.8011.1

Ethernet private line service

ITU-T G.8011.2

Ethernet virtual private line service

ITU-T G.8012

Ethernet UNI and Ethernet over transport NNI

ITU-T G.8021

Characteristics of Ethernet transport network equipment functional


blocks

ITU-T G.8110

MPLS layer network architecture

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Recommendatio
n

Description

ITU-T G.8110.1

Application of MPLS in the transport network

ITU-T G.8121

Characteristics of transport MPLS equipment functional blocks

ITU-T G.8112

Interfaces for the transport MPLS (T-MPLS) hierarchy

ITU-T G.8131

Protection switching for transport MPLS (T-MPLS) networks

ITU-T G.8261

Timing and synchronization aspects in packet networks

ITU-T G.8262

Timing characteristics of synchronous Ethernet equipment slave clock


(EEC)

ITU-T G.8264

Timing distribution through packet networks

ITU-T Y.1541

Network performance objectives for IP-based services

ITU-T Y.1710

Requirements for OAM functionality for MPLS networks

ITU-T Y.1730

Requirements for OAM functions in Ethernet based networks and


Ethernet services

ITU-T Y.1731

OAM functions and mechanisms for Ethernet based networks

ITU-T G.8032

Ethernet ring protection switching

ITU-T Y.1711

Operation & Maintenance mechanism for MPLS networks

ITU-T Y.1720

Protection switching for MPLS networks

ITU-T I.610

B-ISDN operation and maintenance principles and functions

ITU-T Y.1291

An architectural framework for support of quality of service (QoS) in


packet networks

ITU-T G.8110.1

Application of MPLS/MPLS-TP in the transport network

ITU-T G.8113.1

Operations, administration and maintenance mechanism for MPLS-TP


networks (G.tpoam)

12.2 IETF Standards


This section lists the IETF standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-2 IETF standards

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Standard

Description

RFC 2819

Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base

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Standard

Description

draft-ietf-l2vpnoam-reqfrmk-05

L2VPN OAM requirements and framework

RFC 4664

Framework for layer 2 virtual private networks (L2VPNs)

RFC 3031

MPLS architecture

RFC 3469

Framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)-based recovery

RFC 3811

Definitions of textual conventions for multiprotocol label switching


(MPLS) management

RFC 3813

Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) label switching router (LSR)


management information base

RFC 3814

Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) forwarding equivalence class to


next hop label forwarding entry (FEC-To-NHLFE) management
information base

RFC 4115

A differentiated service two-rate, three-color marker with efficient


handling of in-profile traffic

RFC 4221

Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) management overview

RFC 4377

Operations and management (OAM) requirements for multi-protocol


label switched (MPLS) networks

RFC 4378

A framework for multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) operations and


management (OAM)

RFC 3032

MPLS label stack encoding

RFC 3443

Time to live (TTL) processing in multi-protocol label switching (MPLS)


networks

RFC 3916

Requirements for pseudo-wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3)

RFC 3985

Pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) architecture

RFC 4197

Requirements for edge-to-edge emulation of time division multiplexed


(TDM) circuits over packet switching networks

RFC 4385

Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over


an MPLS PSN

RFC 4446

IANA allocations for pseudowire edge to edge emulation (PWE3)

RFC 0826

Ethernet address resolution protocol

RFC 3270

Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services

RFC 4448

Encapsulation methods for transport of Ethernet over MPLS networks

RFC 4553

Structure-agnostic time division multiplexing (TDM) over packet


(SAToP)
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Standard

Description

RFC 5085

Pseudo wire virtual circuit connectivity verification (VCCV)

RFC 5086

Structure-Aware Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Circuit Emulation


Service over Packet Switched Network (CESoPSN)

RFC 4717

Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Asynchronous Transfer Mode


(ATM) over MPLS Networks

RFC 4816

Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Asynchronous Transfer


Mode (ATM) Transparent Cell Transport Service

RFC 4385

Pseudowire emulation edge-to-edge (PWE3) control word for use over


an MPLS PSN

RFC 5254

Requirements for Multi-Segment Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge


(PWE3)

draft-ietf-pwe3segmentedpw-03

Segmented pseudo wire

draft-ietf-pwe3ms-pwrequirements-03

Requirements for inter domain pseudo-wires

draft-ietf-pwe3ms-pw-arch-02

An architecture for multi-segment pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge

RFC 3644

Policy quality of service (QoS) Information model

RFC 2212

Specification of guaranteed quality of service

RFC 2474

Definition of the differentiated services field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and
IPv6 headers

RFC 2475

An architecture for differentiated services

RFC 2597

Assured forwarding PHB group

RFC 2698

A two rate three color marker

RFC 3246

An expedited forwarding PHB (Per-hop behavior)

RFC 3270

Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) support of differentiated services

RFC 5586

MPLS generic associated channel

RFC 5654

Requirements of an MPLS transport profile

RFC 5921

A framework for MPLS in transport networks

RFC 5860

Requirements for operations, administration, and maintenance (OAM) in


MPLS transport networks

RFC 1990

The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)

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Standard

Description

RFC 5317

Joint Working Team (JWT) Report on MPLS Architectural


Considerations for a Transport Profile

draft-ietf-mplstp-oam-analysis

An Overview of the OAM Tool Set for MPLS based Transport Networks

STD 0062

An Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management Protocol


(SNMP) Management Frameworks

12.3 IEEE Standards


This section lists the IEEE standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-3 IEEE standards

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Standard

Description

IEEE 802.1D

Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges

IEEE 802.1Q

Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks

IEEE 802.1ad

Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Amendment 4: Provider Bridges

IEEE 802.3ah

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)


Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Media
Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management
Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks

IEEE 802.1ag

Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks - Amendment 5: Connectivity Fault


Management

IEEE 802.3

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)


access method and physical layer specifications

IEEE 802.3u

Type 100BASE-T MAC parameters, Physical Layer, MAUs, and


Repeater for 100 Mb/s Operation

IEEE 802.3x

Full Duplex Operation and Type 100BASE-T2

IEEE 802.1w

Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree

IEEE 802.1AX

Local and metropolitan area networks - Link Aggregation

IEEE 802.3ad

Aggregation of multiple link segments

IEEE 802.3ae

Media access control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, and


management parameters for 10 Gb/s operation

IEEE 802.3z

Media access control (MAC) parameters, physical Layer, repeater and


management parameters for 1000 Mb/s operation

IEEE 802.1ab

Link Layer Discovery Protocol


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12.4 Environment Related Standards


This section lists the environment related standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies
with.
Table 12-4 Environment related standards
Standard

Description

ETSI EN 300
019-1-1

Environmental Engineering (EE)


Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment
Part 1-1: Classification of environmental conditions: Storage
Class 1.1: Weatherprotected, partly temperature-controlled storage
locations
Class 1.2: Weatherprotected, not temperature-controlled storage
locations

ETSI EN 300
019-1-2

Environmental Engineering (EE)


Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment
Part 1-2: Classification of environmental conditions: Transportation
Class 2.1: Very careful transportation
Class 2.2: Careful transportation

ETSI EN 300
019-1-3

Environmental Engineering (EE)


Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment
Part 1-3: Classification of environmental conditions: Stationary use at
weatherprotected locations
Class 3.1: Temperature-controlled locations
Class 3.2: Partly temperature-controlled location

IEC 60068-2

Basic environmental testing procedures

IEC 60721-2-6

Environmental conditions appearing in nature - Earthquake vibration

IEC 60721-3-1

Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of


groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 1:
Storage

IEC 60721-3-3

Classification of environmental conditions - Part 3: Classification of


groups of environmental parameters and their severities - Section 3:
Stationary use at weatherprotected locations

ETSI EN 300 753

Equipment Engineering (EE)


Acoustic noise emitted by telecommunications equipment

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Standard

Description

NEBS GR-63CORE

Network Equipment-Building System (NEBS) Requirements: Physical


Protection

ROHS

Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substance in electrical and


electronic equipment.

12.5 MEF Standards


This section lists the MEF standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-5 MEF standards
Standard

Description

MEF 2

Requirements and framework for Ethernet service protection in metro


Ethernet networks

MEF 4

Metro Ethernet network architecture framework - Part 1: generic framework

MEF 9

Abstract Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI

MEF 10

Ethernet services attributes phase 1

MEF 14

Abstract Test Suite for Traffic Management Phase 1

12.6 Safety Standards


This section lists the safety standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-6 Safety standards

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Safety Standard

Description

EN 60950-1

Safety of information technology equipment

IEC 60950-1

Safety of information technology equipment

IEC 60825-1

Safety of laser equipment

IEC 60825-2

Safety of laser equipment - requirement of OFCS

EN 60950

Information technology equipment - safety

IEC 60950

Safety of information technology equipment including


electrical business equipment

CAN/CSA-C22.2 No 1M94

Audio, video and similar electronic equipment

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Safety Standard

Description

CAN/CSA-C22.2 No
950-95

Safety of information technology equipment

73/23/EEC

2006/95/EC

UL60950-1

Safety of information technology equipment

IEC 60529

Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

GR-1089-CORE

Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrical Safety

EG 201 212

Electrical safety; Classification of interfaces for equipment to


be connected to telecommunication networks

ITU-T G.644

Optical safety procedures and requirements for optical transport


systems

12.7 EMC Standards


This section lists the EMC Standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-7 EMC related standards
Standard

Description

IEC 61000-4-2

Electromagnetic compatibility-Part4-2: Testing and measurement


techniques-Electrostatic discharge immunity test

EN 61000-4-2
IEC 61000-4-3
EN 61000-4-3
IEC 61000-4-4
EN 61000-4-4
IEC 61000-4-5
EN 61000-4-5
IEC 61000-4-6
EN 61000-4-6
IEC 61000-4-29
EN 61000-4-29
CISPR 22/EN 55022

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-3: Testing and


measurement techniques-Radiated, radio-frequency,
electromagnetic field immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-4: Testing and
measurement techniques-Electrical fast transient/burst immunity
test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-5: Testing and
measurement techniques-Surge immunity test
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-6: Testing and
measurement techniques-Immunity to conducted disturbances,
induced by radio-frequency fields
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)-Part 4-29: Testing and
measurement techniques-Voltage dips, shot interruptions and
voltage variations on d.c. input power port immunity tests
Information technology equipment-Radio disturbance
characteristics-Limits and methods of measurement

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Standard

Description

CISPR 24/EN 55024

Information technology equipment-immunity characteristicsLimits and methods of measurement

ETSI EN 300386

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio Spectrum Matters


(ERM); Telecommunication network equipment;
ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements

ETSI EN 201468

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters


(ERM); Additional ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
telecommunications equipment for enhanced availability of
service in specific applications

ETSI EN 300127

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters


(ERM); Radiated emission testing of physically large
telecommunication systems

ETSI EN 300132-2

Power supply interface at the input to telecommunications


equipment; Part 2: Operated by direct current (dc)

12.8 Protection Standards


This section lists the protection standards that the OptiX OSN equipment complies with.
Table 12-8 Protection related standards

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

Standard

Description

IEC 61024-1

Protection of structures against lightning

IEC 61312-1

Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse part I: general


principles

IEC 61000-4-5

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques Section 5: Surge immunity test

ITU-T K.11

Principles of protection against overvoltage and overcurrents

ITU-T K.20

Resistibility of telecommunication switching equipment to overvoltages


and overcurrents

ITU-T K.27

Bonding configurations and earthing inside a telecommunication


building

ITU-T K.41

Resistibility of internal interfaces of telecommunication centers to surge


overvoltages

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A Glossary

Glossary

Numerics
1+1 backup

A backup method in which two components mirror each other. If the active component
goes down, the standby component takes over services from the active component to
ensure that the system service is not interrupted.

1:N protection

An architecture that has N normal service signals, N working SNCs/trails, and one
protection SNC/trail. It may have one extra service signal.

3G

See 3rd Generation.

3R

reshaping, retiming, regenerating

3rd Generation (3G)

The third generation of digital wireless technology, as defined by the International


Telecommunications Union (ITU). Third generation technology is expected to deliver
data transmission speeds between 144 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, compared to the 9.6 kbit/s to
19.2 kbit/s offered by second generation technology.

A
A/D

analog/digit

AAA

See Authentication, Authorization and Accounting.

AAL

See ATM Adaptation Layer.

AAL2

ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2

AAL5

ATM Adaptation Layer Type 5

ABR

See available bit rate.

ACAP

See adjacent channel alternate polarization.

ACH

associated channel header

ACL

See access control list.

ACL rule

A rule for controlling the access of users.

ADM

add/drop multiplexer

AF

See assured forwarding.

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A Glossary

AGC

automatic gain control

AIO

asynchronous input/output

AIS

alarm indication signal

AIS insertion

Insertion of AIS in a channel with excessive errors to indicate that it is unavailable. For
a line board, it can be set whether to insert AIS when there are excessive errors in the
B1, B2 and B3 bytes. For tributary board at the E1/T1 level, it can be set whether to
insert AIS when there are excessive errors in BIP-2. For tributary board at the E3 level
or higher, it can be set whether to insert AIS when there are excessive errors in the B3
byte.

ALS

See automatic laser shutdown.

AM

See adaptive modulation.

AMI

See alternate mark inversion.

ANSI

See American National Standards Institute.

APD

See avalanche photodiode.

APID

access point identifier

APS

automatic protection switching

APS 1+1 protection

A protection architecture that comprises one protection facility and one working facility
and performs switchover by using the Automatic Protection Switching (APS) protocol.
Normally, signals are sent only over the working facility. If an APS switchover event is
detected by the working facility, services are switched over to the protection facility.

ARP

See Address Resolution Protocol.

AS

See autonomous system.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASK

amplitude shift keying

ATM

asynchronous transfer mode

ATM Adaptation
Layer (AAL)

An interface between higher-layer protocols and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).


The AAL provides a conversion function to and from ATM for various types of
information, including voice, video, and data.

ATM protection group Logically bound ATM VP network/subnetwork connections that share the same physical
transmission channel. In the VP Group (VPG), a pair of VP connections (working
connection and its protective connection) is used for monitoring the automatic protection
switching, called monitoring connections (APS VPCs). If the monitoring connections
switch over, the whole VPG will switch over to quicken the ATM protection switching
(as quick as the protection switching of the SDH layer).
ATPC

See automatic transmit power control.

AU

See administrative unit.

AUG

See administrative unit group.

AWG

arrayed waveguide grating

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Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)

An Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. The ARP protocol
enables hosts and routers to determine link layer addresses through ARP requests and
responses. The address resolution is a process by which the host converts the target IP
address into a target MAC address before transmitting a frame. The basic function of
ARP is to use the target equipment's IP address to query its MAC address.

American National
Standards Institute
(ANSI)

An organization that defines U.S standards for the information processing industry.

Authentication,
Authorization and
Accounting (AAA)

A mechanism for configuring authentication, authorization, and accounting security


services. Authentication refers to the verification of user identities and the related
network services; authorization refers to the granting of network services to users
according to authentication results; and accounting refers to the tracking of the
consumption of network services by users.

access

A link between the customer and the telecommunication network. Many technologies,
such as the copper wire, optical fiber, mobile, microwave and satellite, are used for
access.

access control list


(ACL)

A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to access a
resource.

access layer

A layer that connects the end users (or last mile) to the ISP network. The access layer
devices are cost-effective and have high-density interfaces. In an actual network, the
access layer includes the devices and cables between the access points and the UPEs.

access point

Any entity that has station functionality and provides access to the distribution services,
via the wireless medium (WM) for associated stations.

accumulation

The sum of the service usage, consumption, and recharge fees of a subscriber.

active link

A link in the link aggregation group, which is connected to the active interface.

active mode

A working mode of EFM OAM. The discovery and remote loopback can only be initiated
by the interface in the active mode.

adaptive modulation
(AM)

A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the
channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment uses a highefficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum
utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment uses the
low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link
that carries high-priority services.

adjacency

A portion of the local routing information which pertains to the reachability of a single
neighbor ES or IS over a single circuit. Adjacencies are used as input to the Decision
Process for forming paths through the routing domain. A separate adjacency is created
for each neighbor on a circuit, and for each level of routing (i.e. level 1 and level 2) on
a broadcast circuit.

adjacent channel
alternate polarization
(ACAP)

A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal


polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals.

adjacent concatenation A situation where the virtual containers (VC) to carry concatenated services in SDH are
consecutive in terms of their service in the frame structures, so that they use the same
path overhead (POH).

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administrative unit
(AU)

The information structure that enables adaptation between the higher order path layer
and the multiplex section layer. The administrative unit consists of an information
payload (the higher order VC) and an AU pointer, which indicates the offset of the
payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start.

administrative unit
group (AUG)

One or more administrative units occupying fixed, defined positions in an STM payload.
An AUG consists of AU-4s.

advanced ACL

An ACL that defines ACL rules based on the source addresses, target addresses, protocol
type, such as TCP source or target port, the type of the ICMP protocol, and message
codes.

aggregated link

Multiple signaling link sets between two nodes.

aging time

The time to live before an object becomes invalid.

air interface

The interface between the cellular phone set or wireless modem (usually portable or
mobile) and the active base station.

alarm

A message reported when a fault is detected by a device or by the network management


system during the device polling process. Each alarm corresponds to a clear alarm. After
a clear alarm is received, the corresponding alarm is cleared.

alarm box

A device that reflects the status of an alarm in visual-audio mode. The alarm box notifies
you of the alarm generation and alarm severity after it is connected to the Signaling
Network Manager server or client and the related parameters are set.

alarm cascading

The method of cascading alarm signals from several subracks or cabinets.

alarm correlation
analysis

A process to analyze correlated alarms. For example, if alarm 2 is generated within five
seconds after alarm 1 is generated, and it complies with the conditions defined in the
alarm correlation analysis rule, you can either mask the alarm or raise the level of alarm
2 according to the behavior defined in the alarm correlation rule.

alarm filtering

An alarm management method. Alarms are detected and reported to the NMS system,
and whether the alarm information is displayed and saved is decided by the alarm filtering
status. An alarm with the filtering status set to "Filter" is not displayed and saved on the
NMS, but is monitored on the NE.

alarm indication

A mechanism to indicate the alarm status of equipment. On the cabinet of an NE, four
differently-colored indicators specify the current status of the NE. When the green
indicator is on, the NE is powered on. When the red indicator is on, a critical alarm has
been generated. When the orange indicator is on, a major alarm has been generated.
When the yellow indicator is on, a minor alarm has been generated. The ALM alarm
indicator on the front panel of a board indicates the current status of the board.

alarm inversion mode

A mode for an NE that indicates whether the port is automatically restored to the normal
status after the service is accessed or the fault is removed. There are three alarm inversion
modes: normal, revertible and non-revertible.

alarm notification

When an error occurs, the performance measurement system sends performance alarms
to the destination (for example, a file and/or fault management system) designated by
users.

alarm suppression

A method to suppress alarms for the alarm management purpose. Alarms that are
suppressed are no longer reported from NEs.

alternate mark
inversion (AMI)

A synchronous clock encoding technique which uses bipolar pulses to represent logical
1 values.

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analog signal

A signal in which information is represented with a continuously variable physical


quantity, such as voltage. Because of this constant changing of the wave shape with
regard to its passing a given point in time or space, an analog signal might have a virtually
indefinite number of states or values. This contrasts with a digital signal that is expressed
as a square wave and therefore has a very limited number of discrete states. Analog
signals, with complicated structures and narrow bandwidth, are vulnerable to external
interference.

assured forwarding
(AF)

One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF.
It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay.
For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that
exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the
traffic instead of discarding the packets.

attack

An attempt to bypass security controls in a system with the mission of using that system
or compromising it. An attack is usually accomplished by exploiting a current
vulnerability.

attenuation

Reduction of signal magnitude or signal loss, usually expressed in decibels.

attenuator

A device used to increase the attenuation of an Optical Fiber Link. Generally used to
ensure that the signal at the receive end is not too strong.

automatic laser
shutdown (ALS)

A technique (procedure) to automatically shutdown the output power of laser transmitters


and optical amplifiers to avoid exposure to hazardous levels.

automatic transmit
A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected
power control (ATPC) at the receiver
autonomous system
(AS)

A network set that uses the same routing policy and is managed by the same technology
administration department. Each AS has a unique identifier that is an integer ranging
from 1 to 65535. The identifier is assigned by IANA. An AS can be divided into areas.

availability

A capability of providing services at any time. The probability of this capability is called
availability.

available bit rate (ABR) A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. ABR only provides possible
forwarding service and applies to the connections that does not require the real-time
quality. It does not provide any guarantee in terms of cell loss or delay.
avalanche photodiode
(APD)

A semiconductor photodetector with integral detection and amplification stages.


Electrons generated at a p/n junction are accelerated in a region where they free an
avalanche of other electrons. APDs can detect faint signals but require higher voltages
than other semiconductor electronics.

average delay

A performance indicator indicating the average RTT of multiple ping operations or other
probe operations. It is expressed in milliseconds.

B
B-ISDN

See broadband integrated services digital network.

BA

booster amplifier

BBE

background block error

BC

boundary clock

BCD

binary coded decimal

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BDI

See backward defect indication.

BDI packet

A packet used to notify the upstream LSR of the failure event which has occurred on the
downstream LSR through the reverse LSP. The BDI packet can be used in the 1:1/N
protective switchover service.

BE

See best effort.

BER

bit error rate

BFD

See Bidirectional Forwarding Detection.

BGP

Border Gateway Protocol

BIP

See bit interleaved parity.

BIP-8

See bit interleaved parity-8.

BIP-X

bit interleaved parity-X

BITS

See building integrated timing supply.

BMC

best master clock

BNC

See bayonet-neill-concelman.

BOM

bill of materials

BPDU

See bridge protocol data unit.

BPS

board protection switching

BSC

See base station controller.

BSS

base station subsystem

BTS

base transceiver station

BWS

backbone wavelength division multiplexing system

Bidirectional
Forwarding Detection
(BFD)

A fast and independent hello protocol that delivers millisecond-level link failure
detection and provides carrier-class availability. After sessions are established between
neighboring systems, the systems can periodically send BFD packets to each other. If
one system fails to receive a BFD packet within the negotiated period, the system regards
that the bidirectional link fails and instructs the upper layer protocol to take actions to
recover the faulty link.

backbone network

A network that forms the central interconnection for a connected network. The
communication backbone for a country is WAN. The backbone network is an important
architectural element for building enterprise networks. It provides a path for the exchange
of information between different LANs or subnetworks. A backbone can tie together
diverse networks in the same building, in different buildings in a campus environment,
or over wide areas. Generally, the backbone network's capacity is greater than the
networks connected to it.

backplane

An electronic circuit board containing circuits and sockets into which additional
electronic devices on other circuit boards or cards can be plugged.

backup

A periodic operation performed on data stored in a database for the purposes of


recovering the data if an error occurs. The backup also refers to the data synchronization
between active and standby boards.

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backward defect
indication (BDI)

A function that the sink node of a LSP, when detecting a defect, uses to inform the
upstream end of the LSP of a downstream defect along the return path.

bandwidth

A range of transmission frequencies a transmission line or channel can carry in a network.


In fact, the bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in
the transmission line or channel. The greater the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer
rate.

base station area

An area of radio coverage consisting of cells served by one or more Base Transceiver
Stations (BTSs) in the same base station site.

base station controller


(BSC)

A logical entity that connects the BTS with the MSC in a GSM/CDMA network. It
interworks with the BTS through the Abis interface, the MSC through the A interface.
It provides the following functions: radio resource management, base station
management, power control, handover control, and traffic measurement. One BSC
controls and manages one or more BTSs in an actual network.

baseband

A form of modulation in which the information is applied directly onto the physical
transmission medium.

bayonet-neillconcelman (BNC)

A connector used for connecting two coaxial cables.

bearer

An information transmission path with defined capacity, delay and bit error rate.

bearer network

A network used to carry the messages of a transport-layer protocol between physical


devices.

best effort (BE)

A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded
following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the
network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time
it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss
ratio, and high reliability.

best-effort service

A unitary and simple service model. Without being approved, but after notifying the
network, the application can send any number of packets at any time. The network tries
its best to send the packets, but delay and reliability cannot be ensured. Best-Effort is
the default service model of the Internet. It can be applied to various networks, such as
FTP and E-Mail. It is implemented through the First In First-Out (FIFO) queue.

bit error

An incompatibility between a bit in a transmitted digital signal and the corresponding


bit in the received digital signal.

bit interleaved parity


(BIP)

A method of error monitoring. With even parity, the transmitting equipment generates
an X-bit code over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of
the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered
portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit
sequences within the specified portion, and so forth. Even parity is generated by setting
the BIP-X bits so that an even number of 1s exist in each monitored partition of the
signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits in the same bit position within the X-bit
sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X.

bit interleaved parity-8 Consists of a parity byte calculated bit-wise across a large number of bytes in a
(BIP-8)
transmission transport frame. Divide a frame is into several blocks with 8 bits (one byte)
in a parity unit and then arrange the blocks in matrix. Compute the number of "1" or "0"
over each column. Then fill a 1 in the corresponding bit for the result if the number is
odd, otherwise fill a 0.

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blacklist

A method of filtering packets based on their source IP addresses. Compared with ACL,
the match condition for the black list is much simpler. Therefore, the black list can filter
packets at a higher speed and can effectively screen the packet sent from the specific IP
address.

bound path

A parallel path with several serial paths bundled together. It improves the data throughput
capacity.

bridge

A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges
operate at the physical network level. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store
and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges
differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP
addresses.

bridge protocol data


unit (BPDU)

Data messages exchanged across switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning
tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses,
priorities, and costs, and they ensure that the data reaches its intended destination. BPDU
messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. These
loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridge interfaces and placing
redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state.

bridging

The act of simultaneously transmitting identical traffic on the working and protection
channels.

broadband integrated A standard defined by the ITU-T to handle high-bandwidth applications, such as voice.
services digital network It currently uses the ATM technology to transmit data over SONNET-based circuits at
(B-ISDN)
155 to 622 Mbit/s or higher speed.
broadcast

A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is


determined by the broadcast address.

broadcast address

A network address in computer networking that allows information to be sent to all nodes
on a network, rather than to a specific network host.

broadcast domain

A group of network stations that receives broadcast packets originating from any device
within the group. The broadcast domain also refers to the set of ports between which a
device forwards a multicast, broadcast, or unknown destination frame.

building integrated
timing supply (BITS)

In the situation of multiple synchronous nodes or communication devices, one can use
a device to set up a clock system on the hinge of telecom network to connect the
synchronous network as a whole, and provide satisfactory synchronous base signals to
the building integrated device. This device is called BITS.

built-in WDM

A function which integrates some simple WDM systems into products that belong to the
OSN series. That is, the OSN products can add or drop several wavelengths directly.

burst

A process of forming data into a block of the proper size, uninterruptedly sending the
block in a fast operation, waiting for a long time, and preparing for the next fast sending.

C
CAC

See connection admission control.

CAR

committed access rate

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CAS multiframe

A multiframe set up based on timeslot 16. Each CAS multiframe contains 16 E1 PCM
frames. Among the 8 bits of timeslot 16 in the first frame, the first 4 bits are used for
multiframe synchronization. The multiframe alignment signal (MFAS) for
synchronization is 0000. The last 4 bits are used as the not multiframe alignment signal
(NMFAS). The NMFAS is XYXX. For the other 15 frames, timeslot 16 is used to
transmit exchange and multiplexing (E&M) signaling corresponding to each timeslot.

CBR

See constant bit rate.

CBS

See committed burst size.

CC

See continuity check.

CCDP

See co-channel dual polarization.

CCS

See Common Channel Signaling.

CDVT

cell delay variation tolerance

CE

See customer edge.

CES

See circuit emulation service.

CFM

connectivity fault management

CFR

cell fill rate

CIR

committed information rate

CIST

See Common and Internal Spanning Tree.

CLEI

common language equipment identification

CLK

clock card

CLNP

connectionless network protocol

CLP

See cell loss priority.

CMI

coded mark inversion

CO

central office

CPU

See central processing unit.

CR

connection request

CRC

See cyclic redundancy check.

CRC-4 multiframe

A multiframe recommended by ITU-T G.704 and set up based on the first bit of timeslot
0. The CRC-4 multiframe is different from the CAS multiframe in principle and
implementation. Each CRC-4 multiframe contains 16 PCM frames. Each CRC-4
multiframe consists of two CRC-4 sub-multiframes. Each CRC-4 sub-multiframe is a
CRC-4 check block that contains 2048 (256 x 8) bits. Bits C1 to C4 of a check block can
check the previous check block.

CSA

Canadian Standards Association

CSES

consecutive severely errored second

CSF

Client Signal Fail

CSMA/CD

See carrier sense multiple access with collision detection.

CST

See common spanning tree.

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CTC

common transmit clock

CV

connectivity verification

CV packet

A type of packet that is generated at the frequency of 1/s on the source end LSR of an
LSP, and is terminated on the destination end LSR of the LSP. A CV packet is transmitted
from the source end LSR to the destination LSR along the LSP. A CV packet contains
the unique identifier (TTSI) of the LSP so that all types of abnormalities on the path can
be detected.

CW

control word

CWDM

See coarse wavelength division multiplexing.

Common Channel
Signaling (CCS)

A signaling system used in telephone networks that separates signaling information from
user data. A specified channel is exclusively designated to carry signaling information
for all other channels in the system.

Common and Internal The single spanning tree jointly calculated by STP and RSTP, the logical connectivity
Spanning Tree (CIST) using MST bridges and regions, and MSTP. The CIST ensures that all LANs in the
bridged local area network are simply and fully connected.
cabinet

Free-standing and self-supporting enclosure for housing electrical and/or electronic


equipment. It is usually fitted with doors and/or side panels which may or may not be
removable.

cable distribution plate A component, which is used to arrange cables in order.


cable tie

A tie used to bind cables.

carrier

An organization that has telecom network resources and can provide communications
service.

carrier sense multiple


access with collision
detection (CSMA/CD)

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a computer


networking access method in which:
l

A carrier sensing scheme is used.

A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame,
stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random
time interval before trying to send that frame again.

cell loss priority (CLP) A field in the ATM cell header that determines the probability of a cell being dropped
if the network becomes congested. Cells with CLP = 0 are insured traffic, which is
unlikely to be dropped. Cells with CLP = 1 are best-effort traffic, which might be
dropped.
central processing unit The computational and control unit of a computer. The CPU is the device that interprets
(CPU)
and executes instructions. The CPU has the ability to fetch, decode, and execute
instructions and to transfer information to and from other resources over the computer's
main data-transfer path, the bus.
centralized alarm

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The alarms of all the hosts connecting to the Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU).

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channel

A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or speed between two or more


locations in a network. The channel can be established through wire, radio (microwave),
fiber, or any combination of the three. The amount of information transmitted per second
in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For
example, b/s (100 bit/s), kb/s (103 bit/s), Mb/s (106 bit/s), Gb/s (109 bit/s), and Tb/s
(1012 bit/s).

channel spacing

The center-to-center difference in frequencies or wavelengths between adjacent channels


in a WDM device.

check criteria

A set of rules for checking and analyzing device echo information. The check criteria
for an alarm collection item need to be set through the configuration file.

circuit emulation
service (CES)

A function with which the E1/T1 data can be transmitted through ATM networks. At the
transmission end, the interface module packs timeslot data into ATM cells. These ATM
cells are sent to the reception end through the ATM network. At the reception end, the
interface module re-assigns the data in these ATM cells to E1/T1 timeslots. The CES
technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be recovered to the original
sequence at the reception end.

clock selection

An algorithm used for selecting the best clock for clock synchronization. For different
peers (multiple servers or peers configured for a client), a peer sends clock
synchronization packets to each server or passive peer. After receiving the response
packets, it uses the clock selection algorithm to select the best clock.

clock source

A device that provides standard time for the NTP configuration.

clock synchronization

A process of synchronizing clocks, in which the signal frequency traces the reference
frequency, but the start points do not need to be consistent. This process is (also known
as frequency synchronization).

clock tracing

The method of keeping the time on each node synchronized with a clock source in the
network.

co-channel dual
polarization (CCDP)

A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical
polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization has twice
the transmission capacity of the single polarization.

coarse wavelength
division multiplexing
(CWDM)

A signal transmission technology that multiplexes widely-spaced optical channels into


the same fiber. CWDM spaces wavelengths at a distance of several nm. CWDM does
not support optical amplifiers and is applied in short-distance chain networking.

collision

A condition in which two packets are being transmitted over a medium at the same time.
Their interference makes both unintelligible.

committed burst size


(CBS)

A parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket C, that is, the maximum burst
IP packet size when information is transferred at the committed information rate. This
parameter must be greater than 0 but should be not less than the maximum length of an
IP packet to be forwarded.

common spanning tree A single spanning tree that connects all the MST regions in a network. Every MST region
(CST)
is considered as a switch; therefore, the CST can be considered as their spanning tree
generated with STP/RSTP.
composite service

An aggregation of a series of services relevant to each other.

conference

An IP multimedia session that have two or more participants. Each conference has a
focus and can be identified uniquely.

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congestion

Extra intra-network or inter-network traffic resulting in decreased network service


efficiency.

congestion
management

A flow control measure to solve the problem of network resource competition. When
the network congestion occurs, it places packets into the queue for buffer and determines
the packet forwarding order.

connection

An association of transmission channels or telecommunication circuits, switching and


other functional units set up to provide for the transfer of signals between two or more
network points, to support a single communication.

connection admission
control (CAC)

A control process in which the network takes actions in the call set-up phase (or call renegotiation phase) to determine which connection request is admitted.

connection point

A reference point where the output of a trail termination source or a connection is bound
to the input of another connection, or where the output of a connection is bound to the
input of a trail termination sink or another connection. The connection point is
characterized by the information which passes across it. A bidirectional connection point
is formed by the association of a contradirectional pair.

connectionless

Pertaining to a method of data presentation. The data has a complete destination address
and is delivered by the network on a best-effort basis, independent of other data being
exchanged between the same pair of users.

constant bit rate (CBR) A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on
the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise
clocking to ensure undistorted transmission.
container

A set of hardware or software devices. In software domain, it refers to the environment


variables and processes. In hardware domain, it refers to a type of topology node that
contains nodes, usually refers to one device with multiple frames; each node stands for
a frame.

continuity check (CC)

An Ethernet connectivity fault management (CFM) method used to detect the


connectivity between MEPs by having each MEP periodically transmit a Continuity
Check Message (CCM).

control VLAN

A VLAN that transmits only protocol packets.

control channel

The channel used to transmit digital control information from the base station to a cell
phone or vice-versa.

convergence layer

A "bridge" between the access layer and the core layer. The convergence layer provides
the convergence and forwarding functions for the access layer. It processes all the traffic
from the access layer devices, and provides the uplinks to the core layer. Compared with
the access layer, the convergence layer devices should have higher performance, fewer
interfaces and higher switching rate. In the real network, the convergence layer refers to
the network between UPEs and PE-AGGs.

cooling system

The system that controls or influences climate by decreasing the air temperature only.

core layer

A layer that functions as the backbone of high speed switching for networks and provides
high speed forwarding communications. It has a backbone transmission structure that
provides high reliability, high throughput, and low delay. The core layer devices must
have a good redundancy, error tolerance, manageability, adaptability, and they support
dual-system hot backup or load balancing technologies. In a real network, the core layer
includes the IP/MPLS backbone network consisting of NPEs and backbone routers.

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correlation

The similarities when two random processes vary with time.

corruption

The alteration of the information in IMS networks for the purpose of deception. For
example, attackers corrupt the correct charging information to evade being charged.

cross-connection

The connection of channels between the tributary board and the line board, or between
line boards inside the NE. Network services are realized through the cross-connections
of NEs.

crossover cable

A twisted pair patch cable wired in such a way as to route the transmit signals from one
piece of equipment to the receive signals of another piece of equipment, and vice versa.

crystal oscillator

An oscillator that produces electrical oscillations at a frequency determined by the


physical characteristics of a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

customer edge (CE)

A part of the BGP/MPLS IP VPN model that provides interfaces for directly connecting
to the Service Provider (SP) network. A CE can be a router, switch, or host.

cutover

To migrate the data of an application system to another application system, which then
provides services.

cyclic redundancy
check (CRC)

A procedure used to check for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a
complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending
device performs the calculation before performing the transmission and includes the
generated number in the packet it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device
then repeats the same calculation. If both devices obtain the same result, the transmission
is considered to be error free. This procedure is known as a redundancy check because
each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

D
D/A

digital-analog converter

DB

database

DC

direct current

DC-C

See DC-return common (with ground).

DC-I

See DC-return isolate (with ground).

DC-return common
(with ground) (DC-C)

A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with
the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and also on the line between
the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment.

DC-return isolate (with A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with
ground) (DC-I)
the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and is isolated from the PGND
on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment.
DCC

See data communications channel.

DCE

See data circuit-terminating equipment.

DCF

data communication function

DCM

See dispersion compensation module.

DCN

See data communication network.

DDF

digital distribution frame

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DDN

See digital data network.

DHCP

See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

DLAG

See distributed link aggregation group.

DM

See delay measurement.

DNI

dual node interconnection

DRDB

dynamic random database

DS interior node

A DS node located at the center of a DS domain. It is a non-DS boundary node.

DS node

A DS-compliant node, which is subdivided into DS boundary node and ID interior node.

DSCP

differentiated services code point

DSL

See digital subscriber line.

DSLAM

See digital subscriber line access multiplexer.

DSP

digital signal processing

DTE

See data terminal equipment.

DTR

data terminal ready

DVB

digital video broadcasting

DVB-ASI

digital video broadcast-asynchronous serial interface

DVMRP

See Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol.

DWDM

See dense wavelength division multiplexing.

Distance Vector
Multicast Routing
Protocol (DVMRP)

An Internet gateway protocol based primarily on the RIP. The DVMRP protocol
implements a typical dense mode IP multicast solution and uses IGMP to exchange
routing datagrams with its neighbors.

Dynamic Host
A client-server networking protocol. A DHCP server provides configuration parameters
Configuration Protocol specific to the DHCP client host requesting information the host requires to participate
(DHCP)
on the Internet network. DHCP also provides a mechanism for allocating IP addresses
to hosts.
data backup

A method of copying key data to the backup storage area to prevent data loss in case the
original storage area is damaged or a failure occurs.

data circuitThe equipment that provides the signal conversion and coding between the data terminal
terminating equipment equipment (DTE) and the line. A DCE is located at a data station. The DCE may be
(DCE)
separate equipment, or an integral part of the DTE or intermediate equipment. The DCE
may perform other functions that are normally performed at the network end of the line.
data communication
network (DCN)

A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data


communication function.

data communications
channel (DCC)

The data channel that uses the D1-D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to
transmit information on the operation, management, maintenance, and provisioning
(OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channel composed of bytes D1-D3 is referred to as
the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channel composed of bytes D4-D12 is
referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel.

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data flow

A process that involves processing the data extracted from the source system, such as
filtering, integration, calculation, and summary, finding and solving data inconsistency,
and deleting invalid data so that the processed data meets the requirements of the
destination system for the input data.

data mapping

An algorithm that is used to convert the data between heterogeneous data models.

data restoration

A method for retrieving data that is lost due to damage or misoperations.

data terminal
equipment (DTE)

A user device composing the UNI. The DTE accesses the data network through the DCE
equipment (for example, a modem) and usually uses the clock signals produced by DCE.

datagram

A kind of protocol data unit (PDU) which is used in Connectionless Network Protocol
(CLNP), such as IP datagram, UDP datagram.

defect

A limited interruption in the ability of an item to perform a required function.

delay measurement
(DM)

The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source
node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node,
when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node.

demodulation

In communications, the means by which a modem converts data from modulated carrier
frequencies (waves that have been modified in such a way that variations in amplitude
and frequency represent meaningful information) over a telephone line. Data is converted
to the digital form needed by a computer to which the modem is attached, with as little
distortion as possible.

dense wavelength
division multiplexing
(DWDM)

The technology that utilizes the characteristics of broad bandwidth and low attenuation
of single mode optical fiber, employs multiple wavelengths with specific frequency
spacing as carriers, and allows multiple channels to transmit simultaneously in the same
fiber.

designated port

A port defined in the STP protocol. On each switch that runs the STP protocol, the traffic
from the root bridge is forwarded to the designated port. The subnet connected to the
STP switch receives the data traffic from the root bridge. All the ports on the root bridge
are designated ports. On each subnet, there is only one designated port. When a network
topology is stable, only the root port and the designated port forward traffic. Other nondesignated ports are in the blocking state, and they receive STP packets, but does not
forward user traffic.

destruction

A process during which the information and resources in a network are changed
unexpectedly and the meanings of the information and resources are deleted or changed.

digital data network


(DDN)

A data transmission network that is designed to transmit data on digital channels (such
as the fiber channel, digital microwave channel, or satellite channel).

digital modulation

A method that controls the changes in amplitude, phase, and frequency of the carrier
based on the changes in the baseband digital signal. In this manner, the information can
be transmitted by the carrier.

digital network

A telecommunication network where information is first converted into distinct


electronic pulses and then transmitted to a digital bit stream.

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digital signal

A signal in which information is represented by a limited number of discrete states


number of discrete states (for example, high and low voltages) rather than by fluctuating
levels in a continuous stream, as in an analog signal. In the pulse code modulation (PCM)
technology, the 8 kHz sampling frequency is used and a byte contains 8 bits in length.
Therefore, a digital signal is also referred to as a byte-based code stream. Digital signals,
with simple structures and broad bandwidth, are easy to shape or regenerate, and are not
easily affected by external interference.

digital subscriber line


(DSL)

A technology for providing digital connections over the copper wire or the local
telephone network. DSL performs data communication over the POTS lines without
affecting the POTS service.

digital subscriber line


access multiplexer
(DSLAM)

A network device, usually situated in the main office of a telephone company, that
receives signals from multiple customer Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) connections and
uses multiplexing techniques to put these signals on a high-speed backbone line.

dispersion

The dependence of refraction on the wavelength of light. Different wavelengths are


transmitted in an optical medium at different speeds. Wavelengths reach the end of the
medium at different times. As a result, the light pulse spreads and the dispersion occurs.

dispersion
compensation module
(DCM)

A type of module that contains dispersion compensation fibers to compensate for the
dispersion of the transmitting fiber.

distributed link
aggregation group
(DLAG)

A board-level port protection technology that detects unidirectional fiber cuts and
negotiates with the opposite port. In the case of a link down failure on a port or hardware
failure on a board, services are automatically switched to the slave board, thereby
achieving 1+1 protection for the inter-board ports.

domain

A logical subscriber group based on which the subscriber rights are controlled.

dotted decimal notation A format of IP address. IP addresses in this format are separated into four parts by a dot
"." with each part is in the decimal numeral.
download

To obtain data from an upper-layer device or the server.

downstream

In an access network, the direction of transmission toward the subscriber end of the link.

dual-ended switching

A protection method in which switching is performed at both ends of a protected entity,


such as a connection or path, even if a unidirectional failure occurs.

dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to simultaneously radiate or receive two independent radio waves
orthogonally polarized.
E
E-Aggr

See Ethernet aggregation.

E-LAN

See Ethernet local area network.

E-Line

See Ethernet line.

EA

encryption algorithm

EBS

See excess burst size.

ECC

See embedded control channel.

EDFA

See erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

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EEPROM

See electrically erasable programable read-only memory.

EF

See expedited forwarding.

EFCI

explicit forward congestion indication

EFM

Ethernet in the First Mile

EFM OAM

Ethernet in the first mile OAM

EIA

See Electronic Industries Alliance.

EIR

See excess information rate.

EMC

See electromagnetic compatibility.

EMI

See electromagnetic interference.

EMS

element management system

EPD

early packet discard

EPL

See Ethernet private line.

EPLAN

See Ethernet private LAN service.

ERPS

Ethernet ring protection switching

ESC

See electric supervisory channel.

ESCON

See enterprise system connection.

ESD

electrostatic discharge

ESN

See equipment serial number.

ETS

European Telecommunication Standards

ETSI

See European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

EVC

Ethernet virtual connection

EVPL

See Ethernet virtual private line.

EVPLAN

See Ethernet virtual private LAN service.

EXP

See experimental bits.

Electronic Industries
Alliance (EIA)

An association based in Washington, D.C., with members from various electronics


manufacturers. It sets standards for electronic components. RS-232-C, for example, is
the EIA standard for connecting serial components.

EoD

See Ethernet over dual domains.

Ethernet

A LAN technology that uses the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) media access control method. The Ethernet network is highly reliable and
easy to maintain. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000
Mbit/s, or 10,000 Mbit/s.

Ethernet aggregation
(E-Aggr)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual


connection).

Ethernet line (E-Line)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual


connection).

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Ethernet local area


network (E-LAN)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet


virtual connection).

Ethernet over dual


domains (EoD)

A type of boards. EoD boards bridge the PSN and TDM networks, enabling Ethernet
service transmission across PSN and TDM networks.

Ethernet private LAN


service (EPLAN)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over dedicated bandwidth between multipoint-tomultipoint connections.

Ethernet private line


(EPL)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over dedicated bandwidth between point-to-point
connections.

Ethernet virtual
private LAN service
(EVPLAN)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over shared bandwidth between multipoint-tomultipoint connections.

Ethernet virtual
private line (EVPL)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over shared bandwidth between point-to-point
connections.

European
Telecommunications
Standards Institute
(ETSI)

A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

eSFP

enhanced small form-factor pluggable

egress

The egress LER. The group is transferred along the LSP consisting of a series of LSRs
after the group is labeled.

electric supervisory
channel (ESC)

A technology that implements communication among all the nodes and transmission of
monitoring data in an optical transmission network. The monitoring data of ESC is
introduced into DCC service overhead and is transmitted with service signals.

electrically erasable
A type of EPROM that can be erased with an electrical signal. It is useful for stable
programable read-only storage for long periods without electricity while still allowing reprograming. EEPROMs
memory (EEPROM)
contain less memory than RAM, take longer to reprogram, and can be reprogramed only
a limited number of times before wearing out.
electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC)

A condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its


individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without
causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic
interference to or from other equipment in the same environment.

electromagnetic
interference (EMI)

Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or


limits the performance of electronics/electrical equipment.

embedded control
channel (ECC)

A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer
to enable the transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM)
information between NEs.

emergency
maintenance

A type of measure taken to quickly rectify an emergency fault to recover the proper
running of the related system or device and to reduce losses.

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encapsulation

A technology for layered protocols, in which a lower-level protocol accepts a message


from a higher-level protocol and places it in the data portion of the lower-level frame.
Protocol A's packets have complete header information, and are carried by protocol B
as data. Packets that encapsulate protocol A have a B header, an A header, followed by
the information that protocol A is carrying. Note that A could equal to B, as in IP inside
IP.

engineering label

A mark on a cable, a subrack, or a cabinet for identification.

enterprise system
connection (ESCON)

A path protocol that connects the host to various control units in a storage system.
Enterprise system connection is a serial bit stream transmission protocol that operates a
rate of 200 Mbit/s.

entity

A part, device, subsystem, functional unit, equipment, or system that can be considered
individually.

equalization

A method of avoiding selective fading of frequencies. Equalization can compensate for


the changes of amplitude frequency caused by frequency selective fading.

equipment serial
number (ESN)

A string of characters that identify a piece of equipment and ensures correct allocation
of a license file to the specified equipment. It is also called "equipment fingerprint".

erbium-doped fiber
amplifier (EDFA)

An optical device that amplifies optical signals. This device uses a short optical fiber
doped with the rare-earth element, Erbium. The signal to be amplified and a pump laser
are multiplexed into the doped fiber, and the signal is amplified by interacting with
doping ions. When the amplifier passes an external light source pump, it amplifies the
optical signals in a specific wavelength range.

error tolerance

The ability of a system or component to continue normal operation despite the presence
of erroneous inputs.

event

An event indicates the information record of the status change between the system and
the managed object, including the threshold alarm of the system and the alarm reported
by the managed object.

excess burst size (EBS) A parameter related to traffic. In the single rate three color marker (srTCM) mode, traffic
control is achieved by token buckets C and E. The excess burst size parameter defines
the capacity of token bucket E, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the
information is transferred at the committed information rate. This parameter must be
greater than 0 but should be not less than the maximum length of an IP packet to be
forwarded.
excess information rate The bandwidth for excessive or burst traffic above the CIR; it equals the result of the
(EIR)
actual transmission rate without the safety rate.
exercise switching

An operation to check whether the protection switching protocol functions properly. The
protection switching is not really performed.

expedited forwarding
(EF)

The highest order QoS in the Diff-Serv network. EF PHB is suitable for services that
demand low packet loss ratio, short delay, and broad bandwidth. In all the cases, EF
traffic can guarantee a transmission rate equal to or faster than the set rate. The DSCP
value of EF PHB is "101110".

experimental bits
(EXP)

A field in the MPLS packet header, three bits long. This field is always used to identify
the CoS of the MPLS packet.

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extended ID

The number of the subnet to which an NE belongs, used to identify different network
segments in a wide area network (WAN). Together, the ID and extended ID form the
physical ID of the NE.

external links

The links between the current Web site and other Web sites. Generally, external links
refer to links from other Web sites to the current Web site.

extract

To read the data required by the destination system from the source system.

F
F1 byte

The user path byte, which belongs to the family of regenerator section overhead bytes.
F1 bytes are reserved for network providers, who use them primarily as a temporary data
or voice channel to transmit maintenance information.

FC

See Fibre Channel.

FDB

flash database

FDD

See frequency division duplex.

FDDI

See fiber distributed data interface.

FDI

See forward defect indication.

FDI packet

See forward defect indication packet.

FDV

See frame delay variation.

FE port

See fast Ethernet port.

FEC

See forward error correction.

FFD

fast failure detection

FFD packet

A path failure detection method independent from CV. Different from a CV packet, the
frequency for generating FFD packets is configurable to satisfy different service
requirements. By default, the frequency is 20/s. An FFD packet contains information the
same as that in a CV packet. The destination end LSR processes FFD packets in the same
way for processing CV packets.

FICON

See Fiber Connect.

FIFO

first in first out queuing

FLR

See frame loss ratio.

FPGA

See field programmable gate array.

FPS

See fast protection switching.

FQ

See flow queue.

FR

See frame relay.

FRU

field replaceable unit

FTN

FEC to NHLFE

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

Fiber Connect
(FICON)

A new generation connection protocol that connects the host to various control units. It
carries a single byte command protocol through the physical path of fiber channel, and
provides a higher transmission rate and better performance than ESCON.

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Fibre Channel (FC)

A high-speed transport technology used to build SANs. FC is primarily used for


transporting SCSI traffic from servers to disk arrays, but it can also be used on networks
carrying ATM and IP traffic. FC supports single-mode and multi-mode fiber
connections, and can run on twisted-pair copper wires and coaxial cables. FC provides
both connection-oriented and connectionless services.

fairness

A feature in which for any link specified in a ring network, the source node is provided
with certain bandwidth capacities if the data packets transmitted by the source node are
constrained by the fairness algorithm.

fast Ethernet port (FE


port)

The port that provides a rate of 100 Mbit/s.

fast protection
switching (FPS)

A type of pseudo wire automatic protection switching (PW APS). When the working
PW is faulty, the source transmits services to the protection PW and the sink receives
the services from the protection PW. FPS generally works with the interworking function
(IWF) to provide end-to-end protection for services.

fault

A failure to operate correctly. A fault does not include failures caused by preventative
maintenance, insufficient external resources, or intentional settings.

fault alarm

A type of alarm caused by hardware and/or software faults, for example, board failure,
or by the exception that occurs in major functions. After handling, a fault alarm can be
cleared, upon which the NE reports a recovery alarm. Fault alarms are of higher severity
than event alarms.

fault detection

The process of determining that a fault has occurred.

fault notification

A process wherein a fault is notified. For example, when a fault occurs on the local
interface, the local interface notifies the peer of the fault through OAMPDUs. The local
interface then records the fault in the log, and reports it to the NMS.

feeder

1. A radio frequency transmission line interconnecting an antenna and a transmitter or


receiver. 2. For an antenna comprising more than one driven element, a radio frequency
transmission Line interconnecting the antenna input and a driven element.

fiber distributed data


interface (FDDI)

A standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for highspeed fiber-optic LANs. FDDI provides specifications for transmission rates of 100
megabits per second on token ring networks.

fiber trough

A trough used for routing fibers.

field programmable
gate array (FPGA)

A semi-customized circuit that is used in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit


(ASIC) field and developed based on programmable components. FPGA remedies many
of the deficiencies of customized circuits, and allows the use of many more gate arrays.

firewall

A combination of a series of components set between different networks or network


security domains. By monitoring, limiting, and changing the data traffic across the
firewall, it masks the interior information, structure and running state of the network as
much as possible to protect the network security.

fixed bandwidth

The bandwidth that is fully reserved and is allocated periodically in a GPON system to
ensure the quality of cell transmission. If a T-CONT is provided with a fixed bandwidth
and does not transmit cells, the OLT can still allocate/assign the fixed bandwidth.
Therefore, idle cells are transmitted to the upstream OLT from the ONU/ONT.

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flash memory

A type of special electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) and


can be erased and rewritten in blocks at a time instead of only one byte. The data stored
in flash memory will not be lost if the flash memory is powered off.

flooding

A type of incident, such as insertion of a large volume of data, that results in denial of
service.

flow

An aggregation of packets that have the same characteristics. On boards, it is a group of


packets that have the same quality of service (QoS) operation.

flow queue (FQ)

The same type of services of a user is considered one service flow. HQoS performs queue
scheduling according to the services of each user. The service flows of each user are
classified into four FQs, namely, CS, EF, AF, and BE. CS is assigned a traffic shaping
percentage for Priority Queuing (PQ); EF, AF, and BE are assigned weights for Weighted
Fair Queuing (WFQ). The preceding two scheduling modes occupy a certain bandwidth
each; they can act at the same time without interfering each other.

forward defect
indication (FDI)

A packet generated and traced forward to the sink node of the LSP by the node that first
detects defects. It includes fields to indicate the nature of the defect and its location. Its
primary purpose is to suppress alarms being raised at affected higher level client LSPs
and (in turn) their client layers.

forward defect
A packet that responds to the detected failure event. It is used to suppress alarms of the
indication packet (FDI upper layer network where failure has occurred.
packet)
forward error
correction (FEC)

A bit error correction technology that adds correction information to the payload at the
transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during
transmission can be corrected at the receive end.

fragmentation

A process of breaking a packet into smaller units when transmitting over a network node
that does not support the original size of the packet.

frame delay variation


(FDV)

A measurement of the variations in the frame delay between a pair of service frames,
where the service frames belong to the same CoS instance on a point to point ETH
connection.

frame loss ratio (FLR) A ratio, is expressed as a percentage, of the number of service frames not delivered
divided by the total number of service frames during time interval T, where the number
of service frames not delivered is the difference between the number of service frames
arriving at the ingress ETH flow point and the number of service frames delivered at the
egress ETH flow point in a point-to-point ETH connection.
frame relay (FR)

A packet-switching protocol used for WANs. Frame relay transmits variable-length


packets at up to 2 Mbit/s over predetermined, set paths known as PVCs (permanent
virtual circuits). It is a variant of X.25 but sacrifices X.25's error detection for the sake
of speed.

free-run mode

An operating condition of a clock, the output signal of which is strongly influenced by


the oscillating element and not controlled by servo phase-locking techniques. In this
mode the clock has never had a network reference input, or the clock has lost external
reference and has no access to stored data, that could be acquired from a previously
connected external reference. Free-run begins when the clock output no longer reflects
the influence of a connected external reference, or transition from it. Free-run terminates
when the clock output has achieved lock to an external reference.

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frequency division
duplex (FDD)

An application in which channels are divided by frequency. In an FDD system, the uplink
and downlink use different frequencies. Downlink data is sent through bursts. Both
uplink and downlink transmission use frames with fixed time length.

full rate

A type of data transmission rate. The service bandwidth can be 9.6 kbit/s, 4.8 kbit/s, or
2.4 kbit/s.

fuse

A safety device that protects an electric circuit from excessive current, consisting of or
containing a metal element that melts when current exceeds a specific amperage, thereby
opening the circuit.

G
G-ACH

generic associated channel header

GAL

generic associated channel header label

GCC

general communication channel

GCRA

generic cell rate algorithm

GFC

generic flow control

GFP

See Generic Framing Procedure.

GNE

See gateway network element.

GPS

See Global Positioning System.

GRE

See Generic Routing Encapsulation.

GSM

See Global System for Mobile Communications.

GTS

See generic traffic shaping.

GUI

graphical user interface

Generic Framing
Procedure (GFP)

A framing and encapsulated method that can be applied to any data type. GFP is defined
by ITU-T G.7041.

Generic Routing
Encapsulation (GRE)

A mechanism for encapsulating any network layer protocol over any other network. GRE
is used for encapsulating IP datagrams tunneled through the Internet. GRE serves as a
Layer 3 tunneling protocol and provides a tunnel for transparently transmitting data
packets.

Global Positioning
System (GPS)

A global navigation satellite system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and
timing services to users worldwide.

Global System for


Mobile
Communications
(GSM)

The second-generation mobile networking standard defined by European


Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is aimed at designing a standard for
global mobile phone networks. The standard allows a subscriber to use a phone globally.
GSM consists of three main parts: mobile switching subsystem (MSS), base station
subsystem (BSS), and mobile station (MS).

gain

The difference between the optical power from the input optical interface of the optical
amplifier and the optical power from the output optical interface of the jumper fiber,
which expressed in dB.

gateway

A device that connects two network segments using different protocols. It is used to
translate the data in the two network segments.

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A Glossary

gateway network
element (GNE)

An NE that serves as a gateway for other NEs to communicate with a network


management system.

general flow control

A flow control that is applicable to the A interface, C/D interface, and trunks and can be
achieved by integrating multiple function modules. It is adopted when the traffic is heavy,
or location update and authentication of multiple subscribers are performed after the
system restarts. It can efficiently prevent system breakdown caused by link congestion
or CPU overload.

generic traffic shaping A traffic control measure that proactively adjusts the output speed of the traffic. This is
(GTS)
to adapt the traffic to network resources that can be provided by the downstream router
to avoid packet discarding and congestion.
ground terminal

A connection terminal on a communication device. It is used to connect the device with


ground cables, maintaining a tight connection between the device and the grounding
electrode.

H
HCS

higher order connection supervision

HDB3

high density bipolar of order 3 code

HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control

HDTV

See high definition television.

HEC

See header error control.

HPA

higher order path adaptation

HPT

higher order path termination

HQoS

See hierarchical quality of service.

HSDPA

See High Speed Downlink Packet Access.

HSI

high-speed Internet

High Speed Downlink


Packet Access
(HSDPA)

A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement


for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the
maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the
WCDMA network topology.

hang up

A call processing mode used by an attendant to end the conversation with a user.

hardware loopback

A connection mode in which a fiber jumper is used to connect the input optical interface
of a board to the output optical interface of the board to achieve signal loopback.

header error control


(HEC)

A field within the ATM frame whose purpose is to correct any single bit error in the cell
Header and also to detect any multi-bit errors. It actually performs a CRC check in the
first four header bits and also at the receiving end.

hello packet

The commonest packet which is periodically sent by a router to its neighbors. It contains
information about the DR, Backup Designated Router (BDR), known neighbors and
timer values.

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hierarchical quality of
service (HQoS)

A type of QoS that controls the traffic of users and performs the scheduling according
to the priority of user services. HQoS has an advanced traffic statistics function, and the
administrator can monitor the usage of bandwidth of each service. Hence, the bandwidth
can be allocated reasonably through traffic analysis.

high definition
television (HDTV)

A type of TV that is capable of displaying at least 720 progressive or 1080 interlaced


active scan lines. It must be capable of displaying a 16:9 image using at least 540
progressive or 810 interlaced active scan lines.

historical performance Performance data that is stored in the history register or that has been automatically
data
reported and stored in the NMS.
hop

A network connection between two distant nodes. For Internet operation a hop represents
a small step on the route from one main computer to another.

hot patch

A patch that is used to repair a deficiency in the software or add a new feature to a program
without restarting the software and interrupting the service. For the equipment using the
built-in system, a hot patch can be loaded, activated, confirmed, deactivated, deleted, or
queried.

I
IANA

See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IC

See integrated circuit.

ICC

ITU carrier code

ICMP

See Internet Control Message Protocol.

ICP

IMA Control Protocol

IDU

See indoor unit.

IEEE

See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

IF

See intermediate frequency.

IGMP

See Internet Group Management Protocol.

IGMP snooping

A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages


and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyzing Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) packets between hosts and Layer 3 devices. In this
manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently.

IGP

See Interior Gateway Protocol.

ILM

incoming label map

IMA

See inverse multiplexing over ATM.

IMA frame

A control unit in the IMA protocol. It is a logical frame defined as M consecutive cells,
numbered 0 to M-l, transmitted on each of the N links in an IMA group.

IP

Internet Protocol

IP address

A 32-bit (4-byte) binary number that uniquely identifies a host connected to the Internet.
An IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation, consisting of the decimal values
of its 4 bytes, separated with periods; for example, 127.0.0.1. The first three bytes of the
IP address identify the network to which the host is connected, and the last byte identifies
the host itself.

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A Glossary

IPA

See intelligent power adjustment.

IPTV

See Internet Protocol television.

IPv4

See Internet Protocol version 4.

IPv6

See Internet Protocol version 6.

IS-IS

See Intermediate System to Intermediate System.

ISDN

integrated services digital network

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISP

See Internet service provider.

IST

internal spanning tree

ITC

independent transmit clock

ITU

See International Telecommunication Union.

IWF

Interworking Function

Institute of Electrical
and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE)

A professional association of electrical and electronics engineers based in the United


States, but with membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on
electrical, electronics, and computer engineering, and produces many important
technology standards.

Interior Gateway
Protocol (IGP)

A routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system. The IGP runs in smallsized and medium-sized networks. The commonly used IGPs are the routing information
protocol (RIP), the interior gateway routing protocol (IGRP), the enhanced IGRP
(EIGRP), and the open shortest path first (OSPF).

Intermediate System to A protocol used by network devices (routers) to determine the best way to forward
Intermediate System
datagram or packets through a packet-based network.
(IS-IS)
International
Telecommunication
Union (ITU)

A United Nations agency, one of the most important and influential recommendation
bodies, responsible for recommending standards for telecommunication (ITU-T) and
radio networks (ITU-R).

Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority
(IANA)

A department operated by the IAB. IANA delegates authority for IP address-space


allocation and domain-name assignment to the NIC and other organizations. IANA also
maintains a database of assigned protocol identifiers used in the TCP/IP suite, including
autonomous system numbers.

Internet Control
Message Protocol
(ICMP)

A network layer protocol that provides message control and error reporting between a
host server and an Internet gateway.

Internet Group
Management Protocol
(IGMP)

One of the TCP/IP protocols for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast
groups. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain
multicast group memberships.

Internet Protocol
television (IPTV)

A system that provides TV services over the IP network. In the IPTV system, media
streams from satellites, terrestrial, and studios are converted by the encoder to the media
streams applicable to the IP network. Then the media streams are transmitted to the
terminal layer on the IP network. Media content is displayed on a TV set after media
streams are processed by specified receiving devices (for example, an STB).

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A Glossary

Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4)

The current version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 utilizes a 32bit address which is
assigned to hosts. An address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is
written as 4 octets separated by periods and may range from 0.0.0.0 through to
255.255.255.255. Each IPv4 address consists of a network number, an optional
subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together
are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the
network or subnetwork.

Internet Protocol
version 6 (IPv6)

An update version of IPv4, which is designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) and is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). It is a new version of the Internet
Protocol. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while
an IPv6 address has 128 bits.

Internet service
provider (ISP)

An organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services.

inbound

Data transmission from the external link to the router for the routers that support the
NetStream feature.

indicator

Description of a performance feature collected from the managed devices by the


performance collector.

indoor unit (IDU)

The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing,


multiplexing/demultiplexing, and intermediate frequency (IF) processing for services.

input jitter tolerance

The measure of a receiver's ability to tolerate jitter on an incoming waveform.

insertion loss

The loss of power that results from inserting a component, such as a connector, coupler,
or splice, into a previously continuous path.

integrated circuit (IC)

A combination of inseparable associated circuit elements that are formed in place and
interconnected on or within a single base material to perform a microcircuit function.

intelligent power
adjustment (IPA)

A technology that reduces the optical power of all the amplifiers in an adjacent
regeneration section in the upstream to a safe level if the system detects the loss of optical
signals on the link. IPA helps ensure that maintenance engineers are not injured by the
laser escaping from a broken fiber or a connector that is not plugged in properly.

interleaving

A process of systematically changing the bit sequence of a digital signal, usually as part
of the channel coding, in order to reduce the influence of error bursts that may occur
during transmission.

intermediate frequency The transitional frequency between the frequencies of a modulated signal and an RF
(IF)
signal.
inverse multiplexing
over ATM (IMA)

A technique that involves inverse multiplexing and de-multiplexing of ATM cells in a


cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate
is approximately the sum of the link rates.

J
jitter

The measure of short waveform variations caused by vibration, voltage fluctuations, and
control system instability.

jumper

A connection wire for connecting two pins.

K
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K byte

A Glossary

A general designation of K1 byte and K2 byte in the SDH.

L
L2 switching

The switching based on the data link layer.

L2VPN

Layer 2 virtual private network

LACP

See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

LACPDU

Link Aggregation Control Protocol data unit

LAG

See link aggregation group.

LAN

See local area network.

LAPS

Link Access Protocol-SDH

LB

See loopback.

LBM

See loopback message.

LBR

See loopback reply.

LC

Lucent connector

LCAS

See link capacity adjustment scheme.

LCN

local communications network

LCT

local craft terminal

LDP

Label Distribution Protocol

LED

See light emitting diode.

LER

See label edge router.

LIFO

See last in first out.

LIU

logical interface unit

LL

logical link

LLC

See logical link control.

LLID

local loopback ID

LM

See loss measurement.

LOC

loss of continuity

LOM

loss of multiframe

LOP

loss of pointer

LOS

See loss of signal.

LP

lower order path

LPA

lower order path adaptation

LPF

See low-pass filter.

LPT

link-state pass through

LSP

See label switched path.

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LSR

See label switching router.

LT

linktrace

LTM

See linktrace message.

LTR

See linktrace reply.

LU

line unit

Layer 2 switching

A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch


transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address
is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2
switching.

Link Aggregation
Control Protocol
(LACP)

A dynamic link aggregation protocol that improves the transmission speed and
reliability. The two ends of the link send LACP packets to inform each other of their
parameters and form a logical aggregation link. After the aggregation link is formed,
LACP maintains the link status in real time and dynamically adjusts the ports on the
aggregation link upon detecting the failure of a physical port.

label

A short identifier that is of fixed length and local significance. It is used to uniquely
identify the FEC to which a packet belongs. It does not contain topology information. It
is carried in the header of a packet and does not contain topology information.

label distribution

Packets with the same destination address belong to an FEC. A label out of an MPLS
label resource pool is allocated to the FEC. LSRs record the relationship of the label and
the FEC. Then, LSRs sends a message and advertises to upstream LSRs about the label
and FEC relationship in message. The process is called label distribution.

label edge router (LER) A device that sits at the edge of an MPLS domain, that uses routing information to assign
labels to datagrams and then forwards them into the MPLS domain.
label space

Value range of the label allocated to peers.

label switched path


(LSP)

A sequence of hops (R0...Rn) in which a packet travels from R0 to Rn through label


switching mechanisms. A label-switched path can be chosen dynamically, based on
common routing mechanisms or through configuration.

label switching router


(LSR)

Basic element of an MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is
composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for
allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and
removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups
received in the label forwarding table.

laser

A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser
light has better coherence than ordinary light. Semi-conductor lasers provide the light
used in a fiber system.

last in first out (LIFO) A play mode of the voice mails, the last voice mail is played firstly.
layer

A concept used to allow transport network functionality to be described hierarchically


as successive levels; each layer being solely concerned with the generation and transfer
of its characteristic information.

license

A permission that the vendor provides for the user with a specific function, capacity, and
duration of a product. A license can be a file or a serial number. Usually the license
consists of encrypted codes. The operation authority granted varies with the level of the
license.

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light emitting diode


(LED)

A display and lighting technology used in almost every electrical and electronic product
on the market, from a tiny on/off light to digital readouts, flashlights, traffic lights, and
perimeter lighting. LEDs are also used as the light source in multimode fibers, optical
mice, and laser printers.

line rate

The maximum packet forwarding capacity on a cable. The value of line rate equals the
maximum transmission rate capable on a given type of media.

linear MSP

linear multiplex section protection

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link
(LAG)
aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were
a single link.
link capacity
adjustment scheme
(LCAS)

LCAS in the virtual concatenation source and sink adaptation functions provides a
control mechanism to hitless increase or decrease the capacity of a link to meet the
bandwidth needs of the application. It also provides a means of removing member links
that have experienced failure. The LCAS assumes that in cases of capacity initiation,
increases or decreases, the construction or destruction of the end-to-end path is the
responsibility of the network and element management systems.

link monitoring

A mechanism for an interface to notify the peer of the fault when the interface detects
that the number of errored frames, errored codes, or errored frame seconds reaches or
exceeds the specified threshold.

link protection

Protection provided by the bypass tunnel for the link on the working tunnel. The link is
a downstream link adjacent to the point of local repair (PLR). When the PLR fails to
provide node protection, the link protection should be provided.

linktrace message
(LTM)

The message sent by the initiator MEP of 802.1ag MAC Trace to the destination MEP.
LTM includes the Time to Live (TTL) and the MAC address of the destination MEP2.

linktrace reply (LTR)

For 802.1ag MAC Trace, the destination MEP replies with a response message to the
source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LTM, and the response message is
called LTR. LTR also includes the TTL that equals the result of the TTL of LTM minus
1.

load balancing

The distribution of activity across two or more servers or components in order to avoid
overloading any one with too many requests or too much traffic.

loading

A process of importing information from the storage device to the memory to facilitate
processing (when the information is data) or execution (when the information is
program).

local MEP

An MEP of a device on a network enabled with Ethernet CFM.

local area network


(LAN)

A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square
kilometers or within a single building, featuring high speed and low error rate. Current
LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and run at 1,000
Mbit/s (that is, 1 Gbit/s).

logical interface

An interface that does not exist physically and comes into being through configuration.
It can also exchange data.

logical link control


(LLC)

According to the IEEE 802 family of standards, Logical Link Control (LLC) is the upper
sublayer of the OSI data link layer. The LLC is the same for the various physical media
(such as Ethernet, token ring, WLAN).

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loopback (LB)

A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the
signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop.

loopback message
(LBM)

The loopback packet sent by the node that supports 802.2ag MAC Ping to the destination
node. LBM message carries its own sending time.

loopback reply (LBR)

A response message involved in the 802.2ag MAC Ping function, with which the
destination MEP replies to the source MEP after the destination MEP receives the LBM.
The LBR carries the sending time of LBM, the receiving time of LBM and the sending
time of LBR.

loss measurement (LM) A method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames
where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a
pair of MEPs.
loss of signal (LOS)

No transitions occurring in the received signal.

low-pass filter (LPF)

A filter designed to transmit electromagnetic frequencies below a certain value, while


excluding those of a higher frequency.

lower threshold

A lower performance limit which when exceeded by a performance event counter will
trigger a threshold-crossing event.

M
MA

maintenance association

MAC

See Media Access Control.

MAC address

A link layer address or physical address. It is six bytes long.

MAC address aging

A function that deletes MAC address entries of a device when no packets are received
from this device within a specified time period.

MADM

multiple add/drop multiplexer

MAN

See metropolitan area network.

MBS

maximum burst size

MCF

message communication function

MCR

minimum cell rate

MD

See maintenance domain.

MDP

message dispatch process

ME

See maintenance entity.

MEG

maintenance entity group

MEL

maintenance entity group level

MEP

See maintenance entity group end point.

MFAS

See multiframe alignment signal.

MIP

See maintenance entity group intermediate point.

MLD

See multicast listener discovery.

MP

maintenance point

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MPID

maintenance point identification

MPLS

See Multiprotocol Label Switching.

MPLS TE

multiprotocol label switching traffic engineering

MPLS VPN

See multiprotocol label switching virtual private network.

MS

multiplex section

MSA

multiplex section adaptation

MSB

most significant bit

MSOH

multiplex section overhead

MSP

See multiplex section protection.

MST

See multiplex section termination.

MST region

See Multiple Spanning Tree region.

MSTI

See multiple spanning tree instance.

MSTP

See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol.

MTBF

See mean time between failures.

MTIE

maximum time interval error

MTTR

See mean time to repair.

MTU

See maximum transmission unit.

MUX

See multiplexer.

Media Access Control


(MAC)

A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the
data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting
the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol
checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control
information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are
transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC
protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted
correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control
information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer.

Multiple Spanning
Tree Protocol (MSTP)

A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks
redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case,
the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The
protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This
solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/
RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs.

Multiple Spanning
Tree region (MST
region)

A region that consists of switches that support the MSTP in the LAN and links among
them. Switches physically and directly connected and configured with the same MST
region attributes belong to the same MST region.

Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS)

A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link
layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of
IP routing and control protocols.

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A Glossary

main topology

A basic component of a human-machine interface. It is the default client interface of the


NMS and intuitively displays the structure of a network, NEs on the network, subnets in
the network as well as the NE communication and running status, reflecting the overall
network running status.

maintenance domain
(MD)

The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity
fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single
Internet service provider (ISP).

maintenance entity
(ME)

An ME consists of a pair of maintenance entity group end points (MEPs), two ends of a
transport trail, and maintenance association intermediate points (MIPs) on the trail.

maintenance entity
An end point of a MEG, which is able to initialize and stop the transmission of OAM
group end point (MEP) data packets for fault management and performance monitoring.
maintenance entity
group intermediate
point (MIP)

An intermediate point in a MEG, which is able to forward OAM packets and respond to
some OAM packets, but unable to initiate the transmission of OAM packets or perform
any operations on network connections.

management
information

The information that is used for network management in a transport network.

maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies,
unit (MTU)
depending on the network576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on
Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbit/s token ring. Responsibility for determining the
size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted
across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one
that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks
involved.
mean time between
failures (MTBF)

The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure


of the reliability of the system.

mean time to repair


(MTTR)

The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure.

measurement period

The interval for NEs to report measurement results to the Network Management System
(NMS).

medium

A physical medium for storing computer information. A medium is used for data
duplication and keeping the data for some time. Original data can be obtained from a
medium.

member

A basic element for forming a dimension according to the hierarchy of each level. Each
member represents a data element in a dimension. For example, January 1997 is a typical
member of the time dimension.

metropolitan area
network (MAN)

A medium-scale computer network with area larger than that covered by a LAN and
smaller than that covered by a WAN. It interconnects multiple LAN networks in a
geographic region of a city.

microwave

The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with much longer wavelengths than infrared
radiation, typically above about 1 mm.

mirroring

The duplication of data for backup or to distribute network traffic among several
computers with identical data.

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A Glossary

monitoring

A method that an inspector uses to inspect a service agent. By monitoring a service agent,
an inspector can check each detailed operation performed by the service agent during
the conversation and operate the GUI used by the service agent. The inspector helps the
service agent to provide better service.

mounting

An auxiliary or associated condition or component of a device.

mounting ear

A piece of angle plate on a rack. The mounting ear has holes that can be used to fix
network elements or components.

multicast

A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The
destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address
ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast
group rather than a host.

multicast listener
discovery (MLD)

A protocol used by an IPv6 router to discover the multicast listeners on their directly
connected network segments, and to set up and maintain member relationships. On IPv6
networks, after MLD is configured on the receiver hosts and the multicast router to which
the hosts are directly connected, the hosts can dynamically join related groups and the
multicast router can manage members on the local network.

multiframe alignment
signal (MFAS)

A distinctive signal inserted into every multiframe or once into every n multiframes,
always occupying the same relative position within the multiframe, and used to establish
and maintain multiframe alignment.

multiple spanning tree A type of spanning trees calculated by MSTP within an MST Region, to provide a simply
instance (MSTI)
and fully connected active topology for frames classified as belonging to a VLAN that
is mapped to the MSTI by the MST Configuration. A VLAN cannot be assigned to
multiple MSTIs.
multiplex section
protection (MSP)

A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and
including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a
"protection" channel.

multiplex section
termination (MST)

A function that generates the multiplex section overhead (MSOH) during the formation
of an SDH frame signal and that terminates the MSOH in the reverse direction.

multiplexer (MUX)

Equipment that combines a number of tributary channels onto a fewer number of


aggregate bearer channels, the relationship between the tributary and aggregate channels
being fixed.

multiplexing

A procedure by which multiple lower order path layer signals are adapted into a higher
order path or the multiple higher order path layer signals are adapted into a multiplex
section.

multiprotocol label
switching virtual
private network
(MPLS VPN)

An Internet Protocol (IP) virtual private network (VPN) based on the multiprotocol label
switching (MPLS) technology. It applies the MPLS technology for network routers and
switches, simplifies the routing mode of core routers, and combines traditional routing
technology and label switching technology. It can be used to construct the broadband
Intranet and Extranet to meet various service requirements.

N
N+1 protection

A radio link protection system composed of N working channels and one protection
channel.

NAS

network access server

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NC

See NTP client.

NE ID

An ID that indicates a managed device in the network. In the network, each NE has a
unique NE ID.

NGN

See next generation network.

NHLFE

next hop label forwarding entry

NLP

normal link pulse

NM

network management

NMC

network management center

NNI

network-to-network interface

NP

See network processor.

NPC

See network parameter control.

NPE

network provider edge

NRT-VBR

non-real-time variable bit rate

NRZ

non-return to zero

NRZ code

non-return-to-zero code

NRZI

non-return to zero inverted

NSAP

See network service access point.

NSF

non-stop forwarding

NTP

Network Time Protocol

NTP client (NC)

A bottom-level device in the time synchronization network. An NTP client obtains time
from its upper-level NTP server without providing the time synchronization service.
Compared with the top-level NTP server, the intermediate NTP server sometimes is
called an NTP client.

network layer

Layer 3 of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. The network layer
provides routing and addressing so that two terminal systems are interconnected. In
addition, the network layer provides congestion control and traffic control. In the TCP/
IP protocol suite, the functions of the network layer are specified and implemented by
IP protocols. Therefore, the network layer is also called IP layer.

network parameter
control (NPC)

During communications, UPC is implemented to monitor the actual traffic on each virtual
circuit that is input to the network. Once the specified parameter is exceeded, measures
will be taken to control. NPC is similar to UPC in function. The difference is that the
incoming traffic monitoring function is divided into UPC and NPC according to their
positions. UPC locates at the user/network interface, while NPC at the network interface.

network processor (NP) An integrated circuit which has a feature set specifically targeted at the networking
application domain. Network Processors are typically software programmable devices
and would have generic characteristics similar to general purpose CPUs that are
commonly used in many different types of equipment and products.
network segment

Part of a network on which all message traffic is common to all nodes; that is, a message
broadcast from one node on the segment is received by all other nodes on the segment.

network service

A service that needs to be enabled at the network layer and maintained as a basic service.

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network service access A network address defined by ISO, at which the OSI Network Service is made available
point (NSAP)
to a Network service user by the Network service provider.
network storm

A phenomenon that occurs during data communication. To be specific, mass broadcast


packets are transmitted in a short time; the network is congested; transmission quality
and availability of the network decrease rapidly. The network storm is caused by network
connection or configuration problems.

next generation
network (NGN)

A packet-based network aimed to address requirement of various services. It adopts an


integrated and open network framework. In NGN, services are separated from call
control; call control is separated from bearer. In this way, services are independent of
network. NGN can provide various services, such as voice services, data services,
multimedia services or the integration of several services.

noise figure

A measure of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in


a radio frequency (RF) signal chain. The noise figure is defined as the ratio of the output
noise power of a device to the portion thereof attributable to thermal noise in the input
termination at standard noise temperature T0 (usually 290 K). The noise figure is thus
the ratio of actual output noise to that which would remain if the device itself did not
introduce noise. It is a number by which the performance of a radio receiver can be
specified.

non-GNE

See non-gateway network element.

non-gateway network
element (non-GNE)

A network element that communicates with the NM application layer through the
gateway NE application layer.

O
O&M

operation and maintenance

OA

optical amplifier

OADM

See optical add/drop multiplexer.

OAM

See operation, administration and maintenance.

OAMPDU

operation, administration and maintenance protocol data unit

OAU

See optical amplifier unit.

OC

ordinary clock

OCP

optical channel protection

OCS

optical core switching

ODF

optical distribution frame

ODU

See outdoor unit.

OFS

out-of-frame second

OHA

overhead access

OHP

overhead processing

OLT

optical line terminal

ONU

See optical network unit.

OPEX

operating expense

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OPU

optical channel payload unit

OSC

See optical supervisory channel.

OSN

optical switch node

OSNR

See optical signal-to-noise ratio.

OSPF

See Open Shortest Path First.

OTDR

See optical time domain reflectometer.

OTM

optical terminal multiplexer

OTN

optical transport network

OTU

See optical transponder unit.

OTUk

optical channel transport unit - k

Open Shortest Path


First (OSPF)

A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing that uses
cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed of the network topology,
which is identical on all routers in the area.

offline

Pertaining to the disconnection between a device or a service unit and the system or the
network, or no running of a device and service unit.

online

A state indicating that a computer device or program is activated and is ready for
operations, and can communicate with a computer or can be controlled by the computer.

operation,
administration and
maintenance (OAM)

A set of network management functions that cover fault detection, notification, location,
and repair.

optical add/drop
multiplexer (OADM)

A device that can be used to add the optical signals of various wavelengths to one channel
and drop the optical signals of various wavelengths from one channel.

optical amplifier unit


(OAU)

A board that is mainly responsible for amplifying optical signals. The OAU can be used
in both the transmitting direction and the receiving direction.

optical attenuator

A passive device that increases the attenuation in a fiber link. An optical attenuator is
used to ensure that the optical power of a signal at the receive end is not excessively
high.

optical connector

A component attached to the end of an optical fiber that allows the fiber to connect to
another fiber or an optical source.

optical fiber

A thin filament of glass or other transparent material, through which a signal-encoded


light beam may be transmitted using total internal reflection.

optical interface

A component that connects several transmit or receive units.

optical network unit


(ONU)

A form of Access Node that converts optical signals transmitted via fiber to electrical
signals that can be transmitted via coaxial cable or twisted pair copper wiring to
individual subscribers.

optical signal-to-noise
ratio (OSNR)

The ratio of signal power to noise power in a transmission link. OSNR is the most
important index for measuring the performance of a DWDM system.

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optical splitter

A passive component, which is used for splitting and sending optical power to multiple
ONUs connected by an optical fiber. In a GPON system that consists of the OLT, ONU,
splitter, and optical fibers, according to the split ratio, the optical signal over the optical
fiber connected to the OLT is splitted into multiple channels of optical signals and send
each channel to each ONU. Split ratio determines how many channels of optical signals
an optical fiber can be split to.

optical supervisory
channel (OSC)

A technology that uses specific optical wavelengths to realize communication among


nodes in optical transmission network and transmit the monitoring data in a certain
channel.

optical time domain


reflectometer (OTDR)

A device that sends a series of short pulses of light down a fiber-optic cable and measures
the strength of the return pulses. An OTDR is used to measure fiber length and light loss,
and to locate fiber faults.

optical transponder
unit (OTU)

A device or subsystem that converts accessed client signals into a G.694.1/G.694.2compliant WDM wavelength.

orderwire

A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or


maintenance engineers of different stations.

outdoor unit (ODU)

The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency


conversion and amplification for radio frequency (RF) signals.

P
P2MP

point-to-multipoint

P2P

See point-to-point service.

PA

power amplifier

PADR

PPPoE active discovery request

PBS

See peak burst size.

PCB

See printed circuit board.

PCM

See pulse code modulation.

PCR

See peak cell rate.

PCS

physical coding sublayer

PDH

See plesiochronous digital hierarchy.

PDU

See power distribution unit.

PE

See provider edge.

PGND cable

A cable which connects the equipment and the protection grounding bar. Usually, one
half of the cable is yellow, whereas the other half is green.

PHB

See per-hop behavior.

PIM-DM

Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode

PIM-SM

Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode

PKT

partition knowledge table

PLL

See phase-locked loop.

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PM

performance monitoring

PMD

polarization mode dispersion

POH

path overhead

POS

See packet over SDH/SONET.

PPD

partial packet discard

PPI

PDH physical interface

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

PPPoE

Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PPS

port protection switching

PQ

See priority queuing.

PRBS

See pseudo random binary sequence.

PRC

primary reference clock

PSD

See power spectrum density.

PSN

See packet switched network.

PSTN

See public switched telephone network.

PSU

power supply unit

PT

payload type

PTI

payload type indicator

PTN

packet transport network

PTP

Precision Time Protocol

PVC

permanent virtual channel

PVID

See port default VLAN ID.

PVP

See permanent virtual path.

PW

See pseudo wire.

PWE3

See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge.

packet discarding

A function of discarding the packets from unknown VLAN domain or broadcast packets.
Packet Discarding is used to prevent the situation where unknown packets or broadcast
packets use the bandwidth on a link, improving the reliability of service transmission.

packet forwarding

An action performed by a router to forward a received datagram, where the destination


IP address does not match the IP address of the router, to another router or destination
host on the router list.

packet loss

The discarding of data packets in a network when a device is overloaded and cannot
accept any incoming data at a given moment.

packet over SDH/


SONET (POS)

A MAN and WAN technology that provides point-to-point data connections. The POS
interface uses SDH/SONET as the physical layer protocol, and supports the transport of
packet data (such as IP packets) in MAN and WAN.

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packet rate

The number of bits or bytes passed within a specified time. It is expressed in bits/s or
bytes/s.

packet switched
network (PSN)

A telecommunications network that works in packet switching mode.

packet switching

A network technology in which information is transmitted by means of exchanging


packets and the bandwidth of a channel can be shared by multiple connections.

paired slots

Two slots of which the overheads can be passed through by using the bus on the
backplane.

parity bit

A check bit appended to an array of binary digits to make the sum of all the binary digits,
including the check bit, always odd or always even.

parity check

A method for character level error detection. An extra bit is added to a string of bits,
usually a 7-bit ASCII character, so that the total number of bits 1 is odd or even (odd or
even parity). Both ends of a data transmission must use the same parity. When the
transmitting device frames a character, it counts the numbers of 1s in the frame and
attaches the appropriate parity bit. The recipient counts the 1s and, if there is parity error,
may ask for the data to be retransmitted.

parts replacement

A maintenance operation of removing a faulty part or a part to be examined from a


running device and then installing a new part.

passive mode

A working mode of EFM OAM. An interface in the passive mode cannot initiate the
discovery and remote loopback.

patch

An independent software unit used for fixing the bugs in software.

peak burst size (PBS)

A parameter that defines the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum burst IP
packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate.

peak cell rate (PCR)

The maximum rate at which an ATM connection can accept cells.

peer

BGP speakers that exchange information with each other.

per-hop behavior
(PHB)

IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop


behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should
select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF
defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF),
assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE).

performance alarm

An alarm generated when the actual result of a measurement entity equals the predefined
logical expression for threshold or exceeds the predefined threshold.

performance
parameters

The performance parameters identify some indexes to scale the general performance of
the system. The indexes include the number of managed nodes, number of supported
clients and log database capacity. The parameters are sorted into static parameters,
dynamic parameters and networking bandwidth parameters.

performance register

The memory space for performance event counts, including 15-min current performance
register, 24-hour current performance register, 15-min historical performance register,
24-hour historical performance register, UAT register and CSES register. The object of
performance event monitoring is the board functional module, so every board functional
module has a performance register. A performance register is used to count the
performance events taking place within a period of operation time, so as to evaluate the
quality of operation from the angle of statistics.

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performance threshold A limit for generating an alarm for a selected entity. When the measurement result
reaches or exceeds the preset alarm threshold, the performance management system
generates a performance alarm.
permanent virtual path Virtual path that consists of PVCs.
(PVP)
phase

The relative position in time within a single period of a signal.

phase-locked loop
(PLL)

A circuit that consists essentially of a phase detector that compares the frequency of a
voltage-controlled oscillator with that of an incoming carrier signal or referencefrequency generator. The output of the phase detector, after passing through a loop filter,
is fed back to the voltage-controlled oscillator to keep it exactly in phase with the
incoming or reference frequency.

physical layer

Layer 1 in the Open System Interconnection (OSI) architecture; the layer that provides
services to transmit bits or groups of bits over a transmission link between open systems
and which entails electrical, mechanical and handshaking.

physical link

The link between two physical network elements (NEs). When the user creates NEs or
refreshes the device status, the system automatically creates the physical link according
to the topology structure information on the device. The remark information of a physical
link can be modified, but the physical link cannot be deleted.

ping

A method used to test whether a device in the IP network is reachable according to the
sent ICMP Echo messages and received response messages.

ping test

A test that is performed to send a data packet to the target IP address (a unique IP address
on the device on the network) to check whether the target host exists according to the
data packet of the same size returned from the target host.

plesiochronous digital
hierarchy (PDH)

A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum
rate 64 kit/s into rates of 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s.

point-to-point service
(P2P)

A service between two terminal users. In P2P services, senders and recipients are
terminal users.

pointer

An indicator whose value defines the frame offset of a virtual container with respect to
the frame reference of the transport entity on which this pointer is supported.

polarization

A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or
rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is
perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically
polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the
plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the
tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this
electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave.

policy

A set of rules that are applied when the conditions for triggering an event are met.

policy template

A template that is used to define the calculation rules of a charging event, for example,
rating, debiting and accumulating. A policy template may contain the parameters to be
instantiated. They can be used when the attributes of the condition judgment, calculation
method, and action functions are carried out.

polling

A mechanism for the NMS to query the agent status and other data on a regular basis.

port default VLAN ID


(PVID)

A default VLAN ID of a port. It is allocated to a data frame if the data frame carries no
VLAN tag when reaching the port.

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port priority

The priority that is used when a port attaches tags to Layer 2 packets. Packets received
on ports with higher priorities are forwarded preferentially.

power adjustment

A method for dynamically and properly assigning power according to the real-time status
of a wireless network. When an AP runs under an AC for the first time, the AP uses its
maximum transmit power. When getting reports from its neighbors (that is, other APs
that are detected by the AP and managed by the same AC), the AP determines to increase
or decrease its power according to the report conclusion.

power box

A direct current power distribution box at the upper part of a cabinet, which supplies
power for the subracks in the cabinet.

power control

A process in which the MS or BS uses certain rules to adjust and control the transmit
power according to the change in the channel condition and the power of the received
signal.

power distribution unit A unit that performs AC or DC power distribution.


(PDU)
power module

The module that converts the external power input into the power supply for internal
use. Power modules are classified into AC power modules and DC power modules.

power off

An operation that switches off devices during upgrade or expansion.

power on

To start up a computer; to begin a cold boot procedure; to turn on the power

power spectrum
density (PSD)

The power layout of random signals in the frequency domain.

printed circuit board


(PCB)

A board used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components


using conductive pathways, tracks, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto
a non-conductive substrate.

priority queuing (PQ)

A queue scheduling algorithm based on the absolute priority. According to the PQ


algorithm, services of higher priorities are ensured with greater bandwidth, lower
latency, and less jitter. Packets of lower priorities must wait to be sent till all packets of
higher priorities are sent. In this manner, services of higher priorities are processed earlier
than others.

private line

A line, such as a subscriber cable and trunk cable, which are leased by the
telecommunication carrier and are used to meet the special user requirements.

protection path

A path in a protection group that transports services when a fault occurs on the working
path.

provider edge (PE)

A device that is located in the backbone network of the MPLS VPN structure. A PE is
responsible for managing VPN users, establishing LSPs between PEs, and exchanging
routing information between sites of the same VPN. A PE performs the mapping and
forwarding of packets between the private network and the public channel. A PE can be
a UPE, an SPE, or an NPE.

pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in the sense that the value of each element is independent of
sequence (PRBS)
the values of any of the other elements, similar to a real random sequence.
pseudo wire (PW)

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An emulated connection between two PEs for transmitting frames. The PW is established
and maintained by PEs through signaling protocols. The status information of a PW is
maintained by the two end PEs of a PW.

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pseudo wire emulation An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a
edge-to-edge (PWE3) telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network
(PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division
multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real
situation.
public switched
telephone network
(PSTN)

A telecommunications network established to perform telephone services for the public


subscribers. Sometimes it is called POTS.

pulse

A variation above or below a normal level and a given duration in electrical energy.

pulse code modulation A method of encoding information in a signal by changing the amplitude of pulses.
(PCM)
Unlike pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), in which pulse amplitude can change
continuously, pulse code modulation limits pulse amplitudes to several predefined
values. Because the signal is discrete, or digital, rather than analog, pulse code
modulation is more immune to noise than PAM.
Q
QA

Q adaptation

QAM

See quadrature amplitude modulation.

QPSK

See quadrature phase shift keying.

QinQ

A layer 2 tunnel protocol based on IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. It add a public VLAN
tag to a frame with a private VLAN tag to allow the frame with double VLAN tags to
be transmitted over the service provider's backbone network based on the public VLAN
tag. This provides a layer 2 VPN tunnel for customers and enables transparent
transmission of packets over private VLANs.

QoS

See quality of service.

quadrature amplitude
modulation (QAM)

Both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals,
or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves,
using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude
modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. These two waves, usually sinusoids, are
out of phase with each other by 90 and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature
components hence the name of the scheme.

quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and
keying (QPSK)
the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period
or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are
evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform twobit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER.
quality of service (QoS) A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel.
Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss
ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the
transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a
service provider to meet the demands of users.
R
RADIUS
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See Remote Authentication Dial In User Service.


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RAI

remote alarm indication

RDI

remote defect indication

RED

See random early detection.

REG

See regenerator.

REI

remote error indication

RF

See radio frequency.

RIP

See Routing Information Protocol.

RMEP

remote maintenance association end point

RNC

See radio network controller.

ROPA

See remote optical pumping amplifier.

RP

rendezvous point

RPR

resilient packet ring

RS232

See Reference Standard 232.

RS422

The specification that defines the electrical characteristics of balanced voltage digital
interface circuits. The interface can change to RS232 via the hardware jumper and others
are the same as RS232.

RSL

See received signal level.

RSOH

regenerator section overhead

RSSI

See received signal strength indicator.

RST

regenerator section termination

RSTP

See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.

RTN

radio transmission node

RTP

See Real-Time Transport Protocol.

Rapid Spanning Tree


Protocol (RSTP)

An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) that provides faster spanning tree
convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with
the STP protocol.

Real-Time Transport
Protocol (RTP)

A protocol defined by the IETF for transmitting audio and video streams. RTP is based
on UDP. In the RTP header, a time stamp is defined to ensure that audio and video data
can be transmitted and synchronized in real time. H.323 is based on RTP.

Reference Standard
232 (RS232)

A standard that defines the electrical characteristics, timing, and meaning of signals, and
the physical size and pinout of connectors.

Remote Authentication A security service that authenticates and authorizes dial-up users and is a centralized
Dial In User Service
access control mechanism. RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its
(RADIUS)
transmission protocol to ensure real-time quality. RADIUS also supports the
retransmission and multi-server mechanisms to ensure good reliability.
RoHS

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restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances

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Routing Information
Protocol (RIP)

A simple routing protocol that is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It determines a route
based on the smallest hop count between the source and destination. RIP is a distance
vector protocol that routinely broadcasts routing information to its neighboring routers
and is known to waste bandwidth.

radio frequency (RF)

A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an


electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave.
The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC
with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified
into such high-frequency current.

radio network
controller (RNC)

A device in a radio network subsystem that is in charge of controlling the usage and
integrity of radio resources.

radio propagation
model

An empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of radio wave


propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions. A single model is
usually developed to predict the behavior of propagation for all similar links under
similar constraints.

random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according
(RED)
to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization
resulting from traditional tail drop can be prevented.
rate limiting

A traffic management technology used to limit the total rate of packet sending on a
physical interface or a Tunnel interface. Rate limiting is directly enabled on the interface
to control the traffic passing the interface.

real-time variable bit


rate (rt-VBR)

A parameter intended for real-time applications, such as compressed voice over IP


(VoIP) and video conferencing. The rt-VBR is characterized by a peak cell rate (PCR),
sustained cell rate (SCR), and maximum burst size (MBS). You can expect the source
device to transmit in bursts and at a rate that varies with time.

reboot

To start the system again. Programs or data will be reloaded to all boards.

received signal level


(RSL)

The signal level at a receiver input terminal.

received signal strength The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the
indicator (RSSI)
receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD
within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna
receiver sensitivity

The minimum acceptable value of mean received power at point Rn (a reference point
at an input to a receiver optical connector) to achieve a 1x10-12 BER when the FEC is
enabled.

recognition

Consumer awareness of having seen or heard an advertising message.

reference clock

A stable and high-precision autonomous clock that provides frequencies as a reference


for other clocks.

reflectance

The ratio of the reflected optical power to the incident optical power.

regeneration

The process of receiving and reconstructing a digital signal so that the amplitudes,
waveforms and timing of its signal elements are constrained within specified limits.

regenerator (REG)

A piece of equipment or device that regenerates electrical signals.

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relay

An electronic control device that has a control system and a system to be controlled. The
relay of the telepresence system is used to control the power of telepresence equipment
and is controlled by the telepresence host.

remote optical
pumping amplifier
(ROPA)

A remote optical amplifier subsystem designed for applications where power supply and
monitoring systems are unavailable. The ROPA subsystem is a power compensation
solution to the ultra-long distance long hop (LHP) transmission.

reservation

An action that the charging module performs to freeze a subscriber's balance amount,
free resources, credits, or quotas before the subscriber uses services. This action ensures
that the subscriber has sufficient balance to pay for services.

resistance

The ability to impede (resist) the flow of electric current. With the exception of
superconductors, all substances have a greater or lesser degree of resistance. Substances
with very low resistance, such as metals, conduct electricity well and are called
conductors. Substances with very high resistance, such as glass and rubber, conduct
electricity poorly and are called nonconductors or insulators.

resource sharing

A physical resource belonging to two or more protection subnetworks.

response

A message that is returned to the requester to notify the requester of the status of the
request packet.

robustness

The ability of a system to maintain function even with changes in internal structure or
external environment.

rollback

A return to a previous condition through cancellation of a certain operation.

root alarm

An alarm directly caused by anomaly events or faults in the network. Some lower-level
alarms always accompany a root alarm.

route

The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. Routes can change
dynamically.

router

A device on the network layer that selects routes in the network. The router selects the
optimal route according to the destination address of the received packet through a
network and forwards the packet to the next router. The last router is responsible for
sending the packet to the destination host. Can be used to connect a LAN to a LAN, a
WAN to a WAN, or a LAN to the Internet.

routing

The determination of a path that a data unit (frame, packet, message) traverses from
source to destination.

routing protocol

A formula used by routers to determine the appropriate path onto which data should be
forwarded.

rt-VBR

See real-time variable bit rate.

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A Glossary

S1 byte

A byte to transmit network synchronization status information. On an SDH network,


each NE traces hop by hop to the same clock reference source through a specific clock
synchronization path, realizing synchronization on the entire network. If a clock
reference source traced by an NE is missing, this NE will trace another clock reference
source of a lower level. To implement protection switching of clocks in the whole
network, the NE must learn about clock quality information of the clock reference source
it traces. Therefore, ITU-T defines S1 byte to transmit network synchronization status
information. It uses the lower four bits of the multiplex section overhead S1 byte to
indicate 16 types of synchronization quality grades. Auto protection switching of clocks
in a synchronous network can be implemented using S1 byte and a proper switching
protocol.

SAN

storage area network

SAToP

Structure-Agnostic Time Division Multiplexing over Packet

SC

square connector

SCR

sustainable cell rate

SD

See signal degrade.

SD trigger flag

A signal degrade trigger flag that determines whether to perform a switching when SD
occurs. The SD trigger flag can be set by using the network management system.

SD-SDI

See standard definition-serial digital interface signal.

SDH

See synchronous digital hierarchy.

SDP

serious disturbance period

SDRAM

See synchronous dynamic random access memory.

SELV

safety extra-low voltage

SEMF

synchronous equipment management function

SES

severely errored second

SETS

SDH equipment timing source

SF

See signal fail.

SFP

small form-factor pluggable

SFTP

See Secure File Transfer Protocol.

SHDSL

See single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line.

SMSR

side mode suppression ratio

SNC

subnetwork connection

SNCMP

subnetwork connection multipath protection

SNCP

subnetwork connection protection

SNCTP

subnetwork connection tunnel protection

SNMP

See Simple Network Management Protocol.

SNR

See signal-to-noise ratio.

SOH

section overhead

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A Glossary

SONET

See synchronous optical network.

SPE

See superstratum provider edge.

SSL

See Secure Sockets Layer.

SSM

See Synchronization Status Message.

SSMB

synchronization status message byte

SSU

synchronization supply unit

STD

system target decoder

STP

Spanning Tree Protocol

SVC

switched virtual connection

Secure File Transfer


Protocol (SFTP)

A network protocol designed to provide secure file transfer over SSH.

Secure Sockets Layer


(SSL)

A security protocol that works at a socket level. This layer exists between the TCP layer
and the application layer to encrypt/decode data and authenticate concerned entities.

Simple Network
Management Protocol
(SNMP)

A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify
the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the
transmission of management information between any two points. The polling
mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which
can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the
network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control
information about each device is maintained by a management information block.

Synchronization Status A message that carries the quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link.
Message (SSM)
SSM messages provide upstream clock information to nodes on an SDH network or
synchronization network.
security

Protection of a computer system and its data from harm or loss. A major focus of
computer security, especially on systems accessed by many people or through
communication lines, is preventing system access by unauthorized individuals.

security service

A service, provided by a layer of communicating open systems, which ensures adequate


security of the systems or of data transfer.

self-healing

A function of establishing a replacement connection by network without the network


management connection function. When a connection failure occurs, the replacement
connection is found by the network elements and rerouted depending on network
resources available at that time.

serial port

An input/output location (channel) that sends and receives data to and from a computer's
CPU or a communications device one bit at a time. Serial ports are used for serial data
communication and as interfaces with some peripheral devices, such as mice and printers.

service flow

An MAC-layer-based unidirectional transmission service. It is used to transmit data


packets, and is characterized by a set of QoS parameters, such as latency, jitter, and
throughput.

service level

The level of service quality of an evaluated party in a specified period, determined by


an evaluating party.

service protection

A measure that ensures that services can be received at the receive end.

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A Glossary

session

A logical connection between two nodes on a network for the exchange of data. It
generally can apply to any link between any two data devices. A session is also used
simply to describe the connection time.

shaping

A process of delaying packets within a traffic stream to cause it to conform to specific


defined traffic profile.

signal degrade (SD)

A signal indicating that associated data has degraded in the sense that a degraded defect
condition is active.

signal fail (SF)

A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect
condition (non-degrade defect) is active.

signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR)

The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a
given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and
is usually expressed in dB.

signaling

The information exchange concerning the establishment and control of a


telecommunication circuit and the management of the network.

single-ended switching A protection mechanism that takes switching action only at the affected end of the
protected entity in the case of a unidirectional failure.
single-pair high-speed
digital subscriber line
(SHDSL)

A symmetric digital subscriber line technology developed from HDSL, SDSL, and
HDSL2, which is defined in ITU-T G.991.2. The SHDSL port is connected to the user
terminal through the plain telephone subscriber line and uses trellis coded pulse
amplitude modulation (TC-PAM) technology to transmit high-speed data and provide
the broadband access service.

single-polarized
antenna

An antenna intended to radiate or receive radio waves with only one specified
polarization.

slicing

Dividing data into the information units proper for transmission.

smooth upgrade

Process of upgrading the system files without service interruption

span

The physical reach between two pieces of WDM equipment.

standard definitionserial digital interface


signal (SD-SDI)

Standard definition video signal transported by serial digital interface.

static ARP

A protocol that binds some IP addresses to a specified gateway. The packet of these IP
addresses must be forwarded through this gateway.

static route

A route that cannot adapt to the change of network topology. Operators must configure
it manually. When a network topology is simple, the network can work in the normal
state if only the static route is configured. It can improve network performance and ensure
bandwidth for important applications. Its disadvantage is as follows: When a network is
faulty or the topology changes, the static route does not change automatically. It must
be changed by the operators.

statistical multiplexing A multiplexing technique whereby information from multiple logical channels can be
transmitted across a single physical channel. It dynamically allocates bandwidth only to
active input channels, to make better use of available bandwidth and allow more devices
to be connected than with other multiplexing techniques.

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A Glossary

steering

A protection switching mode defined in ITU-T G.8132, which is applicable to packetbased T-MPLS ring networks and similar to SDH transoceanic multiplex section
protection (MSP). In this mode, the switching is triggered by the source and sink nodes
of a service.

stress

The force, or combination of forces, which produces a strain; force exerted in any
direction or manner between contiguous bodies, or parts of bodies, and taking specific
names according to its direction, or mode of action, as thrust or pressure, pull or tension,
shear or tangential stress.

subnet

A type of smaller networks that form a larger network according to a rule, for example,
according to different districts. This facilitates the management of the large network.

subnet mask

The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are
destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the device and is matched
with the IP address.

superstratum provider Core devices that are located within a VPLS full-meshed network. The UPE devices that
edge (SPE)
are connected with the SPE devices are similar to the CE devices. The PWs set up
between the UPE devices and the SPE devices serve as the ACs of the SPE devices. The
SPE devices must learn the MAC addresses of all the sites on UPE side and those of the
UPE interfaces that are connected with the SPE. SPE is sometimes called NPE.
switching capacity

The backplane bandwidth or switching bandwidth. The switching capacity is the


maximum data that can be processed by the interface processor of a switch and the data
bus. The backplane bandwidth indicates the overall data switching capability of a switch,
in Gbit/s.

switching priority

A priority assigned to boards that share protection. If multiple boards that are sharing
protection fail, the services of the board with the highest priority are switched to the
protection board. If two or more boards have the same priority, the services of whichever
board fails first are switched.

synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH)

A transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. SDH defines the
transmission features of digital signals, such as frame structure, multiplexing mode,
transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and BISDN.

synchronous dynamic A new type of DRAM that can run at much higher clock speeds than conventional
random access memory memory. SDRAM actually synchronizes itself with the CPU's bus and is capable of
(SDRAM)
running at 100 MHz, about three times faster than conventional FPM RAM, and about
twice as fast as EDO DRAM or BEDO DRAM. SDRAM is replacing EDO DRAM in
computers.
synchronous optical
network (SONET)

A high-speed network that provides a standard interface for communications carriers to


connect networks based on fiber optical cable. SONET is designed to handle multiple
data types (voice, video, and so on). It transmits at a base rate of 51.84 Mbit/s, but
multiples of this base rate go as high as 2.488 Gbit/s.

T
TCI

tag control information

TCM

tandem connection monitor

TCN

topology change notification

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A Glossary

TCP

See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TDC

tunable dispersion compensator

TDM

See time division multiplexing.

TE

terminal equipment

TFTP

See Trivial File Transfer Protocol.

TIM

trace identifier mismatch

TLV

See type-length-value.

TM

See terminal multiplexer.

TMN

See telecommunications management network.

TOD

time of day

TPID

tag protocol identifier

TPS

See tributary protection switching.

TPS protection

The equipment level protection that uses one standby tributary board to protect N
tributary boards. When a fault occurs on the working board, the SCC issues the switching
command, and the payload of the working board can be automatically switched over to
the specified protection board and the protection board takes over as the working board.
After the fault is rectified, the service is automatically switched to the original board.

TSD

trail signal degrade

TTI

trail trace identifier

TTL

See time to live.

TTSI

See trail termination source identifier.

TU

tributary unit

TU-LOP

tributary unit loss of pointer

TUG

tributary unit group

Tc

committed rate measurement interval

Telnet

A standard terminal emulation protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. Telnet allows users
to log in to remote systems and use resources as if they were connected to a local system.
Telnet is defined in RFC 854.

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to
be sent using Internet Protocol (IP), and the reassembly and verification of the complete
messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable
in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in
the ISO/OSI reference model.

Trivial File Transfer


Protocol (TFTP)

A small and simple alternative to FTP for transferring files. TFTP is intended for
applications that do not need complex interactions between the client and server. TFTP
restricts operations to simple file transfers and does not provide authentication.

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A Glossary

tail drop

A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when
the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide
synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism.

tangent ring

A concept borrowed from geometry. Two tangent rings have a common node between
them. The common node often leads to single-point failures.

telecommunications
management network
(TMN)

A protocol model defined by ITU-T for managing open systems in a communications


network. TMN manages the planning, provisioning, installation, and OAM of
equipment, networks, and services.

terminal multiplexer
(TM)

A device used at a network terminal either to multiplex multiple channels of low rate
signals into one channel of high rate signals, or to demultiplex one channel of high rate
signals into multiple channels of low rate signals.

threshold

A limitation on an amount, scale, or level. Changes will occur when a threshold is


reached.

threshold alarm

The alarm occurs when the monitored value exceeds the threshold.

throughput

The maximum transmission rate of the tested object (system, equipment, connection,
service type) when no packet is discarded. Throughput can be measured with bandwidth.

throughput capability

The data input/output capability of the data transmission interface.

time division
multiplexing (TDM)

A multiplexing technology. TDM divides the sampling cycle of a channel into time slots
(TSn, n=0, 1, 2, 3), and the sampling value codes of multiple signals engross time slots
in a certain order, forming multiple multiplexing digital signals to be transmitted over
one channel.

time to live (TTL)

A specified period of time for best-effort delivery systems to prevent packets from
looping endlessly.

timer

Symbolic representation for a timer object (for example, a timer object may have a
primitive designated as T-Start Request). Various MAC entities utilize timer entities that
provide triggers for certain MAC state transitions.

timestamp

The current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. By using mechanisms such
as the Network Time Protocol (NTP), a computer maintains accurate current time,
calibrated to minute fractions of a second.

token bucket algorithm The token bucket is a container for tokens. The capacity of a token bucket is limited, and
the number of tokens determines the traffic rate of permitted packets. The token bucket
polices the traffic. Users place the tokens into the bucket regularly according to the preset
rate. If the tokens in the bucket exceed the capacity, no tokens can be put in. Packets can
be forwarded when the bucket has tokens, otherwise they cannot be transferred till there
are new tokens in the bucket. This scheme adjusts the rate of packet input.
topology

The configuration or layout of a network formed by the connections between devices on


a local area network (LAN) or between two or more LANs.

topology discovery

A technique to accurately determine the exact layout of a network using a few


assumptions about the network architecture and simple tools.

trTCM

See two rate three color marker.

traceroute

A program that prints the path to a destination. Traceroute sends a sequence of datagrams
with the time-to-live (TTL) set to 1,2, and so on, and uses ICMP time exceeded messages
that return to determine routers along the path.

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A Glossary

traffic

The product of the number of calls made and received and the average duration of each
call in a measurement period.

traffic classification

A function that enables you to classify traffic into different classes with different
priorities according to some criteria. Each class of traffic has a specified QoS in the entire
network. In this way, different traffic packets can be treated differently.

traffic policy

A full set of QoS policies formed by association of traffic classification and QoS actions.

traffic shaping

A way of controlling the network traffic from a computer to optimize or guarantee the
performance and minimize the delay. It actively adjusts the output speed of traffic in the
scenario that the traffic matches network resources provided by the lower layer devices,
avoiding packet loss and congestion.

traffic statistics

An activity of measuring and collecting statistics of various data on devices and


telecommunications networks. With the statistics, operators can be aware of the
operating status, signaling, users, system resource usage of the devices or networks. The
statistics also help the operators manage the device operating, locate problems, monitor
and maintain the networks, and plan the networks.

trail management
function

A network level management function of the network management system. This function
enables you to configure end-to-end services, view graphic interface and visual routes
of a trail, query detailed information of a trail, filter, search and locate a trail quickly,
manage and maintain trails in a centralized manner, manage alarms and performance
data by trail, and print a trail report.

trail termination source A TTSI uniquely identifies an LSP in the network. A TTSI is carried in the connectivity
identifier (TTSI)
verification (CV) packet for checking the connectivity of a trail. If it matches the TTSI
received by the sink point, the trail has no connectivity defect.
transaction

Business between the customer and carrier, such as payment, and account adjustment.

transfer

A process of transferring the account balance of an account to another account.

transit

A packet is transmitted along an LSP consisting of a series of LSRs after the packet is
labeled. The intermediate nodes are named transits.

transit node

All the nodes except the master node on an RRPP ring.

transmission delay

The period from the time when a site starts to transmit a data frame to the time when the
site finishes the data frame transmission. It consists of the transmission latency and the
equipment forwarding latency.

transmit power control A technical mechanism used within some networking devices in order to prevent too
much unwanted interference between different wireless networks.
transparent
transmission

A process during which the signaling protocol or data is not processed in the content but
encapsulated in the format for the processing of the next phase.

tray

A component that can be installed in a cabinet for holding chassis or other components.

tributary loopback

A fault can be located for each service path by performing loopback to each path of the
tributary board. There are three kinds of loopback modes: no loopback, outloop, and
inloop.

tributary protection
switching (TPS)

A function that uses a standby tributary processing board to protect N tributary


processing boards.

trunk

Physical communications line between two offices. It transports media signals such as
speech, data and video signals.

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A Glossary

trunk link

A link used to transport VLAN communication between two switches.

trunk port

A switch port used to connect to other switches. The trunk port can connect to only the
trunk link. Only VLANs allowed to pass through a trunk port can be configured on the
trunk port.

tunnel

A channel on the packet switching network that transmits service traffic between PEs.
In VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel
ensures secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. In most cases, a tunnel
is an MPLS tunnel.

tunnel ID

A group of information, including the token, slot number of an outgoing interface, tunnel
type, and location method.

twisted pair cable

A type of cable that consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around one
another for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference which can cause
crosstalk. The number of twists per meter makes up part of the specifications for a given
type of cable. The greater the number of twists is, the more crosstalk is reduced.

two rate three color


marker (trTCM)

An algorithm that meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets based on two rates,
Peak Information Rate (PIR) and Committed Information Rate (CIR), and their
associated burst sizes to be either green, yellow, or red. A packet is marked red if it
exceeds the PIR. Otherwise it is marked either yellow or green depending on whether it
exceeds or does not exceed the CIR.

type-length-value
(TLV)

An encoding type that features high efficiency and expansibility. It is also called CodeLength-Value (CLV). T indicates that different types can be defined through different
values. L indicates the total length of the value field. V indicates the actual data of the
TLV and is most important. TLV encoding features high expansibility. New TLVs can
be added to support new features, which is flexible in describing information loaded in
packets.

U
UART

universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter

UAS

unavailable second

UAT

See unavailable time event.

UBR

unspecified bit rate

UBR+

Unspecified Bit Rate Plus

UDP

See User Datagram Protocol.

UNI

See user-to-network interface.

UPC

See usage parameter control.

UPE

user-end provider edge

UPI

user payload identifier

UPM

uninterruptible power module

UPS

uninterruptible power supply

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User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)

A Glossary

A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a
datagram to an application program on another. UDP uses IP to deliver datagrams. UDP
provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery
service. That is, UDP messages may be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of
order. The destination device does not actively confirm whether the correct data packet
is received.

unavailable time event An event that is reported when the monitored object generates 10 consecutive severely
(UAT)
errored seconds.
unicast

The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient.

unknown multicast
packet

A packet for which no forwarding entry is found in the multicast forwarding table.

uplink

A transmission channel through which radio signals or other signals are transmitted to
the central office.

uplink tunnel

GTP Tunnel from the Mobile Node to the SGSN.

upper limit

A maximum consumption amount that a carrier sets for a subscriber in a bill cycle. If
the consumption amount if a subscriber exceeds the maximum consumption amount, the
OCS system deducts only the maximum consumption amount from the account of the
subscriber.

upstream

In an access network, the direction that is far from the subscriber end of the link.

upstream board

A board that provides the upstream transmission function. Through an upstream board,
services can be transmitted upstream to the upper-layer device.

usage parameter
control (UPC)

During communications, UPC is implemented to monitor the actual traffic on each virtual
circuit that is input to the network. Once the specified parameter is exceeded, measures
will be taken to control. NPC is similar to UPC in function. The difference is that the
incoming traffic monitoring function is divided into UPC and NPC according to their
positions. UPC locates at the user/network interface, while NPC at the network interface.

user-to-network
interface (UNI)

The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for
example, ATM switches).

V
V-NNI

virtual network-network interface

V-UNI

See virtual user-network interface.

V.24

The physical layer interface specification between DTE and DCE defined by the ITUT. It complies with EIA/TIA-232.

VAS

See value-added service.

VB

virtual bridge

VBR

See variable bit rate.

VC trunk

See virtual container trunk.

VCC

See virtual channel connection.

VCCV

virtual circuit connectivity verification

VCG

See virtual concatenation group.

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A Glossary

VCI

virtual channel identifier

VCTRUNK

A virtual concatenation group applied in data service mapping, also called the internal
port of a data service processing board.

VIP

very important person

VLAN

virtual local area network

VLAN mapping

A technology that enables user packets to be transmitted over the public network by
translating private VLAN tags into public VLAN tags. When user packets arrive at the
destination private network, VLAN mapping translates public VLAN tags back into
private VLAN tags. In this manner, user packets are correctly transmitted to the
destination.

VLAN mapping table

One of the properties of the MST region, which describes mappings between VLANs
and spanning tree instances.

VLAN stacking

A technology that adds a VLAN tag to each incoming packet. The VLAN stacking
technology implements transparent transmission of C-VLANs in the ISP network to
realize the application of Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (VPN).

VP

See virtual path.

VPI

See virtual path identifier.

VPLS

See virtual private LAN service.

VPN

virtual private network

VRRP

See Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol.

VSI

virtual switch interface

Virtual Router
Redundancy Protocol
(VRRP)

A protocol designed for multicast or broadcast LANs such as an Ethernet. A group of


routers (including an active router and several backup routers) in a LAN is regarded as
a virtual router, which is called a backup group. The virtual router has its own IP address.
The host in the network communicates with other networks through this virtual router.
If the active router in the backup group fails, one of the backup routers in this backup
group becomes active and provides routing service for the host in the network.

value-added service
(VAS)

A service provided by carriers and service providers (SPs) together for subscribers based
on voice, data, images, SMS messages, and so on. Communication network technologies,
computer technologies, and Internet technologies are used to provide value-added
services.

variable bit rate (VBR) One of the traffic classes used by ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Unlike a
permanent CBR (Constant Bit Rate) channel, a VBR data stream varies in bandwidth
and is better suited to non real time transfers than to real-time streams such as voice calls.
virtual channel
connection (VCC)

A VC logical trail that carries data between two end points in an ATM network. A pointto-multipoint VCC is a set of ATM virtual connections between two or multiple end
points.

virtual circuit

A channel or circuit established between two points on a data communications network


with packet switching. Virtual circuits can be permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or
switched virtual circuits (SVCs) .

virtual concatenation
group (VCG)

A group of co-located member trail termination functions that are connected to the same
virtual concatenation link.

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virtual container trunk The logical path formed by some cascaded VCs.
(VC trunk)
virtual fiber

The fiber that is created between different devices. A virtual fiber represents the optical
path that bears SDH services in a WDM system.

virtual path (VP)

A bundle of virtual channels, all of which are switched transparently across an ATM
network based on a common VPI.

virtual path identifier


(VPI)

The field in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cell header that identifies to which
virtual path the cell belongs.

virtual private LAN


service (VPLS)

A type of point-to-multipoint L2VPN service provided over the public network. VPLS
enables geographically isolated user sites to communicate with each other through the
MAN/WAN as if they are on the same LAN.

virtual user-network
interface (V-UNI)

A virtual user-network interface, works as an action point to perform service


classification and traffic control in HQoS.

voltage drop

The voltage developed across a component or conductor by the flow of current through
the resistance or impedance of that component or conductor.

W
WCDMA

See Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.

WDM

wavelength division multiplexing

WFQ

See weighted fair queuing.

WLAN

See wireless local area network.

WRED

See weighted random early detection.

WRR

weighted round robin

WTR

See wait to restore.

Web LCT

The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located at the NE


management layer of the transport network.

Wideband Code
Division Multiple
Access (WCDMA)

A standard defined by the ITU-T for the third-generation wireless technology derived
from the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology.

wait to restore (WTR)

The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line.

wavelength

The distance between successive peaks or troughs in a traveling wave, that is, the distance
over which a wave is transmitted within a vibration period.

weighted fair queuing


(WFQ)

A fair queue scheduling algorithm based on bandwidth allocation weights. This


scheduling algorithm allocates the total bandwidth of an interface to queues, according
to their weights and schedules the queues cyclically. In this manner, packets of all priority
queues can be scheduled.

weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP
detection (WRED)
synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority
packet when calculating the packet loss ratio.

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OptiX OSN 500 Multi-Service CPE Optical Transmission


System
Product Description

A Glossary

wireless local area


network (WLAN)

A hybrid of the computer network and the wireless communication technology. It uses
wireless multiple address channels as transmission media and carriers out data interaction
through electromagnetic wave to implement the functions of the traditional LAN.

working path

A path allocated to transport the normal traffic.

working service

A specific service that is part of a protection group and is labeled working.

wrapping

A protection switching mode defined in ITU-T G.8132, which is applicable to packetbased T-MPLS ring networks and similar to SDH two-fiber bidirectional multiplex
section protection (MSP). In this mode, the switching is triggered by the node that detects
a failure. For details, see ITU-T G.841.

X
X.21

ITU-T standard for serial communications over synchronous digital lines. It is mainly
used in Europe and Japan.

X.25

A data link layer protocol. It defines the communication in the Public Data Network
(PDN) between a host and a remote terminal.

Y
Y.1731

Issue 01 (2013-12-30)

The OAM protocol introduced by the ITU-T. Besides the contents defined by
IEEE802.1ag, ITU-T Recommendation Y.173 also defines the following combined
OAM messages: Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), Remote Defect Indication (RDI),
Locked Signal (LCK), Test Signal, Automatic Protection Switching (APS), Maintenance
Communication Channel (MCC), Experimental (EXP), and Vendor Specific (VSP) for
fault management and performance monitoring, such as frame loss measurement (LM),
and delay measurement (DM).

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