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G
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Advanced
Ear-Training
and

Sight-Singing
AS applied to

the

STUDY OF HARMONY

Continuation of the

and Coordinated Course


Schools and Private Study

Practical

for

By
O

GEORGE

A.

WEDGE
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

w*-^
EDWARD JOHNSON
1

G.

SCHIRMER,

%Qy:^y)Z)(y)fi)<i)<2)(i}QJQ)QJQiQ)<^QJQiQ}QJQ)Q)Q)Q)^

Inc.,

P^UStC LIBRARY

NEW YORK

Copyright, 1922, by G. Schirmer, Inc.

30914C

fiT
R.

:T

A i^

4 1963

Printed in the U. S. A.

To
Dr.

FRANK DAMROSCH

U6

:ally

iding

read

Harfor

is

o
rcises

)niza-

and

.1

thms,
ods a

The
:an

be

nd the

and

'ho has
e

at the

C1

ng

this

Vlusical

ictation

.xercises

DGE.

bo

(4

PREFACE
The study

of

generally consists of writing notes, mathematically


understanding
bass, without hearing their sound or

Harmony

calculated from a figured

must be able to read


and bearing upon playing or singing. A musician
his mother tongue.
and hear written music as readily as he reads
to study and apply HarThe purpose of this book is to show the pupil how
written and to furnish exercises for
mony, to develop the ability to hear what is

their use

study.

the exercises
divided into three Sections: Section A contams
to Melodic Construction and Harmonizafor written work, applying Harmony
B, the exercises for Harmonic, Interval and
tion and the study of Form; Section
in Singing Intervals, RJiythms,
Melodic Dictation; Section C, the exercises
.

Each Lesson

is

Chords and Sight-Reading.


use two fifty-minute periods a
In class-work it has been found practical to
B and the other to Section C. The
week, devoting one period to Sections A and
combined with Section C can be
explanations at the beginning of each Lesson
and the
Sight-Singing without the written work of Section A
used for the study of

Ear-Training of Section B.
j
development of the work and
Following is a plan of the book, showing the
order in which the factors are taken up.
,

AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes

to express his gratitude to Dr.

encouraged and sponsored


Institute of Musical Art;

this

work

To Miss Helen W. Whiley

as it has

for loyalty

Frank Damrosch, who has


in the classes at the

been developed

and enthusiasm

in

presentmg

this

the manuscript;
material, and help in the preparation of
manuscript;
Dr. Thomas Tapper for reviewing the

To
To

and "Material Used in Musical


Dr. Percy Goetchius' "Tone Relations"

Composition";

To Mr.

Franklin

W. Robinson

and the use and meaning

To

for ideas in presenting

Harmonic Dictation

of chords.

material in the Exercises


G. Schlrmer, Inc. for the use of copyrighted

for Sight-Singing.

^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^

North Brooklin, Maine,


August 15th, 1922.

[v]

CONTENTS
Page

Chapter

Chapter

II

Chapter

III

Triads

Inversions of Triads

Chords of the Seventh and Ninth

43
63

Chapter IV

Chromatically Altered Chords

132

Modulation and Embellishi-ient

160

Chapter

Ivi]

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


CHAPTER

TRIADS

Chord

is

a combination of three, four or five tones placed one above the


gth

other in thirds:

gir^S^

The tone upon which the chord is built is called the Root.
The next tone is the third, the next the fifth, the next the seventh, the next
the ninth of the chord.
Each tone is named from its interval-relationship to the
root of the chord.

three-tone chord

a Triad:

is

Seventh (seventh-chord)

five-tone

four-tone chord

chord

is

is

a Chord of the

a Chord of the

Ninth

(ninth-chord)

A
A

chord may be built upon each tone of a key.


chord is named from the degree of the scale which is its root.
is the first degree of the scale, it is a One Chord (I), or Tonic Chord;
degree, a Five Chord (V), or Dominant Chord; etc.

xc

"
I

U
n

IV

IM
VI

-y

M
VII

If
if

the root
the fifth

II

v^

Roman

numerals are used as symbols of chords.


is a duplication one octave higher of one of'the tones, generally
the root. The tonic chord is i, 3, 5, 8; the dominant chord 5, 7, 2, 5; the subdominant chord 4, 6, 8, 4; the two chord 2, 4, 6, 2; the six chord 6, 8, 3, 6; the
three chord 3, 5, 7, 3.
The I, V and IV chords consist of a major third and a perfect fifth from the
These chords are major chords. The II, VI and III chords consist of a
root.
minor third and a perfect fifth from the root. These chords are minor chords.
The VII chord consists of a minor third and a diminished fifth from the root.
As this chord upon the leading tone is imperfect, i.e., the only chord with a
diminished fifth, and is included in and used as the seventh-chord built upon the
dominant, it is not considered, by most theorists, as an independent triad.
A chord is major or minor according to the size of its third.
Chords are arranged in harmony for four-part vocal music. The upper
part is the Soprano, the next the Alto. These are written on the G staff. The
next voice-part is the Tenor and the next the Bass. These are written on the F
In triads, there

staff.

A
I

is

chord

is

when
when the

in octave position

in the position of the ^th

It
the 8th of the chord is in the soprano.
It is
the chord is in the soprano.

fifth of

[1]

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


chord is in the soprano. The
in the position of the 3rd when the third of the
nothing to do with Inversion,
has
chord
of
a
position
The
root is in the bass.

which will be treated later.


The proChords are used in music to establish the key and to give accent.
Therefore,
accent.
gression or resolution of one chord into another produces an
the accented pulse.
on
chord
the
into
resolves
pulse
unaccented
the
on
the chord
tones found
different
Chords are built upon the tones of the key, i.e., the
in the
arranged
pitches
by dividing a string into thirds, and not upon these
as
chord
the
I
to
progress
major scale relationship. Chords are related to and
-

these tones are related to the key-tone.

key are

If

is

the key-tone, the tones of the

-e-ff-

o V

VII

rv

III

VI

These tones

as

roots of chords and arranged

in this order are

II

V
I

IV

which is at rest is the key-tone. The other tones


In arranging the chords the IV is transare active in their relationship with C.
includes the IV
posed and placed between the II and the VI, as the IF chord

The only tone

and

is

in this series

nearer the key-centre.

to any
Compositions generally begin with the I chord and may progress
active
more
to
progress
chord. As all other chords are active, they will have to
progress
we
if
example,
For
chords until they come to rest on the I chord.
the centre,
from the I to the VI, the VI will progress to some other chord nearer
the IV, II or V, and then to the I.
The V and IV chords are the only chords which may progress immediately
The other chords will pass through V or IV before going to I. Ihe
to the I.
III always goes to IV or II before going to V.
Harmonic
This law of the progression of the roots of chords is known as the
Harmonic
an
series
this
in
next
the
to
Law and the progression from one tone
.

Step or Degree.
The three upper voices of chords resolve according to the law of active and rest
It will be found that if the
tones in the major scale which is the Melodic Law.
will fulfill the
root of the chord fulfills the harmonic law the three upper voices
melodic law.
,

(a)

(b)

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

When the V chord progresses to the I cliord as in (a) the root V in the bass
progresses an harmonic step to the I; the 7th degree in the soprano progresses to
the 8th; the 5th degree, which is a rest tone, remains stationary; the 2nd degree
progresses to the 3rd.
In the progression IV to I, as in (b), the root IV in the bass goes to the I;
the 6th degree in the soprano to the 5th; the 4th degree to the 3rd; the ist
degree remains at rest.
In the progression IV to V, the root of the IV progresses harmonically to
the root of the V; the 6th degree in the soprano moves to the 5th; the 4th degree,
which must resolve down, moves to the 2nd, as there is no 3rd degree in the V
chord; the 8th degree moves to the 7th.

Lesson

i.

Section A.

Learn the arrangement of the chord roots in the harmonic series.


Construct melodies, phrases in length, in 6/8 meter, using the I, V and
IV chords as a basis for the melody. Employ any of the following rhythms:
(1)

(2)

J-

;J

J);JT3iJ J? JJJJJJ

In writing a melody, using chords as a basis, first divide the staff into
measures and place the chord symbols underneath, one chord for each pulse.
The choice of chords is determined by the harmonic law.
A chord may be repeated within a measure, but not over the bar,
A phrase when regular will begin with the I chord on the accented or unaccented pulse and will end with the I chord on an accented pulse of the fourth
measure, preceded by the V chord. This is an Authentic Cadence. If the final
I chord is in the position of the octave, a Perfect Authentic Cadence results; if in the
position of the third or fifth, the cadence is known as Imperfect Authentic. A phrase
generally ends with a Perfect Authentic Cadence.
A melody may follow the line of a scale up or down. In working from an
harmonic basis the melody will move along the scale-line from some tone of the
chord on the pulse. Not all the tones of the scale will be found in this chord.
The tones which come between the tones of the chord are called Passing-Tones,
and do not affect the harmony.
At any time the melody may stop and embellish a tone of the chord by progressing to the tone a half-step or whole step above or below.
These tones are
known as Neighboring Tones, and do not affect the harmony. Neighboring tones
must always return to the principal tone and may never jump, unless from the
upper to the lower neighbor or the reverse.
All skips, single or consecutive, must occur between tones of the chord.
Occasionally a skip may be made to a neighbor; the neighbor must immediately
resolve to the principal tone.
For example, divide the staff into four measures.

As these melodies are to be


have two chords in each measure but the last. The phrase
may end on the first or second pulse of the fourth measure as it is a compound
meter.
On the first pulse we may have a I chord and repeat it for the second;
on the third the V and its resolution on the fourth; then the IV, which may go
either to the V or 1.
In the following example the IV will move to the V on
account of the cadence.
in 6/8 meter,

we

shall

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


>

J J J J

II

Ml

^n

J J * p
IV

Pr

P'

and progress down the scale to 3, making b,


a and f, passing- tones; then to 2, a part of the V chord on the next pulse; then
to I, the lower neighbor of 2, and back to 2; then to 3 for the I chord, passing
through 4 and 5 to 6 for the IV chord; then skip In the IV chord from 6 to 4 to 8;
turning after the wide skip to 7, a member of the V chord, and passing through
8 up to 2 and returning to 8 for the cadence.

The melody may

start with 8

Section B.

Play the following chord successions, listening to the difference in sound


of the I and V chords. The I chord gives a feeling of rest, because the root is the
fundamental tone in the harmonic series and the three upper voices are rest
If the I chord is in octave position, it sounds comtones of the major scale.
of the third or fifth it gives a feeling of rest, but
position
plete; if it is in the
questioning.
sounds incomplete or
The V chord sounds unfinished and as if the I chord should follow. It is an
active chord and needs resolution into the I chord, because its root is the nearest
related tone to the I chord in the harmonic series and two of its upper voices
are active tones in the major scale and demand resolution.
In listening to the chord, hear it as a complex of tones, if it is at rest or needs
In chord repetitions
resolution, do not listen primarily to the bass or soprano.
the same sounds will be heard, but in different arrangement.
(i)

Practise as follows:
Play each exercise several times, determining
(a)

if

the chords are active

or at rest.
After each V chord pause for a moment so that the mind may
realize the demand for resolution.
(c)
Play the first chord and think the sound of the others. Test with
the piano to see if you think correctly.
Use each exercise for dictation as follows:
(d)
Rule the staff for four measures.
(i)
someone play the exercise slowly, twice.
Have
(2)
the
second playing write the chord symbols according as you
At
(3)
think it is the I or the V chord.
Have the exercise played again and write the numbers of the
(4)
scale steps in the soprano.
Compare your version with the exercise. If there is a mistake,
(5)
play your version, then the correct chord, until you hear the
(b)

mistake.

Exercise

would be written;

IV
The chords

of this exercise will

I,

as

V V
first

chord as the

I,

the

demanding resolution into the I, so it must be the V; the


the resolution of the V; the next as the same chord, the position having

next a different chord


next the

II

be heard thus: The

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


been changed; the next a different chord and an active chord; the next the same
chord in a different position; the last the I, as the resolution of the V.

i
8

8
3r:

ff

1i
I

^^
M
rr
s

li

311

i^

n
y

3r:

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3x:

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DOC

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31:

^ FF

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r

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3x:

ii

^
3x:

V
^
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ff ff
ii

W w rr

3z:

DOC
3x:

An Harmonic and most Melodic Intervals are parts of a chord and


(2)
sound in relation to the root of the chord.
All the intervals in the I chord are consonant intervals, or intervals which
do not need resolution.
The Major 3rd, 1-3, from the Root to the Third of the chord.
The Minor 3rd, 3 - 5, from the Third to the Fifth of the chord.
The Major 6th, 5-3, from the Fifth to the Third of the chord.
The Minor 6th, 3-8, from the Third to the Eighth of the chord.
The Perfect 5th, i - 5, from the Root to the Fifth of the chord.
The Perfect 4th, 5-8, from the Fifth to the Eighth of the chord.
Since the I, V and IV chords are major chords, their interval content

is

the

same.

As these chords

are used in composition, the

same

intervals occur

between

different scale-degrees.

In the V, or Dominant Chord:


Major 3rd, Root to Third, from
5th -7th degree

Minor

Third to Fifth, from

3rd,

7th

-2nd

degree

In the IV, or Subdominant Chord:


from the 4th -6th degree

from the 6th -8th degree

S
ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Major

from the ist-6th degree

6th, Fifth to Third, from

2nd -7th degree


Minor 6th, Third to Eighth, from
7th- 5th degree
Perfect 5th, Root to Fifth, from

from the 6th - 4th degree

from the 4th -8th degree

5th -2nd degree


Perfect 4th, Fifth to Eighth, from
2nd- 5th degree

from the ist-4th degree

All these intervals are consonant and are therefore complete, requiring no
resolution; as they occur in the I chord there is no question as to their position
As different chords are used and four or five intervals occur in a
in the key.
chord, other than the I chord, there is a danger, because of their consonant

and inactive scale-degrees or of the keyThis cannot happen if the change of chord is recognized and the posicentre.
For example, in this series the first
tion of the intervals in the chord is known.
perfect
5th, 1-5, a minor 6th, 3-8, are
a
three intervals, a major 3rd, 1-3,
with the I chord.
begins
generally
music
as
known to be in the I chord,

quality, of losing the feeling of active

-^
The next
(a)

interval

might be heard
3rd, but not

^
TT

in the following

ways:

If the new chord is recogchord, its position is known to be from the 5th to
nized as the
the 7th degree of the scale.
If the scale-degrees 5 and 7 are recognized, it is known to be a major
3rd and a part of the V chord.
The 7th degree might be recognized as the upper tone of a major
3rd, so the interval is from the 5th to the 7th degree and a part of

As a major

in the I chord.

(b)

(c)

the

The next
(a)

(b)

Interval

chord.

might be heard:

a perfect 5th and in the same chord as the preceding interval,


therefore from the 5th to the 2nd degree.
If the scale-degrees 5 and 2 are heard, it is known to be a perfect
chord.
5th in the
This interval is
It is more likely to sound i to 5, or Root to Fifth.
interval, so
the
preceding
same
chord
as
the
of
felt to be a part

As

(c)

could not be from the ist degree to the 5th, but from the Root
to the Fifth of the V chord, and from the 5th to the 2nd degree.
it

undoubtedly sound like 5 up to i the


realize that these intervals are in the
we
Unless
8.
up
to
3
same chord as the two preceding and sound in relation to the root of that chord,
If they are known to be a perfect 4th, from the 5th to
the key-centre is lost.
the 1st (or Root), and a minor 6th, from the 3rd to the 8th of the V chord (not

The next

next, a

interval, a perfect 4th, will

minor 6th,

of the scale), they are easily placed in the key.

The
I

chord

last interval is

may

follow the

heard as a major 3rd in a different chord.


chord, the interval must be from i to 3.

As only the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Practise the following:
I, IV and V chords in the key of C.
Think the sound
the intervals.
Test with the piano.
The intervals in
Exercises i and 2 are in the I and V chords; in Ex.
3, 4, 5 and 6,
in the I, IV and V chords.
Play the intervals, listening to determine how they sound in relation
to the root of the chord and to the key-centre.

Play the

(a)

of

(b)

Play the lower tone, sing the upper tone of each.


Play the upper tone, sing the lower tone of each.

(c)

(b)

(a)

i Sr

^
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XL.

-^

:^
(d)

(c)

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(b)
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(a)

(c)

(a)

(c)

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(a)

(c)

(b)

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(c)

(b)

o o XE
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XE

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(b)

XE

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(d)

and Sight-Singing.

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

(3)

xx:

TJ-

(a)

(a)

Practise:

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the melody mentally, without

If this
(c)

and

chords in

major to establish the tonality.


singing, at a moderate tempo.
Test with the piano. If you cannot hear the
J. =72.
melody mentally, play the melody, then try to read it mentally.
It is most vital that written music should be read and
heard mentally as readily as one reads English.
I,

MM

is

at first difficult, persist:

it is

the greatest aid to sight-singing.

Play the phrase twice, look away from the music and sing the phrase
from memory to la. Test. Repeat until successful.

Sing from memory, using the number-names of the scale-degrees; then use
the letter-names.
(d)

first

to
Note.

I, V and I chords in
Major. Sing the melody, using
the number, then the letter-names. Transpose the melody
Major in the same way.

Play the

Let the construction of the melody help in memorizing. In 2 the first four notes form a
next four are in a sequence with it: the next measure is a scale-line on the first pulse and a wide
leap on the second.
figure, the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

In singing and memorizing a melody beginning on the up-beat, be sure that the

measure

is felt

from the up-beat to the up-beat.

P
<^

Jm Jh

Pr LTi

Jl

("

Lx;J^irr

J.

^^^5

Pc:

Oli,_rj

iJ^icJXc^fJ
?J-

IJJJJ.

jm^

rfto''

^^

4 ^ir J>ff^ir pJ ^i^jE,^^^^


(e)

Have someone play


(i)

J)J

^
s

8j^|J J)J J)|J

^^^ ^m

1.

the melodies for dictation as follows:

Play the entire melody with simple chord accompaniment, two


chords to a measure, using the I, IV and V chords on the
pulses, allowing the other tones to be passing-tones or neighbors.
Number I would be harmonized:

The

pupil decides the meter and form of the melody.


The form
determined by the cadence; the meter by the number of
pulses in the phrase.
Play the phrase twice while the pupil listens and memorizes the
tune.
The pupil should relax and allow the entire phrase to
Is

(2)

make an impression on

the mind; he should not spend time

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

(3)

trying to determine the note it begins on or analyzing a


rhythmic complication. After the mind has grasped the phrase
it is easily analyzed.
As these phrases are in compound meter,
remember that a mental breath in the middle of the phrase
will help in memorizing,
The pupil writes the melody on the staff. At this stage there
should be no difficulty in writing, but if there is, make an outline as in the elementary work.

Q 88 55
8

654 3

284

5 67

3"

with the rhythm in only one measure,


write dots for the pulses and determine the figure on each

If the pupil has trouble

pulse.
(4)
(5)

Play the phrase again for correction.


After the melody is written, the pupil should mark the chords
that may be used for harmonizing the melody, as well as the
rhythmic figures, sequences and repetitions.
Figure

-ir

sequence

j
IV

^ ^^ ^
I

IV

The chord symbols

indicate the harmo;iic background.


The
question of inversions to avoid parallel fifths and octaves is
left until those points are taken up in the theoretic study.

Section C.
(i)

Absolute Intervals.

In sight-singing there is no need of thinking the interval name or the size


made, as long as the key is known. It is only when this feeling of
key has been broken down by unusual skips or a modulation that a knowledge
of how to sing absolute or unrelated intervals is needed, and then only until
the tonality has been reestablished. The position of intervals on the staff and
in the major scale, also of what chords they are a part, must be known so that
they may be quickly recognized and sung.
There are major 3rds on the staff from c-e, f-a, g-b; in the major scale from
1-3, 4-6, 5-7; in the I, V, II, IV, VI and III chords.
To sing a major 3rd up, make the lower tone i and sing 3; to sing a major
3rd down, make the upper tone 3 and sing i.
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone calling it i, then sing the
(a)
tone a major 3rd above, calling it 3. Test.
(b)
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone calling it 3, then sing the
tone a major 3rd below, calling it i.
Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.
(c)
of the skip

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

10

jTJj

Rhythmic Study:

mm
J^m
mm
m

(2)

(b)

(c)

(d)

J.

in

iJis^m ^n2

m
i-m
i/Ti

r^

^nn

im

^j~33

ij

nrRtJss^r^ j
JT]

iJ.

i-TT] J"TJ

in
j.h

j>in

iJ.

II

(e)

As 6/8 is a Duple Metre, each pulse divided into triplets, beat two to a measure and intone the rhythms. The rhythmic subdivision must be felt and sung
as a unit.
In singing any rhythmic subdivision there is a feeling of relaxation
after the tone

on the pulse,

JJJJJJ

e.g.,

In each

is a feeling of stress on the first tone and relaxation for


the other tones.
Each group should be mentally conceived as a figure before
singing, the eye taking in as a unit the figure on each pulse and not each individual note.
It has been found practical in studying these exercises to sing a
major scale as well as intoning the rhythm on one pitch. Begin on 8 and sing
down; (a) would be sung:

of these figures there

The
as the

figure

J.

jj

two sixteenths

into the next pulse.

is

often confused with

in the figure

The

<g)|
(w

JTjJ

figure

Rhythmic Study contrasting

JTjJ

m
m
,m
n2 m ,n}

ck)J),j

J)i~5] ,J

a)J),rr3J

J)

Jj.

This

is

easily corrected,

relate themselves to

^J

halts

and

and

and progress

not legato.

is

^J

j5irr]j~j].j

j5iJ^t]j

.B J55553 J^T]
,

J5.JT:1 /1555.J~51

J3j-

j3iJ~j3

j-

J;

.J

.^iJ-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(3)

11

The following Chord Successions are to be practised:


Play the key-tone. Think, or hear mentally, the exercise in a
moderate tempo.
(b)
Sing the chords, using the letter-names, c, e, g, c, etc. Sing the

(a)

numbers of the
(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)
/^

scale-steps,

i, 3, 5, 8, etc.

Write the chord symbols I, V, I, IV, I and sing the letter- and
number-names from memory.
Test at the end of each exercise to see if you are singing on pitch.
If below pitch, repeat more slowly, taking care that the 5th and
8th of each chord are high enough.
Sing each chord as follows: Root, 3rd, 5th, 8th, 5th, 3rd, Root.
Sing the exercise to a neutral syllable, as la, thinking first the
then the number-names.
Repeat each exercise until it can be sung rhythmically.

letter,

J ^

?
IV-

^
IV

1^

^ J

^ p

?
IV.

Pi

^ p
c/i'

C;'

&H

in

^
u

'^

m
:m

i^r^JU-i^

m
IV-

IV

IV

^n

Q-i-b'^ 'i.^r^J j.j


i

c::/'

D
s

0' m

aS^u L^'
\

'^-

^^m
^-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(4)

Exercises for Sight- Singing:

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the

(c)

Sing the exercise to the number-names of the scale-steps; to the


letter-names of the pitches.
Sing to the syllable la, thinking first the number-names, then the

(d)

and I chords to establish the tonality.


exercise through mentally at a moderately slow tempo.
Test for pitch.
I,

letter-names.
Note. Beat two beats to the measure.
the sound of the entire chord.

^ >irp^i'

ip=if

Take

^^^

in

each pulse as a unit.

In consecutive leaps, think

biJJJJ'i^j

J'

Folk-Song

JDFJNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

'Jr.

E=2^a

'-uiss^aai

.M/jJj JmJT-jJI] JI^ r

j_ ;;j

'^

J.1^ J"n

J j. IN- i
.

JJji

13

A.

'J^J
'V >
l

''

lff^l J.JJ^Jff^lr

jK
i

4 JT3^J^iJ7].fffP||jj|i

P.TO

M^n

<

* d

1^^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

14

j'm

/fjMj
4-^T^

i J J>i?J
'

J^i^

JJ.7]

j)ir-^i'>iJ-^^j^ij.jjpg

g'H? *^^
J "^
<

"^'rP

r'

ii

j,^

II

J,JUfi-l

m-pu

r i

^JJ^icjUJ.

Jin

Lesson

j_

^
s
^ ^ ^
^ ^

'^J^'^

-l-Cc/^

rJ' j> Jj,r7]i

'

?^.

TU73 rTji p
|

phrase in music corresponds to a simple sentence in


English.
In English
Is often used; this Is,
in reality, two sentences, each
expressmg a complete thought, the one qualifying the
other.
In music a Period
corresponds to this form.
a

compound sentence

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


A

15

when

regular, consists of two phrases, each usually four measures


the Antecedent Phrase, the second the Consequent Phrase. A
period begins as any phrase, but the antecedent phrase ends with some tone of the
V chord, 5, 7 or 2. This gives the effect of being incomplete and makes a Semicadence.
The consequent phrase ends with the i or 8, a Perfect Authentic
Cadence.
A period is in Parallel Coristruction when at least the first measure of the
antecedent and that of the consequent phrase are alike, as Alelody 3,
Section B (3). (Page 18.)
A period is in Contrasting Construction when the antecedent and consequent
phrases are different, as Melody 2, Section B (3).
Melodies are constructed in the Minor Mode the same as in the Major Mode,
the Minor Mode being formed from the Major by lowering the 3rd and 6th
degrees of the Major.
In using the progression from the 6th to the 7th degrees, the augmented 2nd,

Period,

long.

The

first is

which sounds

like a

minor 3rd,

often retained

is

'

J J

^r

=p=^

but gen-

is raised and in descending the 7th degree is


lowered so as to give a diatonic progression. This is known as the Melodic
Minor Scale and is used when the scale-line is harmonized with the I chord.

erally in ascending the 6th degree

^M CT
I

If the

harmony

descending.

is

the

IV

chord, the raised 6th

^hSy^\

-#

used both in ascending and

is

If the harmony is the IV, II or VI chord, the lowered 7th


ascending and descending.

used both in

is

=3i.

IV

II

Section A.
(l)

Construct periods in c minor, with both parallel and contrasting phrases,


I, V and IV chords as a basis for the melody.
Employ the following

using the

rhythms

in 6/8

meter: J.

J)

JT3

J3

JJJJJJ

Section B.
(i)

in
in

Play the following chord successions, listening to the difference in sound


is minor
is major

and V chords in minor. The I is a rest chord as in major, but


quality on account of the lowered 3rd degree. The V chord is active,
quality, and sounds the same in the major and minor modes.

of the I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

16

Practise

and

I, 2,

3,

as follows:

Play each exercise several times, determining

(a)

if

the

chords are

active or at rest.

After each V chord pause for a minute and think the chord of resolution before playing it.
Play the first chord and think the sound of the others. Test with
the piano.
Have each exercise dictated. Work as outlined on page 4.
Transpose the exercises of Lesson i to c minor.

(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)

In Exercises 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, in C major, the IV chord is used. The IV chord


is major in sound, and is an active chord because its root is the first harmonic
tone below the Tonic and two of its upper voices are active tones in the melodic
series.
The IV chord resolves into the I, or it m.ay progress into the V. It is
distinguishable from the V chord because it sounds lower and farther from the
I; it impresses the ear as if another chord could be played before its resolution
into the I.
It is impossible to think a chord between the V and I.
Practise these Exercises as follows:
Play each exercise, determining
(a)

if

the chords are active or at

rest.

(d)

Pause after each V chord and think the chord of resolution.


Pause after each IV chord and think first the I chord, then the
and I chords.
Think the sound of each exercise.

(e)

Have

(b)
(c)

the exercises dictated.

5 would be heard: first a I chord; next an active chord, before the resolution of which another active chord could be substituted; or as an active chord
resolving into the I and sounding like an *'A-men," therefore the IV^-I; the next
a rest chord, the I: the next the same chord in another position; the next an
active chord resolving to another active chord, which must be the IV to the V

Ex.

chord; the next the rest chord.

Transpose each exercise to c minor.


In minor the IV chord is a minor chord and is distinguished from the
which is also minor, on account of its activity.
(f)

^ rr
^ ff
8

^ ^i

chord,

J=J:

^m

31:

in

WA
^W

4=A
'

3x:

3x:

TT
^3

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


4

17

^^
IV

ZXSl

IV

V
8

rf

^^

Ya

3x:

TT

^
fT

rf

rr

3CC

JOl.

DCC

m
r

3i:

In minor the position of the major and minor Intervals In the I and
will be changed on account of the lowering of the 3rd and 6th degrees
of the scale.
The minor 3rd will occur from the root to the 3rd of the chord; the
major 3rd from the 3rd to the 5th of the chord; the major 6th from the 3rd to
the 8th of the chord; the minor 6th from the 5th to the 3rd of the chord. The
perfect Intervals will remain the same.
The Intervals in the V chord will not
change.
(2)

IV chords

Practise the following:

Play the

(a)

IV and

I,

Plav the intervals,

(b)

Think the sound

chords In c minor.

of the

Test with the piano.

intervals.

listening

how they sound

determine

to

relation to the root of the chord

in

and to the key-centre.

Play the lower tone, sing the upper tone of each.


Play the upper tone, sing the lower tone of each.

(c)

2
(

(a)

XE

8.

11

(d)

(0
*

(a)

3r

3x:

"

^j

"

^r

^y.

IV

3
(b)

30:

xc

(d)

(c)

te

(b)

(a)

xx:

(d)

(c)

xc

^te ^

DCE

3x:

^gr :^ O O

-XT

4
(b)

(a)

(d)

(c)

^m^
sx.

XX X3L
11 !
:8=

ii..u!:ii
XE

(b)

(a)

:Sr

xx:

xx:

ias
_g_^

11

'

XE
ffi

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

(3)

and Sight-Singing.

Practise:

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the melody mentally.

(c)

Play the antecedent phrase twice.


Sing it from memory to la.
Sing mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.

IV,

I,

and

chords in c minor to establish the tonality.


Test.

Sing aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire melody. Sing from memory.

(d)
(e)

Transpose to d minor; to b minor; to C major.


Sing first the
number-, then the letter-names, in each key.
Using the arm movement, down-up, sing the melody mentally and
analyse the rhythmic figure on each pulse. Concentrate upon

(f)

(g)

the figures of three notes to the pulse,

j. J J
stitute

If

there

confusion of

is

J J J

and J. J J

one for the other until the difference


Drill," page 10.

is

felt.

and
sub-

Review

"Rhythmic
i

)!

^Hr=\

>ij73r

J^'i

j'J^j
p

^ciirr p

^^

^m

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^
f

^ i^ij.jjJ /Ji;:jj

J^j

^hS

)\JV^^

Q-

iCjjff

r-7

ii

''

f'r

n >i[i;v

rj\jVn ^\

J^J]Jj>Uj:jJ3N'

^''^

hH^us

19

rpcif Q^
i

J.

r.^^iJJ^J>

J'i?^

^^

rprpi[:ir[j;;irp^^'ijjMrpp
10

E=S

^nira/irprc^ifr^iJ'irjirrg

Have each melody

(h)

(i)

dictated as follows:

Play the entire period with simple accompaniment, two chords


to a measure, using the I, IV and V chords on the pulses,
allowing the other tones to be passing-tones or neighbors.

The

pupil decides the form, the construction,


contrasting, and the meter.

(2)

(3)
(4)

(5)
(6)

if

parallel

or

Play the antecedent phrase twice while the pupil listens and
memorizes the tune. Do not allow the pupil to sing the
melody aloud. He should sing mentally.

The

pupil analyses and writes the melody on the

staff.

Play the phrase again for correction.


Dictate the consequent phrase in the same manner.
The pupil marks the chords for harmonization, the figures, repetitions and sequences and the form of the melody.

Section C.
(l)

Absolute Intervals.

There are minor 3rds on the staff from d-f, e-g, a-c, b-d; in the major
scale from 2-4, 3-5, 6-8, 7-2; in the I, V, H, IV, VI and III chords.
To sing

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

20

a minor 3rd up, call the lower tone 3 and sing 5; to sing a minor 3rd down, call
the upper tone 5 and sing 3.
Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling it 3; then sing the
(a)
tone a minor 3rd above, calling it 5. Test.
(b)

(c)

Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling


the tone a minor third below, calling it 3.
Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.

(a)

5;

then sing

rm

Rhythmic Study.

(2)

it

ni

ijn JTSij~i] /^,JT?3J'

(b)
(c)

The

three sixteenths in the figure

jT"^^

group themselves with the

next pulse, the same as the two sixteenths in the figure J

^,

Study using

and singing each exercise to la on a major scale,


These exercises should be sung at a moderate tempo,
about J. =69, gradually increasing to about J. =88. In all of the drill both for
Rhythm and in Sight-Singing use a light tone so that there is no concern about

the

arm movement

for the pulse

as in the preceding Lesson.

tone-production.
(3)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the key-tone and sing the exercise mentally.

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing, using the number-names.


Sing, using the letter-names.
Sing to la, thinking the letter-names, then the number-names.
Write out the chord symbols and sing the letter- and numbernames from memory. In singing from memory, always have a
mental picture of the staff or look at a blank staff.

Note. In exercises 3
B531, not each tone 8, 5, 3,

and
1.

4,

where the descending arpeggio is rapid, it must be thought of


this the mind must relax after the note on the pulse.

^"i-^iJ^ir^J j MJ^rr
i

^m
iv^

as a unit

To do

'
i

^^r^^

n^jJir

iJ^ r^J i
i

^
IV-

ADFANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

m P

1,1

ij^pr

r^r ij

II

21

V.

^^ ^J^T

^ff^

^^u

^1

IV.

mj

i^i

^^ii

^^ ^
t:

(4)

ls/i-^

*
i

x^ir

^Jij

* ^^
^ ^a ^
.

iv_

Exercises for Sight-Singing:


and I chords and read each exercise through
Play the I, IV,
mentally. Test for pitch.
(b)
Sing each exercise to the number-names of the scale-steps; to the

(a)

(c)

letter-names of the pitches.


Sing to the syllable la, thinking

first

the number-names, then the

letter-names.

Note the

skips in the

IV chord.

Mozart

;J3??]^

mF m
-m-^ ^-m.

CX

J7ii^

22

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

23

^ QrrJ^ J^^ JJ-M^JJ^ J JJ^


l

^"^^'^ttW^^p

^h

^^

jhQ;^^

JO

M=i *

J^JJJjiJJ!IJi

J'

J'
I

<^^^

^^

pir

i7^j

P^ Ji'J^ P^
I

m^JK.

ilM

^^P

___

h'l,

^^

C^ijjJf^

rrrCtt;

14

^j

^-+J^r

i^-Qj

^^ ^^

ffi

|.

^'

13

* ^j^
^

J,,

**d

u M

J J,

Tj,

Pi i

i^j j.-^

^'

J V

"^

16

'

^^J^iU
^??^

ij

'

i^i

;r

#-"-

V ^

i'

^^^ ^
^

iJ

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

24

fir^l^LiJlCu

iji'i

'

H-il^

^^^

^h I^^iJJ]

Lesson

The

II

called the

chord is minor in quality and is next to the V chord in activity. It is


Second Dominant Chord because its root is the second dominant from

the tonic in the

The

Harmonic

may be

Series.

preceded by any chord but the V.

It resolves into the


Exceptionally it may resolve into the VI chord, as will be explained
later under "Exceptional Resolutions," in Lesson 4, page 33.

II chord

chord.

Section A.

Construct periods in G major, with both parallel and contrasting


Employ
phrases, using the I, V, IV and II chords as a basis for the melody.
meter:
the following rhythms in 6/8
(i)

JT3,J

J). J-

J ^

J55115

JT3 JTTO and JTJS


,

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play each exercise several times, determining

(a)

(c)

or at rest, major or minor.


Pause after each active chord and think
Read each exercise mentally.

(d)

Have each

(b)

exercise dictated.

the chords are active

resolution.

as outlined

on page

4.

The II chord will be heard as a minor chord. At first it will be confused with
IV chord. Always go back and substitute the IV for the II if this mistake
made, determining if the quality of the chord is major or minor. Remember

the
is

Work

its

if

that a chord

is

not repeated over the bar.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

13

5i^

rr rr

n
n
n
ii
ii
^ m
^
rf rf n

n
J.

^^
I

IV

II

V V

mn
ji

a#

^
^
^ rr rr

^^

i:

^
^ ii ^
i
^ f^ ^
J

^^

ii

i i p^

n
ii

r
8

^^

i=i

1-^

25

r
i

The minor 3rd and perfect 5th in the II chord, are from the root
(2)
to the 3rd and the root to the 5th of the chord: from the 2nd to the
4th and
the 2nd to the 6th degrees of the scale. The intervals in the II chord will
follow the intervals in the IV chord, and will be followed by intervals
in the V
chord.
Practise the following:
(a)

(b)

(c)

I, IV, II, V and I chords in


major. Think the sound of
the intervals. Test with the piano.
Play the intervals, listening to determine how they sound in relation
to the root of the chord and to the key-centre.
Play the lower tone, sing the upper tone of each.
Play the upper tone, sing the lower tone of each.

Play the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

26

(b)

(a)
CT

=&

(d)

(c)

(d)

a o
'

:^

S IE

ii i\ ti trr:

(e)

_o_

3ir

s ^=^

33:

=^

TF^

^8^

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

(3)

Jtt.

(c)

(b)

(a)

(e)

=S

=:

=R=^ xn

and Sight-Singing, containing skips

the II chord and employing the rhythmic figure

J.

JT^

major.

in

in 6/8 meter.

Practise:

and

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the melody mentally.

(c)

(d)
(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

I,

IV,

chords in

Test.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.
mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.
aloud.

Sing
Sing

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire melody. Sing from memory. Use the period-form,
figures, repetitions and sequences, as an aid to memorizing.
Use the arm movement for beating the meter and mentally analyse
the rhythmic figures.
Transpose to F and A major, singing the number- and letter names,
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 19.
.

Figure
I

!!

II,

j)N pr
I

Rep. Modified
-

j)

i^r

Figure

^
p

p^ Fir'"?

jiir

Modified

[xrr

^1^-1^^

j'

j.jjJi^

rTriLXg

Rep
J' ji

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

rJ'r J] J,J UjJ-n]]|j;,,J

r-

mjij n^fj J^^i^L^p


i

4*

ni

J'l

IV

. J

Nil

jiigr^

pr

iJ

iij^

J.

ff

iU

Irrrsr

r"'H

j^-i

nr

-^

n^ftiFr_p'p_i

i^micj!^

4*rrrrrrQ:;ir nn]i
y

^
^m

n^

4" rrrrrrr

^-F^

27

jj jic^;^

10

JM.Tf
rPr^M^

nJ^

^-

J'

j.ijjJT3iJ irr^

irT^cx;i^P^pi^^-^i

-^--

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

28
Section C.

Absolute Intervals.
the 4ths on the staff are perfect, except f-b; in the major scale,
*xcept 4-7; in the niinor scale, all but 4-7, 6-2, 7-3. To sing a perfect 4th up,
call the lower tone 5 and sing 8; to sing a perfect 4th down, call the upper tone 8
(i)

All of

and sing

5.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(2)

Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling

Rhythmic Study:
(a)

(3)

then sing the

it 8;

then sing the

JjjJ

and J J

JJ

Study using the arm movement to Indicate the meter, and sing the
rhythms to la in a major scale.

ji^

(c)

it 5;

tone a perfect 4th above, calling it 8. Test.


Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling
tone a perfect 4th below, calling it 5. Test.
Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.

11^2

>n2 m^ij^TT^nrt^rn} I

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the key-tone and sing the exercises mentally.
(b)
Sing using the letter-names; the number-names.
(c)
Sing to la, thinking the letter-names; the number-names.

(a)

(d)

Sing from memory.

wn
^rf
:

.n

w--

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

)\^_y jTJ^J
i

f^

II

W--

Jlj. 4

^T^J

J'U^i^ jlJ^j j

IV.

igjl^j )
i

ii.tJ''^i

iJT^^
i

^'

jJi^J i
n

*-:

29

''

j.j

Jj

^
Ft

Sing the following chord succession in the same rhythm as 2: I, II, V, IV, V, 1
Sing the following in the same rhythms as 3: I, IV, I, IV, II, V, I. Test fo
pitch at the end of each exercise, even the mental exercises, so as to be sure
that you are thinking and singing in tune.
If below pitch at the end of the exercise, repeat, testing after each chord.
The flatting is generally caused by not
placing the 8th of the chord high enough.
Use the piano only to test. Do not
play as you sing. Learn to think in tune.

(4)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:


(a)

(b)
(c)

Play the I, IV, II, V and I chords, and read each exercise mentally.
Test for pitch.
Sing each exercise to the number-names; to the letter-names.
Sing to the syllable la, thinking first the number-names, then the
letter-names.

Note the
sing

all

skips in the

of the notes

^^r

II chord.

on one pulse

Recognize the chord

as a tone group,

and

as a unit.

pi::;^-^'

'

ir

^^-^^^^i^n^TT

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

30

^
J'^

M s-^tir-s-

tJ U'TB

jg~^

\Awrr\\rjj}iT]-jfny^jyp

^Tnrm|^^|

i'

^r
tf

>^

8
J-

T 7

''

pi [x;LLri

^m

dst

L^l-rpuj

^^IH^
^

^'

^M

cX;^ riLLa-cJi
O

m^^
^

#=F

F=*

F==#

Q"LJ^^^>

ij^

J^r

i
*-p-

L4

Cfi-^MiJ^

D'iL[r[^^^

Q-

^^

'.

|>-

|j>-

Q,

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

31

10

^rJT

n'i

i^'^

rJTEf -T^r-^NJi^"iJ 3?:


i

uJ^

P:Mj ff^m

\f

u ^fflff Nj Tr f^i
pipj^ij J]
i

rp^j

J^ff^r
it

mj
J

r.
f
i

'^n

n7g

<<M d=^=^
j,

^m

13

^
^

^^

j'lj

j^n^^i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

32

19

'''

UJ

^^m

[j-

Lesson 4

The VI chord is minor in quality. It is preceded by the I chord and may be


In the harmonic series the root normally
followed by any chord but the I.
progresses to the IV.
The III chord is a minor chord in quality.
I chord and is followed by the IV chord, as

melodic progression

8765.

It
it is

m
u

lU

IV

generally preceded by the


best used to harmonize the

is

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

33

following exceptions to the harmonic law are possible because the three
upper voices resolve properly, fulfilling the melodic law, thus counteracting the
exceptional resolution of the root of the chord.
The chord may progress to the VI instead of the I chord. This progression

The

is

known

as the Deceptive Cadence.

^
1

i
^

i
^

VI

IV

VI

VI
II

chord and the IV chord may also progress to the VI.


following exceptions to the melodic law are possible because the roots of
the chords are fulfilling the harmonic law.
The 4th degree of the scale may be forced up if harmonized with the IV
chord resolving to the I chord or the II chord resolving to the V chord.

The
The

II

4-

4-

i
r

^
IV

The 6th degree of the scale


progressing to the V chord.

II

may

be forced up

6-

7- 6

III

harmonized by the

II

chord

The yth degree of the scale may be forced


chord progressing to the IV chord.

if

IV

down

if

harmonized with the III

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

34
Section A.

'

Construct periods in
major, with both parallel and contrasting phrases,
(i)
using the I, V, II, IV, III and VI chords as a basis for the melody.
Employ
the rhythms given on page 28.
Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

Play each exercise, determining if the chords are active or at rest,


major or minor.
Pause after each active chord and think its resolution.
Pause after each minor chord and determine if it sounds like the
I chord or the IV chord.

(a)

(b)
(c)

As both the

and the VI are minor chords, they are distinguishable by


IV and the I chords. The II, having two tones in common with the IV chord, sounds like the IV; the VI, having two tones in common
II

their relation to the

with the

chord, sounds like the

I.

Read the exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

(d)
(e)

The
i.e.,

Work

as outlined

position of the minor chord w'dl often determine


the VI would not follow the IV or the II follow the V.

VI

f
IV

it

is

4,

VI

or a II;

^il J J

a^ ^

if

on page

V V

Wnw
lA lA U
^ r^ ^

J.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

35

S
^

^
r?

ff

m^ ^^
rr

fr

^M

.^J=^

The minor 3rd and perfect 5th in the VI chord are from root to the 3rd
(2)
and the root to the 5th of the chord; from the 6th to the 8th and the 6th to the
3rd degrees of the scale.
The intervals in the VI chord will follow the intervals
in the I chord and will be followed by intervals in any chord but the I chord.
Practise the following:

Play the

(a)

VI, IV,

I,

II,

V and

chords in

Think the sound

major.

Test with the piano.


Play the intervals, listening to determine how they sound
to the root of the chord and to the key-centre.
Play the lower tone, sing the upper.
Play the upper tone, sing the lower.
Transpose the intervals to the keys of C and G major.
of the the intervals.

(b)

(c)

(d)
(a)

(b)

=B=

(d)

(c)

S
VI

(f)

(e)

zsn

:S:

in relation

3E

3r:

IV

(b)

=& -e>-

-o-

(d)

:=

<t tl

(b)

nnr

rr|;;T>

xx:

XJC

(b)

(a)

SE

(a)

(c)

-XT

(b)

(c)

^ ^
jGl.

XE

^^W

(d)

(e)

:^
o^^
^^ ^

(f)

S^ ^

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singifig, containing skips in

VI chord and employing the rhythmic

meter.

XE

:&:

S^ ^
^""U

(a)

(a)

SE

(i)

3EE

*t fi:
? 1

the

(f)

(e)

<t

a)

(e)

331

XT"

-o-

:=

(d)

(c)

--

:!

(e)

O"

(f)

(Q)

(d)

(c)

\\ t>

(3)

^^

Ol.

-o-

-"-

31:

it

(d)

(c)

(b)

(a)

figures

J^jJ

J J

J^

in 6/8

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

36

Practise:

and

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the melody mentally.

(c)

Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.


Sing mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.

(d)
(e)

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire melody. Sing from memory.

(f)

Use the arm movement

VI, IV,

I,

II,

chords in

major.

Test.

Sing aloud.

(g)

(h)

for beating the meter and mentally analyze


the rhythmic figures.
Transpose to E and C major, singing the number- and letter-names,
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 19.

There will be no difficulty in determining the pitches of the wide skips and
consecutive skips if the chord in which the skips are made is recognized. Apply
the chords used in Section B (i).

%^^r
II

"!

(-^

VI

m
IV

^ir p^

[^j

IV

VI

IV

PCg-i

j^j J^r

i,i

^'\j

-9--

^Mr

J) J

J>

^i^.i JJJ>ijjj^irJY^i^.r^
i

ft JMjj^rVI

ft

jj^'i^

i>\

^'

^^ Jirrr
I

ip

^JJU J>^ J,
^^jj-'ij.

j.

^m

J^rrr^J

IV

J.

J-j]

-^

^'

^-J^^ '^>^rj[j^

iiJ^i^-JjjJir

'

iJ-ir

^^

Pirpr

JJpiLifrp

^^J^'
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

lUHtfP

f>r

"'

(S>-^

KIK

r^n-^r^^

i^^-^if-

^'

Lmujjjj.

^
t*

J'

ij^J

J^M.

^ j^ *-F

rrc

iO
1-^
')

J ^jj J
'

J)

^r -^ ^J4JQ
J'

37

J] J J

.rjj r

Section C.
Absolute Intervals.
5ths on the staff are perfect except b-f; in the major scale,
except 7-4; in the minor scale, all except 7-4, 2-6, 3-7. To sing a perfect 5th
up, call the lower tone i and sing 5; to sing a perfect 5th down, call the upper
tone 5 and sing i.
(a)
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone, calling it i; then sing the
tone a perfect fifth above, calling it 5. Test.
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone, calling it 5; then sing the
(b)
tone a perfect 5th below^ calling It i. Test.
Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.
(c)
(i)

All of the

(2)

Rhythmic Study: The Up-beat


(a)

(a)|

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

In 6/8.

JJ

Study using the arm movement to indicate the meter, and sing the
rhythms to la on a major scale.

;3iJT^ JT3

i/n

J3i;t3 s~t: j-

^j

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

38

Note that each of these phrases divides into two sections of two measures
Remember that when the phrase begins on the
each, as indicated by the slurs.
the
measure
meter,
is from bar to bar.
When the phrase
of
the
pulse
accented
on
measure
begins
the
up-beat.
up-beat,
each
Ex. e divides as
the
on
begins
J L

J L

L.

Great care must be taken always to group the last two eighths in a measure
with the following pulse:
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(3)

Play the key-tone and sing the exercise mentally.


Sing using the letter-names; then using the number-names.
Sing to la thinking the letter-names; then think the number-names.
Sing from the chord symbols without reference to the notes on the

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

staff.

Note. The III chord is minor. It follows the I chord and resolves into the IV chord,
used except to harmonize the 7th degree of the scale as it progresses down to the 6th degree.

ff jt

-*

n.

IV_

H^

^.--.

It

is

little

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

4'ihj^'T^

j'lj

VI.

(e)

39

Sing the following chords in the rhythm of i I, IV, II, V, VI, V, I.


Sing the following chords in the rhythm of 2: I, II, V, I, VI, IV, V, I.
Sing the following chords in the rhythm of 3 I, VI, V, I, VI, IV, II,
:

(f)

Additional pitch drill. In the following exercises think, then sing,


using letter- and number-names:
(i)

RootofIchord,RofIV,RofV,3rdof

R of
(2)

of

I,

Rof
(3)

3rd of IV, 5th of IV,


of
R of IV, 3rd of II, 5th of

I,

5th of I, R of V, 5th of V, 3rd of I, 3rd of VI,


5th of VI,
of II, 3rd of II, 3rd of V,
of I.

The chords should be


not possible at

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

Ihw

Ri

of VI,

seen mentally on the staff as these exercises are sung,


the chords may be written out in close position on

first,

the staff and referred to.


4.

II,

3rdofV, 5thofV,

5th of V, R of I.
R of V, 3rd of V,

I.

if this is

I,

II,

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

40

/?

"jl

- i

/1

1
1

^ i

>1

1
1

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^e
j,^

ii

-^.rrt

li
*
14

*f

^,^1

^^ ^m

^m

iJ.j,Tj ji

'

^P

rij ;:n
i

yi^

P^J

J i^^

^u

^1

hi^ Jhrr n]

^^

41

^^ ^^B
jjj,

?^

c-ri

^ ^m


42

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

19
^^"^

-trr-

):tfiirTfrrr

loj

i
i

1/

'^

rrrrr
'^l:

^^ mzri

'

r
i

'

^^*

PrrrirLrr^irTfP

CHAPTER

II

INVERSIONS OF TRIADS

A chord is in Fundamental Position when its Root


in the
A chord is Inverted when its 3rd, 5th or 7th is in the bass.
is

When

a chord has

its

3rd in the bass,

it is

bass.

in the First Inversion

=8:
It

When

a chord has

When

a seventh-chord has

its

5th in the bass,

its

in the

7th in the bass,

$
A

it is

Second Inversion.

it

is

in the

Third Inversion,

:^

small Arabic numeral placed to the right of the chord symbol indicates the

inversion:

Ii.

Chords are inverted so as to allow the bass to progress melodically along

tJie

diatonic scale.

Lesson

The first

inversions of the

I,

IV and

V chords are weaker than the fundamental

positions.

The

II chord is better and more easily handled in the first inversion.


chord in the first inversion will progress to the chord an harmonic degree
below, the same as when in fundamental position.
If there is a succession of chords in the first inversion, the bass and soprano
will move in parallel 6ths.
Because of this diatonic parallel motion the harmonic
law will be ignored.

VI,

i
r

rV,

IV,

nit

Section A.

Construct periods in F major, with both parallel and contrasting phrases,


I, VI, IV, II and V chords in fundamental position and first inversion
as a basis for the melody.
Employ the rhythmic figures given on page 37,
(i)

using the

6/8 meter.
[43]

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

44

In constructing a melody when using the first inversion of a chord on a pulse,


the 5th or the root of the chord will be used on the pulse, never the 3rd, if the
chord is major. The 3rd is possible when the chord is minor.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play each exercise, determining if the chords are active or at rest,
(a)
major or minor, in fundamental position or inverted.

(c)

Pause after each active chord and think its resolution; after each
minor chord and think its major relative chord; after each first
inversion and think the fundamental position.
Read the exercise mentally. Test with the piano to see if you think

(d)

If there is trouble in thinking a chord, play it several


correctly.
times, then go back until you can hear it.
Have each exercise dictated. Work as outlined on page 4.

(b)

The mind must attach some definite meaning to the sound of first inversions.
The Ii, IVi, Vi all sound weaker than the fundamental position. They also
sound top-heavy. They can be distinguished by the smooth progression into
It is
the next chord. This is difficult and cannot be mastered in one lesson.
hear
inversions.
definitely
to
comes
one
drill
that
practice
and
constant
only by

^^

^^ w

rt
m

IV

rvj

isi

V4

ik

ij

^
r

ii

14.

i-,

^
rf

Ji

JDFJNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

|i'|i|'|i'i'|i'i'

ii jj ij
i

^^
(2)

^
U
rr
^^

Xi

45

4:

Practise the following Intervals:

Plav the

(a)

VI, IV,

I,

II,

(b)

(c)

(d)

and

F major.

chords In

Think the sound

Test.

of the intervals.

Play the intervals, listening to determine how they sound


to the root of the chord and to the key-centre.
Play the lower tone, sing the upper.
Play the upper tone, sing the lower.
Transpose the intervals to the keys of C, G and D major.

These intervals are

same order

in the

in relation

as in the preceding Lessons,

but are

not divided by bars.

^
o

3X1

XE

VI

3X

s TH

:xe:

3r

:^

-- -Oi\

i\

^
"o-

xc

xc ff

::

xc

:&:

xx:

(3)

ii

33:

n V

IV

4
3 WW

^^

"xr

"O

** i t

:^
T-

xx:

XE -U

xn

-oil

XX re:^

-o ^^

"O"

^ S

S XX.:^ =g3X

XI

xx:

xx:

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing, containing the skip

from 4-7 and

and

Jj

on the Up-beat

in 6/8.

Practise:

(a)

Play the

(b)

Read the melody mentally.

(c)

(d)
(e)

(f)

I,

VI, IV,

II,

and

chords in

F major.

Test.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.
mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.
aloud.

Sing
Sin^

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire melody. Sing from memory. In memorizing, keep
a mental picture of the contour of the melody on the staff.
Stop for a moment and take breath at the end of each rhythmic
figure, so as to feel the rhythmic grouping.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

46

T r

(g)

(h)

(i)

Be sure that the mind


Sing again mentally without stopping.
phrases or breathes properly,
Sing the letter- and
and E major.
Transpose to the keys of

number-names,
Have each melody dictated

mn

j.a

jTij

cX/^
IV

Ii

I2

pqi

IV

II

jJ^

rnrr^

rr

IV,

as outlined

on page

19.

H] mij.

IV,

cX;J-jJ iJj
V

m]m i^j

ij

llET

J^

^^
'l

JTjJxjijTir

Folk- Song 3

c/i^

TT j-ir

nr 1}

(^T^J r nc^

jr^md^

tiafc*

rr c;

'

f^-ni
* m

^^

j.j

^^
^

Rimsky-Korsakoff 7

jJirpj

ii
^"

J]

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

47

OJiU^U-r

^m
^m
P
>

itzfEat

P^jJ

^J73|f

p^-''^

^ P^^!^ J^ij-J^iJ:!?

^ife

^ J^

M
^^

m m'M

fi-

^^

at*

10

IJJ)

JJ

| I

N^S

ancjjJB

TK

p cjffl

Section C.
(1)

Absolute Intervals.

There are major 6ths on the staff from c-a, d-b, f-d, g-e; in the major
scale, from i-6, 2-7, 4-2, 5-3; in the minor scale, from 2-7, 3-8, 4-2, 6-4.
To sing a major 6th up, call the lower tone 5 and sing 3; to sing a major 6th
down, call the upper tone 3 and sing 5.
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone calling it 5, then sing the
(a)
tone a major 6th above, calling it 3. Test.
Play any tone on the piano, sing the tone calling it 3, then sing the
(b)
tone a major 6th below, calling it 5. Test.
(c)

Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.

Rhythmic Study:

(2)

(a)

The Up-beat

Study, using the

rhythms to
-i

(i)i

rji.j^

(3)

^^^<i

(4)

'5)

J)7j),J>i

J), J

la

arm movement
on a major

-i

^^T}
ij

->

JTI^iJ

JT^

iJ)i

J J J

to indicate the meter, and sing the

scale.

vjT3
7

in 6/8,

"ir

rn tj~nm

m
J

>

m^

^i,J5?313J-

J~J53iJ)i

J>7

j-

^-J'

/niJ
J)

,_J

1
7

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

48

When

the measure begins on the secondary pulse in 6/8 meter, avoid stressing the first group. Always feel the first figure as an inhalation of the breath,
and the next, on the stressed pulse, as an exhalation. Feel the grouping as
indicated by brackets in Ex. i.
The value and rhythmic beauty of beginning on the secondary pulse in a com-

pound meter
it is

is

most apparent

in the setting of words.

With

this

understanding

easily applied to instrumental music.

In setting words to music, the composer has to endeavor to parallel the


forms of English with the forms in music, i.e., a simple sentence corresponds to a
phrase in music, a compound sentence to a period in music. The meter, whether
simple or compound, is decided by the number of long syllables in the complete
thought of the text. If there are four long syllables the meter is duple or triple;
if

there are eight long syllables it is a compound, a four or six pulse meter.
A four pulse meter is a duple meter with each pulse divided into

half

tnn
a six pulse meter, a duple meter with each pulse divided into triplets. The stress
which is given to the third pulse of a four pulse meter and to the fourth pulse

meter is known as a secondary accent. This is in reality the second or relaxed pulse of the duple meter and should not receive any more stress
than that pulse. The tendency in playing and singing in compound meter is
to give too much stress on the secondary pulse, thus changing the meter to a
simple meter and making two phrases where one was intended.
Mendelssohn, in the "Elijah," in setting the following sentence begins on
of a six pulse

the third pulse in 4/4 meter:

(D*

Bless

J
walk

J.

J)

are

the

J
J
men who

J.

J)

ways

of

Him,

they

J
fear

ev

er

peace.

making Blessed, men, they and way the principal


This changes the meaning of the sentence and would be set:

also be read

stressed words.

(2)

the

in

The sentence can


and

ed

J.J-

J
Bless

J
they

ed

are

j~]i

ev-er walk

J)
the

j)|

J-

who

men

ways

in the

The tendency in singing this phrase as in


word Blessed, and equal stress to each long

J-

is

fear

Him,

>
of

11

peace.

to give too

syllable,

much

making

it

stress

sound

on the

like

the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

49

accented word as in 2, thus destroying the balance of the phrase, and making
two phrases in duple meter. The only words which are stressed are the first

words

in

each measure.

Practise the following Chord Successions.


the arpeggio begins on the 3rd of the chord.
(3)

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

In singing the

first

inversions,

Play the key-tone and sing mentally. Test for pitch.


Sing the letter-, then the number-names.
Sing to lay thinking the letter-, then the number-names.
Have someone read aloud the symbols and sing the chords without
reference to the written exercise.
Keep a moderate tempo.

^m m
m m^
#
mm ^ m m
^
m
i
^
jJ^^^J j.j^

-9-'

IV-

IV,.

-9-

VI

-J-JF

J.

IV-

Sy^r

\^

J-P

-1-J.J

'

'

n.

^^ m

H' '^

n.

r^j^ -J^^"

^
^

^^'f ^^J
I

lis^

f
J

^''^

VI.

IV,.

^^jHjjJ.

'

J^^-

fe
'^jj

IV-

1^ ^

'

^^
n,.

^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

50

^m
^^

^ ^
IV-

(e)

IV..

III

Trr

IL^J

^"

Sing the following chords to the rhythm of 2: I, VIi, VI, IVi, IIi, V, I;
to the rhythm of 3 I, IVi, IV, IIi, II, V, Vi, I; to the rhythm of 4:
I, VIi, VI, IVi, IV, III, V, I.
Additional pitch drill. Sing the following exercises, first with the
letter-names, then with the number-names:
of II, 3rd of II, 5th of II, 3rd
of I, 3rd of I, R of IV,
(i)
of V, R of V, R of I.
of I, 5th of I, 3rd of VI, R of VI, 3rd of IV, 3rd of II,
(2)
3rd of V, 5th of V, 3rd of I, R of 1.
5th
of I, 3rd of VI, 5th of IV, R of IV, 5th of II, R of II,
(3)
5th of V, 3rd of V, Rof I.
3rd of I, 5th of VI,
of IV, 5th of IV, R of II, 3rd of II,
(4)
RofV, 5th of V, Rof I.
:

(f)

Think the sound


(4)

'!}'

of the entire chord before singing the tone.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

nr Lu

I ^

u/Li

ii

H'^^

ui-^i

r*i"*i

rrrrrr

^^

II

i-r%fft

ii

J-

J
J*j*IJt IH'^
1^

r
I

Jj'JTm r T^ II
'^^^'^^JJ^J J'
I

JT^Ll;

I
I

r r
ill

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

m
^M

d:

rci&'

'l

'
i

p ni

m *

p-m

j.

jT^

r^

^^

J.

jJJ urjjj.jjJiJ-

J.

[^ir i^T^^iij-jjiJ

JTlJrjii. c^iJ

CI;

f p

-^

^'j

[jl

J-

J-

mj

ji

'^Jrs^

J>J

^gf

^^"^
i

ip^-TJp^-^i

cjl;

pfpiJPJTj

^m

fe5

1^

^^

r:jJ^

iJ-:;

^^

Jp-rTjirc:;iPlJJ

i ^J

51

^-

cij

^
ir p

pr pir

j^ JJHJ- j^

n-]

Jmj.

-^

^g

J^ j:S

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

52

p J

1^

Folk-Song

Folk-Song^^

i -

|:

.1

j:;

u pU
^

M'lr

P^

j'JT]

J
|

j.^

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

jj^jiJ iT3bH+tci:; '^^^^

'

<^b
^

J.Jjj;i3| J17j ;j]

tf

20

P- - a P

a<

''

"-*-->

<<

j:PJ ^^

J JJ4JJrrrrrr

^-t^

j.JJ^

4^ JJJi,JTJI;j>^jT]

53

i-4JiJJ

rrrfCr^J^T^

rP^

J1]p

J-ciri^-''[iI/

^^

ff-Jl

Beethoven

=*

Lesson 6

chord in the second inversion

li

41'
'^'

triad

la

is

used in three ways: in chord repetition

as a suspended or appoggiatura chord, resolving to the

on the same bass tone

^
..

triad or an inversion of a triad

I,

as a passing-chord, resolving tD a

on the bass tone above or below:

V,

I.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

54

In this Lesson the second inversions of the

will

and IV

as appoggiatura chords

be used.

IV.

T,

These chords occur generally on the accented pulse of the measure.


inversion of the I resolves to the V chord.
As the 5th of the
always doubled in second inversions, it sounds like and is often mistaken
It is generally used preceding the V chord at the authentic
for the V chord.
It will be preceded by the I, Ii, IV, IVi, VI, II or IIi.
cadence.
The second inversion of the IV resolves to the I chord. Because of the
doubled 5th it sounds like the I chord. It may be preceded by the I, V, Vi, IV
or IVi. This chord is sometimes used on the unaccented pulse as in Section B
This is known as a Plagal Cadence,
(i) (5)> ^^^ ^t the cadence, as in 8.

The second

chord

is

Section A.
Construct parallel and contrasting periods in Bb major, using the I2, IV2
(i)
and all chords in fundamental position and first mversion as a basis for the melody.
Use 6/8 meter, beginning on the 4th pulse.
Study the rhythmic grouping of Lesson 5, Section C (2), page 47, and the
melodies in Section B (3), of this Lesson.
Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

(a)

Play each exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)

Pause after each second inversion and think

(c)

Read the exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

inversions.

I2

lution.
is

the I2

1
8

'h^'

resolution.

Work as outlined on page 4.


and IV2 are distinguished from each other by the chord of resoYou hear the same effect of suspension for each, and determine that it
because it resolves to the V, or the IV2 because it resolves to the I.

(d)

The

its

Test.

iJ.

if

I4

.
I

^
TT
u

la

2
8

xr

^^^
J4 AA U
W
f

xr

i rr

m lA

^ 4

n
lA

:sr.

rr

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

UU
i
TT TT
11 ii
ff ^ ^
^
f rr
rr
J

UM
TT

:U
rf

33:

ff=

^
rr

8
"O"

ff

&

-VQ

"O"

11

55

1^
TT

fP i

TT

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

(a)

Play the

I,

VI, IV,

II,

of the intervals.
(b)

V and

chords in

Bb major.

Think the sound

Test.

Play the intervals, determining of what chord they are a part and
how they sound in relation to the root of that chord and to the
key-centre.

Beginning with this Lesson, the intervals do not occur in any fixed order. They always
follow, however, the correct harmonic sequence.
Intervals in the V chord will be followed by intervals

Note.

in

the

chord; in the II chord, by intervals in the

(c)

(d)

t
^=e=

ti

ii

S
I

1,'^

3x:

30:

^^

31:
31:

33:

chord, etc.

Sing both tones of the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to the keys of C, G,

-8>

.a

^^

VI

IV

DEC

3ac

S
::

SE
-^ "

ZSXL

sS
31: :S:

and F major.

n=:

-o

jDC

IV
3e:

SE n

33:

^=^
:=

30:

:^

3a:
33:

-o

o-

4V

TJ-

Q
"

"O"

3r:

33:

::

=8:

JOl

33:

33:
::

^
s

<i
*

TJ-

SE

FF^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

56

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight- Singing, beginning on the


fourth pulse in 6/8 meter.
and I chords in Bb major.
Play the I, VI, IV, II, I2,
(a)
melody
Test for pitch.
Read
the
mentally.
(b)
Sing from memory to la. Sing
Play
the
antecedent
phrase
twice.
(c)
(3)

mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.

Sing

aloud.
(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire melody. Sing from memory.
Study the rhythmic grouping. In memorizing consider each rhythmic
group as a unit.
Transpose to the keys of A and G major. Sing the number and
letter names.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 19.

Note. When there are consecutive skips in the same direction, do not think the separate tones, but
analyze the chord. In Ex. 1, the third measure, the leaps down from the 3rd degree must be in the VI
chord. In a melody like Ex. 6, third measure, do not try to remember the pitches; analyze as a scale
from the Sth degree for six sixteenths ending on the next pulse.

Rep. Modified

Figure

f'^'rrT ^^'LC/iri'J^
i

'

r 'dfi"
i

rrpir^^ gfJ^
i

pir

as^'-df

f'j-LC/ La^jpir^J'J^ ^^'^^'ifJJ^i^PrP


i

4'''
i i

J 'i

ri.

rPr^'

rEa'cXf

^--^^'

'

^r^^i

JDVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

* a!iu\ijj^

mm ^^

<^^''ctrCl;irrri^^T.ir rpJ^ij.
i

ji

f''

57

pprr rP^nrpJi^ rpo^ rprp rP^p


i

f''CZ^LC;iPT J^^icrr.rrif.i^
i

Section C.
(i)

Absolute Intervals.

There are minor 6ths on the staff from e-c, a-f, b-g; in the major scale,
To sing a minor 6th up,
3-8, 6-4, 7-5; in the minor scale from 1-6, 5-3, 7-5.
call the lower tone 3 and sing 8; to sing a minor 6th down, call the upper tone 8
and sing 3.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(2)

Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling it 3; then sing the
tone a minor 6th above, calling it 8. Test.
Play any tone on the piano; sing the tone, calling it 8; then sing the
tone a minor 6th below, calling it 3. Test.
Repeat, singing the letter-names of the pitches.

Rhythmic Study:
(a)

J,

Study, using the arm


la

on

major

is

Pj

rn

and the Up-beat

movement

J)

in 4/4 meter.

to Indicate the meter, and sing to

scale

In singing the figure


J^
1

^^

^^

which

is

the combination of a J

tied

to

give a slight pressure on the dot so that the second pulse

perceptible to the listener.

JJ

>

Note. The Rhythmic Exercises following are all four measures long, as in the preceding Lessons,
and are arranged in two braces on account of the number of notes in each exercise.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

58

(Df

(2)

<J)|J.
J.

J
J-

J.
J.

J3J

' J)

;3J.

I'J-

J3J

J3,J

;i

;?sj.

j^n

mm}-

Practise the following Chord Successions.


(3)
In singing the second inversions of chords, the arpeggio will begin on the 5th of the
chord.
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Play the Icey-tone and sing mentally. Test for pitch.


Sing the letter-, then the number-names.
Sing to la thinking the number-, then the letter-names.
Have the chord symbols read and sing the chords without reference
to the written exercise.

^' f'"" ' y ak=' in the arpeggio as a unit.


.,,l,'!f^,''^'
iallows
'""^'"l
each
note and
the mind to concentrate upon the rhythmic

This saves the labor of readinc

difBculties.

^[\'^

ri

JDVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

j.J^r'^ij.

'

Jlr

^n^.

ig.^^r

59

IV.

^o^

jjf Jj

ij.

ij.-^r

cJfLr i
l

'

J-

tffcj

il

la

i''

'

jr^

^"3

U.

'

j i""^' '^'

jj:^r-J]

f^

fe

j-

mj^^

j.

IV.

li-

(e)

ijJ'^r^'J

VI,.

4^'-^.nr-J3i^.

It

'J I4.

'i.Jh

r'

>

n.

U.

i|i''

Oij.

Sing the following chords to the rhythm of i I, IV, I2, V, I; to the


rhythm of 2: I, Ii, IV, IIi I2, V, Vi, I; to the rhythm of 3 I, IV2,
I, V2, Ii, IV, III, I2, V, I; to the rhythm of 4: I, IVo, Vi, V2,
Ix, I, I3, V, 1.
Sing the exercises for pitch drill on page 50 in the key of Bb.
:

(f)

(4)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

60

Mozart 3

^''

cjr

f'r
4^''

sr

jr

r [

'-J

-^

"i

r'

iJif^J-'Jir^j^ iNy^ij

jJJ^ ji j.cfJMUJrcJ'

bd=^

4T-=n

ETir"

ji
^-9t

J J J J

rjs F^

J.

pr'^n

J^

^J
i

j.

^i

f^J J^'Ji

^^

m-M-JL

JDFANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

in^^

i,\Pr [j\rrj:]^

^
^''

rJ:^r

j.j

#-"^ *

jpjjjj

j.

j^r

^^^ ^i ^^
f' J77^r>

j.j^

^^M
7jjj.^

j.

^-

p r

J^r

.i

J J

j-ji

J.

^^

,_

iiJ7M^j7-j.jjrii:^

rprJ

^"3

C/r

f>-

tJ

'

14

3^

jI j.j3j.j]

^^
13

i'

10

c;rcriCi;J^ r^r

'^-

[/Cj-^

61

cir

lisst

fr

rrfr

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

62

^ ^^

16

'N'

r\

f-i

f iS

18
,V'

i,i'

A-

rj

cJi

rj-icJ

ftrm

Folk- Song

v-^"r

^
i

rrr

[;ir

ej-

riU

CHAPTER

III

CHORDS OF THE SEVENTH AND NINTH


and Ninth-Chords are Dissonant, because of the major and minor
by adding one or two more thirds to the triad.
formed
7th and 9th,
The IV^ VV, V and UV
are the V^ and IV.
seventh-chords
used
The most
chords
sounds
these
like a suspended tone
each
of
of
7th
the
but
are also used,
chord.
of
part
the
legitimate
and not as a
All Seventh

^f

v^

n^

11

"

iv^

vi^

The most commonly used ninth-chord

is

Lesson

^
f

the V^,

m^

chord is a major discord on account of the major 3rd from the 5th
of the scale and the minor seventh from the 5th to the 4th
degrees
to the 7th

The

V'^

degrees of the scale;

is used the same as the V chord.


The 7th of the chord, the
scale,
must
the
always
resolve
downward.
Its resolution may be
4th degree of
up
to
progressing
the
degree
5th
and
down
to the 3rd, or down
by
then
delayed
then
to
the
3rd
while
This is known as a
2nd
and
the
chord
is
held.
to the
V

The V^ chord

p
my
J

delayed resolution:

=^

Section A.
(i)

using
figure

Construct parallel and contrasting periods in G major and g minor,


and inversions and the V^ chord as a basis. Use the rhythmic

all triads

^^

in 4/4 meter.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

Play each exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)

Pause

inversions.
after each

V^ and think
f63]

its

resolution.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

64

Note the difference


In place of each V^ play the V chord, then the V^.
in sound.
Read the exercise mentally.
Have each exercise dictated. Work as outlined on page 4.

(c)

(d)
(e)

The V^

is

distinguished from the

on account

of the dissonance.

Note. Have the exercise played slowly. During the first playing relax and listen to the chords so
Do not try to anal^^ze at the first playing.
that the entire exercise makes an impression upon the mind.
During the second playing write down the chord symbols. At first it may be necessary to have the exercise played a second time for the symbols; next have it played and write the numbers of the scale-steps
Compare your version with the exercise and correct mistakes by playing the mistake
of the soprano.
and then the correct version until the difference is heard.

VI

IV Hi

I, Y'

U-T4-J

,M

gi

m
^^

m
TT rr

^ AA
4

m
T

AA AA

r
1

ii

fr
n
AA

i
r

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

65

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

There are four new Intervals in the V^ chord: the minor 7th from the root to
the 7th of the chord, from the 5th to the 4th degrees of the scale; the major 2nd
from the 7th to the root of the chord, from the 4th to the 5th degrees of the scale;
the augmented 4th from the 7th to the 3rd of the chord, from the 4th to the 7th
degrees of the scale; the diminished 5th from the 3rd to the 7th of the chord, from
the 7th to the 4th degrees of the scale.
(a)
Play the I, IV,
and I chords In g minor. Think the sound of the
intervals.
Test.
(b)
Play the intervals, determining of what chord they are a part and
how they sound In relation to the root of the chord and to the

key-centre.
(c)

(d)

*:

Sing both tones of the Intervals.


Transpose the Intervals to the keys of

^ :^

:^

VI

_CJL

-&- 30E

an 335
XE

^^-^

XE

M
IV

XE

or
h

8 "

:^
"W XE

g and

ss

II

::

d,

f,

XT'

minor.

XC

11

o
XT

V7

o
XE

3x:

XE

:^

"O"

^i=W XE

=8=

:^ :^

=^=5=

XE

'^=W XE

#
*

xr
(3)

XE

33:

^
u

=^ ^^=ff XE

ifi:

XE

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

^ XT

XE

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

V^ chord and the rhythmic figure

nnQ-

J^

XE

-O

XE 8

S XE

\\

0oXE

-^

o =

xr

and Sight-Singing, employing skips

^^

in

the

in 4/4 meter.

I, IV, V^ and I chords In g minor.


Read the melody mentally. Test.

Play the

Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.


mentally the number-names; then use the letter-names.
aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the

same way.

Sing
Sing

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

66

Play the entire melody. Sing from memory.


Transpose to the keys of a and f minor. Sing the number- and
names.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 19.

(e)
(f)

(g)

Note.

In harmonizing a melody in 4-4, use a chord or inversion on each pulse.

rhythmic figure

1,

^^

letter-

In analyzing the

note that the two sixteenths group themselves with the next pulse.

analyzing, on account of the length of the

J.

note, not waiting for the two sixteenths.


pulses, sing the tune, placing your pencil

there

is

danger of counting one, two and calling

it

In

a half-

ever in doubt about the rhythm, make an outline of the


on a dot as the pulse recurs. In this way the figure is easily
If

analyzed.

Figure

p
I

Repetition

^'

^\^'

Vi

Ii

Sequence
1

4''''

1^

r"

c/

n,

ij

:a

d'

^-

'''

r"

v^

^-

ll^ S

-^ ^
ii

I4

^U
v

IV

=mg r -fp

rrcrr' cf ^JiiJ'^
i

^=^

I Ii la Ii

m m

^i-''

V
I Hi
Sequence

n,

^m

w
p

^i

v^

i,

II

J-'^vn^

^
rr

nj

p- J^ri

n^r

err

ja

N-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^;^''

jHJ

j.jj-.:^

#
j;i-''

Mi-.M

'
1

'

^i''

^ r-r

Ej

ii

i'Pu

B JiJ^JJJH

JjiJ-crirrrr
jry- c/if

i .n
i

ii

'

67

cj-^-^^- Ji

iLr^-iH^

cjrP rc;r-c; ^c/J-p

-^iiiJirJ-tLrraii

.ij

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

6S
(b)

(c)

(d)

(2)

Play any tone on the piano, and sing a minor 7th down, using first
the number-names, then the letter-names.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a major 2nd up, using first the
number-names, then the letter-names.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a major 2nd down, using first
the number-names, then the letter-names.

Rhythmic Study:
(a)

^j

and J)

Jj

on the Up-beat

in 4/4 meter,

Study using the arrn movement to indicate the meter, and sing to
Always begin on the 8th degree of the scale
la on a major scale.
and sins down.

n~^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

>

f' jj

l
i

4.}J7l^J4^ i->^l
l

^JJ*IJJ|^

IV.

JJ'ij.J-ff

4'''l

^'''"

li

ij

IVi-

vj.

'
i

j.

l|il

Il

IV

L-^

,r7

JpJj

l|l

"iiJ'^^u.

''

^ ^

jxffl

|l|lj

lj.iiH|

'

69

JJJi'lJj

'

j.

^^

JJJ^Jj i
i

II-

^ rMfrli

^^

r-lflJ^

v/

(|^'-

-l|[Jj^

liJiJ-^'ljiJji^
'3

^
I

IN-

^iJ.lWjj^

vl.

E^^p

^^i
VI

_[4J.


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

70

(e)

Sing the following chords to the rhythm of i I, V, V^ V^a, Ii, IV, I2,
V^ I; to the rhythm of 2: I; VI, I2, V^ VI, IV, I2, V^ I; to the
rhythm of 3 I, Yl, Yl, h, I2, V^ Vj, I; to the rhythm of 4: I, IV2,
:

IV, ivi, I2, v^ I.


Sing with number-, then letterExercises for Pitch and Key Drill.
names, in the key of g minor. Think the sound of the entire
chord before singing the tone.
(i)
R of 1, 5th of I, R of v^ 3rd of v^ 5th of v^ 7th of v^ 3rd
of I.
of IV, 5th of I, 3rd of V^
of I,
of I, 5th of V^ 3rd of I, R of IV, 5th of I, 3rd of IV, 5th
(2)
of II, 3rd of V^ Rof I.
3rd of I, 7th of V, 5th of V^ R of I, 3rd of VI, 5th of IV,
(3)
of V, 3rd of V^ R o^ I.
3rd of IV,
of
of V^ 7th of V^ 3rd of V^ 3rd of I, R of I,
5th of I,
(4)
of I.
IV, 3rd of I, 5th of I, 5th of V^
I, ii,

(f)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(4)

ir r

^^m ^^

^^4

JlJ j^pp

h^

If

J J

Ij

U^'

a<

^B

m ^

i^

r J

t=i

^i' Jj|J)[7f
|

J'EI

^a
^

^
Mozart

SP

Mozart 3
d

IS)

r 9'*

JiiJj'i

^
mi

-=

#ft

r r

r^
1

^^
^g

r r r*^^-!'^'*^-'^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


=g^=:

#
ySTr

m
^^

^^ "T

Y~l

FT

71

W=f
P F m

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

72

nrir^

^^

Brahms

Cr[^^m

''

12

>'

!!

rrp-ppfir P^^ji

Lr f/rri^ Ir7rf I
I

#^-1^

*><

rr

^^ ^
13

p^i^i^

'^

w Prp fr-

|i

p^

[riE::::jrfrirrr,rrr^p

^^[jiE;

16

^=

rrT

'>'[i:^r
tH

ffr

r^

tT-

T^^

Mr-

tf/

nr i^^Mjr

fe
^

D^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

>'^

P-[j

73

rr 'f
i

18

^"uJLd' LJ^-iLJ^^'

''^'r^^
i

^=K

^^^

rdLd'iQi;r ^i''
i

v^tf

j'

[j^r
f>pr

*j.tj

rPJ g
^^-^

Mr

20

s
vtef

Lesson

When

the V^ chord

The \\

melodic law.

inverted

all

will resolve to

the

is

f-._

fr

vvfri^^pir

^i

four tones will resolve according to the

# ^"

^1= the V3 to the

'a

the V2 to the

The

or

^^-

Ii

V^ chord may be omitted, leaving the 7th, 2nd and 4th deThis is known as the qV^ (five-seven incomplete), and is the
of the tones in this chord resolve melodically and like the upper

root of the

grees of the scale.

VII chord.

All

voices of the

V^ chord

Section A.
(i)

using

all

up-beats

The oV^

is

best used in the

first

inversion.

o^'

Construct parallel and contrasting periods in D major and d minor,


triads and inversions and the Y\ and V] chords as a basis.
Use the

^j

and

J)

J J

in 4/4 meter.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

74
Section B.
(i)

Practice the following Chord Successions, which use the VJ and V3.
Play each exercise, listening to the character of the chords

(a)

and

inversions.
(b)

Pause after each V^ inversion and think the chord of resolution.

(c)

Read each exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

(d)

Work

as outlined

on page

4.

On

hearing the V^ inversions, you will determine first that it is a V^ chord;


that it is inverted, because of the diatonic progression of the voices; that it is a
Vi because the I fundamental follows, or a V3 because the I^ follows. The \ J
affects the ear as contracting when it resolves; the V3 as expanding.

^
^ ^^ n n ^
^ U^
mm^
8

j=^

^j.

gi

p?

v;

II

^m

I,

1
p

4=^

11

V'

J J

f=r

i^ X4

^^
hi ^
m
J=J:

ViL^ p
r

'

r"


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

75

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

The minor 7th and major

2nd, augmented 4th and diminished 5th in the V^


chord are the same in minor as in major. There is also an augmented 4th and
diminished 5th in the II chord in minor, caused by the lowering of the 6th degree.
The augmented 4th is from the 5th to the root of the chord, the 6th to the 2nd
degrees of the scale, and the diminished 5th from the root to the 5th of the chord,
the 2nd to the 6th degrees of the scale.
Play the I, IV, II, V^ and I chords in d minor. Think the sound
(a)
of the intervals.

Test.

(b)

Play the intervals, determining of what chord they are a part and
how they sound in relation to the root of the chord and to the

(c)

Sing the lower tones of the intervals, think the upper tones.
Sing the upper tones and think the lower.
Transpose the intervals to the keys of g, f and c minor.

key-centre.

(d)

Note. The augmented 4th in the II chord generally resolves to the minor 6th in the
diminished 5th to the major 2nd in the V^ chord.

3x:

331
noE =CF TJ

O-

11

=^=S

"W

(3)

3x:

3x:

xc

W^
-r-^

3x:

3x:

g o"

Dcx:

^ :&

;I^d:

3x:

rr-xx:

xc

xc

=ff

xc

" o
8 3x:

..

XE

8 "

=on=

=nc

SE

3o

'Tl

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

Skips in the

ar:

-d

'Tt
8 8 O
g te

ff
-O

3a:

m^

3x:
it

P.

o
XE

^^

XE

<

..

chord; the

II

^=^

-^^

IV

SE

jt

-o

ll

3z:

\r

xx:

and Sight-Singing:

V chord and the Up-beat

Jj

and

J)

Fl

Observe carefully the rhythmic grouping with the up-beat

in 4/4 meter.

^J

o^

J)

Jj

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

76

/3,j.

No.i
No .6

j)ji

,j.

j)j.

j),j^j^j. ;3,j

j)j

,j.

j)j)j>;i ,j. j)j

/^

,j

(e)

I, V^ and I chords in d minor and read the melody mentally,


using the arm movement to beat the meter.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing the melody to la.
Sing
mentally the number-names, then the letter-names. Sing aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire melody. Sing from memory.
Transpose to the keys of e and c minor. Sing the number- and

(f)

Have each melody

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Play the

letter-names.

dictated as outlined on page 19.

Modified Sequence

Figure

I2 Ii

1^

r'

^'p

Ii

^J^
IV

IV4

IV

N-

III

ii

^
f

n^

V3'

j^

ij

III

^^^r^^

la ii

V^^

V^

4
J^
i

JTOi^j.ft^irrrr^m

^^^^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

.[ii|^

1^ ijj[j;[;ij.j3jj:i,i

77

rJ'P:[]iJ.^j.jTjji

8
!>

J- tip

ii

P=

4^ J^s^ir

iJJip iJTJif

^^^
i

nipJP^

.i

10

j.j-i rr

rr^

n'r

^ircf.f^

/pJ^

f f
i

^
i

i^rnr

^c^ rpr[;ij.pr
i

I'rP

^
r

11

^ ^jjij

-C7

aniiii

c;'

^
Beethoven

ADFANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

78
Section C.

Rhythmic Study:

(i)

J^

Ji

and

J JJJ

in 4/4 meter.

^-^

Study using the arm movement to indicate the meter, and sing
la on a major scale.

(a)

Do

Note.

which

is

not confuse the rhythmic figure

0*0'

While holding the

1^

which

f)

is

J J

with

to

J)

mentally divide the pulse into halves, and the sixteenth.

notes will give no trouble.

a)|

j)H J~i j~iJ"

(2)

<s>

Practise

augmented 4th
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

J"

n3 j??^

iijT^rjSiJ-

the following

in the V'^ chord

J.j^nj

Chord Successions.
is

'J)

Ji

7..

i'j)/73i

n^iTf^iJ

,j..

(6)

(2)

J3J"

j),J.

J)

Watch

J^

1-

J>

carefully that

the

in tune:

Sing mentally. Test.


Sing the letter-, then the number-names.
Sing to la, thinking the letter-, then the number-names.
Have the chord symbols read and sing the chords without reference
to the written exercise.

jT

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

l^j^r

U-ijMji^r

rh'

79

^^

IV,

J..j

u^

i^r

fJ

jr^r N-Jj

>

o'l-

UJ..JJ'

N--Jj ijjj

TXTj^

ijjiJ

VI.

I-.

IV.

^ ^^^^^^^^
^

JJ

iJ

N" Aj

V.'.

4^

J..

JJ

tp

J..

Jj

J.,

h^

Hlr-

"Jut

Lil rf
l

4^t J^^"f"^" ^J

ll

r-iJ^

'^-^

rP

I.-

J
J'
^-'^

"-d

tnziirz*
PN--Jji||J

oVj

r-^'jt ijj

0*1-

J^i

ir^JjMj

PJ

Ii

01

^S

rv-

^v rpJMjJtir^ir-^^^ 1^^

r"

lat

rut^m

I.

1..^
If

'a-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

80
(e)

(f)

Sing the following chords to the rhythm of i I, IV, V3, Ii, qV], I,
VI, V^ VI, I; to the rhythm of 2: I, VI, I2, V^ VI, VIi, oVl oV^
I; to the rhythm of 3: I, qVI, I, V^ Ii, V^ \], I, qV^ I; to the
rhythm of 4: I, oV^ I, oVl, h, IV, V^ Ii, oVi, I.
Sing with number-, then with
Exercises for pitch and key drill.
letter-names in the key of d minor.
R of I, 3rd of I, R of IV, 5th of oV^ 3rd of oV^ R of oV^
(i)
:

R of
(2)

(3)

oV^
(4)

I.

3rd of I, R of IV, 7th of V^ 3rd of V^ R of V^ R of I,


5th of I, R of VI, 3rd of IV, R of V, R of oV', R of I.
sth of I, 3rd of I, R of IV, 3rd of oV^ R of oV^ R of I, R
of VI, 3rd of IV, R of IV, 7th of V^ 5th of oV^ 3rd of

of

V^

R of I.
3rd of oV^ 5th of oV^ 3rd of I, 3rd of IV,
3rd of V^
of oV^ 3rd of oV^ R of I.

I,

of

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(3)

;^^

J.
I

^
2

^^

TJj.jJ..

PfliJ.-

Cramer

^^ r3j:']Jj^frir

jiJ-

Mozart

f
fl

J..jJ-dM

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

iJl}!^

# ^^

F' ^ m

"G-

81

mum.

# *#a

jgnjJ^^J^ioTLj'

^^

^\

iir

|k

J.

J-

H'

i'

1.

^J

rrpJiJ:j

.L

[r

IM.J\\ W
^

ir3 J-pi
i

r; p;ij.^

ii

J.

8
jl

J.,

N-'JI^J

ifijr>'J.'
4^11

jj

I]*

JPrn

J-Jr- J^

i^^iij-j

J..

^
i

^m

rrcji.J'nN-j,j

^^

4^

jj.jijjjjr:r'^ jrr.ai

vb

i.lj

I" ^ 4

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

82

'^'i'"

'^'^

gLLLl

L^cJT

''y^ir

Li'^iLL^cJ

>^

-'^'1'

r"

-J

i^
I

-l

til L kaaa

Ld

--

tJCj-p^

*y

Aff

^rr

m
'

'

bBEi=a

=^^

r^-'^

iftjifir

15

>!

^
'

13

'h

>]

^i?[L/i'^-^:j'r

^^ ^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


fl|,*

nn

83

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

84

third, and the


period is in parallel construction when the first and
slight modifiand
cadences
the
for
second and fourth phrases are alike, except

The double

cations,

j.n-

phrases are ditterent.


The double period is in contrasting construction when the
chord.
to the \
third
another
adding
by
The V^ (five-nine) chord is made

the chord is best in the


In major this chord is not inverted, and the 9th of
nine tones from the
In minor it may be inverted, but the 9th must \>e
soprano.
'^"''The

oV

(five-nine incomplete) chord, or the

This chord

root omitted.

is

VIF

more used than the V^

chord,

is

the V^ with the

*1
,9

In major the qV may be inverted and all inversions but the third are used.
This is not available, because the 7th of the chord must be above the root or it
sounds like a VI chord with the 7th, 2nd and 4th degrees of the scale suspended.
In minor the qV chord is a diminished seventh-chord (a chord the tones of which
All the voices of this chord
are a minor 3rd apart), and all inversions are used.
resolve melodically.

Section A.

Construct parallel double periods in F major and f minor, taking the


(i)
melodies in Section B (3) as models and using all triads and inversions, the V^

and V^ chords
in 4/4

as a basis,

Use the rhythmic

figures

J\

and J

rT^

meter.

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions which use all inversions of the V^.
When it resolves to the Ii the 7th of the
resolves to the I or the Ii.
chord, the 4th degree of the scale, will go up so as to avoid doubling the 3rd of the
This sounds well because of the parallel thirds between the bass and the
I chord.
(i)

The V2

^
m
r

7th of the chord.


4):

(a)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and
inversions.
At the first playing do not analyze. Allow the sound
of the chords to make an impression upon the mind.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


inversion and think the chord of resolution.

(b)

Pause after each

(c)

Read each

exercise mentally.

(d)

Have each

exercise dictated.

(e)

After working these exercises in

The V2

will

V'^

^^n
3

rf

^m

I.

i
r

lA

Work as outlined on page 4.


F major, repeat in f minor.

be recognized as going down to the

i
r

ii

A=i

^
i

i
i

^^

chord, or up to the

#^

ff

Ii.

i
T

4
^

m
n
n
ii
^ u
^
i
f ff rr
^
^^
^
tt ff rr
ii i^ ii
^g
i

i=i

ii ii ii

(2)

vji

^ U Mn
.

85

1
r

i
r

Practise the following Intervals:

In the V^ chord there is a major 9th from the root to the 9th of the chord, the
5th to the upper 6th degree of the scale.
In minor this is a minor 9th.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

86

In the oV chord there is a minor 7th from the root to the 7th of the chord,
In minor this is a diminished 7th.
the 7th to the 6th degree of the scale.
Play the I, IV, V^, V^, Vj and I chords in F major. Think the
(a)
sound of the intervals. Test. Play several times any interval
you cannot hear mentally, then go back and read from the beginning.
Repeat until you know the interval.
Play the intervals, determining how they sound in relation to the
(b)
root of the chord and to the key-centre.
Sing the lower tones of the intervals, think the upper tones.
(c)
Sing the upper tones and think the lower.
Transpose the intervals to the keys of Bb, D, G and C major.
(d)

"80o

:;

-o-

B^ =&
^ ^
^^

m
m
(3)

JOC

-o-

o- s

-o

^^

tjS t^o Ijo

"

"
II

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

Double Periods

in form.

o
8

-o-

31:

o o SE

^=ff

>

JOC

o- s

-o

U o o

3x: :&:

s "S^^ s

^ "

3x:

*^
o
" 8 bo
bo

*'
**

3x:

- -^

Q
o

^^

o*

XX
'^o

"

:^n:

tl

u^ u"
^^^

,.

o" H

JE
.

..

and Sight-Singing:

Skips in the V^ chord and the rhythms

Jj

and J

JT2
(a)

in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 meter.

Play the

I,

IV,

II, V^,

V and

chords in

major.

Read the

entire

melody mentally.

(b)

Test for pitch.


Play the entire melody, noticing the effect of the semicadences
continuing the thought for sixteen measures.

in

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

87

Play the first antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.
Sing the letter- and number-names, first mentally, then aloud.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the first period and sing from memory.
Practise the second antecedent and consequent phrases in the same
way.
Play the entire double period and sing from memory. This is easily
accomplished if the construction of the melody is clearly understood,

(h)
(i)

(j)

Transpose to the keys of E and G major,


Sing melodies 2, 3, 5 and 6 in f minor.
Have each melody dictated.
(i)
Play the entire double period. The pupil determines the meter
by the number of pulses in a phrase, and the form by the
number of cadences in the melody.
Play the first antecedent phrase twice. The pupil listens and
(2)
memorizes the phrase.
The pupil analyzes and writes the phrase upon the staff.
(3)
Play again for correction.
(4)
Dictate
the other phrases in the same way.
(5)

The

pupil marks the form,


and harmonization.

(6)

figures, repetitions

and sequences,

The

figure

The

figure

VI

must be

Jt

J..

nl

IV

Fi^re

and

really a "turn,"

is

J'J^

will

be recognized as such.

carefully contrasted with

It

vj

vj

I,

ii

J.

I2

J)

in dictating.

v^

Modified Seq.

I4

VI

IV

vj

ii

II

v^

ij

Vj

V/

Ij

^i ?pir-Hi

i^

v/

J^ JJ^lJ
l

IV

la

I4

l^

)i

i^iJ.

IV

n^

Vj

rf^

n^v*

plr'j^^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

iHir hn)p

j-jjj

Jj^JJ i^Cj

/3r]

J.
|

4=^

V
i i

j;,

H^

rrcijirrcijinJ^^
I

^/^ir

ijjjjjj

rni^J^

J'ri].ni;^rr;

^'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

89

Section C.
Absolute Intervals.

(i)

There is an augmented 4th on the staff from f-b; in the major scale from
4-7,
l-#4, [76-2, 6-^2, 3-#6; in the minor scale from 4-7, 6-2, 1-^4; in the
V\ IIjJ
IIJ, oV^ and VIJjj chords.
There is a diminished 5th on the staff from b-f in
the major scale from 7-4, #4-1, 2-b6, #2-6, #6-3; in the minor scale from
7-4,
2-6, #4-8. To sing an augmented 4th up, call the lower tone
4 and sing 7; to
sing an augmented 4th down, call the upper tone 7 and sing
To sing a
4.
diminished 5th up, call the lower tone 7 and sing 4; to sing a diminished
5th
down, call the upper tone 4 and sing 7.
;

(a)

Sing an augmented 4th up and a diminished 5th down from the following tones, using first the number-names, then the letter-names
of the pitches:

do:

3x:

(b)

(c)

fe

sa:

h&-

xz:

Repeat, singing the augmented 4th and its resolution, the minor
6th.
Determine the ke^ of which each interval is a part.
Sing a diminished 5th up and an augmented 4th down from the
following tones, using first the number-names, then the letter-

names:

(d)

(2)

t^

do:

t^

Repeat, singing the diminished 5th and its resolution, the major
3rd.
Determine of what key each is a part.

Rhythmic Study:

J^^JJJJ^

J^^^^

^"^

^^^

in 4/4

meter.
(a)

Study, using the arm


la

on a major

slowly,

movement

scale.

to indicate the meter, and sing to


These exercises are to be practised very

subdividing each pulse.

divided pulses in 4/4 meter

The arm movement

is

2 <-

sub-

Study the

liV
1

for

-*

rhythms mentally before attempting to sing them.

Repeat

until the eyes can quickly grasp the

At first count one and, two and,


make the subdivision mental.

beaming and group on each

three and, etc.; later

only on^, two,

pulse.

three, four,

and

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

90

(d|
4

44444444^

dJ

r7w

J
6 7

(2)i^iJ
(3)

J)

/T^^

(4);^,j

(6)

;^

]^n"n

rai

JJJJJJJ iJJ Jdj>

n J"TT5
/^T^

J>

idJ

r77? J

r-3

i^J

JJJ iJJ

4^

J-

'

"

J-

J)

n^

Practise the following Chord Successions.


Watch carefully that in the
(3)
inversions of the Y^ and
in minor the augmented 2nd, from the 6th to the 7th
degree of the scale, is in tune.

oV

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing mentally. Test.


Sing the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing to la^ thinking the number-, then the letter-names.
Have the chord symbols read and sing the chords without reference
to the written exercise.

ADVANCED EJR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

m#

^^ w

^^^

^^

(^^

ll'

J^j^j^
i
3?=
I

j..j^

J.^

J^

^^
n3 f

^ i^
1

i
^

0'8

li'n,!

H fLjj
i

Jij-TnjTii
IV,

IN^

J.

VI

^j-J^lp..j1j^lj.

91

i^
^ r

p-JIJ

F-

Mi^

^^

*^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

92
(e)

Sing the following chords in the key of F major to the rhythm of i


I, VI, Yl Ii, IV, II, VI, oV^ I; to the rhythm of 2: I, V^
oV^
oV?, I, I:, IV, II oV^, Ii, VL oV?, L
Sing the following in the key of f minor to the rhythm of 3 I, VI, IVi
V^ VI, I, oV^ oV?, Ii, Yl, I; to the rhythm of 4: I, I^, oV?, oV^ I,
IV, V, v^ oV, VI, 1.
:

Note

Omit the 5th

(f)

of the

V chord.

Exercises for pitch and key drill in F major and f minor.


Sing the
number-, then the letter-names. Think the sound of the chord
before singing the tone.
(i)
of I, 5th of I,
of IV, 7th of V^ 3rd of I, 5th of V, 7th
of V^ 9th of V^
of V, 3rd of V,
of I.
3rd of I, 5th of VI,
of II, 9th of V^
(2)
of oV, 3rd of V^,
of I, 5th of IV,
of oV, 7th of oV^ 5th of I.

R
R
R

(4)

Exercises for Sight- Singing:

i^^^^^^^^^^^#

^^

^^

J3?3

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^P
^'^
iji

j^

^^

d/ ^M* U;
I

93

^^^

JBMiJTr3nn[_j^^i^te

n rrmirjj^^i^n^TiTnini

r]'TOniJjJ'jJ3 [j.[^g^inn;ii
i

[^;ff^^

^i-^

'

^T^

^"^

^^^
^

< *

ip^

After Wii liner

^h

n^,p|nrr)

jM- ^^^J|J

^J

[;

^^

JDFANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

94

nrrfB

fi

r^

\d

j"?

dirfr/c^r^

y\^ i

fertrrj

^r ^ffl^ I

S^ -Tj

rnmrff^

\\

^'''''^

rj^ irT^rrciij

^^

Dvorak

^^iJ.ir3^P^J.jg

iSiriiLiLjiiiiy

**^^

4^ [J F

frf

Mrrr/r^i

J-

Hi-ng]!

fron

=^gr^

-TO^

l
j

j:i

^"

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

j'

'

Lui

Laj-

i^=^=

95

-n^ i.r^^i^'iQj
rrnmri-^ nKiJip^
i

Lesson

io

The IF chord Is formed by adding a third to the II triad. It is a minor


discord because of the minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the chord, the 2nd
to the 4th degrees of the scale, and the minor 7th from the root to the 7th of the
chord, the 2nd to the 8th degree of the scale;

^
W

When the 8th degree of the scale is the 7th of a chord, it becomes an active
tone and resolves downward to the 7th degree, as all 7ths of chords contract.
The IF chord may follow any chord but the V, and is followed by the V"^ or
the 1 2.
Section A.
(i)
Construct parallel double periods in Eb major, using all triads and inversions, the V^, \^,
and IF chords as a basis. Use the rhythmic figures

oV

.Sro^

''"^

J"^^

'" 4/4 meter.

In writing melodies with thirty-second-notes it is difficult to slow down the


mind. Think the subdivisions (the '^ands") for each pulse. Study the rhythms
in Section C of the preceding Lesson, page 90, and the melodies in Section B
(3) of this Lesson.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.
(b)
Pause after each IF and V^ and think their resolutions.
(a)

(c)

(d)

Read each exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

96

be heard as a minor discord and will be distinguished from the V^


minor quality. The dissonance is harsher in quality because ot
the perfect 5th from the 3rd to the 7th of the chord.

The IF

will

because of

its

1
8

-I

-I

gdA

mN

m
rr

:^

^^

i4

J=i

t^
^
I

Ft TT

^^
(2)

11
P

*
JEC

TT

^
i

i
f

31:

sx.
3x:

Practise the following Intervals:

The minor 7th

IF

chord, from the 2nd to the 8th degree of the scale,


chord and will be distinguished by its
interval in the
resolution and context.

will resolve to

(a)

in the

some

Play the

I,

IV, IF, V^ and

of the intervals.

chords in

Eb major.

Think the sound


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Play the intervals, determining how they sound in relation to the


root of the chord and to the key-centre.
Note the difference in

(b)

relation to the key-centre of the three minor yths.


Sing the intervals. Test for pitch.
Transpose the intervals to the keys of Bb, F, G,
and

(c)

(d)

s
l^'i*

o "
xc " o 8 U =g=^

3a:

n^ v^

IV

is

(3)

1.1

ti

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)
(i)

v^

3X1

i;

XT

Q
O

XT

-o

..

o-

"o

"
fj

3x:

"

**
o

i;

"

.^.

^
8

" 8

II

ii''

11

ii

11

"

-Ol
tl

major.

\^

3x:

IV

11

VI

u " 8

"

.1.

3x:
^^^^^ff

Double periods in form.


duple and triple meter.

(b)

II

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

(a)

97

iio

v''

"

:^

ft

llO^

and Sight-Singing:

Skips in the

IF chord and

thirty-second-notes in

I, IV, IF, V'^ and I chords in Eb and read the entire melody
mentally, beating the meter.
Subdivide the pulse on account of
the slow tempo and the number of notes to a pulse.
Play the entire melody, studying the effect of the cadences.
Play the first antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to
la.
Sing the letter- and number-names, first mentally, then aloud.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the first period and sing from memory.
Practise the second period in the same way.
Play the entire double period and sing from memory,
Transpose to the keys of F and
major.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

Play the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

98

^rn

rj

Lj

IV

f^

^m
V

nl

Figure

n^

v^

Mod.Seq

III

v7

ma

p'^j i'HjUJ'jiin^

iXj'Cj

II

BS98B9

E^

M^f

m
^i-V

J^

^ikJU

r.i

==

ir

r,f

IJJJ3U

^5 f

^^173

^^

jjjjj'j'j'j'in
F "#

r?7:irir

i
'

J d

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^i"''!'

jOj^

f=Ft

If

iif

ifrf

-P

99

-J^

CJdJ

^^

^Ur^Ul^ u^j gj^^^^

f'l-

>

-*t

s^

-J

I^^^J

Section C.
(i)

Rhythmic Study: J.
(a)

J^ and jiTj

^"

44

rn^ter.

Study using the arm movement to indicate the meter and sing to
on a major scale.

J~3 j:^

(1

(2

J)

J~~3J

(3

(4

(5

IJ

(6

jtt: j~~i

j-^j-

nri

ni

J.

ij
J

J
J.

J>

/a

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

100
(2)

Practise the following Chord Successions.


is in tune.

Be

careful that the 7th of the

IF chord

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

iJli'i

Sing mentally. Test.


Sing the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing to la, thinking the number-, then the letter-names.
Have the chord-symbols read and sing the chords without reference
to the written exercise.

'J

Hi

||

Jc/^ rpJiJ^r
i

p-=-wv^^i

r".^ji

IV

jPll^l

ii|i

-S

r-^

__=-:il

j^v^f

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

fv

J^rir

J'j

j ..

J^r N-ij u. J^r

101

ip-J^

3^^=pE^=^^^5b^=pp===i^^^fe=|

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

102

\>\)'

y p jJ

j.

;jJ iI^JTJ^

n^JJ^

j. p J

ninV i]^
*-f*
I

rjJJ

jjj^j ij.jjJij^jjj

^^'1^

fV >^.
i

*g ^
10

..['].

# "

.1

'

J-

i dd^

j- ifcifaia;
I

> ^ZjiU

jdpc

i^Wir-ffr3
r' ^J-iU j

Mendelssohn

JJTJij

Mendelssohn
^''|>lJ^

jg

>

ir"jnj..j

^^
^
^

Verdi

i^

^^t^rrfe ricJ Llrr^j

g #

cjrclD'^rJ'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

-^

103

104

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Pause after each IF,

(b)

105

and V^ inversion and think the chord of

ll\

resolution,

Read the exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

(c)

(d)

The in

will

be distinguished from the

IV hy

the diatonic progression of the

voices.

42

13

^
^
rr rr

v ^ /

23

32

,2

i
r

ir

71

32

^n^
rj
^ i

VI

i
T

i
f

^m n ^
^
^ ^^
m

^
^
rr Tf

IV n;

VI

nl

vi

It

I,

^ tt

ii

feM:

rr

J J

^ 3

f r

m 1^
^^#

^ Hy
j J

v-M
(2)

j-i

^ fT ^ ri
^ rj
^ ^
# rr
y ^ u f^
i-i

rz:

J^

Practise the following Intervals:


(a)

Play the

I,

IV,

11^,

of the intervals.

V^ and

chords in

major.

Think the sound

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGINi

106
(b)

Play the intervals, determining how they sound


root of the chord and to the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals. Test.


Transpose the intervals to the keys of Eb, Bb, F, G,

(d)

O:

11^

V''

il

^r

-O-

TT

tt

..

jc

3x:

a
ur

tt

=^

r^
:

" o

;.'

io

31:
:xx:

VI IV

" nn
o

.".

" o

io

J.

Jj and

J.,

in

xc
o
or

8^0
oo

O"

F=^

" 8 ^^^^

il-."

3i:

8 :S
Q o

oo

*
_g_

o o

Double periods

JJj

and C.

^^

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


in form.
Skips in the IF chord. The

(3)

V^ V^

;;

..0

11

o
o

3X
tt

::

n o
" o o

li

If

o"

^=^ xr
.^

O "

aos
a

H o" o

8 ^DC

t|

in relation to the

-o- 3BE

rhythmic figures

duple and triple meter.

I, IV, IF, V^ and I chords in A major.


Read the entire
melody mentally, using the arm movement to indicate the meter.

(a)

Play the

(b)

Play the entire melody, studying the effect of the cadences.


Play the first antecedent phrase twice and sing from memory to
Sing the number- and letter-names, first mentally, then aloud.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire first period and sing from memory.
Study the second period in the same way.
Play the entire double period and sing from memory.
Transpose to the keys of
and Bb major.
Have the melodies dictated as outlined on page 87.

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)
(i)

^
IV

s^

mn

[:^c;ir

Mr
ul

ri
y'

la.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAJNING AND SIGHT-SINGING

*i

[jj-^ir
IV

^^rn

nj

cf

v^

ii

iJ

/J

n^

v^

/,

^.

J.

arc^
IV

^^

^^

r^
[j^

^
IV

I4

-ii.MMi.1

^s
ii;>

ij

0. n^i'

i^- J

nil

rirrrf

IV

id^

vj

jmjjj j

J^

j/

107

^
i

HBijjr^ip

ii

fe^R^

CJ'C^iCiJU- ^a' ^-i-'iLfl'cJir^


i

1^

P^^^^^s
^*"Vr i.iJ,^^iJ ^>
j.Jrrt:rir ^>

[x/c/

p^^

/^[jir r

n niJti^
.

j,

LLT

^r3iJ h

rrr'ririi

ii

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

108

Wagner

uni

<

r^

^^
Folk- Song

Section C.

Rhythmic Study.

(i)

Irregular

Rhythms

in 2/4

and

3/4.

Rhythm Is irregular when the shorter notes occupy the accented or stressed
portions of the measure.
The metric stress is still on the first pulse, but as the
rhythmic motion stops on the longer note, that note is brought into prominence
and acquires an accent. This is known as a Rhythmic Accent. Care should be
taken not to stress this longer note, as it has stress on account of its length, and
that stress combined with the rhythmic accent would give a sforzando.
In setting the following lines, Mr. Johnstone has used duple meter and these
2

rhythms

Land of

The

the brave,

natural inclination

is

land

to give

all

"free," thus giving the effect of beginning

of the free

the stress upon the words "brave" and

on the up-beat J
:

J^

J^J

The

stress should be on "land," and the rest of the measure a relaxation.


The
words "brave" and "free" will receive proper stress on account of the length of the
notes without any effort of the singer.
(a)

Study, using the arm


la

(1)

(2)

on a major

4 J

movement

to indicate the meter,

scale.

J
J

<3)

(4)

(5)

J~3J

(6)

J72

and sing to

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

)IJ

109

no

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

iv_

M-]

IV..

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Allegro molto e vivace

Beethoven

Negro Song

(^*^j{jJicjr

J^icjrr

-^JJ'J^

j^^
Speidel

^"^

pz:

iUx

O-g-

^"^ a tempo

r/.

[j'Lrcj'
fi

L/r^^

H^j^

J'

''

cj-f

r-p-

M cj-

['

Polish Folk-Song

:^

L;r

i-ir


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

112

Dvorak

')=t

ttt
i

r r r

&

g fr fi

.rrf

r^

-V rrr^^rrrrfrrfirrmff^tMrrrr

^)'.fi^i

Tr

jfl E

<9

* m

Haydn

il

ff f rr

t:rr

irrff ifr

yifrr frf frr ffrr


i

|f

rr

f^^
|tf

Folk-Dance
_>j:it),

^rritrrr

tf,j'rtrrf
i

iiiiirff^ffff^

f^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

113

^r.h\\fTrrr

"frrrrrr i^^^^to
Folk-Dance

Folk-Dance

Lesson

12

formed by adding a third to the IV triad. It is a major


discord because of the major 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the chord, the 4th
to the 6th degree of the scale, and the major 7th from the root to the 7th of the

The IV^ chord

is

chord, the 4th to the 3rd degree of the scale.

The

3rd degree of the scale, as the 7th of this chord, resolves

downward

to

the 2nd degree.

The IV^ chord may

follow the

III, V^ or I2.
The IV^ chord sounds

I,

VI

like a III

or

IV

chords.

It will

be followed by the

chord with a suspended 3rd degree of the

scale.

Section A.

Construct double periods in Ab major, with the


See melodies in
alike and a new second consequent phrase.
IV^ chords
IF
and
all triads and inversions, the V^ V^, qV^
108 and
pages
given
on
as
irregular rhythms in 2/4 and 3/4
(i)

antecedent phrases
Section

as a basis.
109.

Use
Use the

(3).

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

114
Section B.

Practise the follozving Chord Successions:

(i)

(a)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)
(c)

Pause after each IF and V^ and think the chord of resolution.


Read each exercise mentally.

(d)

Have each

the effect of the semicadence.

The

II2

chord

will

^^
3

exercise dictated.

be determined by

12

^
rr
2

i ^i

ulul

i=i

^^

^M
^

rl^I

rt

^
r

^
J

j-

I2

or

V^

^
^
rr rr

^
f

nj

i.v

f
I

fT

^
rr

Aj.

^^
^
r
^
^
y
i
r
^

^
r

J-

i-i'ii

VI

Ji

A^

chord of resolution, the

^H)y i

its

f
3:

tt

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

115

Practise the following Intervals:


in the IV^ chord, from the 4th to the 3rcl degree of the scale, will
resolve to some interval in the V^ or IV chord, or to the major 6th in the I2 chord.
Play the I, IV^ IF, V^ and I chords in the key of Ab major. Think
(a)
(2)

The major 7th

(b)

the sound of the intervals.


Play the intervals determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and to the key-centre.
Test.

(c)

Sing the intervals.

(d)

Transpose the intervals to the key of Eb, Bb, F, G,

S
IV7

v^

IV

V^

and

major.

=&:
I

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


(3)
Double periods with a new second consequent phrase. Skips in the IV^ chord.
Irregular rhythm in 2/4 and 3/4 meter.
and I chords in Ab major. Read each
Play the I, VI, IV^ IF,
(a)
melody mentally at a moderate tempo, using the arm movement
to indicate the meter and thinking the rhythmic subdivisions.

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)
(i)

Play the entire melody, studying the effect of the cadences.


Play the first antecedent phrase and sing from memory to la.
the number-, then the letter-names.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire first period and sing from memory.
Study the second period in the same way.
Play the entire double period and sing from memory,
Transpose to the keys of G, F, and Bb major.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

Sing

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

116

Mod. Seq.

Fig.
n

IV

ifiV

lu lu

v7

'

r* J'
" -B
~&

i|i'i'

I I

r f rm
I

IT"

i)

nj^

ll-dLI

r''
I

j3

r r

*'

imu

n.!

Mrvr

Qi

iJ^^g^^

-gr

f f

Ipj

Hi^inji

>{i''iNi

fe

J
"-

V^

'mi

^^ i

lu' inrTi

4^V JJ^r

i!i'i'

IV^

Ii

*^

n.r7:

I
I

LJ

gi^

^^i

rPr irrr

l
I

'

-Frri

^r?i

[__y

i^^

'

^^

;^^r i^r

Pr

r r r
LJ
I

II

11

^r

If ^r
3z:

c/rc;
i

cjt

^
^'

'

^^

^'i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SICIIT-SINGING


e

*m

^5

fe

.nj

f''i>

^^'1,^

L_^^

c:;p;^i;]p-

|iiv

J^r^^

j,

Hj

'''
i

^m

^ i

J2Z

^j-r pic;r

J-Jj.

cxfi

jirnijj

117

?^5

^
^

jiT^

*&

fe

r^trif

^^

^>^H

I''

;cJLr

ic

i i

3tcr^'^' [j*rp

[j>J-p

Suk

Section C.
(i)

Absolute Intervals.

There are major yths on the staff from c-b, f-e; in the major scale from 1-7,
in the minor scale from 1-7, 3-2, 6-5 in the IV^ chord in major.
There are
minor 2nds on the staff from e-f, b-c; in the major scale from 3-4, 7-8; in the
minor scale from 2-3, 5-6, 7-8. To sing a major 7th up call the lower tone i
and sing 7; to sing a major 7th down call the upper tone 7 and sing i. To sing
a minor 2nd up, call the lower tone 7, and sing 8; to sing a minor 2nd down, call
the upper tone 8 and sing 7.

4-3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(2)

Play any tone on the piano and sing a major 7th up, using first the
number-names, then the letter-names.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a major 7th down, using first
the number-names, then the letter-nam^s.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a minor 2nd up, using first the
number-names, then the letter-names.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a minor 2nd down, using first
the number-names, then the letter-names.

Rhythmic
(a)

Drill.

Irregular

Study, using the arm


la

on

major

scale.

rhythm

in 4/4 meter.

movement

to indicate the meter,

and sing to

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

118

(Of

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


^>'^>

jjj

ijjj-K^iiUi-Jjj

V,

i
i

jj.i^^
oVi

IVZ

f'-M'i^r ^iJj>

119

-.nJr

JjMjl^r^^

V.'.

fe
*a

j3^

^
4m ^^J

JiJ.jj

ij>
'

i^

r^

(f)

ii

'
I

* J

jjj^[j-:j

^^
W

0*1-

IV2

(e)

J *

1,

nri

r'''^

-^

Sing the following chords In the key of Ab to thie rhythm of i I, Ij,


IV^ V^, Ii, IV, IV^ I2, VI, I; to the rhythm of 2: I, VI, IVl, V^
VI, Ii, IV, IV^ III, V], Ii; to the rhythm of 3: I, IV2, IlL oV\ I,
IV^ IF, V^ ^P, I; to the rhythm of 4: I, IV, IF, III, I2, IV^ V^,
:

VLI, IV2, I.
Exercises for pitch
letter-names.
(i)

(2)

(3)

and key

drill.

Sing both the number- and

I, R of IV', 5th of IV^ 7th of IV', 3rd of I2, 5th of V,


7th of V, R of V, R of I, 7th of IF, R of IF, 3rd of V,
5th of V, R of I.
3rd of I, 5th of VI, 7th of IV', 5th of V, R of I, 5th of I,
R of IV', 7th of IV', R of IF, 7th of IF, 3rd of V,
7th of V, 3rd of V, Rof I.
5th of I, R of V, 9th of Y\ 7th of V, 3rd of I, R of II,
7th of IV', 7th of IF, 9th of V, 7th of V, 5th of V,

Rof

Rof

I.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

120

3rd of I, 7th of IF, R of IF, 3rd of IF, 7th of V^


3rd of V^ R of I, 3rd of IV^ 7th of IV^ 5th of IV^
7th of IF, 3rdof V^ Rof I.
Transpose to other keys.
(4)

(g)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(3)

Mozart

fe
s

|jLj>

pjpiJi

^pr

'*

cn cj-r

ii

^'P

f^Pr^P

^(ii[; rr.r[ir[;

J^r

[j-

t=w

i}^'ni[fr[s\^i' [jic-/rrrc/
Mozart ^

4A>rrr nii<

J^

ts

ri

l>

>

iJ

Ht O ^r ^
i

.Pf

J^

p r

Mozart

JAM
(^i'i>f

jj

^cx^

j->riT

^cJTr

> J.ir j:]ij].i


i

Jji ^; J]r

Mozart
|'''|'

ii

i^'l

^
J]

[^

^ i^Jrc:;
^^
I

^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^''1^

^^^

121

Bach

^^

yi' -njj jj ,M,


jj
i

Folk-Song

^;l>

f'^^

.p ^
i

nJ

J1

JJJJ ^
I

M
>

ji i.^j
i

I'

Js

^^

Strap 9

4^v

^j

j^

^ * ri

^ r

r "^g^

j^r ^h P'^ i&riurr


\

^-^i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

122

^I'^i'''

mif

:c;

^^

CJf

11

^g

J'JiUj-i^M

M^ ar

v#Crf

ifjiT

cJiLrr

cirr [/

c/r

Lesson

c^^^

^p

^^

^^
^rjiCrr

W-*

13

VF

The
chord Is formed by adding a third to the VI triad. It is a minor
discord because of the minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the chord, the 6th
to the 8th degree of the scale, and the minor 7th from the root to the 7th of the
chord, the 6th to the 5th degree of the scale
VI'

The

5th degree of the scale, as the 7th of this chord, resolves


the 4th degree.

downward to

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

123

The VF chord may follow the I chord, and the VI chord. It will be followed
by any chord but the I.
The
chord sounds like the IF chord with the 3rd and 5th degrees of the

scale suspended.

Section A.

Construct double periods in F major, with a new second consequent


Use all triads, inversions, seventh- and ninth-chords as a basis for the

(i)

phrase.

Employ

melody.

irregular

rhythms 4/4 meter.

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

In these exercises in triple meter the chord on the third pulse resolves to the
chord on the first pulse; the chord on the second pulse is unrelated and allows
foreign progression, the V to the IV or V to the II chord.
(a)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)

Pause after each IF and V^ chord and think the chord of resolution.
If you cannot hear mentally the chord of resolution, play it, then
go back and try again.

(c)

Read the entire exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

inversions.

(d)

The

II3

chord

is

diatonic introduction

565

recognized by its chord of resolution, the Vj, or by


I chord.

543

m m^
344

342

364 342
at*

^^U^ ^ p^
11V2I

its

by the

jjj iii

i-

VjV/i

yiivul

i^'h'iiV;i/i';
rr
ijj

iij

All
^^^

J.

injv/

iivnj i^v^v^

^^
m
TT f Ft

jjj jjj
i

rrr r

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

124

rr
(2)

Practise the following Intervals:

The minor 7th

in the

VF

chord

will resolve to

some

interval in the IV^,

IF

or V^ chord.
(a)

(b)

Play the I, VF, IV^ IF,


and I chords in F major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and to the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals.

(d)

Transpose the intervals to the keys of Eb, Bb, G,

VI^

Test.

and

"

major.

t'^

* g ; zTn

JL*

=i

'^

Z w

(I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

3s:

^^

3x:

:^

125

3BE

XT

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


(3)
Double periods with new second consequent phrase. Skips in the
chord.
Irregular rhythm in 4/4 meters.
Play the I, VF, 11/ V^ and I chords in the key of F major. Read
(a)
each melody mentally, using the arm movement to indicate the
meter and thinking the rhythmic subdivisions. Be careful not to
overstress the rhythmic accents.

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)

Play, studying the form.


Play the first antecedent phrase and sing from memory to
the number-, then the letter-names.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire first period and sing from memory.
Study the second period in the same way.
Transpose to the keys of Eb, D,
and
major.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

^m

zz:

li

#
vlii

i
r

r
n^ nj v7

V3'

^
v^

V^I

li

r
r

IV^

vj

I4

-tiM-

^^

liVI

r
r

v^

vi^

_n^ J
^
I

j
1

or

IV

I,

^m

v^

2E

\-\
I

d.

')

IV

V^

ig

JZL

vji^i

i
I

la

3XS.

^^
^
^ ^ ^^

^m
f

IV

v7 vj y[

v^

jr.

Ii

V/l

V'

Sing

la.

J ^^
J r =ff=^
=I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

126

^ii^ii
J-

e==^

i'^rcu

^b

r]j

^1'

[;j'J^3J.

'I

J.

Jt

?Z2

LJ^'-^^J

r J

DC

JmJT^

P=:=^

3^5=3

^'l'

'

J-

Jj'i

inj

Section C.
(i)

Rhythmic
(a)

Drill.

Irregular

Study, using the arm


la

on

maior

scale.

rhythm

in 3/4 meter.

movement

to indicate the meter,

and sing to

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

(2)

(3)

/I

(2)

/73J
/71J

nrm ^^}

127

^ImIT^^^I^s~lm^^

^^^

rz}

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally. Test for pitch.
(b)
Sing the number-, then the letter-names.
(c)
Sing to /<2, thinking the number- and letter-names.
(a)

(d)

Sing from dictation.

4^.nrM^

^^^

VI!

Hb*

jj p-p

N-JJ

IVi.

\p^-^\^1

^3j

^J^\L

auJfn^.i

j:jJ.pi

^?

^^ ^

VI'

^^^1 iirn^.i
l

ijj:^ri-Oj

ijji:^^
vi;

J^r'^-Jj ij^-^r

^-^j

'

.^

IV.'

vj

n-

|^n,i

.j-3|i

ira,!

^
v/.

ifjJriJ-j,
VI'

p
ivL.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

128

j.^Jri^Ji

i-Jrri^J U-^rri^j

iJ'^rr

vZ

f^
^t-

'

IM i^\
\

IE^,I

Ij

,1

Ij

l-^j

y^.j
lj,l

VI!

(e)

^j

-^i

.r^
I

j
IVi

F major to the rhythm of i:


VF, VI, V^ I, m, VI, I; to the rhythm of 2: I, III, HL
I2, VL Ii, IV^ I2, III, y\ I; to the rhythm of 3: I, IIL h, oV, I,
Vr, IV^ VI, Ii, III, I2, V^ I; to the rhythm of 4: I, IV, III, V^,
Ii, VI, VF, IVI, V^ I, IIL I2, V^ 1.

Sing the following chords in the key of


I,

(f)

oV^

I,

Exercises for pitch and key

drill.

Sing both the number- and letter-

names.
(i)

(2)

(3)

5th of I, 7th of VF, 7th of V^ 3rd of I, 7th of V^ R of V,


3rd of V^ 5th of V^ R of I, 7th of IV^ R of IF, 5th of
V, R of I.
3rd of I, 7th of IV^ 7th of IF, 3rd of V, 7th of V^ 3rd of
I, 5th of VF, 7th of VF, 5th of I, 3rd of VF, 5th of IV^
7th of IF R of I.
R of I, 7th of IF, 3rd of V^ R of V^ 5th of I, R of VI, 3rd
of VF, R of IV, 7th of IV^ R of II, 7th of IF, 3rd of V^

Rof
(4)

(g)

(3)

I.

3rd of I, R of IF, 3rd of IF, 7th of V^ 3rd of V^ 3rd of


I, 5th of I, 7th of VF, 7th of V^ 3rd of I, 7th of IV^
3rd of I2, 7th of y\ 3rd of I.

Transpose to other keys.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

ADfANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^i>

^j Mi

^^

J^j-M^J

"Hj

^ ]\

^m ^3
f nj
f

[J^

J"j r

cij/^^r

P P

1^

^^

^ ^

J^-f

^^

^^

^O J^p ^Q
^ ^
ms^^

W=^

w J^j

irrrr c

^;?^r

f nj

Mt

129

m ff

^^ r

i^

^^

i^JJ^P

zgjt:

[^

E;r

ni

Negro Song

M^r

Jij.
p

}>

130

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^jj2\jl^^\^-J'U ^^
\

p,

r-rn

1.-

>!

JJ]

Ij.

J>

Jl

JDVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND


i/j.,

l^

.f^^^^J^M

J.jJ.

SIGIIT-SI NGING

J^

j-j J

:^n i^^.yr^i. J niiai--|aJJU

J.

J^

i7J]J-

J.

^'

J^^-

-^J- } J^-i

Huber

131

j-jp

i^''

>

^s

r-

i^

f J'-^

^^ ^

^pi

Folk-Songf

^^JiJ^^LIJ^T ^

'

CHAPTER

IV

CHROMATICALLY ALTERED CHORDS


The pitch of the ist, 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th degrees of the major scale may be
chromatically raised a half-tone, and the 2nd and 6th degrees chromatically
lowered a half-tone, without disturbing the feeling of the tonality.
In using the scale-line these inflections must progress chromatically as chromatic passing-tones, never diatonically, or a modulation will occur: 3 4 :|^4 5 or

#4

t]4 3,

not

#4

or

#4

3r t t

EC

In minor, the 2nd and 5th degrees are not raised because of the lowered 3rd
and 6th degrees. The 6th degree is raised in the melodic progression from the
6th to the 7th degree, and the 7th degree is lowered in the melodic progression
from the 7th to the 6th degree.
In skips, single or consecutive, the altered tones must be part of a chord.

The

#4, of the 11; or IVJ chord:

The

#2, of the V#, VJ,

V^ or the

|i^

conjunction with the #4:

IIl^ in

\h.

The#i,oftheVi;:

_^
ItU

1^

V^l

oV^I

V^jl

:fj:6,

II

U^i^

m
VI^II

The

\0

of the VI^^ in conjunction with the ^i

yi\

Theb6,oftheII^,IVJandV^

( |,y

The

I72

and b6 together

,\\

iv\

Jl\

Theb2,oftheV2\andoV^

v^t

in the II^^

and

qV^i,:

,bii

ni^
132]

Jmi

oV\

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

The :{^4 and b6 togethe rIntheII^,andIVl,,:

#4 and b6 togethe r

i^2,

#2 and b6 together

^ t 'y.
Lesson

The
either

raised 4th degree

is

^^^^^^

^t^W

In the 115,,:

in the oV^,:

133

^^

14

used as a chromatic passing-tone in progressing

from the 4th to the 5th degree, or from the 5th to the 4th degree:

\o

11

fn ^ I
t

*! 1f^

be made from or to the raised 4th degree in the IIJ chord. The
scale-line using the natural 4th degree or skips in the V^ or I chord should follow:
Skips

may

n^t
Section A.

C major, with a new second consequent


seventhand ninth-chords and the IIJ
Use all triads, inversions,
phrase.
rhythms in 3/4 meter.
irregular
Employ
chord as a basis for the melody.
Construct double periods in

(i)

Section B.
Practise th^ following Chord Successions:

(i)

is a discord because of the minor 7th from the root to the


the 7th to the 6th degree of the scale. The qV chord
chord,
seventh of the
or I chord.
the
followed
by
may be
Vi,

The

oV

chord

(a)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)

Pause after each qV, IF and V^ and think the chord of resolution.

inversions.

Test.
(c)

(d)

In

Read the entire exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.

The oV chord will often be confused with the IF, as they have three tones
common, the difference being that the 7th degree of the scale Is in the qV

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

134

Play the
difference.
hear
the
qV, until you

and the

1st degree in the IF.

(e)

Repeat these

^ mm
822

854

TTT

11^

V^

I,

Vj

655 221 342

346

^
f rr

T $
1.

IVjUj

^^f

^
rrff

-&-^

joi J44 .y4 i

chord in place of the qV, then the

exercises in c minor.

m
I

III

^
oV^vJ

r
II J

VI

IjIVjV''

w i^
w

^^
T
^
w
Ul

^
f

J ii

^i

i JJJ

Trf
.

JJJ

^k

f Tf

^
^^ r ^
m
^ ^^ M
i.

m ^^

'

rr rrr

ij

i 4

J i
^^ i

i^ J=^

? r

rf=r

(2)

r
4

Practise the following Intervals:

The following intervals, parts of the 11^ chord, are used: The major 3rd
from the root to the 3rd of the chord, the 2nd to the #4th degree of the scale;
the minor 3rd from the 3rd to the 5th of the chord, the #4th to the 6th degree
of the scale; the minor 6th from the 3rd to the 8th of the chord, the #4th to the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

major 6th from the 5th to the 3rd of the chord, from
degree of the scale.
Play the I, IV, IF, IIJ, V^ and I chords in C major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and to the key-centre.
Sing the intervals. Test.
Transpose the intervals to c minor.

2nd degree of the


the 6th to the
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

scale; the

:jt4th

"
o

3X1

ttu

ffiF=g
XT

v^

n7|

*>
j|tt

tl

v^

jit

TT

"-

t{iil

--

ii

3
It

o 8

-^ Xr TT

v^

HtjO

-- 31:

-r

vi

n n
o ^ |U

ic

ifi

--

"r.

"is

3x:

^0

i.1

tl

JCC

j|

<n
j|ti

jli)

r>
tjti

t
l

**

.^x^

xx=

|*

<>

^" ^^

o "

tt

>

i^ Q s
*

3x:

"

3x:

P'iu^u

o lu " |"" 8
t

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


(3)
Double periods with new second consequent phrase.
chord and the :ji4th degree used as a chromatic passing-tone.
in 3/4

135

ft

t|.

Skips in the IIJ


Irregular rhythm

meter.
(a)

Play the

I,

IV, IF,

IIJ,

V^ and

exercise mentally, using the


(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)

chords in

arm movement

major.

Read each

to indicate the meter,

and thinking the rhythmic subdivisions.


Play, studying the effect of the chromatic tones.
Play the first antecedent phrase and sing from memory to
the number-, then the letter-names.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire first period and sing from memory.
Study the second period in the same way.
and E major.
Transpose to the keys of B, A,
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

la.

Sing

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

136

Mod. Seq

Fig.

m^

IV

v7

J'

tt

3 J

IV

^jyj3 jNii]J^L;

T7^

11^

I
I

n,

II

i ^^
I

"

jHJ

IV

ri

III

Cj'i

IW

IV

*^ J

*^
j

II

ii

j-jijj^j.i'iJi|J^r
v^

J J ^ 1^^

^n

ul

r*

-Jhr^

'

^'^^

'

J -J ^ I *
*

J IJJJ.

'

f'i

l^l'JJ

'

^J.ir

LJ

DBS

iJJJJ?^ujJJ ii

^'

i/rrj'^^

jl

^ ^

^^J'.P it/r'p ir

i'lOs

-J

VI

nj

I,

f UJ

g'

iJJJ.r^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

137

Section C.

Rhythmic

(l)

(a)

(!)

Drill.

la

on

rhythm in 6/8 meter.


arm movement to indicate

Irregular

Study, using the

major

the meter, and sing to

scale.

(2)

(3)

ij

jjjjj

j)iJ

j^i jjjjjjj

jjjjj

(4)

(5)

j-j:

(6)

(2)

J5J
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

each exercise mentally. Test for pitch.


the number-, then the letter-names.
to lay thinking the number- and letter-names.

from dictation.

lijTJrNjqiJ^^

^Fm ^

Ii-

^ t^j.

JP^

vj.

nV

iil-

v7

i^

nil}

^
I

vi!_

IV!

nil

?
v|.

^
^

v?

^^ ^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

138

44S^^

J^.

iJ-i-

j. J'^"'''- '^-4.

jTJi'^- 'J ij.

'

'

jl^^'

JT^^-

^
'

^-i-

id UT^^-

JJ^^- ^

1^ JU.

Ililt

atz

i-j^ri^ Ja

Jt

iJ^r

Jh

J'J.IiiJ^

nl

ir

nl-

vj.

(e)

Sing the following chords in the key of C major to the rhythm of i


I, IV, Ills, I2, Vl, Ii, 11;, VL I; to the rhythm of 2: I, IF, IIL
in oV^ I, 11^, II[ I2, V^ I; to the rhythm of 3 I, VI, IVi, IIL
II^ h, VI, I, in, Il3^, VI, I: to the rhythm of 4: I, IV^ III, HJ,,
:

I2,
(f)

VI,

oV^

I, 11^, III,,

VL VL

Exercises for pitch and key

1.

drill.

Sing both the number- and letter-

names.
(i)

of

7th of IF, 5th of III 3rd of 11^, R of V^ 7th of


of I, R of IIJ, 3rd of 11^, 7th of V^ 3rd of V^

I,

V^ 3rd
Rof I.
(2)

3rd of

I,

V^ 5th
Rof I.
(3)

5th of

I,

R
of

of IV, 3rd of 11^, 7th of IF, 3rd of V^ 7th of


I, 7th of VF, 3rd of 11^, 5th of I2, 5th of V^

7th of IV^

of IF, 5th of IF, 3rd of IF, 3rd

of 11;, 7th of V^ 3rd of I, 7th of IF, 3rd of 11;, 3rd of


IF, 7th of V^ 3rd of I, Rof I.
(4)

8th of I, 3rd of IV, 7th of IV^ R of IF, 7th of IF, 3rd


of IF, 3rd of 11;, 5th of Ii, 3rd of 11;, 7th of V^ 3rd of

V^ R
(g)

of

I.

Transpose to other keys.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(3)

iH

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

139

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

140

jj
i]

it

Ju

II

|i

-ii>,

iijJi;Jc;i

'in nijjc; jc;ir


i

'I

jj|

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^\\^

1^ J|iJJiiJj

^^

^^

10

i3

JJP^J^

j.J

141

^jx^j*^

w r^ P^
^

jJ^O

J-|
|

||

^S

J^

rr

Tp^ "c;

T^

LrT^^p

j^^j'j j.ii3J^-^ [:i;^


i

fp_'rpFN' j^t=^ ^

Lesson

rTJ

Tp

T^f^

15

In a melody skips may be made from or to the raised 4th degree of the scale
IV^ chord. The scale-line, using the natural 4th degree, or skips in the

in the

II|,

or

I2

V'chord, should follow:

Section A.

Construct double periods in Bb major, with a new second consequent


Use all triads, inversions, seventh- and ninth-chords and the 11^ and
IV^ chords, as a basis for the melody. Employ irregular rhythms in 6/8 meter.
See Section C of the preceding Lesson.
(l)

phrase.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

142
Section B.
(l)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(a)

inversions.

Pause

(b)

after each IV^, II",

V^ and qV' chord and think the chord

of

resolution.

Read the entire exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.
The IV^ chord sounds like a IF chord with the 3rd degree of the scale
Be sure the mind grasps the characteristic tone of difference
suspended.
(c)

(d)

between these chords.

m
^M
3

f
I

VI

rp

sf

11
?
iv^nl

S
1^
^

n
ii
^
V7
''8

nV^ V7

^
^

* =rr

VI

i=i

U
lo

^
rr

^
f^

tt

f=f

?
:i

frr
5^
TT

TT
i

.Li

J^ I
f

4^

rf

^
rr
^

f r rr

I
*1

r~r

ADVANCED EAR-TRJINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

143

Practise the follozving Intervals:

(2)

In the \\\ chord there will be a minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the ^^xh to the 6th degree of the scale; a diminished 5th from the root
to the 5th of the chord, the:tt4l^h to the 8th degree of the scale; a minor 7th from
the root to the 7th of the chord, the ^\X.\\ to the 3rd degree of the scale.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

and I chords in Bb major. Think


Play the I, IV^ IVJ, II[,
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to C major.

v^

VI IV n'i

n^j( v''

iv

*
U

'

o"

o o
^08

::

^OOOO^
o
o

||o

" v

,0 ,0
i.*
do
bo Po

^^

[>o

tj8

ivi i^

*'

o bo

t?o-

**

o"

[>o

l^o

1)

t|8

\^

n'i

TT"

-^

[^g

4
l\t

O b1
O "O

"

t|o

ImB
11.

-O o "
o o tjo

<l

bo S

11

tj-S-^^

^^" 8 "

_ .0
^o

t;8

(3)

|/ttO

l|o

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

"
"

**

bo

"
"
" 8

^;;
,>

11

.-

<>

^^

'l
1"

Q
**

J^

^ L^

:{t4th

^ o'* o xr

1?o"^:j=

..

8
"

[}8

l|o

"O"

and Sight-Singing:

Double periods with a new second consequent phrase.


chord and the

--

-0-1** 1-8-

."^
" "
a

im
L

degree used as a passing-tone.

Skips in the IVJ

Irregular

rhythm

in 6/8

meter.
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Play the I, IV, IV^ IVJ, I2, V^ and I chords in Bb major. Read
each exercise mentally, using the arm the movement to indicate
the meter and thinking the rhythmic subdivisions.
Play, studying the effect of the chromatic tones.
Play the first antecedent phrase and sing from memory to la. Sing
the number-, then the letter-names.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

144
(e)
(f)

(g)
(h)

Play the entire first period and sing from memory.


Study the second period in the same way.
Transpose to the keys of C, D, A and G major.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

In all wide or consecutive skips, it is most important to remember the tone


jumped from. In Ex. i, measure 7, you hear chord-line from the 3rd degree
down for three tones, then a skip back to the same tone. In that way you do

not have to think of the large skip.

Ex. 3, measure 6 and 7, if the pitch of *'f"


remembered there is no difficulty in recognizing the "etj". In Ex. 4, measure
3,
remember *'f," which will recur in 4; meas. 4, "d," which will recur in 5; meas.
5, "et^" and "c," so as to get the "eb" and "c" following.
is

n'

^ ^
IV7

U
^^'

l''

(f

VI

JJ

IV

la

V7

I,

IV^I

Ji^
mn^
||

lifi ^J

ii

IV

'^'^

f_|)i_[jjijju

Ni^r -^ JJir

jif

mn

iv^n

P S

JIJ^MjJlrii mmim
r*

q?

iv

l[4p

VI

ii

j)p

UJH^T^J.

nPr

rn

"n

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

j;Bl3[-p

4^''

J^rp

Mr

rjui^r

145

.r3^riijj> rFrp rr ^i'

r"^''^iiD-'^J'^-

cocif

J^

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

Drill:

tie and a dot have the same effect and are sung in the
a sHght pressure on the tied note so as to preserve the pulse.

-^

pressed

by

When
figure,

ties

(a)

J..

not

J)

singing

(2)

J J JJ

think the triplet as the quarter

la

arm movement
on a major

I J

J_yT3

J_/TJ

held; for

to indicate the meter,

J_/T3 J_/T3

n
I

and sing the

scale.

fm

3
I

is

think either two eighths or four sixteenths.

Study, using the

3
<5)

jTj

J J J

rhythms to

(I)

expressed by a dot are seldom ex-

holding a tied note, always think the subdivision which makes the next

i.e., if

the figure

Rhythms which can be

same manner, with

/3?3 J

^73 J

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

146

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally. Test.

(2)

(a)

Sing to la, thinking


Sing from dictation.

(b)
(c)

first

the number-, then the letter-names.

rhythms be sure that the mind takes in the rapid arpeggio


While the tied note is being held, think the rhythm and arpeggio that
to be sung on the next pulse.
In singing these

as a unit.
is

tn^^ w

JP

-n

L !f^
I

iv'^l

JN'.

^^

:m

J]^|J^JJ

2-

^
uai

'

-a

niii

ar

^^

Pi

"^

v7_

rH

j_jjji^Tf^ iJJ'' b:^J


i

w.

i^ J

^^

_J

=;="]

^^

iv^i-

^5-

jjPi'Ujj i^jmi^^^xq

f^

zd
i^

^
IV^ji.

ij

j^ ^^^m^^ i-^jj
I

n^l,

''''''4j'J^
I

ir-^g

n\

vj.

^^^
J
:^=r%rjTnP^ ij^
''

^
^
m

IV^J.

it

JJ^I

9j

Ul

^^i

n^i

fc?

ii

J ffl

'jjU^ff M ; iii^'!Tii irjje


n^i

vJ

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

(d)

147

Sing the following chords in the key of Bb major to the rhythm of i


I, I2, IVJ, V], VI, I, 11;, ir, VI I; to the rhythm of 2: I, VF,
I, IVJ,
IVI, I2, IVJ, III,, VL Ii, II[, I2, V^ I; to the rhythm of 3
VI, Ii, III,, h, 111, III,, h, V\ I; to the rhythm of 4: I, III, II],,
:

oV^
(e)
(f)

(3)

VI,

I,

ivj, 11;,

I2,

v^

I.

Transpose these exercises to other keys.


Sing the exercises for pitch and key drill of the preceding Lesson on
page 138, in the key of Bb major.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

nr^

^i

"T

>

Mozart

(^y

J J j J

ij J j*^ r

uj"^

LT

^i^U^i

'

i*'

J ^

^=^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SIN GING

148

:r r-i'J^r

ijii

ifi'

j.,iijni

-TJP

f-''r

ii

jri Q-jrjpigjf

jTijpjrijiijfj r
OldSwiss Melody

fP

j.

ii

^jT

.1

Luj

ii

Oj.ijT>MJiJP

^^ ^ ^

MZS

^^

4 4

^J^
=^

mum.

Folk-Song 5

'^JM*

^J hJgJ^'^
l

ll

IL

J^

:^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

'7R'^

~-"i

f~

W-

Fm ^^

---

149

>

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

150

Lesson

i6

In a melody the raised 2nd degree is used as a chromatic passing-tone between


the 2nd and 3rd degrees and the 3rd and 2nd degrees.
In progressing from
the 3rd to the 2nd degree, the progression is often written 3, lowered 3 and 2.
It will be found simpler and much less confusing in both harmonic and melodic
relations in major to use the raised 2nd, never the lowered 3rd degree, as this is
the characteristic tone of the minor mode.

uf
su

if^

Skips may be made from or to the raised 2nd degree of the scale
The scale-line, using the natural 2nd degree, or skips in the
chord.

or

in the IIJj
IIJ,

IF, V^

chord, should follow.

Section A.

Use

and

as a basis for the

II^j},

all

triads,

major, with a new second consequent


and ninth-chords, the 11^, IVJ,
Employ the rhythms given on page 145.

Construct double periods in

(i)

phrase.

inversions, seventh-

melody.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords

(a)

and

inversions.
(b)

Pause

(c)

Read the

(d)

Have each

m^
1

33

^fp u
f
I

VI

after

each seventh-chord and think the chord of resolution.

entire exercise mentally.

exercise dictated.

43

28

^u ^

6432

87

^
n ^ rr

lA

^W
IV

IV''

II''

111

AA
i

rfi rr
i

I,

III

IV

II,

r
Ij

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

ft
ii

TT f
^
T

i
'T

^YT

^^
TT
ii

"1

(2)

rr ff

TT
11
fT TT T i

u
TT n n
lA ii
^^^

n
f

J:

rt

151

f
i

T
1

^i^
TT
1

m
^

Practise the following Intervals:

In the Il^ij chord there v/ill be a minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the i^ind to the :Jt4th degree of the scale; a diminished 5th from the root
to the 5th of the chord, the #2nd to the 6th degree of the scale: a diminished
7th from the root to the 7th of the chord, the :ft2nd to the 8th degree of the scale;
a major 6th from the 3rd to the 8th of the chord, the #4th to the #2nd of the
scale; an augmented 4th from the 5th to the 8th of the chord, the 6th to the #2nd
degree of the scale; an augmented 2nd from the 7th to the 8th of the chord, the
8th to the ^2nd degree of the scale.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Play the I, IV^ IF, IIJ, IIJ^, V^ and I chords in B major. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals determining their sound in relation to the root of the
chord and to the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

major.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

152

I*"

Uj^jt^^^^

n'

v^
PEC

:&:

I,^

o-^

n'

v^

i -

TSJ-

il

" "

il
--

ffe=^ S 3X1

^^^^^^^sw

|o

(3)

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

^ o

x
X
C

oo

~^"
"
**

IV^

||-.^
V^

tl o
O O ^

o
8/^.
j|o ho ** O o

jto 1 =^

and Sight-Singing:

Double periods with a new second consequent phrase. Skips in the


chord and the raised 2nd and 4th degrees used as passing-tones. The tie in
3/4

IIJ^

2/4,

and 4/4 meter.


Play the I, IF, IIJ, IIJ^, I, V^ and I chords in B major. Read
each exercise mentally. Test for pitch.
(b)
Play the entire melody, studying the effect of the cadences, the
chromatic tones and the ties.
(c)
Take each section of the melody which has a chromatic inflection
and sing it first without the altered tones, then as written.
(d)
Play the first antecedent phrase and sing from memory to la. Sing
the number-, then the letter-names, mentally and aloud.
(e)
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
(0 Play the entire first period and sing from memory.
Study the second period in the same way.
(g)
(h)
Play the entire double period and sing from memory.
(i)
Transpose to the keys of C and Bb major.
Have each melody dictated, as outlined on page 87.
(J)
(a)

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINCING

ijv

1
I

njin

pox

iLr^T^
I

n^

It

rLf
I

Figure

nl

nlii

IV

153

LT'i
I

'

It

Sequence

^^^^^^^
#

#11

li

r-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

154

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

(a)

Drill:

Study, using the arm movement to Indicate the meter, and sing the
rhythms to la on a major scale.

(2)

JlJ_/h

J_r33J333,J5SJ_/T3,J_nj.

,J~3J

jri,JT5J

J553,j

J)

JJ

J..

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally. Test.

(2)

(a)

(b)
(c)

Sing to la, thinking the number-, then the letter-names.


Sing from dictation.

'^ijJ^r

-J^JjnjjT^f

i
|

IV.

tf

"

i it^

^i

ftSHji

Li

jR^

jj^r

'

jitif ii.u

^^Ji^

^ij

i^'il^

^^

i,i>lliiljj
''a

^^

i^jjJ^ JljH^j^^
i

^ f ^ nf

J ^

I.

n\
II

i
|

n'

n^l,

ii^ii

tt

^j]j

o*-

Wr

IVi

iv^i.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

^'A

o.jHjf^iiu

M,

j.P

155

n, j

nlUji-

|.'<''iU,iJri^

#g
feS

^il^xi

^'

L^inj

rjjiij

|i^^

i*

ijLi^i
n\

Ijd

v|.

^j. jir

*jjjii.^ ^B ^^
m

III

%k
^'

^!

tfj

piT

'^^|J

f.
^

nlii.

1^

r'Pi'T

ut/^'^f

Ills,.

iiln,.

I
i

I'

ig<p

te^^

IV^j

v/.

4'i''i.jj;n,
n%.

Mjhi

ij;Pi injii,j.mi
li.

iv^l.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

156

fft^

(d)

Pr

Ii,

IIJs,

IV^

Ii,

I2,

I, III,

Ilk nin,

oV^

VI, VI,

Exercises for pitch and key

R of

Tlr

I,

to the rhythm of i:
rhythm of 2: I, IV,
rhythm of 3: I, IF,
the rhythm of 4: I, IV2, oV^

VI, I; to
I.

drill.

Sing the letter- and number-names:


R of V^ 3rd of I,

(3)

(4)

(3)

of

I.

3rd of I, 3rd of IIJ, R of 111, R of 11^ 5th of 11;-, 7th of V^


5th of I, 7th of IF, 3rd of III, 7th of V^ 3rd of I.
5th of I, 3rd of IV, 5th of IV, 7th of IF, R of 115,, 5th of IIJ,,
5th of I, R of IV, 3rd of V^ 5th of V^ R of I.
3rd of I, 7th of Ii; R of Ii; 5th of IIJ 3rd of IIJ 3rd of I,
7th of V^ 5th of I, 3rd of V^ R of I.

(2)

(f)

^ JJ

B major

of Ii;,, 3rd of II J 7th of V^


3rd of IV,
of 11;,, 3rd of I, 3rd of V,

(i)

IVJ, II J, \1, I; to the


n,% h, V^ I; to the

VI, VI, h, IIU, III,,,


IIJ Ii, IV;, II J VI, I,
VI,

Sing the following chords in the key of


I,

(e)

rrj

Sing this

drill in

the keys of

Bb and C major.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

J3J3

^'"''iin

^
^m

-#

jjj3^i
#-

fi

^jij.m

Bach
-

#=F

jEt

Ji

I4

jjii

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^ ^
P
d

<

rJ

Haydn

tt
88

ii'Ai' rg ii rr

'Jt

4i,nVmii
y^ll

JZ2 l

^
j

^-d

j7:.rTi

Cirr

i':z/

j J

^Jl J

#
Haydn

'

'

.fj;j

^^

Ji i

ac=K

s^^ m ^

U
*

157

v^

^^

[UJ

'^

If

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

158

J"3

J
U

Pf^^T,^

Arniet

J<

-H-

T-

.1

h^^TT

mizM.

fui ri^^

''r ^

^^

]J.J |p~r.

'

/Jir

""^
'^

r"

H^

ff

rLCiir

.i

Folk- Song

tf

^rrLCTLT

r^Jj

10

tt

Kr

*At J

^" ^ir

^
^"^1^

'III

^
c/

J.

*t

jJJ-^

m ^

Il^rnp

1^*!*^^"* r

|j^ j3

p J

J'

i^

iJi^
'

-->

'

r r

J-

*^j(j

J)

'^

'

'>'%^

rit[-

II

#^

^^

-^Jjn

Wttlliier
Wttllner

riz*

"^

-""^

13

^M iiy^

PT p

^T

njij

h*

j|i

ij^j^^

Jjfffpii^'7JJ- Mr

^M

-^

r |j-

tf

ijjj^jj j

-^

P^

Ni

PLuf

iJ-

Pf
f

ir

^r

r.iJ

Orfirir

iiii3f

r^

''

iT'

irrr

zz

JJxJ.

r-i

ADrjNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


'y-

U\

!J

.v--i'ii"ii

.v'*ii"ii
i

fT'Tr-r
UXjifr

iiF

r'

^'
p

^'r

PQ:

^'

-J

159

^^

Q;hL

>

CtlAPTER V

MODULATION AND EMBELLISHMENT


Modulation Is the process of progressing from one key or mode to another.
Modulations to the keys of the Dominant, Subdominant, the Relative Minor
and the relative minor keys of the Dominant and Subdominant are most used;
Modulations
these are easily made because of the common tones and chords.
to these keys are known as Next-Related Modulations.

The

next-related keys are those on either side of a


the
circle of keys, and have one accidental more
key In
or less in the signature.

Gi>Fl

In modulating, it Is best to leave the key with the I chord on an accented


pulse of the meter and to begin the new key with any chord but the I on an
unaccented pulse of the meter.

Lesson

17

Modulation to the Dominant Key and back Is bv the V^ or a common chord;


e.g., the I chord of C Is the_IY. chord of G; the V chord of C Is the I chord of G;
the VI chord of C Is the Il^chord of G; the III c hord of C Is the^YLchord of G.
-Ck-

#*
lofC
IVofG

VofC
lofG

VIofC

s
mofC

HofG VIofG

In Section B, Ex. i, the first three chords establish the key of C major. The
begins with the IV chord, the second chord in the second measure. The
first chord in the second measure Is the I chord of C major, because it is the
resolution of the preceding V chord.
The next chord, though Identical with the
preceding chord, is the IV chord of
major, as it resolves Into the I2 chord over
the bar. The same type of modulation is made from
back to C In the second
phrase. In Ex. 2, the first chord In the consequent phrase is either the I of C or
the V of G. In Ex. 3, the key of
begins with the V^: the I of C preceding Is the
IV of G. The consequent phrase begins with the V^ of C. In Ex. 4, the second
chord of the second measure is the Ii of C, the resolution of the \\ chord, and at
the same time the IV^ chord of
progressing over the bar into the I chord.

key of

Section A.
(i)
Construct parallel and contrasting periods
modulating to the key of the dominant and back.
rhythms given on page 154.
I

160

In

the key of C major,


the meters and

Employ

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

161

Work as in the preceding Lessons. Write the chord symbols and construct
It is best not to modulate until there have been
the melody from the chords.
enough chords in the key to establish the tonality; in duple and quadruple meter
at least three, and in triple meter at least four.

The

chord progressing to the I chord establishes a key.


When modulating in the period form the modulation to the key of the dominant is generally made in the antecedent phrase, so that the perfect cadence in
See Ex. i, Section B
the dominant key takes the place of the semicadence.

Note.

IV

or

(I).

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise slowly, listening to the character of the
chords, if major or minor, active or rest, inverted or fundamental.

(a)

Do
(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)

not try to think the key.

Pause after the last chord in C and think the rest of the phrase.
Pause after the last chord in G and think the rest of the phrase.
Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play.

Read the entire exercise mentally.


Have each exercise dictated.
(1)

(2)

(3)

played, relax and listen to the sound of


Do not analyze.
the chords.
As the chords are played a second time, write down the chord
symbols as you hear them, regardless of key.
Write the numbers of the soprano. In Ex. i you will hear the
first three numbers as 8, 7, 8; the next as 8; the next as 3,

As the

entire exercise

be uncertain; the next as 2, i. The mind


In that case the fourth pitch will
will reflect and hear 3, 2, i.
have to be 4, as the unaccented pulse is always related to and
In the consequent phrase
progresses into the accented pulse.
The mind will reflect
then
you will hear 3, 4, 3, then 5,
3,2, i.
to 3 over the bar.
resolving
up
and make the fourth pitch 2,
In Ex. i you
soprano.
the
pitches
of
Next, write the absolute
as
as
a
2 and g as i,
b
c
as
then
will have c, b, c as 8, 7, 8;
3,
4,
consequent
the
major.
In
to
G
modulated
therefore you have
e
as 3, d as
the
d
as
key
of
G,
the
of
2,
phrase, b, c, b, as 3, 4, 3
In Ex.
major.
to
back
C
modulation
2 and c as I, therefore a
the
8th
time,
same
the
is,
at
measure
second
4, the c in the
4th
of
G.
the
and
of
C
degree of the key
or possibly

(4)

is

it

will

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

162

IV

iGn;

iz

6>:

H
n
^^

^^ fr

(b)

(c)

(d)

v7

i iJti

^
rr
^

r
f

Play the I, IV, IF, IIJ, IIJ^,, V^ and I chords in C major. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and to the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

XE

- ^TTiii;::o
'

:fe*

iv"

Practise the following Intervals:


(a)

f^ ^

J i

(2)

r^

r
F

It

rr rr ^f

it

'^'

cvj

rr J

4*'

v;;:
8ii tllUt|

ii'^ijj

till

n''

" 8

n^ V''

ijlln

ttii

Ho

major.

3r:

8yoiil|ot*;^

^ ^ jt^lj^X5-jt-jt--"
VI

iv'' v'' 1

iv^

n^ v''

ii''#|

00
n

{^

Q
n
H

fall

err

ft

"

ijfl^

:^

v-^ i

^^

Tcr

o "
" 8
o

if

O"

"o

:^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


11 ni%
"^" "'^M^it^" &4^^" "

o-^
-*>-

^^#^

v^

#^

tl^

TT

_o_

an

H-jfJ^U

ai
^

tl

1"

tO
T^

il"

11

tl

^
35:

H
~cr

1T~

W=^

^o**
O^' ^

-^

XT

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:

(3)

The

Modulations to the Dominant Key.


in the

1^

163

II^j^

tie In

4/4 and 6/8 meters, and skips

chord.

In each melody the modulation to G major Is made after a I chord of C on


an accented pulse. The modulation back to C Is made after the I chord of G
on an accented pulse, or at the beginning of the consequent phrase.
(a)

(b)
(c)

I, V^ I chords In C, the IV, I2, V^ I chords in G, the V^ I


Read the exercise mentally.
chords In C.
Play the entire melody and decide where the modulations occur.
Play the antecedent phrase twice and sing from me:^ory to la. Sln-^
mentally the number-names, the letter-names. Sing aloud. Test.

Play the

A safe rule is
In each melody, at the point of modulation the tones could be in either key.
In the third measure
of the new key on an unaccented pulse, except after the cadence.
of (1) the g is the 5th of c, the next three notes at first sound like 3, 2, 1 of C, but as soon as you hear the
b, a, g as the 3, 2, 1 of G the mind reflects and rhythmically includes the e, d, c with the b, a, g, making
The next phrase begins in C.
it 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 of G.
Note.

to begin the

numbers

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

The

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire period and sing from memory.
major.
Transpose to the keys of B and
Have the melodies dictated, as outlined on page 19.

marks where the modulations occur and the

pupil

3215 6B432

4KT

CLrriJT] ^iP
r.

^^
I

ii

Ii

^
i

EjIV

Ii

GW

Schumann

pJ L;
\'
n

rr'i JWJ-

IV*

J||j

^n

UV^

35
m

CI

V''

Hi J|tJ

J-^j'ii^^

il^

scale-steps.

f'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

164

LuU'ir CUj

'^
i

^^^^^^

^^'
#

lil

^'^j

iiJ.

m^

?J

^-

i>

*
i|

^m

^
rPfiiJM

r'^

Li;i^^iiJ^

<L>'l^

^^
i

"ltO

'

J.

i iMrc::;ir~r JMrpfiiJ^jjn

'

iiii'j'irpJ JM

ii|

rtifrJ

i^r

If

['

if^^r-

i>

ni

==

-i
i

^'

^
I

i-^j^^i

F^ j:nrr]|j. jfe
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

165

Section C.
(l)

Absolute Intervals.

There are diminished yths in the major scale from 7-b6, #2-8, :^6-5; in
the minor scale from 7-6,^4-3; in the qV^, IIJ and Vljjf chords. There are
augmented 2nds in the major scale from b6-7, S-itz, 5-^6; in the minor scale
from 6-7, 3-:tt4- A diminished 7th sounds the same as a major 6th and is sung
up and down as the major 6th. The augmented 2nd sounds the same as a
minor 3rd, and is sung as the minor 3rd.
(a)

Sing a diminished 7th up and an augmented 2nd down from the


following pitches, using first the number-names, then the letternames. (Use the numbers 7-6 for the diminished 7th and 6-7

augmented 2nd.)

xx:

(b)

301

Sing a diminished 7th down and an augmented 2nd up from the


following pitches, using first the number-names, then the letter-

names.

im

(2)

Rhythmic
(a)

>^

fyi^

31=

^^X

a:

^^

Drill:

Study, using the arm

movement

to indicate the meter,

Beat two to the measure.

to la on a major scale.
held, the mind divides the pulse into triplets.

Is

(1)

(2)

(3)

J)

J)

J)

jjjjjjj

T2

<4)

(5)

r~ji

(6)

<7)

J.

/3J.

77iJ-^n

and sing

As the

(over)

J.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

166

J"

751J

;:
J

J)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally. Test.

(3)

(a)

Sing the number-, then the letter-names.

(b)

Note. In the fourth chord of


4 6 8 4 of the key of G.

the numbers are

1 3 5

in

the next chord

the numbers are

thinking the letter- and number-names.


i.e., write down the symbols and sing without reference to the written exercise.
Sing from dictation.
Sing to

(c)

/<3,

From memory,

(d)

(e)

C major

vj

T^h

I.

n^Ki,

^ ^JjMj.jTJ -^i'Mj.jTJI^Ji^ljJ^IC:;
I

IV

G major.

jifl -^]j^i^_[j3 jjj^^ jj:?jir^ji'^ j^j.'3^


ii

.J.'^-

*1J.

A.

VI

-J.

j. *

n G major.

C majoi

^J'-J-

* ff

f^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^ ^
E^

167

j.7^1^ Ja^i4j:]i ^ Jju


i

ii

Vg'G major.

*n^\f}>r>

W-'

I,

iv^ll

^ iijj^

ir

^'

^v

^^a^

J ^

ii.
I

i^i

jj

C major.

3E
I

v7

VI

I j.jiJl^^ii^lJJ-f^

Cj:;J^IJJl|i^

'^J^

n G major.

iiJ -il^JJi^lj.4J''l^Jj^

|i.iJ-'

"^V

nil,

4 jj

J^

[j;j^ ^4t^^
i

[:rii^^|'^^^i'

^^^
C major

(f)

Sing the following chord successions to the rhythm of


G major
iVi,

I2,

G
il, 11;,

Yl,

Ii,

IV J,

I2,

V^

l';

rhythm

to the

of 2:

VI,

to the

I;'

rhythm

of

I,

V^

Ii,

(g)

II,

Ii

C major
I,

III, IV, I

HJ,, II J, IF, oV?,

C major

major

iVi,IlLV^V^,Ii,IIIs#,l2,V^ll to the rhythm of


G major

n VL

IV, V3,

C major

major

V^

i: I,

IVJ, IIJi,

4: I,

IV2,oV^Vl,

V^ L

Exercises for pitch and key drill.


Sing the letter- and numbernames. As these exercises are sung, think the entire chord as
well as the tone asked for.
In this way the harmonization of the
tone is heard as the tone is sung.
(i)

IV

(2)

of IV, 3rd of IV, 5th of I, 3rd of


V^ 3rd of V^ of I.
of
of II J#, 3rd of I,
3rd of I in C,
of IV, 3rd of Ii;,
of I.
in G, 5th of V, 3rd of I, 3rd of V^
of

I in

in

C, 3rd of

G,

I,

of V, 7th of

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

168

I in C, 7th of ir, 3rd of Ii;, 7th of V^ 3rd of I,


Sth of IV in G, 7th of IF, 3rd of IIJ, 5th of V^ 3rd of
v^ of I.
of I in C, 3rd of IV, 9th of the V^ 3rd of V^
of I, 7th
of V^ in G,
of V^ 3rd of V^ R of I, 5th of V^
of I.

(3)

5th of

(4)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(4)

rr' LrJLc/i^D- i

li

M^J. J^'IJ||7]JJ^Ijj^MiJ^I[f^

-y

=
1

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SICIIT-SINGING

169

|^TJ?^^ffl&^'iEffl'^r"m"^

^Jn?
t ^^
jjjjjff M^jj/^P^-^
i'y^'nn i[jj.J'^-j]j ^ijr
(a
i

rjjiu J^

^^

cri

^ii

ji

^^f~[i;c-r

cacJ*

Mozart

aiz/

!'

i^p^f ^

ULg 'U^^"^

i'

>jij"]

^^

'

J^ij

r r

'U^^c:/

!'

'

r^ip.
^

Verdi

r>

^^
^V

LCTCJir

LX/^"

;''.!

"

.ii.mii
i^

J!1

f^=w

uu

r irx;

s^^J^

r^rr

ir

r^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

170

4'''

r/

tj'p

LUf t/'i^i-^ 'cj^P


i

rp

c.-

^k? J'l^J^J'
4^

^h Jl

jm

J": ^ j>

Kr

##

Beethoven

liiS^-'pir ^\f-

^]^J'lf^

Cjv^lO^ JlP

Jj

iji.J

[_cj'j.

JH

J-

'^

^^t ^^^ P

r^

;.3
j^

iJ~^

^^

Rheinberger

U,

rl

ij.

i)

Ih

JHJ

iTj ip

yji

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Lesson

171

i8

Modulation to the Snhanminani- Key is made in the same way


Dominant key. Leave the key after the tonic chord on an accented
begin the new key with any active chord on the unaccented pulse.

as to the
pulse and

In Ex. I of Section B (i) the first three chords establish the key of
major.
fourth chord is the same as the third with a 7th added which immediately
establishes the key of C major.
In the consequent phrase the first three chords
are in the key of C major; the next chord, though the same as the I of C, is the
IV of
because of its resolution.
In a melody the raised 5th degree of the scale is used as a chromatic passingtone in progressing from the 5th up to the 6th degree.
Skips are not made from the raised 5th degree.
When skips are made to the
raised 5th degree it resolves into the 6th degree, as it is the lower neighbor of

The

the 6th degree.

^ U^

Skips may be made to or from the raised 2nd degree in the Vg, VJ, Y\
chords.
Skips in the I chord, or the scale-line, will follow:

|8
3CE
v^l

\t
v^i

Section A.
(i)
Construct parallel and contrasting periods in the key of G major,
modulating to the key of the subdominant and back.
Employ the meter and
rhythms given on pages 165 and 166. Use the Vj^, V^, and V^ chords.
Write the chord symbols and construct the melody in the usual manner.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the follozving Chord Successions:

(c)

Play the entire exercise slowly, listening to the character of the chords.
Do not try to think the key.
Pause after the last chord in G and think the rest of the phrase.
Pause after the last chord in C and think the rest of the phrase.
Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play.

(d)

Read the

(a)

(b)

exercise mentally.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

172

Have each

(e)

exercise dictated.

(2)

First playing, listen to the sound of the chords.


Second playing, write down the chord symbols.

(3)

Third playing,

(i)

Do

not think

of the keys.

write the numbers of the scale-steps of


soprano.
Fourth playing, write the absolute pitches of the soprano.

(4)

Note. In Ex. 1 the pitch b changes from the 3rd of


becomes the 4th of G on account of its resolution.

^ n^
3

Al

cv

r
^i
I

^ f # 11
i

^^ i
i

^i

n
J

J.

^M

^
^ TT
3

i
T

$
^^
u
IV

rr rf

rr

r
1

j^j ,j

=4

In the consequent phrase, c

to the 7th of C.

i^i

^m
I

GIV

I,

^ rr

r
f^

the

^i
i ^

i
r

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

o_

ja

8
I

Play the I, IV, III, III, III^,


and I chords in G major. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root of
the chord and to the key-centre.

tflt

;:d=

U'

w^

xc

major.

TT~;:3i

3X i

<|*

:7rr

r^^

-Ki^

jo:

Zf:. e'i"

5 U

"'

ff"

* 1 n: :^
xx:

=3CC3r

TJ-

XT-

=8=;^

"'' 8

tw=^ w

1^

U\ 8

7T"

:n

:xc
=e=

/^

*^

tf"

7
.

8 o

^^f

XE

O O

31:

It

^sqr

*^

::

:^

VI V

-o-

XE

3r:

31:

ffc

B^

o-

xx:

m :^ ^

XV

f>

o
:^

1=^

173

^^
3r:

JO-

3sS:

jcx.

xx:

;;
d:

,>
|}

xc

zx:

:^

8 :^

::

TCJ-

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


In each melody the modulation from
to C is made after the I chord of G on
the accented pulse, which becomes the V chord of C.
The modulation back to
is made in the same way or after the cadence.
(a)
Play the I, V^ I chords in G; the V^ I, chords in C; the IV, I2,
V^ and I chords of G. Read each melody mentally.
(b)
Play the entire melody and decide where the modulations occur.
(c)
Play the antecedent phrase twice and sing from memory to la.
Sing mentally the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing both
(3)

aloud.
Note.

It is even harder, in modulating to the Subdominant, to decide when the modulation occurs,
chord of G is the V chord of C. In (1), third measure, the high g is both the 8th degree of G and
the 5th degree of C. The f is certainly the 4th degree of C, so it is better to consider the entire pulse in

as the I

and that the numbers of


(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)

g, f

are

5, 4.

Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.


Play the entire period and sing from memory.
Transpose to the keys of A, F and E major.
Have the melodies dictated as outlined on page 19.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

174
*

IV

i^

Modified Seq.

Figure

Ij

n,

nl

rnni"

11^

Inversion of Fig.

V7

ir

uJ

ii|iirLuj:ii

-CM-

'

i!|.^T'>JJir

ii

fMc

j .ii

i|

-#

^^

rr'^ir' p

Schumann

^Cj- Jj^-ftr

f^

TT^ rTj^
^m ^
P

cj iiL/'^

rm[^iQi-

-M-

^^rrn

li^'^

i!>*jMcjr'^j^i^i'^J

Lj'L^'

i^
^
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^

i=:

^"Vr^rrif

ir

jn^^i^

Mp

"rJ

>

P m

-6M-

TTT

IM^rd-ijit 'LLfiC/^

^^ ^

175

<9

J^^^

lh-

=f

U- Ji-i^

'

sm

r-j.-n
^^
^

Section C.
(i)

Absolute Intervals.

There is an augmented 5th in the major scale from 5-+f2, in the minor
chord in major and the III chord in minor. There is a
scale from 3-7; in the
diminished 4th in the major scale from ^2~^, in the minor scale from 7-3. The
augmented 5th sounds the same as the minor 6th and is sung up and down as
the minor 6th. The diminished 4th sounds the same as a major 3rd, and is sung
as the major 3rd.
Sing an augmented 5th up and a diminished 4th down from the
(a)
V:j::j:

following pitches, using

(b)

xr

Rhythmic
(a)

the number-, then the letter-names.

Sing a diminished 4th up and an augmented 5th down from the


following pitches, using first the number-, then the letter-names.

1 ^m w^
(2)

first

zxn

Xf=

Drill:

Study, using the arm


la

on a major

scale.

movement

to indicate the meter,

and sing to

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

176

(1)

?J)iJ
5.

8,

J), J

(2)

J^^iJ

JTT^J

^^ij

JT} ^jt^jt:

J3iJ?]

.j

(3)

;5r3

(5)

r73n
(7)6

jij

7-

J55551.r753J~T]

J.

.J.

/7553iJ 7^ J?53iJ)^ J^JJJJJJi

JliJ.

(8)

J.

practise the following Chord Successions:

(3)

Sing each exercise mentally. Test.


Sing the number-, then the letter-names.

(a)

(b)
_

/J], J.

,j) V

Note.

In the fourth chord of

the

1,

numbers

are

5 8 3 8 5 3;

the next chord,

7245427

of

major.

Sing to la, thinking the number- and letter-names.


Sing from memory.
Sing from dictation.

(c)

(d)
(e)

^m
I

fS

irjJ J^i /]

G major.

'

i/JL'^'nj

^^

>^

^^

yJ C major.

ii-

#
I

G major.

VI.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

^ cj

^^

V.'-

ii

j.i

f1]ji

G major

^^
I

vj.

|,^rr^.j,

177

ij,i
vf.

^^^r[;i|JMjJ

ir'"^[[j.M

Ii-

ij

Vill

T'^Ji

rr
I

^m
fe
^^

J
^

Vj C major.

'

[Tj

^
tf"

G major.

It

I'

^^

W
I'

M^^

IjiJ

j
Vtjl

,j

Ir

JT,Jj

^
Tr-^JM
I

It-

Mj Nir'^i ^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

178

G
(f)

Sing the following chord succession to the rhythm of


G major
C major
I2, Vjf, I

VI,

I, III#, I2,

V#, I; to the

rhythm

of 2:

I,

I, Ii,

rhythm

of 3:

V, I;

Ii,

to the

rhythm

of

4:

I,

major

IlL 11^, h,
G major

I,

V^,

major

II J^, IF, V^, I

V^, VI, Ii, IIJj,, V^, V^, I; to the


C major

V^

IVi, IV, IVJ,

C major

major

Il3^

oV^

VJ, V^,

C major

VL VL
(g)

I,

m,

Vs,

I.

Sing the exercise for pitch and key


major.

drill

(4)

in the

key of

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

iji

4*

on page 167

ttp-

iNH

p'

p[T

j>^4

ir

ic:-i

^f;

\ir

^Mf

ifis

prj^^

vp

'


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^

"^
'

"
1

J J ^

* " ^ r ^zzj=z:gj r f

ni LrrFl

^^ ^
Dvof^nc

179

zjiI

Bach

i^^

n w

r
w nrj

rrj t

Brahms

db*

^h\\m

nj]\j vu^jj

rrxf

ifc^
iijgQ.JiP

jJ^^Ji^J

Ij :

If^

rj-H'

Oi
Brahms

J^NJj^i:;

H 'l' lljM I'l

^^

j.jJIP^ cjr

^ g

Dregert

I'l-C/L/ El^lf

iir3p

M Jj

4*<'Cj-n

^rJ^

M^
r *p r


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

180

^.,
tip

it

'

ji^^n
#

-I

Wi

Brahms

'0-

hptl^J.

ni^nnii

rr,

^p

^^ ^^ ^

10

J^

^P=7^

c:Xlir

Liu i^n-^i^^'^

<*/

Spohr

cj 'i

Schumann

y^J?^JlJ

^^

Uji^-JTJJ-.in
r

'

\-

J.

/j

^
^ ^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SfGIIT-SfNGING

^
#

fcfe^

181

mmjTirg

4*r-fJ??]

L^r^

Lesson

Handel

^^P

J-

i>j

19

In the double period form, the cadences at the end of the second and third
phrases are often modulations to next related keys instead of semicadences in
When in major, at the end of the second phrase, in place of the Domithe key.
nant chord, there is an authentic cadence in the Dominant Key. At the end of
the third phrase, in place of the Subdominant chord, there is an authentic cadence
After the perfect cadence in the Dominant Key, the
in the Subdominant Key.
melody must return to the original key before progressing to the Subdominant.
When in minor, the second phrase modulates to the relative major key.
In a melody, the lowered 6th degree of the scale is used as a chromatic passingtone in progressing from the 6th
Skips are

made

to

down

to the 5th degree.

and from the lowered 6th degree

scale-line, or skips in the

chord, should follow.

in the 11^ chord.

The

\j\\

ii\

Section A.
(i)

Construct parallel double periods In the key of

to the keys of the Dominant and Subdominant.


given on page 176. Use the 11^ chord.

Employ

major, modulating
the meter and rhythms

Note. Make the cadences as follows: At the end of the first phrase, an imperfect authentic cadence,
or a semicadence in the key; at the end of the second phrase, an authentic cadence in the key of the Dominant; at the end of the third phrase, an authentic cadence in the key of the Subdominant; at the end of the
fourth phrase, a perfect authentic cadence in the key.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.
Pause after the last chord In D, and think the chords in A; pause
(b)
(a)

after the last chord in A, and think the chords in D; pause after
the last chord in D, and think the chords In G; pause after the
last chord In G, and think the chords in D.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

182
(c)

(d)
(e)

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Read the exercise mentally. Test.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page i6i.

trrr-Um

P ^
^
i. ^'git

,ut

rr
1

j-i
g
f

al

\J vj

T
i

f ^
I

Av^

^
^
3^ ^ ^
^ u^ u
M
^f
ii ia
a^ r ^
J:

J
i

r
4
r

^
rr

fT r

j-i

(2)

J-

i ^i ^

Wi
v' V?

IDVJ

I.

^
^
rr rr Tf
li

f ^ rr r P
J:
i i
^ r ^ $ f

^ ^U W

i
i
P
:i

ff rr

mm * f1

^
4^
i
f r r$ ^
5

f r T

J:

rrr

Practise the following Intervals:

In the 11^ chord there will be a minor 3rd from the 3rd to the 5th of the chord,
the 4th to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; a diminished 5th from the root
to the 5th of the chord, the 2nd to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; a major
6th from the 5th to the 3rd of the chord, the lowered 6th to the 4th degree of
the scale; an augmented 4th from the 5th to the 8th of the chord, the lowered

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

183-

6th to the 2nd degree of the scale; a major 3rd from the 5th to the 7th of the
chord, the lowered 6th to the 8th degree of the scale; a minor 6th from the 7th
to the 5th of the chord, the ist to the lowered 6th degree of the scale.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Play the I, IV, IV, III V^ and I chords in D major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root of
the chord and the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

II

^S^

(3)

" 3E

3j:

>--

^v;

n'

-CL.

^^8

t|o

t^=^

o PO

r xc

..

xn

i|o
II'

k\ 8 ^T n hi 8

-&-

XE

ij'j

o^^^ottg.u ^8

major.

^^

?-&-

8 P8 ^^

il
*

"

fe
^

ji

3X

ii

3x:

Exercises for Melodic Dictation and Sight-Singing:


(a)

V^,

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

(g)
(h)
(i)

major, the IV, I2, V, I in A major, the


major.
major, the IIi, I2, V'^, I in
major, the V'^, I in
Read each melody mentally. Test.
Play the entire melody and decide where the modulations occur.
Play the first antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la.
Sing
Sing mentally the number-names, then use the letter-names.

Play the

I,

I in

V^, I chords in

both aloud.
Practise the first consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire first period. Sing from memory.
Practise the second period in the same way.
Play the entire double period and sing from memory.
Transpose to the keys of E, C and B.
Have the melodies dictated as outlined on page 87.

;
ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

184

rv

43

H5

"

^p

JM

-^cf^

'T

^
#^^
1
g

rr
(|ii

li

1
1

,^h

[jic;

\^^.^

^p

j.

^i^r

1^

It
r

^^

''^pcj

U-L-[jrrJ
i

^^

i^

c;>i

A IV

iVi

i
1

,^^

Jjj^rM_Jl]?i^ ^r irr[i!i^

^^

I I

JmJ-

l
i

rpr^^i^"rp r[tt^ J--^^ 'ii

-_^
^

ir piT

l- fXj

''

i^r

Y^

^-"^J' fpr^ri^-'
f pr^iF

J JMjJ- J

ir

ii

J'^i^T^J^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

186
hung,

must be preserved so that the

it

and

listener will recognize it

in this way-

and enjoy the syncopation.

feel

To

sing

measure

this

give this effect J)

J)

4^ y

J)

^
,

J)

making

do not accent the quarter-note and

J)
it

sound as

if

began on the up-beat

it

^^^S the measure with a stress on the

t<

eighth, the

first

metric pulse, feel the beginning of the quarter as a relaxation of that pulse, give
a slight pressure as the the second pulse of the meter occurs, and feel the last
eighth as a relaxation of that pulse.

(2)

Practise the following Chord Successions:

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

^"^

"

J J J J

from memory.
from dictation.

D major

f'^r

each exercise mentally. Test.


the number-, then the letter-names.
to la, thinking the number- and the letter-names.

^N

^
i

^^

jj >

^
i

jij
rV

pJ

-i'

jHj

^p J

j'lj

t
i

j){J

j)j

ijij^J

lj)i JH-^'J
I.

P'^

^'
i

flirr JtJMj

n^

n^jiM

-^^j

j)i^

>

j>t^

*(?

pi'r ^'

V||.

ii^t

A major

ii

n\

u!

jl^

>

IjJ ^'IpJ
Ii-

i;

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


^"^

^JM-J^J

J:l^

>

'MP^ JHJ

JiJ

P m
Vg

W( D major.

vlDmaior

^*U

^h

J'

D major.

j,j

I^J

J'

pJ Jilj

1^^
II

VI.

^7irr"^J

\M^

G major

H^t

Ii

-^MF^

j)J

187

iF^r^-^^N

"f

i^p

Vj.

4*'i

-i^

J^

>
l

l
i

j> ^ J

J'ipJ Jmj

V2 D major

ij.j^'ipJj'


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

188

mg

Pr

^p

^7

pit^r pij

^^
niD major

VjG major.

D major
(f)

Sing the following chord successions to the rhythm of


A major
D major
D major
| r
7~\
l~

vi,i,iiLVLi IVl,vI,v],Il,III,IIL,v^I
D

iVi,Vl,VLl! to the rhythm of


A major
G major
D major
IIL,I2,v^I
(g)

v^vUl
D

major

2:

major

v^vUl,II5#,Il
A major

major

l,IV,,l,oV\VlvJ
D

I, II], lll^^j

V],

Ix,

III

major

v^oV^i v^oV^i ii,ir,i2,iiLi2,vi'

Exercises for pitch and key drill:


Sing the letter-, then the number-names, in the keys of D, A, and
major.
(i)
of I, R of IV, 3rd of ir, 5th of in,
of V, 5th of V,
3rd of I, 5th of VI, R of IV, 3rd of Ilij,, 5th of Ii.
3rd of I,
of IIJs, 5th of II5#, 5th of ir, 5th of 11^,
of
(2)
V, 5th of I, 3rd of V^ 7th of V^ 3rd of I, 5th of IIJ,
of V, 3rd of I.
3rd
of I, 5th of VI, 7th of iv;, 5th of ivj,
of iv;,
(3)
R of Ii;^, 5th of in, 7th of in, 3rd of V^ 7th of V\
5th of I.

(3)

4^

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SICIIT-SINGING

189

CiirL^i^it^^^^-^^-^ii?^!

'II

ilJn

r-

^yjTJi

^h JXnjJTljr

prs^

ji

^^

Jlnp^pin ^j- j^p. plpfiir.^J.

Ji|

Mendelssohn
^"

1^

rto"^

CJ^^ icicrf^iN.jj^ij-iQt

^ ti!^/;^ij^
i

***Jii^fpi
j j^

hjgJ

^.JJ^

rrr

^m [j^
^'ii

jiJ JJ

r>

JJJlji

pr

mpt

rijgjJ J>l>r

J]

^^
^'

'^i

n
;;^r^ ;jl4^ .lhlLjL;|.
l

-l za

Dvorak

ji

iJJCj

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

190

r J V

ff

J5

-R

ff

Jf^ jQ J

*y

JT] r r

J?l rr

8
K=iac3C=sJ:

1^^
(^*ii

ijA

H'WW

J}* IjJ- dl^^J

cj-Cf-iL/r

i[fCf'i^ffi

^^^"^LdJLIrfi-^-'^^iHM-LI^

^TT^
a
10

rir^

fjj

rr^ri^^f'

=?

J J

.rj4]^j j;37i
i

i-^-J

iJ]p

pr

r"p^^-

Arr. by Serly

^-

'wj^t)

f p

Folk-Song

^^

=^P

5=5
^

*'*

*==*

Lesson 20
Modulation to a relative kev is made after an authentic cadence, through
an active chord, preferably the dominant. In Exercise i of Section B (i), the
ill St chord in the second measure is the I of Eb, the next the V^, which resolves
to the

I of c minor.
In a melody skips are

chord.

The

made

to

and from the lowered 6th degree

in the

V^ chord, should

jV \A \

scale-line, or skips in the IIJ or

follow.

IV'

iv\
Section A.

Construct periods in the key of Eb major, modulating to the relative


Employ the meter and rhythms given on page 185, and
skips in the IVJ chord.
(i)

minor key and back.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

191

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause after the last chord in Eb and think the chords in c minor;
pause after the last chord in c minor and think the chords in

Eb major.
Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.
Read the entire exercise mentally. Test.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page i6i.

Note. There will be trouble at first in hearing the numbers of the soprano, especially if the early
training in music has been to sing the same numbers for the relative minor and major keys.
It is only by
constant practice and mental drill that this will be corrected.

^
Ir,

V-^H.

a J

'i

V'

^^

^
I

u
^^

f
V

^ ^ fT
I

rf

T rr

rf

rf

J=^

rr^

f=

jA

i.

^
-

ff

I.

-U
f

laiv

V.'

m
n

i
r

mm T

J J

I,cV'

r ft iT

rr fT rr
r

f rr

rt

T=T

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

192

Practise the following Intervals:


(2)
In the IV^ chord there will be a minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the 4th to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; a major 3rd from the 3rd
to the 5th of the chord, the lowered 6th to the 8th degree of the scale; an augmented 5th from the 3rd to the 7th of the chord, the lowered 6th to the 3rd
degree of the scale; and the Inversions of these Intervals.

Play the I, IV^ IVJ, IlL, V^ and I chords In Eb major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the Intervals, determining their sound In relation to the root
of the chord and the key-centre.

(a)

(b)

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

(c)

(d)

|ii
tl

Q o

U'

o o

XE

pti

-O-

"WVW

-O-

llM

n L

IV

11

30E

jiu &^^^

IV

and F major.

tl

DCC

m.

1F=^ ""

8ttu 8

O H "

i;i|"

||--

''"^

^"S^QBE

re
XT

f^^

IV

31:

^P.

JQl.

8 " "

I|

ZSSL

TT

xx:

TT TF
(3)

Exercises for Melodic Dictation


(a)

Play the

I,

IV, III,
Test.
(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)

V^,
I2,

V^,

and Sight-Singing:

Eb major; the V^, I in c minor; the VI,


Eb major. Read each exercise mentally.

chords of
I,

in

Play each melody, determine where the modulation occurs, and


study its effect.
Play the antecedent phrase twice; sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-names, then the letter-names. Sing both
aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire period and sing from memory.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Transpose to the keys of D, C, and F major.
Have the melodies dictated as outlined on page

(f)

(g)

^^ ^

HJJJrjijMr'Tirr

v^

El,

IV

19.

Jmj.j^j
nj

I.

rv''i

193

V''

jm
I

C minor

a pJ
yj

>

'

-a

JMOjJ JJlJ'Jftp
F^^
^n,

J'r^

r-

# s^i^h

^
l

J
^"TH
~~i~a~~

^'

^pJ

JIJ

"!

^p

1^

i^

^^ ^
^^

iir

i)J

pr-^f pf t'rJ

II

J'

^^
P

jf

II

c^' eJJ

^
i-

^J

P"

^'

'^

~i

^^^^s

^"1-

I I

If

|iii.rniri|

J^J3?jj
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

194

\^-f-U^ i'M'T r^ j-'ir^jpi'f^

IS

=3

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

(a)

Practise, using the

the

(1)

I
4

Syncopations in 3/4 meter.

Drill.

rhythm

arm movement

to Indicate the meter,

and

sln|

to la on a major scale.

,ji

r3

,J)J

J)J

J.

II

J-

II

(2)

J)

J?33 J~7^l___yS^
1

<4)

^rj

<5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

J)

J3J333i;i

^J^>J)J ;3J513iJ
iJ
J r3_;^ iJT_/nr3 ir]
^,2 ;ij?s,;iji3ir33ir^j^.raiJ
J) J
J3iJ
J353.J
^,J :>r J3,nj

o^

Practise the following Chord Successions:

(2)

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)
(e)

Note.

Sing each exercise mentally. Test for pitch:


Sing the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing to la, thinking the number- and the letter-names.
Sing from memory.
Sing from dictation.
In modulating, keep the chords

common

to each key in mind.

I!

ill
^

^n
"11

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

105

^3^
jJ pF

^l"''!'

vj

IpJ- J

JiJ i^^r

\^Y

ipj.

jJ

-^T

*^

Wj c minor.

I^S

jij

pf

ipj. J

[Tf

li^r

[T^^

Ijj

J^J

nl

rv.

^l;'l,

jj

ji\^

pr |;TYU-ij^p)f-!j)J.j

JiJ.

V'^Et major.

^^

i>j

pr

^ iJu.^
iTJ^TT^ii^^

IV%.

IV.

^h'-i,

jjj i^rrJ^j.

liu j

lj)iji)J

J ij)jgj'f

ijji'j.

J;

frrjfJoJ

VJ,

4''''i'i[

J J-

piPf ig lJjJ.U>

piiJ)| J)j

njk

nlnj

fi'

JMfrJj' j

J.

ji,J.UMi'nJ.^

plO^Lju- JJ.
I

Pp

J^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

196

Ei>

Sing the following chord successions to the rhythm of

(f)

K^ major

IV,

I,

iv
El>

iv^, h,

Y\ i

I2,

IV,

I,

ir, VI,

IV,

I,

I2,

v^

to the

I;

rhythm

of 2:

Eb major

v^ oV^

VI, I

v^

II,

I,

VI,

A!>

major

IV,

iv

I2,

I,

IF,

Et>

maj

V2,

11^,
A!,

maj.

vL

vi, i
Et>

c minor

I,

ii,

major

IVi, IVj

VL

V],

minor

major

il

major

IV, IV^,

oV,

I2,

Kb major
I2,

v^

'ivuuiL

Eb major

V7,

l'.

Sing the exercises for pitch and key


of El? major.

(g)

(3)

on page 188

drill

in

the key

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

^hi^

[J

criff

^h PS^\^

i-J^ 1^^

CJ

rr

'CJ^

cj
.J^

^
\

Mozart

''

I^\\

rEirjia^r^'
p-

JT3

j:73

s^

4^'#'r

J .p J-73
p

^^

If ^'CJ"

J,

Fr

J'

j,n ^

^
^

-Ji.

^
Beethoven

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIOIIT-SINCING

te

d'

197

Beethorea

=*

^-

'

^''1'

Pf

r'p icr^ricr^M[j.rj-jiijj
|
Sailor Song

Richter

4^'#LEr^frirlni^^r!j;^j
n.

J.

Hj ;;CT

jiJj'J

Ji'j-

ijii^'r'

ici/Cc;

i'^TlJ

i^'

'^^j.jj

r'

'

ir

i^

p^
Abt

#j

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

198

if^'

ll>'#

i^j

-TO

r-p

"

l^' J

Ij-

^^s
^^

^^Sl-^JMJ

ip

J'

^-

g=Fg-F
.*!*!'

J J.^

J- J

w>
p^f

'ef

-^ J J.^ J
J>J'JJ>^
J.
'

Schubert

^:n=g

J. *
3 a rat
t

\fi-

l^h

jir^iJT]
jj

ij

M g j-^^m
i

\^' F
i

^M
^J^ ^
^'

11

iE

'

c'j^

rj'r

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

199

Brahms

Lesson

21

In a melody, skips are made to and from the lowered 6th degree in the V'
chord. The scale-line, or skips in the V^ and qV' or I chord, should follow

i
V^k
Section A.

Construct periods in the key of A major, modulating to the relative


(i)
minor key and back. Employ the meter and rhythms given on page 194, and
skips in the V^ chord.
Section B.
(i)

Practise thf following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)

(c)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause after the last chord in A, and think the modulatory chords to
the next key; pause after the last chord in f:^, and think the
chords in the next key; pause after the last chord in E and D,
and think the modulatory chords to the next keys.
Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.

id)

Read the

(e)

Have each

entire exercise mentally.


exercise dictated as outlined

Note. In taking dictation


the chords afterward.

it is

good practice to take the numbers and pitches of the soprano

^ m^ nm
3

ij 4 i i

v'*iii' -j

v7

fi

rr

yj

on page 161.

rf rr

f i

Ev7

14

iw

V AVJ

Ii

DV^

r r

AV^

rr

first,


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

200

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

In the V' chord there will be a minor 9th from the root to the 9th of the
chord, the 5th to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; a diminished 7th from the
3rd to the 9th of the chord, the 7th to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; an
augmented 2nd from the 9th to the 3rd of the chord, the lowered 6th to the 7th
degree of the scale; and the inversions of these intervals.
(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Play the I, V^ oV, oVj, Vj and I chords in A major. Think the


sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

and

" "

-o

&-o

4^"^

o-

^iiQ

""^ui|^.""*""

IV^

II

o" U *
f^

ho |:^=t

jto

major.

|"i

^k

:n:

g=ff
-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


|)|t

..

^^^^^^

TT

Exercises for Melodic Dictation

(3)

The

_^.tf8

|t

i|8

ks.

O
8 *a=|

11

o"

it

(a)

Play the

A
(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

I,

V^

-o

oor

and Sight-Singing:
A major to f^ minor.

chords of A, V^ I, of f# minor, VI, IV,


each exercise mentally, noting

last five

V^

oV^,

where

of

the

modulations occur.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire period and sing from memory.
Transpose to the keys of A, G, F, B, B\? major.
Have the melodies dictated as outlined on page 19.

IV

V^

Il^jl

J^

iJ
I

4^N p^
f

i^

pp

I'lVi

i"i

,j'j

j>

j,j

i i

fTf^

pJii:^rriri
j^n ^/r^r
i

i.-jj

i,

i'r

-I

-'
i

^Pr

J>p

^P ^m

AIIil

'!^^

fH

^^

The

Read

major.

11

ll

melodies modulate from


from i^ minor to A major.
first five

201

iTiiJ-'J

pN j.^

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

202

rr\jrT]^\rri !T\jij]^jm

rii

i^

^^^

I
I

^N^
j

,1

|>*iV^-'

^n:

^ ^"a^ ^^
I

8
#Tl

4^7*f

lLr"uJj

J.

jn

F^

'

r,j.

prJ>ji|j

-^'^

J.

ipf

rJ^ rriJ>
\

i^r

JJ^ ^

p^i

ir^j

ip^

^'J

J-

crJ>i

^^

'

pic/J TpiJ.J.j

[jirp^

irp

Section C.
Absolute Intervals.
Is a minor 9th in the major scale from 5-b6; In the minor scale from
5-6; in the V' chord. To sing a minor 9th, think a minor 2nd and sing the
upper tone an octave higher.
(i)

There

(a)

(b)

Play any tone on the piano and sing a minor 9th up, using first the
number-, then the letter-names.
Play any tone on the piano and sing a minor 9th down, using first
the number-, then the letter-names.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(2)

Rhythmic
(a)

Drill.

Syncopations

203

in 4/4.

Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter, and sing
the rhythm to la on a major scale.

(Df J

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

204

ma

j_ji^

p i^'j.

^^

f
\^

li

Or

t^

f3=^

major.

p^'

^^

Mr

oV*k

ijjj^jii'i'^^
nl,.

oV^

U^^

nit

Vg

A major.

JJfP

V^ft minor

^ i|JJ^

V A major.
''*

.L'

'

i^-'ii

>V2^
o'a

II

ii.

1^

h-^

ii

^^"^

jHijJ-

ii

A major.

|jj)4

"

^-

j.

^5

jiJ^r"

V.'

jij

U.

jiJ'^-

n^ Emajor_

J.
I

IV.

n^v.

*l

jJ'f

j.ij^^- ij-ij

.1.

^^

i-i'^'T
1.

;u

^i.
Illk

iiJ"

N-

-'^i

JDFJNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^^^

q-TT
P

V A major.

M
#

hr-

l-l

Ii

4.iiJ^-i)iJ-jj~ j.i^'"i

^-Jf

rv A major.

vjfi minor.

205

J.j)j

j.j>^^rur '^

i
1

j.jJ'^'

^^

Vjl

(e)

Sing the following chord successions,


A major

ber-names
A

VL

(i)

I,

VI,

VL

VL

A major
(2)

V^

Ii,

ii,

iiL
E

I2,

by

HJ^, Ii

Vl, V,

D maj.
I

VL

VL

A maj.

major

then by num-

letter-,

f# minor

major

ii, 115,

I^,

first

I,

major

VI, IlL, I2,


A major

V^

fjjmin.

ir, iiL, i^, oV^,


D major

i.

i,ix,ivLi2,vLii iiL,i2,oV;,i vLil vLil vLv,i,ii3VoV',i


A

major

ivLi2,iiLv,v,L
(f)

(4)

sing the exercises for pitch and key


A major.

drill

on page 188

In the

key of

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

II

ii

Schumann

^^p

^T^

II

206

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^^m
^^
i

u^

ii

o^j

iiirriii'

in Lu

'^j'

J.

'

nm\m
n

^ irT^i^i

M"Cl;l^i^ ^P

ji

;^

^ w

f-T'P

f^

iQ[^

.n?

-nip

I'cjj

J7F

l^

-ni ^

<^'[MJtoir

Oj

qj

JT]

e^

rrj^

i!LJJ-Uf;

ii\

jihi

||

Bach

rri

.ni |Jj^ i^jJtj-^H^

4 Ll/ ^ir

*-i^-=

\l\

jp
S=F

^"p ig/r

|J

'

Ji

ILJJUf^-

pp^pp^^

if??3

fh

rrYfTjc;

^p

^cJ

'


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

LLrJ

^aa/iaffl^ ^
P

J^r rrrr'r^'T^'^

rfrr^ii^

rrt

'n

"~"

l!1j

^ft [^

^^Vr ^' trT^

m'

^'^

'

tp

"

207

Bach

^JiJ
i

'^

ir*

''^^
'"^'t^^f

E;

ri

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

208

Lesson

22

Modulations to keys other than the next related keys are known

as Extraneous

Modulations.

Extraneous modulations may be made by passing through the next related


major and minor keys in the cycle of keys. There must be at least two chords
In Exercise i of Section B (i) the
in each key to establish the modulations.
modulations are from Ab to Eb, then to Bb, going back to Ab through c minor.
In Exercise 3 from Ab to f minor, Eb to g minor, Bb, Eb, and back to AbIn a melody, skips are made to and from the raised 4th and lowered 6th
degrees in the lll^^ chord. The scale-line, or skips in the IF, V^ or I2 chord,
should follow.

Section A.

Construct periods in the key of Ab major, making extraneous modulathrough the next related keys. Employ the meter and rhythms given on

(i)

tions

Use the

page 203.

lll^\,

chord.

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause after each modulation and think the progression into the new

(a)

(b)

Test.
key.
Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.
Read the entire exercise mentally.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

(c)

(d)
(e)

Note.

Go

pulse are in the

through the exercise after it is written and see that the soprano and chords on the accented
as those on the preceding unaccented pulse.

same key

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^m m
354

847

72

J=J:

fT f
JJi llj
J
i*^
'ir rr
r^f
rYr
f

Vi

vj

EtVg''

V?

y. iiA_j
rV r r

^^'^''i>

m
6

'

BtV'' V''

J
^

'

CoV^v/ v/

^^ m
UU
^m
^
8

i rrr
i.''i>

I,

rt

^^^^ ^

1?^

i^u

(2)

f^

Atll

V''

1.

^^

rrr

m
r

J44 ^

n} f

-v^i.''i>

^
J

V'

sM ff

rrf

VI

209

ff r

-r

iM
f

Practise the following Intervals:

In the 11^^ chord there will be an augmented 6th from the 5th to the 3rd of
the chord, the lowered 6th to the raised 4th of the scale; a diminished 3rd from
the 3rd to the 5th of the chord, the raised 4th to the lowered 6th degree of the
scale.
(a)

(b)

Play the I, II^^ lll^, II^^, V^ and I chords in Ab major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and the key-centre.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

210

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

(c)

(d)

^
1

*'

*i

o bo

-ho

Db and Bb

major.

po

*'

*
"

^h"

^H

11

3i:

ft..o|8

fS=f

o "

i.iK.

O bo

pit
IllH P 11
liH git

n^b|,^a_^

!' ,t
l

n "^^8

11

<^

11

II

-e-

1'

11

ho

..=^

II

^^

"

^...

o O

po o

,K.

|^

^lY
o

jOC

^PTToo^^=yF
:-o
l^-*-*

(3)

Exercises for Melodic Dictation


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)

(h)

Play the

I,

V^,

I,

11^^^,^ I2,

and Sight-Singing:

V^

chords of

Ab

major.

Read each

melody mentally, noting where each modulation occurs and the


skips from \>6 to :^4 and ^^ to b6.
In each melody sing the last four or live notes in the key before the
modulation, then the first few in the new key; first to la^ thinking
the number-names, then singing the number-names. Repeat
several times.
For example, Melody i. Sing the second measure
and the first three notes in the third; after repeating, begin with
the dfcj, and sing to the cadence.
In each melody take the skips \}6 to #4 and j:4 to b6, and sing the
4th and 6th degrees without alteration, then in the altered form.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the consequent phrase in the same way.
Play the entire period and sing from memory.

Transpose to the keys of A, Bb, B, C, G and F major.


Have melodies dictated as outlined on page 19.

Note. While the tune is being played, relax and listen, allowing it to make an impression on the mind.
not stop to analyze, or the context of the entire tune is lost. Analyze after it is memorized.
In these
tunes in compound meter, divide each phrase into two sections.

Do

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

211

Figure 2

Figure 1

^^^^PS
V

IV7

V,I El.vJ

Partial Seq. to Fig.

Mod. Sequence

EH
^I'i)-

vj

pi

J.

II. Ai,v7

n^||i,

^r.Hi)'r

u^h

iji'i'
'I

mte

,r?f^ii

^^j.i,p--j.p^^^

\,\\.

T
uj

'l

Tg^ig

Krrj^n

\\

'i

nlm,

ri

iiHii

I'

1,

Vj

B!.V^

I,

^^

M-

j^i'^

^j^,i

'^

^=^:^
i

[^

^
^\'\}

'

''

^'^nirg^cj iLiri'
i

i-r

<_>

^^^1^

ii::i

fefe
^-

J.

ll

jj:^^

N^ r-'^

[_[;

^fes5^-.-^-Tr:5= =Jip!-E=ts^==_=4=

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

212

Bfe

P ^fhm

LJlI

't^

sg

!>

t=3

c)'

I/'

f^

jM]J,7J^MJ

s=^
S

'

|j

rj

<^

'^*

9^

m^

iJ^J

^]

i,J7J

b'T^'L/

t-^r' '^Erc/

Section C.
Absolute Intervals.

(i)

There are augmented 6ths in the major scale from \?6-i^4., b^-y, 4-^2:
minor scale from 6-tr4, b^-y; in the II J^?? ^'t ^nd VJ chords. An augmented 6th sounds the same as a minor 7th, and is sung up and down as the
minor 7th. There are diminished 3rds in the major scale from ^4-b6, 7-b2,
The diminished 3rd sounds the same as a
1^2-4; in the minor scale, ^^^-6, 7-b2.
major 2nd and is sung up and down as the major 2nd.
in the

(a)

Sing an augmented 6th up and a diminished 3rd down from the


following pitches, using first the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing each, first as b6-:jt4) determining the key of which it is a
part and resolve it to the perfect 8th from 5-5; then as b2-7,
determining the key and resolving it to the perfect 8th from 1-8.

(b)

Sing a diminished 3rd up and an augmented 6th down from the


following pitches, using first the number-, then the letter-names.
Sing each, first as i^4-\?6, then as 7-b2, determining the key and
resolving each to the perfect prime 5 and i respectively.

#
(2)

f
Rhythmic

(a)

*
Drill.

3x:

jt"

ii"

Syncopations in 3/4 and 4/4.

Practise using the arm movement to Indicate the meter and sing
the rhythm to la in a major scale.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(l)l

J)

J).

213

214

f'l'^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


;;J

nO-j

jijijijJ

ri'i^

^^=i^^=T=-v^--fr=^S-r

=i^ "^^-^^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

jj rTM-i

^\\)^

'-i'^

At

ii.

tat

i'^

^'

r^r

'

nil,

II^Hl,

rp

''^'^

''^

'

215

-^i^

'

^"i i

(e)

Sing the following chord successions,


names, then to la.
A'7

major

c min.

B\>

first

by

letter-,

i,iiLinitJ2,vi,ii,ii5,
g min.

Ai>

oV^I VLI v],ii,ivj,i2,vM.


Gl> maj.

v^

al>

min.
|

oV^

(2)

v^vLIl,IIi, oV^

vl

major

m''n.

e'

Db

major

maj.

I,II^vu,I^..,v^I v^I

bs minor
|
I"

Cl

mnj.

oV^I vLi VI,IILv^I vLii,vi,i v^I

As major

E^ maj.

C major

d minor

mai.

-I

(I)

then by number-

ii

minor

Al>

major

IVl,v^I iii,iii,,,v\l

Always visualize on the


entire chord before starting to sing it.
This is difhcult and requires slow and painstaking practice. These
exercises should be worked two or three times a day until they can be thought
and sung with ease.

Think the

staff.

(f)

(3)

Sing the exercises for pitch and key


Ab major.

drill

on page i88

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

L\h'y

JMi:i

>j

^j'^

in the

key of

ADVANCED EAR-TR/JINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

216

m^^
M

^S
^\^-

^
^JU iL

;]j Jl

/]j| j-3

^^^^p^g
^'"

ii^JiiJ^*

1''

1^

*!^

U
ii

i
i

'^b^ 1*^

rtjif

^^
^''i>

vp

[d

Bach

n
i't

p-

iJ

N^p

nn n;^^^
i

T""^

J[^

jiij^r
*
^
'

n^iJUii^

i^jii^ji7^rn

'

i'^rji

*^

,j,i'''Q^TO jji.a

aii-"QLL;

,i

::*

c^

iJ-^ji/'jj^^

j.^,i;. ii

Mozart

a^s

^ ipnj^'TP^

^r

lii^'r

J-^i^

''p

^'^

pitH'-toi

1^^ r'cfif

if

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


l|il''|l

fe*:

^MQL/n^f

ii|

^Jiii

^^

.^

LPr

^''I'^ii

^lJ^ mJ^J.

r^J^jJ^ r

f''i>

^
* E^

ii

J.

te <

i'*_f M:a=M

i j_Jff

"''

Ill

'I

np

iJ

^
J

U'^

u'^lr
i

Brahms

J^u

'^r'cirr
ji

r ^J

II

r'Cf^^'^'''

p't ^ j j

r'ljij rlij

JMJ^

<

^^''^

^f i^jj^a

P^

'I.''

ciLr^ irrr'i^iJi^

fe

J'

j/iKLJT^ LMJT^ir
(^

217

>

^p

>

^J

r[

>

^j

jJ

J^i'

218

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

If

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

rMn
3
^

>%

it

^
nn
5 4

?^
I

BVJ

ii

f p

IiFJtV^

#^
-Miy

fi^

^g

j:

?
I

BVJ

4=^

^ ^

IcfoV^

EV/

^
^
^
^
^^
frr

rrr fff

i
rp

5
ff r p r ff ff ?r

lii

^^ Ma
W
^ ^^
in

)>% i i
(2)

^ ^^
4a

^^^"#0

h^AH
iii

1^ LA

IV''

219

^^

j-i -j-i

iby

^ f#

"FT

gj

fff r

fp

Practise the following Intervals:

In the II^sj, chord there will be a double diminished 5th from the root to the
5th of the chord, the raised 2nd to the lowered 6th degree of the scale; a double
augmented 4th from the 5th to the root of the chord, the lowered 6th to the
raised 2nd degree of the scale.
(a)

(b)

Play the I, III^, II2V, III^^^,, V^ and I chords in E major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root of
the chord and the key-centre.

ADVANCED EJR-TRJINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

220

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

(c)

(d)

^
*

us

xx:

lO

or

o- ^

**

F and

major.

^"^

<

:jj^

-o-

DEx:

ti^

-a-

jj::

t]

TJ-

31:

<l
C*i
X X X^ :=3r:

x*i :&:

O" ^B=^

XT

O
XO
tiQ
i

3C

'

"

3i: II Bit

::

|C

tl
B
fall

<1

tj

-ctQ-

ti

tt

oO
B

-^J

]\jai

x<*o- ^ it il"

-o

^~

3r:
b

*** 1

j|

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

(3)

(a)

(b)

Note.

Play the I, VI, IV, IVJ, I2, 11^,,,, I^, V#, I, chords of E major.
Read each exercise mentally, noting where each modulation occurs

and the skips in the IIJ^,, chord.


In each melody sing the last four or five notes in the key before the
modulation; then the first few in the new key; first to la, thinking
the number-names, then singing the number-names.
Sometimes a measure may apparently belong to either the preceding or the following
key.

but the context generally determines which key. In Melody 1, the first
measure in the second phrase
could be they chord in either c# mmor or E major. But as the next
measure is undoubtedly the I chord
in cff mmor, it is the V chord of the same key.
(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)

In each melody take the skips in the IIJ^, chord, i.e.,


#4 to b6,
#2 to b6, #2 to #4 to b6, and contrast them with the unaltered
form of the chord.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la; sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to the keys of A, B, C,
and F major.
Have the melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

Note. ^
Reduce to chord-lines, scale-lines, single, wide and
^^^ * remember each pitch.
consecutive leaps. ^\k
Make use of the figures, sequences.

Fi^rei

Figure Z

VI

IV

Mod. Sequence

i^H^

cji

ir

Mod. Figure 1

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


Fig. 2

m [;j^

u.

^hh

^ ij:

^"'i"*

#l&

J^^^

al

l|

-i

i'

^r-"Mp

j>^,j

^j

J^*^

'^
I

iiJm

^J'J.J

r JH' If

ni^cix^ir

^V .l_/raip

j<

.fi|.

^j

<* ijj^j

J,

J.

r^Nr'cT

'
1

N-

(^

Il?

J,

V''

ji

^iiJ.p^rrnprT ^Pr^-^
"

Ellll,

p,

^Mf ^j^N^-TJ H^

J.

l^jj

AV

^i^'

^Pr

Sequence

-^,

^iS2 J.

l-^

CJ-

^"I'S'^

ua

[-

civ

Mod. and. Inv.

^
r

.Jl^

p' ^
!

i^

cj

oV?

jjj
I

J.

j^J

r XM

i^

ijj^^

"^i^

J?]

ij

p'i^'i^'^^^^

!>[ J J.J)|J-

'i-iuUJrj
c III

'

221

^
"^^
I

iiJ_J7j.j

;ip iiOi

^iJVriiJ'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

222

J ^

""

i_^

tt"

"

'

^
1

"*"~j^
*
I

e^

Section C.
Absohite Intervals.

(i)

double diminished 5th in the major scale from :ff2-b6; in


is a
The double diminished 5th sounds the same as a
the IlLj, and V^^ chords.
There is a double
perfect 4th, and is sung up and down as the perfect 4th.
augmented 4th in the major scale from \?G-^z. The double augmented 4th
sounds the same as a perfect 5th, and is sung up and down as the perfect 5th.

There

(a)

Sing a double diminished 5th up and a double augmented 4th down


from the following pitches, using first the number-, then the letter-

names.

jf

(b)

[Xe:

(2)

"

Rhythmic

|yo

Drill.

MO

ZXXL

3x:

IF

Syncopations in 6/8 meter.

Practise using the

rhythm
(1)^

W^

Sing a double augmented 4th up and a double diminished 5th down


from the following pitches, using first the number-, then the letternames.

Vo

(a)

i^

to la

on

arm movement
a

major

scale.

to indicate the meter

and sing the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

223

Practise the following Chord Successions:

(3)

Sing each exercise mentally. Test for pitch. Practise in a slow


tempo.
Sing the letter-, then the number-names.
Sing to la, thinking the number- and letter-names.
Sing from dictation. Have someone read the chord symbols to you,
and sing the letter- and number-names without reference to the
written exercises. Visualize the chord before singing. Use the
piano for testing pitch. Never play the first note of the arpeggio

(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

until

you have

tried to sing

it.

rJ'j.

|J>J

^^

iv^8.

III

III

iii

ii

'

'!'''"jj..i' 'i iii,j.


^

3:,'?
7

1%

Nppr

ri|f

||'

ii''^'j

iiii.i

[If

i|

iiJ'

ij
1

j'"'

"'"

'

II

ih 'prir
|

iBV:

ip

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

224

li

i'jj.ij-jJ
jjf rp

^-'

juj.

VI'

iJJ^J'

i;j^,

II!

jjji ^iiji^ij. ijjJr^'' J'j4.'J'i'^^^'


i

nlii,.

P^

.Mrrp

jj Jr

J'

ij

jj .iiJ ^

AVj.

'!'"'"

j^Ji

^^^

i,n.\p^

%
^"1

Ii.

^\iu. \Mi'*''-

ii.

i&

^^
i

^'I^JJ-

m
'

^jJ^J

^^

^'
'

i^4j.


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^% n

M=K

V_

c|l

225

j-j^

^'1

EV!
(e)

Sing the following chord successions,

by

first

letter-,

E major
|

names, then to
Cfmaj.

d# min.

v^

oVM

/^;

g# min.

G major

e min.

l__l ,_
VI, I

I,VI, I^, l2,Vt,

(i)

then by number

B major
I

V^,

major

Ii,

major

fft

i,iiLii.Vi2,oVM

(2)

b min.

A maj.

v^

VL

cjf

min.

maj.

IVJ, I2,VI, Ii VJ,

II^v^I.

Fj(

min.

oVM

maj.

I-

vu

major

|,

oV',i III

v^

v^

iiL

I2,

v^

I.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(4)

l^i^

I2,

Mii^

^^
^\h

j,j

ij

yj^.n^

j>

^-^

r^

.J^j

J'>J

^
1

'^

irijJ'f^iJ'^fg
;,

JT

rj]ji^\^^

^^ lMj.JlJlp.vjg

Pr

j^f

JT]

Wullner'

^^i3

^m

p.^plpji^

rrjji

^m
^^

K3E

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

226

I ^TPlf

i^F

^JU J'JjiJS

(I'^UjjI^JTJ

V Jh] > ^
j^J^HJl^J
I

^
^'

ji

1Ud

ji
I

|j ^-

^il V ^v ^ij.^^jj

|/ll

^--p

wa9 ^

J,

JJjjjj

'

j.

j.

j^ff

i^ipj

^ ^

^^i

iM^J^i

r p

eg

T'

ll

Verdi

J'J
J

Jm

^ ^

* ^

-^M J

^jj^g

.!-

j>j7j

^;j

-#

^^^^^^^ ^

A
" g jl

'

^1

"u"

j.

~j

1^^

'

^-rMT

'

yp n^

fJ- \rpf^'h^-

^.

--^

tf

^
^ ^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND

S
4<

lA

^i-

'

^^i

i.

'

d :^3t

^Tt^f-^

''

Bach

C/

^=

c/

Vi'^

'

i'

^ ^ ^^

UJJ

"d

* ^ li^

rfrrrrrrT

E:LLJ

J,

m_nTJ^JJjJJJj jM/?TT777g

JJ^^A^^^m
"^TjJLy iji

^^

X^

n h^'^srmy^ j|^

227
Handel

%'~[

^-

SIGIIT-SINGING

l^^^iJJ^

/T^

^"rrr i
Bach

^ S
^^^^si

^^bP^^^

J^vii satzrzsM
JJJinJT^hrrrnrfi J^J
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

228

aa

cjj^r

^m

^^^

pr^

^^j_ji,j>ij,r*pr

ii

j;j;j.

^j
^^''^i^*

JiJ>J

J^

rirfn rrrl
i

^1/

^B

m^jjlur TOTJUuj.JiJJ.i

JJJr.J'

rrr

n^

pj

LL:

JJ

'

"

Lesson 24
Instead of passing through each successive key in the circle of keys when
modulating to a remote key, the process may be shortened by making the I chord
of any major key the V chord of a minor key, i.e., the I of C major becomes the
V of f minor, thus covering four harmonic degrees. Also the I of a minor key
may be the IV\} of a major key, i.e., the I of f minor may be treated as the IVb
of C major.
This process of modulation is known as the Modulatory Stride.

i EE

CI fV^
The

distance

may

also

^^
f I

S00 s

31:

be shortened by substituting the

minor key when the major

is

expected, or the reverse.

of the parallel

-3
3BE

rA^p

:^
V"

In a melody the raised ist degree of the scale may be used as a passing- tone
between the 1st and 2nd degrees. Skips may be made to and from the raised
Ist degree in the Vlj chord.
The scale-line, or skips in the V^ chord, should
folio w.

i
VI^I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND

SIGllT-SINCrNG

229

Section A.

Construct double periods

(i)

make extraneous modulations.

in the

key of

major, using the Stride to


altered chords of the
Employ the meter and rhythms

Use the VIJ and

preceding Lessons as a basis for the melody.


given on page 222.

the

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(l)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause before each modulation, and think the progression into the

(a)

(b)

new

key.

In Exercise (l), first phrase, instead of resolving the V chord of G in the second measure to
chord of G major, g minor is substituted, thus covering four degrees in the circle of keys. In the
second phrase, the I of g minor sounds like the IV followed by the V of d minor, while the resolution of the
V is made in D major.

Note.

the

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Read each exercise mentally.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

(c)

(d)
(e)

i
rf

Vj

IjffV^

i=^

J^
i ^

V^

ff

f r}

^ n^ u
:U ^

i
^
I

n
TT

D V^

VI

I;,

V''

nn
n
1^
^ W fT
r

IV^

?
f

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGH T-SINGING

230

1A4
S

^ M

^^ f

ri

^
^^
^^ f

ri

i
^

Practise the following Intervals:


(2)
In the VI5 chord there will be a major 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the 6th to the raised ist degree of the scale; a minor 3rd from the 3rd
to the 5th of the chord, the raised 1st to the 3rd degree of the scale; a diminished
5th from the 3rd to the 7th of the chord, the raised ist to the 5th degree of the
scale; a minor 6th from the 3rd to the 8th of the chord, the raised 1st to the 6th
degree of the scale; a major 6th from the 5th to the 3rd of the chord, the 3rd to
the raised ist degree of the scale; an augmented 4th from the 7th to the 3rd
of the chord, the 5th to the raised 1st degree of the scale.
(a)
Play the I, VI[#, V2, I chords in
major. Think the sound of the

intervals.
(b)

Play the intervals, determining their sound


the chord and the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

(d)

and

in relation to the root of

major.

^^3BE

=8=fB=

:^

k*^"

-o-

5^

XE jtojtS o^l'J^^yFF

"^W
2cx:

(3)

3i:

8 2 hH ^

m^

it^ t|*>" 3x:

?T
V,\>^

-TTT

is:

i
jto^S

;:

<t^

sn.

#F^

n>^

-e*

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:


Play the I, VIJ#, V^, I chords of
major.
Read each exercise
mentally, noting where the modulations occur and the skips in
the Vi; chord.

(a)

(b)

In each melody sing the last four or five notes in the key before the
modulation, then the first few in the new key, first to la, thinking
the number-names, then singing the number-names.

'^^^ Stride is used in Melody 1 at the beginning of the third phrase which starts with the I
^T^A
chord
of A major, which is transformed to the V chord of d minor.
Again, in the last phrase, second
measure, the I chord of g minor resolves as the IV into the I of D major.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


Sing the skips In the
the raised prime.

(c)

V'lJ

chord,

Do

tlie

first in

231

the unaltered form, then with


skips In the other altered

same with the

chords.

Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la; sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases the same way.
Transpose to the keys of A, B, C, G, E and F major.
Have the melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)

Make

Note.

use of the parallel construction in memorizing the double periods.

=:

-r

'

vi^U

Fig. a Mod.

Seq.

HiH^r

Pijj

I2

^^

^ "
" ^J^
'^ '^"^Ji
^

figured

Mod. Seq.

Figure 1
I

nln

'^-

^h

d V7

Seq.

Seq.

^^

4y^

F V^

Bl,

V7

AV7
Fig. Mod.

rzr

2
I

Fd

(^ti
,

Pf

j)

iiEfr

f^\

II

A^-^

..

I"

IV^t

'Im
J)

'^^JJT

JIN

j,^ii J2
|

(^^li'Ji'J

-n

II

-mP f

"

"rri

''

irii^

ILQE^'J JHJ';

i't

[;J

iH^Uj

iTi^ij

i^''[i^

fi~l
'

-^"i^

EanJ^r

ir

\M

i^Y.UjjivVi'[ii

1
ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

232

(,"11

i,CT|.j^jj|,,i.

^"'1

J-

i^jttj^p

^-

iJJPij.

jjiij-3J''itJ) J*rJ p

'^i

4'"pr[j;jrhi'

icjrrp

^[i^

ifpr

Ef

J^^

rrVr^p|iic^^

ffVI
^^

4*"

Jj

J J

iJ^ pi

''
l

ii

^^r ii^^

pr JPr

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

(a)

Syncopations in 6/8 meter.

Drill.

Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter and sing
the rhythm to la on a major scale.

J>m

J)/T3 J
J J)J)J iJ3J
j~ij_/r] ,JOT_JT] ijn^J5r3,j)j
J) J_^J13133 J) J__^j53533 J~J^J~3^
J~T2

a)J
(2)

<3>

J)J~33

n 715S

ir

j^

j:^j)

iJ.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(2)

233

Practise the follozving Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally. Test for pitch.
(b)
Sing the letter-, then the number-names.
(c)
Sing to la, thinking the number- and letter-names.
(a)

Sing from dictation.

(d)

IS m

m ^^ ^M

5E
VI..

^h j>jjP

J ;)
|

y<i ^;.^j_/^

villi

j^j^^

J'j.

ir J^j,

j^jj^

1^

j>iip]^ tJ>0
a%

^i j4-fl^
I

vj.

^'1 i'^r^cxr

i^i.u^J^

r ^p J-

V!

^ ^J>^i.

^gJ

IV.

4^ti

^ j'j.

j'^f cii"

^n-

''1^^''^-^

u>{^

i^r ''^^ii^-

El>V'

^'1

^'U-

^r

j)i|JJ^

\2>^in9

|Jj.

J ^i)^j.

cV'

nit

I,

# f**^
fe

f
w

ar

v,^

r^
*

JU-

^U-U'^J^""^

Il7

nl#i>

i-L^^"
oV'^t

'

^U-

J^

^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

234

Li.^^^

iJUJl^i

i\

S5

^ft^gtat

^ J.

Vlln

l^ii

ji

jJ ["^Ji.

T^'^

^j.

ij j>;J

ii

-Jl]i.

bV'

jjjjJ I^Jj_ j^jy^J

|i-J]j_ Ij JjJ'^^

Fitnl.

I'll

l^j

jtfi>i>r

ijt^jir

Vg^

Jii^yr iCjir^-

ij^-^-^^'^^

mL

n^i,

M.ii-B^

in] ^j j

jj,jji^i^jj. ijij j

(e)

c^^^
UVL

II

CJIIV.

II

^^Jj.

^^

jiiJ'JYi[Tiirj.i^

f-^j.

jtfMttp

"ii

l^i.

yl

Sing the following chord successions,

first

by

letter-,

names,

then
A

to

la:

major
-I

Yl,

Ii, III,, I2,

VI,

I,

VI,

D major

I,

(2)

VIJ,,

Bt>

V^

I,

min.

mm.

major

VI,

I,

VII, VI,

major

i,vn,vLoV^,i,iil,vLi

major

11^, II2V, ^^m^, h, oVl, I

major
1

h,oV\i.
Ai>

(i)

d min.
r

then by number-

major

C major

VI, Ii 11^, 111,,,, I2 IVJ,

maj.

minor

vi vi,h,iii,h,v\i
e min.

D major

i'

VI, i,viivi,
(f)

ix'

v^ I iv h, iii,vi, 1! lv^

iv,h,ui,v\vi,i.

Exercises for pitch and key drill.


Sing in all keys to number- and
letter-names.
Think the sound of the entire chord,
(i)
3rd of I, R of III,, 7th of IIJs, 3rd of V^ 5th of V 3rd of I,
3rdofVi;, 5thofV^ RofI, 3rd of I V 7th of V^ 3rd of L

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(2)

of

R
(3)

I, 3rd of Vr, 3rd of VIJ, 5th of


of 115, 3rd of Ii;, 5th of IIJs,,

V^

7th of

of V,

235

V^

3rd of

R of oV^ R

of

I.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

l^^nijjjrp p

rr^'r^r.rr'^-

d-

gj

Bach

-> Jt}i^bJ ij^J ^l^l^'^^'Jj

j^''
J.

O^

^Ir

r cy j

"ijJ

^o^

rrir j^iJ^

j>

I^nr c^
l

'

y^

^
^

j.b

>''iMl7^rrrrir ^^'

^i>'i,'-

^i-

^
^=

|g

'^^PCCi'

OF

iJi^g

Cavalli

?f

^w

VZZ3E

=y

rirrCf i[;j^
i

'

^'^'^"

^^j^j7ii04';^iiivp[j'

[;(r[j:j

^'

r p

J^u-if^pi^ Jn-hvi/Jl ipjr^


i

J^J

5=*t

^^

^ *3=iat

iJ-'

^Hi nf3j^j

j.ti Jt^^*^

^^^^^^
fe

^^^

j"^
i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

236

-'i

^ J] j

j^ Pj

mrr ^i-^^ ^JT^


j

I^i pj JJ^iJ7^JJ"3

-yJJ

U'^r Elr^^

4^ j>^/^Ea'^i^'-ycr[:;Q-iJ'E&-[rrcr

^17T}mj]

4^

4^ ii-ror^jxj

^^

M-

Jj

^''mr

fii^r

j^:^<jn^ju^j:^

J7J^.i^ FrP
i

JT^j^vp

i|

i>r^Pr

i^

^"^-

^^

>

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

4^"

^j^r

^nJ'itlfcxr citcTiir
i

^^ ^
I

-4^ 1

Jj

J JT^ f

'
I

lu

rttpJ ^

|'*""[lf cllr
4*11

^ J

.^^r

^ii

yi%

'T

'^r

vJ"t|jfl]

^r

^jm^I'^

[[Egj.

^>

vi'A.rJl
^, -^

^Lttf

:::

ff

J7]

rP'%J h

nj

^ ^^5

^5t[^

^p

L.

pT

r rr}

i^,ffl ^J-ttTpTT^
j

tt;n3Ji^ g

M^iiat
^*^

^ iS

^ru-

}^

PTT'-T^P 1^^ J

^J|J) ijjn^

^w^\

f-

^^t^^p

* j|pj jn^j[;^ijjj>
fc

237

^r

rr

^s

Ul^ ^p:iSk^\r^ki-^^^\
\

PcEr^r&^ J^^ toigi

^^

C:!

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

238

^h [uF^i^Wo^i^t^^^^rht^
Lesson

25

In a melody a note which is retained by a tie, or is repeated from the preceding pulse and resolves diatonically down, rarely up, is a suspension. This
tone is felt to be a part of the chord on the preceding pulse and to stand in place

of the tone into which

it

resolves.

J-rJ J^j

T=y

may

be used as a passing-tone between the


6th and the 7th degrees, or the 7th and 6th degrees. Skips may be made to and
from the raised 6th degree in the VI^jj chord. The raised 6th degree is always
chord. The scale-line, or skips in the
used with the raised ist degree in the

The

raised 6th degree of the scale

chord, should follow.

^iH~tp^

J ^J^

P
VI'

Section A.
(l)

Construct double periods

in the

key

of

major, using the Stride to


skips in the Vlgj chord.

make extraneous modulations. Use suspensions and


Employ the meter and rhythms given on page 232.
Section B.
(l)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause before each modulation and think the progression into the

new
(c)

(d)
(e)

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Read each exercise mentally.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

^
^# rr
^
nh'i

1
I

vl

lav/

rr

u
IV

T
f
1

P
^
E y V/

ff

11

i-i

P f rr
I

IIJ

Ij

i
r

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

$m^PF
.

Ll

?rf7

i^
rr r^ ^
J

iJftj

^
n rr
i_i
.v'^ii'i

f f

*ii

n
te^

^P ^ f
(2)

r^r

I'f

w
J

i^

l^

M
^
^W

a_j

#=f#^ i

2^9

J:

fr

^
Y f^

r=f i

i
ff r ^

^^

^
r

^m
TT i

*^

f=T

Practise the following Intervals:

In the VI#^ chord, there will be a minor 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the raised 6th to the raised ist degree of the scale; a diminished 5th from
the root to the 5th of the chord, the raised 6th to the 3rd degree of the scale; a
diminished 7th from the root to the 7th of the chord, the raised 6th to the 5th
degree of the scale; and the inversions of these intervals.
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Pla7 the I, VI\ VIJ, Vljjf, VI, I chords in E major. Think the
sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root of
the chord and the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

F and

D major.

Note. If there is trouble in hearing the intervals formed by the altered tones, contrast
the intervals formed by the same scale steps unaltered.

^Q O

" "
O ^
i/ h iin.." i"'if"'^^"ii""^::;:
\

them with

O O n
O ^--X--

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

240

ZSSl

g ^xttU H o o o o
or
-

x*

O o "^

331

3r:

1% xn

3J

TT

33:
xn
x i% 3e'i

U'^U 8

""TV-

o "" 8

_o_

"ft^^J^u'

3i:

in n'i"i|'ii.^

mill

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:


Play the I, VIJ^, VJ, I, lll^^, V, I chords in E major. Read each
exercise mentally, noting where the modulations occur and the

(3)

(a)

use of the Vl-ij chord.


In each melody sing the last four or five notes in the key before the
modulation, then the first few in the new key, first to la, thinking
the number-names, then singing the number-names.
Sing the skips in the VI^jj chord, first in the unaltered form, then
with the raised 6th and 1st degrees. Do the same with the skips
in the other altered chords.
Note the suspensions and sing the two tones that make the suspension, first without the tie, i.e., placing the second tone on the
accent, then as written.
Contrast several times until the effect is
mentally grasped.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la, sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to the keys of A, D, G, C and F major.
Have the melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)
(h)

Note. In these 6/8 syncopations, keep the pulse clearly in mind


beat the meter, using the arm movements, down, up.

Figure

m *^

f^f^

As you read or think the tunc,

mrm

-<9^

v7

VI'

Ills

Sequence
''\h

'r^Jir}'j&^
I

Jm

II'

^^

r^f^_

^j>\

f^ ^~[g
i

ivjj}

Sequence

Inversion

^%

f^M^f^ inJ^;:^^
IGoV?

Ita^V

ii;i>

ij

V.

JDFJNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

tp^s^
u.
1*^

ih

<i

^-

^i-

yii^f

^p^r

^"i J
J J
J

4tt

'lcitfr

|/^

J.

r^i^^ jp

^U^

^^

XK

ii'^^^'P'T-

itJ-'^^'T

'"r

1'^'-^^^^ ^
,

^J^

JjJJTOJJJjM. |JTJJT]|j.jjj]p|

^^^^'31^
r

ttE

"I"

meS

Y^

1^

[_

r7DST

#^^ isac

i!Jj^Uf^

[J'cJQr

I'^JP

^J-

32

^^

^J^
fJQ/^
^^rV
JHY

241

j.

R/

!rii

n^

I
I

ii,J":m3i;7^
^''" ^

ii.

fifJj

*?^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

242
Section C.
(i)

Drill.
The tie in 2/4 and 3/4 meter.
Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter, and sing
the rhythm to la in a major scale.

Rhythmic
(a)

Note.

In singing a tied note over the bar, a slight crescendo

given on the note, so as to preserve the metric accent.

r75J

<1)

n
n

(2)

<4)

(5)

made up

is

J^^J

-^^^J

^imm

,r73J

r\_im^n^

J.

j^ifi

;7t7/t3 ri^Jii

to the note, and a pressure

II

r^^

n^n

i,

J.

i)

J.

J.

<6)

(7)

<8)

J)jy315 J___,.f311
(2)

/73 J^_/J3 J__^J?51 J7^


1

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Note.

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing
Work

each exercise mentally at a slow tempo.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to la, thinking the number- and the letter-names.

from dictation.

carefully for correct intonation.

il'i'iM TirTcjjj

iTi|

'|rn,J||P|^^j
Vj

Yllh

I
^

i|M%jTrTQj

),

\^ m

iJI^nj^.i

^\
-|M' jJiPr
BV'

i^j

Pm^j

j^

j'rJ

ii

ADVANCED E^R-TRJINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

IMi^jjf

n3j

jjyi

if?jj

ij

243

?irT[jj

e y*

|^

j ^^piirl-BMj ff'irl-^^ j

giiIhk

^j

'J^'J'''

^Ji|T3<fT0^^j

i|P''*nmfi,J
L

if

ipMUf.i

Enlk

fi^

^jTJr

I;,

^^i

jiJ ^ '^''^Jj

'

dV

ii

'

f^

nljii,.

'VJ'"J' tV
'*

jJ^^

i,P?V7l{;

%}

nit

iJPi'i^

^\

j^U 'UfJ U^

^-^'

^1

yi\

'i'"^,i[riini^i^jj ii.nji'iTj^i j >.injiTL!^,


If

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

244

V7

DtvJ

^fi^

m^^ 4J

{rJ4

Q hJ
I

i|J>

'

n;

vZ.

j ,3i'^T^u

i^;u

|Ji
i

-U^

iJ^J^i

^^^

btVJ

^^

i|

,ji,g

FIV

v^

nItHi>

(FM.<jTuj.,
a

n ni^

i^j J

V^.

i^j

^ji

I,

E njt

Ii

jJifHi-^Jj

jjAinjj jJcJT^^

v7-

I.
(e)

^^^

^^ ^^

j^'^^^

Sing the following chord successions,


E

names, then to
e

V^

I,

VI

111,

G ma jor

I2,

Vi

Ii

letter-,

major

oV^

then by numberB

minor

I, III, I2,

major

ll

(2)

I,

maj.

VI, Ii oV, I
E major

VI VII,,, VI,

d min.
I

vi,ii iili2 vi,ii


E major

'llL, III,,, I2,

gmin.

by

f#

VI, VIJ,, VJ,

G major

minor

a min.

la: (i) I,

first

major

IILIIk,v^I oV^i IIL,vI,IV3^VII,vLI

iviii,v,VM.
(3)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

^-==- nn ,^^^-

^^^^==-^-f-]

major

-==

"

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^,^
^

M^11^^^

r'c^c;

ft'^^

j,

J?

^
i

'l-J^^^^

/rHr' ^f^lj^

^ LE

* -TO^J?^^TJ^i^i]3^
yi ^^ '^ti ^rte-i
E^
i

Or

rrrrrc;;'^ijl^

^^

IJ

\r^^

rTr^c/r

Bach

TT]

245

^L;

hc^g

^jjj

i'^i-^^^

liJ^J

7JJ

Bach

i."

/-J

jtrr

JJJjJ

^Ip

rhjfi

i>

,^ipr

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

246

Bach

^h

j j j

r-

r^r' c/r

r'

C=s:3W
n
r

/^

JU[ricH<i^^^

IVtr^ ^

m
^^

*k

ijjj

it^

l^-i^jtf

t^^

^m

iJ

^=#=F

''f

^'

r r

lip

t^JjtJJ

^
1

c/r

l;

j:^u.>j
^^J^^
jJi

nrrr i

''p

^
^

i^

iJtfJiiJ^^ir

^[tff [J

^Lf[f

'

I"^

^^

Bach

P^J
^

^ s

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


oa

,.

f^kf-

llff-f

f-

,rr

247
(

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

248

In all modulations it is best to have common tones. Jn Exercise


Modulations.
first phrase, after the cadence in B, the next chord is the I of
(i),
B
Section
I,
In Exercise 3 there is
well, because of the common tone B.
sounds
This
G.
In Exercise 2 there is a repetia repetition in b minor of the first three chords.
tion in minor of the first two chords, then an abrupt modulation to C major,
keeping the same soprano, then a modulation back to B, through e minor, using
major, making
the Stride. In Exercise 4 there is an abrupt modulation to
the 1st degree of B the 6th of D; then a modulation to b minor and a cadence in

major.

A Diminished Seventh-Chord is a seventh-chord, all the tones of which are


minor third apart. In each major key, there are two: qV chord, and
IVL

the

#!

chord:

T'\il

li

^il
i

0*

The diminished seventh-chord

may

be spelled in four or

five

is most useful
ways and resolved as

oV^ C maj.&cmin.
II^HK

Mmaj.

Vl7|t|Dtmaj.

*#

in

modulating, as each chord


Il^ij, N\\^ or IV^i, chord.

a qV',

^}^

^ maj.&amm.

Ii;##Fmaj.
VI^#,j

Btmaj.

f%=^
^\
ifa

11

oV% Ftmaj.&fUmin.
l\^^ D maj.
VI^#|f

IV^jll,

b min.

maj.

E\,

Il^if^

^"^ G^

iV^ll, al.

mm.

Section A.

Construct double periods in the key of B major, using cadential and


sequential modulations to remote keys. Use suspensions and skips in the
diminished seventh-chords. Embellish the tones of the chord by jumping from
Employ the
the lower to the upper, or from the upper to the lower neighbors.
meter and rhythms given on page 242.
(i)

Sectior B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.
Pause before each modulation, and think the progression into the
(b)
(a)

new
(c)

(d)
(e)

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Read each exercise mentally.
Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

Note. In taking down the chord symbols, do not try to analyze the keys.
of the chords as you hear them, and determine the keys from the soprano.

Write down the symbols

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


8

rr rr

nk i

i
I

^ m ^?T^
^
11
i
^ f
r

i=*i

^
r

'

^r

GI

Ir

lev/

BV^

V^

^
^ ^ M ^ ^
^ rr r ^
n^
11 1 il 1
3|^ ^ W ^ ^ tf

^fid

-lU

gitib

^^
m^

ff ?
11 li 11
rf rr rr

^Mrr
a

(2)

249

}i

f=f

rr

iij

R^ ^

n
M di
$

f
I

i
f

^^

^m

gi

g f1

ri

uj

rr

j
I

rf r i

i
f

Practise the following Intervals:


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Play the I, V^, I chords in B major. Think the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chord and the key-centre.
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to

and

major.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

250

XT :s:xF

'

^'"^"^.c^|l.|^^^

^hririH^
""

o o o

^^

^jr

xr

ZSSl

*^

^
f>

" "" '""^'-"^^ "


^

8x^8

It

"^

a=
XE

O Op
"
" .. o o o o .. o
O M O :: 8 o
^o " bo ^ -o-x-o- o ^ o

cr

-o- rc
o o I
o o

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

(3)

(a)

Read each
I, VII3, VJ, I, lll^^, I2, Vj., I chords in B major.
exercise mentally, noting where the modulations occur and how

Play the

they are made.


In Melody i, the end of the second phrase is an authentic cadence in F^ major;
major without any introduction,
the next phrase begins with the tonic chord of
Melody
sharp.
In
tone
F
4, the first section of the
but keeping the common
section
a sequence of this figure
second
the
major,
in
figure
G
third phrase is a
in E major.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)

Note.

In each melody, sing the last four or five notes in the key before the
modulation, then the first few in the new key, first to la, thinking
the number-names, then singing the number-names. Where the
modulations are made in sequence, sing the entire figure.
Note the suspensions and the neighboring notes.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to the keys of A, G and C major.
Have the melody dictated as outlined on page 87.
In these abrupt modulations, determine the number-name of the pitch

Figure

IV

F}}V/

first,

then the letter-

Sequence

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND

St%^
|

H^r^^r.rV

ii\

I4

I2

251

Sequence

Part. Figure
I

SIGIIT-SINGING

U ^ irm

nji,

I.

^m

<^

iirr

^
^^^
"r

h:

^^

at=M

1^^

-Ir^

1tf=^

r-fft

yAiiJHcjTJ'Tr'ir^iiicj'cJ' ir

^ ^ ^11

gjtif

ft^ k^C^ r

^p

a
^i^'^ii

ii

11

ft%

f^

jHpr
&cr

i&rr

*p

LE^

i^r-J

i,

Jj j-?m
|

)1

^^

Liir i^f

ij>r

Jh^^

i-^J^^d^ iJiCi'

rj- iij-

'^ttr3.|Ji?: j ^j

n^Ty

jH.,n?^oij^j;3.

fe^

PT

ir

j^

^j^ i^f

jt

I^J.

CIf^J

j.T

-*

eLTCiCf

^ cjTc^^j
^

Ji^LJP

fi^

r^fc

ir

"

iJIJ^L^J^I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

252

^ riairiJiy^
^h^h^f^
(l)

Rhythmic
(a)

Drill.

The

Practise, using the

rhythm

to la

tie in

i^^^' j)

'

4/4 meter.

arm movement

on a major

to indicate the meter.

Sing the

scale.

(Df
4 J
(2)

(3)

<4)

(6)

(6)

(7)

(8)

J.

II

II

II

It

It

f^

jm^

It

(2)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

each exercise mentally.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to la, thinking the number- and the letter-names.

from

dictation.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

253

P^^^j^J^Hj^
viIj,

mi^T^TT^^Tr^jJLL

i'

ij

jJ

'

I^Jj

254

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


jJJ.-'J-'JJij

a'Oj

jjJ.

jjtJ.

Itt*^^^u

4iAJj

uw

'JJij

tzac

'^^"

\jk^'^^'''^'^\:>u

^''^''

ii

^jJi ^-^r7riiJj\j
i

^jJii-J-'iLirn^Jy

0*1

i^

ft^%^

^1

B L

Is^h

(e)

rxir^

|j.^
^Ih-

^jjJ- [i[;Jjj

i^jj.-rpj jy ijjj. ^jj,j

Sing the following chord successions,

by

first

then by number-

letter-,

B major

g# min.
I

names, then to
C maj

v^

I
F-''

'I

m-'inr

vL

II^, VJ,

I,

VII, V^,

V^

I,

major

(2)

"

ii^ i VI,

Bb mai

V^

V^

major

i,vi,vijvLi i,vii,vLi
B major

e min.

maj.

1-

B major

iv,i2,vM.

minor

VL

r
I,

I,

B major

iv,ivM

vii^,

(i)

maj'^r

"I

I,

la:

II

VL

iv, i VI,

I.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND

SIGIIT-SINGING

255

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(3)

^ar

[ji^

/^

rj

^.

ttJJ'yj^JUJ*drir

SteT

^%

'^^it

jj

r ^r

r r

jy J^ ^>J

^^

"t:

i'"'r

yAi

* j^JJ

ctumj
l

^l

|J

j.-3-f^3ij.

^^^-| J ^^_J__.d-

[jiTLEj-i^-

j-iJ

ii^.iir

i'^

1^"ii^

f^^
H

rr

^\W~1^- J EgfflTM'

Mozart

r> m F

Ufrr

Ti^

]iW

i^

i^r-

1^^^'^

"

"

f^
^^
"

ir rj^

rj^r/

^^

pTOiJ^JJ

I^^r^

^%isr
I

C;'^

^/i"JJJJJJi

^^

it

^u

<..

iP^^-Wr

^ r

^^

Bach

J|i < M^f,j ..-^

nm^i^-

y
P

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

256

^^

^*^

Y^'

J-

Prestissimo

"H

J..

J.,

Ji^!j!j

ji

J.

iJ^

Dvorak

^aw

^-1

ii

^i^

J^J>

^m m!W
.JTJ

4%^^
FiRf ?

^^

m mm

ttn

^iii^

i^.P
^-

a^f

^<9-

^
r

frLii^

P^ii ^i

irf*

^i

JDVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

1.

[iirifrr^r

/r

rjif

v'l.

I'c

f r

^ht

^h

Be

^h

jiJ,

iii]^

('

^^r

II

4'""f

'

i
^

1^

rr

r"

BH

il

JjJj.;)ij

ir r

'^^

IV

r-^N

J -

Mr

fH-'

I"

fr^r'

iM'f

^^^

J-

i
i

f
''!^

VI

r^^-J

i'^L^^

'

1
I

p p #

,1

Jm

H^

Am

fpl

Handel

^^'

r'T ip''^'^^
FI

fe^
r
i

jj i-ijjj

iT"

nj

ILlji^

i-

^Yrffrrrr

ic

257

ir
,

'[UJ"!

Brahms

li

IJ. ;)j

jjiJ

jj,i

IJ

J J

11

j)j

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

258

Lesson 27

When
on the

a tone

first

on the

last half of the pulse

half of the next pulse,

generally a short note.

it

repeated, anticipating the tone


An Anticipation is

f 7

'

Is

an Anticipation.

is

The lowered 2nd degree of the scale is used as a chromatic passing-tone from
the 2nd degree to the ist degree of the scale.
Skips may be made to and from
the lowered 2nd degree in the Y\v, chord.
Scale-line, or skips in the I chord,

should follow.

Section A.
(i)

Construct double periods In the key of F major, using cadential and


to remote keys.
Use anticipations, suspensions and
Employ the meter and rhythms given on page 252.

sequential modulations
skips in the \\^ chord.

Section B.
(i)

Practise the follozving Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause before each modulation and think the progression into the

new
(c)
(e)

key.

Sing the number-names of t,he soprano as you play the chords,


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

3 4 2

f^^ u &

Til

^
m ? H mrr
3 4 4

mm
^
U
u
n
^ ^ ^^^
H' ^ ^ ^ ^ s
m s^
All
f

^m
I

IV V^

Dt

'1

mi

^
I

IV V^

fefc

i p^
I

M
I

i :^^
r ftf

bbV^V^

rr

F V^ V^ V^

5^

ft

^JV

tij,j

^i

jj


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^ ^rr
^^ m ^ rr
ffr

nm

Ul
fe
n Wr f=f ^ w^
^ ^ e^ TTT
5^ ^ ^ ^

m #

TT

rr

J i

y%

tfrr

i
f

259

r r r

rrr

f f=t $

^r

^
rTI

Practise the follozuing Intervals:

(2)

In the Va^ chord, there will be a major 3rd, from the 5th to the 7th of the
chord, the lowered 2nd to the 4th degree of the scale; an augmented 4th from the
5th to the root of the chord, the lowered 2nd to the 5th degree of the scale; an
augmented 6th from the 5th to the 3rd of the chord, the lowered 2nd to the 7th
degree of the scale.

Play the

(a)

I,

V2, Nl^, I chords in

major.

Think the sound

of the

intervals.
(b)

Play the intervals, determining their sound


of the chord and the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to

(d)

^^GO

E and G

in relation to the root

major.

.,i

t*

"

i-

^18

j|o

^B
I

<

g lBE "O

It

'o-

pj

tt

*1

ffXT
f

-o

;;

..

XE

Ho
"XJ

o"

.,

o-

o>

3CE

::

TZ

MO
V

"^c- r..^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

260

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

(3)

(a)

Play the

(b)

and anticipations.
In each melody sing the

I, VJ, I,_ IIl^^, lll^^ I2, VI, VI, I chords in F major, and
read the exercises mentally, noting the modulations, suspensions

last four or five notes in the

key before the

modulation, then the first few in the new key, first to


the number-names, then singing the number-names.

la,

thinking

(c)

Sing the tones which make the suspension, first without the suspension, then as written.
Practise the anticipation in the same way.

(d)

Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-names, then the letter-names. Sing both
aloud.

Practise the other phrases in the

Transpose to the keys of B, A, E,

(g)

is

same way.
D and G major.
outlined on page 87.

(e)
(f)

Have each melody

dictated as

Note. Divide the phrases into two sections.


a complete thought and must be grasped as such.

Figure

Have

the entire phrase dictated, because the phrase

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING
<|^ r

J.

'^'

f-Q

f&

U^^

T'piiJ

p;!l

^''^

r*^ ^
j^

iji'^'t'tTp^

rTH^'-i

.pi^JTrai'^r

4
,

261

iir^r^gH^tr^^^^^

^'itLrtd''^^

M^jjJ

4^^ffar
Q

r-J'.i

NO SFCIIT-SINCINC

plJ

r"

r^^J^cJ

p ^

/I

''^

r-&

i^'

r^^' ^-i

^'^f

0' \fmL^

'

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

262

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

(a)

The

Drill.

tie in

rhythm

to la

on

6/8 meter.

arm movement

Practise, using the

major

to indicate the meter.

Sing the

scale.

Note.

Use the arm movement two pulses to a measure. The mind subdivides each pulse into
tripIn singing make the metric pulse clear to the listener bv pressure on the tied note.
This effect can
also be made on the violin by an added pressure of the bow. On the piano
this is not possible, but the pianist
will tind that his playing is much more rhythmic, therefore interesting,
if he makes the effect
lets.

mentally

(1)

^m

J.

tJ J J J

rn

J"7?33J

(6)

,^3533,

4:

j^i/Tsssj

7m

(2)

J-

J3,j.

.m

^j

J3J

J:

J^lTj}

J3J

\S7S7^J

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

each exercise mentally.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to la, thinking the number-, and the letter-names.

from dictation.

CtofJ- ijffl'^-j^Jii-Ji. loir

AV

J35333Jn[3__iJT333J

J) J.
.

7J3333J-

J)

J^,J33333r33

(7)

(8)

.J33333J

iitj

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

ifhpn[sjj

[1^ rr^
^u U'r
r-^u
.

I
\

BtV'

F Ulh

263

If-

V7

oV^t

f^nixfj, uJ^rt^iCiriijirPT-^
l

IV..

^^^

W?=^
iijk

^t-

j^J

pT'^j,

j^ pT'^j.

pT-^j.

ij

jjiJ

"IP

rtf

nltt-

E V^

I'l^

iji|jwJ^pT-Q]j.

'J^r

^^

V^|,

itfVTn:^;

Et V/.

^^
^^ S
F

^fi^iLrrJ. UJ''J^p"r^Ja

V,'

nlh-

ff^iLTj'i'^vA,

jJ'r^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

264

pr^TciT'i

i'

i'i

[i

I
i

'TiXi

vjk

Sing the following chord successions,

(e)

by

first

letter-,

F major

names, then to
Gmaj

v^
Dt>

I,

Yl,

H^^,,, I^, ^V^, I

I, 11,^,,,

^1

V\

F major

i,vu iiiyivia v^

V^

v^

v^

i,vii,nvLi

(2)

F major
I

ivi2,vi.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

(3)

^^

"'

^ffi
[}l!'''^

^^U^ it-^

jJTJ J^^J J

/JJjH 1^-^

p
Bach

^^\\l^

*m
^

=!

^'1^

^''''
i

^''W

\\-

rr''P

J.

jJ J rr

I.J

jij

"

'
I

'^

l^-'i

ij

ri'

'

'^'

i
|

^'

p- (TT

mP

J,

^J

J J. i)J

-^

'^

I^J:^

j^

^^
i

r''

['
i

H
^

^)

^'^^

"r

(ir

r''^-

j. j^j

F major

i,oVn, i,oV:,i,i, oV^,i,vLi,ii,V,vM.


bl> min.
F major
G maj. A maj. Bb maj.

i,vL,i

|^''li'

(i)

C major

major
Z

la:

major

then by numberD maj.


Bb maj

^'

p^

ii

i^-U

'

i-J:^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

265
Wullner

^^SK

^j

J-

iii^

r-

^CT

pr

W^

:zi

m ij^ j^ [jj-mui^L,ujji

4iMi

i^^ 4/"Jj3

f^^ u

jj^

''
I

''

[lf

^jjj

r'^'^B

(SV'^^i<JT^;J'1jW^3J'1i 4^
i

^""^^^
4

JitJ-^J^

cr^^

\[[^:n

m^'

^fe3

j^m:

^h^[j^i

f^

rrrrrffiif

y^iij

iij

p^

'/
i

p^j

ii

n;J^

l''l^"^JMJJJI^^
iV'i-^^JJJJ

'^TO j

^^

i^JWI^

U-

iiCJLf^^ JJ^^

Ip

'/
i

^s

jnp^

^E

Bach

^'<|J *

f ?

\i-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

266

;N'J

m
^j--iii

n,

^.t^P

ff
f
'

prprrpirPJ

r-fy n

.irT.
pr-r4^-^

|T

iT.>- h.

r^ff

iTr

^p

r-r^j.

^MJilJJ

|t>r

'

fiT f ft

^^

r-V- <pj

Jm^J ^i-

''Pf

f^

J.^MrTF|^rT''Mr7JMiiJvi

rT^rpiipiiJMrp^p

rf,f
i

^r^p^rn"^^
Wagner

^r
Vi''i,

[_^cVJ

ii-py^pi^fip-

rrri yr'^r^pirT, t.tV

V"

!>

ffiT^f

.m^rTp
'>-^s.

ni f'^pn-i^
i

pir

rpi'i=*^

Lesson 28
Abrupt modulations to remote keys may be made

at any point by a chromatic


be in any part, but is best in the
soprano or the bass. This is known as Chromatic Modulation. In Exercise 2
of Section B (i), first phrase, the chromatic inflection is in the bass; in the
second
phrase, in the soprano.
Chromatic modulation is one form of Sequential Modula-

progression.

tion.

The chromatic

progression

may

ADVJNCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGINC

267

Abrupt modulations may also be made by enharmonically changing the


This Is known as Enharmonic Modulation. In Exercise i the
pitch of a tone.
pitch Ab, the fifth of the key of Db major, becomes G#, the 7th degree of a minor.
In a melody, skips may be made to and from the lowered 2nd degree of the
Scale-line or skips in the
scale in the II;,!, chord with the lowered 6th degree.
V^ chord should

follow.

nti,

Section A.

Construct double periods in the key of C major, using chromatic and


(i)
enharmonic modulations to remote keys. Use anticipations, suspensions and
Employ the meter and rhythms given on page 262.
skips In the IIi,i, chord.
Note. The chromatic inflection in a melody mav often be either a modulation or an altered tone in
the key, the modulation being determined by the harmonization.

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

(a)

(b)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause before each modulation and think the progression Into the

new
(c)

(d)

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

Note. In Exercise 1, fifth measure, you hear that the A? has become G#, because A\> could not be the
7th degree of the scale. In Exercises 2 and 3 the key of C? could have been used in the place of B.

^m^
f

n^

m^

vj

Ii f V''

16

^
U-

^
I

DtV'

^ rr
bLu
^
p^
I

vj'

C II J

dd
^m

rr

^g i

^
m

V V

^
I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

268

^ Wm
^
mM ^ m
^U

J^

J iJ

.a

ilA

f^ ^

y-w

^^

.u

fi

^
J

^^

ff

^ W

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

In the III,!, chord there will be a major 3rd from the root to the 3rd of the
chord, the lowered 2nd to the 4th degree of the scale; a perfect 5th from the
root to the 5th of the chord, the lowered 2nd to the lowered 6th degree of the
scale; and the inversions of these intervals.

Play the

(a)

I,

IV,

II,

V2 and

IIi,;,,

Think the sound of the

Play the intervals, determining their sound


of the chord and the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to F,

ol^ffPt

^^

j|ii

..

jo

*^

.mill

31:

jto
ly-rr

-W

H b

if

chords in the key of

(b)

(d)

fe

and

,.

31:

..

>

major.

in relation to the root

major.

3x:
"O" \>U

^.g.

"

gSF^

"
"

[; [;

"^^
'ji.

3X1

35:

intervals.

XT

?^?=S^
cr

^
31:

o "

__

**

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING

269

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

(3)

I, V^, I, IIi,, IIi,i V21,, I chords in the key of C major, and


read the exercises mentally, noting the modulations, suspensions

(a)

Play the

(b)

In each melody sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the first few In the new key, first to la, thinking the
number-names, then singing the number-names.

(c)

Sing the tones which make the suspension, first without the suspenPractise the anticipation in the same way.
sion, then as written.

(d)

Play the antecedent phrase twice, sing from memory to la.


mentally the number-names, then use the letter-names.
both aloud.

and anticipations.

(e)

Practise the other phrases in the

(f)

Transpose to other major keys.

(g)

Have each melody


Figare

same way.

dictated as outlined on page 87.

Sing
Sing

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

270

hiQ

^^:^f^

JU]j''j

u.:is^

^^^^^^
|J

otii

''^^S

^^

=^

. .b

(^ajr

rpi jJj.^Jjj;jj
i

;.ijj

I^J^j jmj^jjj^j; iJ^j^P i^P]jjJ


B^ J

j^;^,JgJj^j^-jjji>

J-^JP-^ JWiiJ''^
i

^^j JJ^

rujun

'

CX;

j-

itJ

i^f'^-

T^frt.cJ'

^r^J

J.

IJ.^JjJ^^

jtJ

^^^S
(?f p

|JM^^^J-

^JT} M W

^ri'

'

*\ ^

m^'-~ m

^^

^\

Section C.
(i)

Rhythmic
(a)

tl)

J.

(2)

(3)

<4)

Drill.

Review.

Rhythms from Bach.

Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter.


rhythm to la on a major scale.

J)|J^

s^
J^__/7^ JS^

j??3

iH
,

^^

j^ J^iJ?3

1 J)

Sing the

ninh
JTT3

JT^ J^

JS^

.1

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

271

<5)

<6)

n n

;3irsj_rsj

j^j

.553/^

7^.J5Sr3

->
II

J^_^J533 J353 J333 J333 J

IT^r^JSl

JT3iJ-JJ

J J

'

jr3J331

;^ J333J

Practise the following Chord Successions:

(2)

(a)

(b)
{c)

(d)

)i

II

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

h j

each exercise mentally.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to

la,

thinking the number- and the letter-names,

from dictation.

jTJg^

^^4?=*

^5ES

^m

vi;

ii.j_J^4a

jj^j^-i^j. ijj^cxrTcr;j,

Ij

ii-

i^

^^cx/ txr

^'

'

|un>-L^4'^Ja

k^' ^-[SS
G V/.

V/.

Ci/it'^'

^^

r^

Cc;

j>jjJ^i^ili.
c

\&

g)jJtfJiNU/|J^^j. 'j)jJTJd^Tj^^ liiJ^^-^LlT


iv^Hjiiiti}t.

"

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

272

^P

^
r

m.

Ur

\i>\>

n,i.|,.

oj

LL;^-Ui jjmo-j ,j

j, j

P"^^

vji,.

jjj

'^Jj

*J

o
HiH-

.v^k

rr' lur

V/.

Gt oV^k

^S

Fjl

fcjnj

E oV^k

ji
i

J'i^^

||

E oV^.

Dl,

^^

oV^k

ITir

izat

J
IV^j}.

II,t>i,.

rTrrJjiJ

oV%.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(e)

Sing the following chord successions,

first

by

letter-,

major

names, then to
1

(i)

maj.

1^

I,IV,IIi,Vl,IVL,I VI,

C major

b min
I

v^

la:

then by numberE

Dtnaj.

273

C major

VJ,
Dt

F# maj.

m;xi.

maj

V\,
C

maj.

v^I,III,,I2,v^I.
Bl

maj.

(2)

I,IIIIII,,IoV^I' 'ov:' 'ov;^


C major

d min.

maj.
.|
I

oV^

(3)

VI, I VI, I

VL,

I,

IV, ii.,

Iv^

I.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

.mi
4i:,K

oV:,i

i"/

^^ji,j^J v^ ff
i

r tJr'^rrtirhr^ir^r^rru

r.%^r

[;

rltorTi

Lirir^i^r^r irffrrrrrLLm

#i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

27 4r

if

ti

^J

"'

'

tf

P ^m

Brahms

^m

^'-i,

#
#

g ?F

rj.

|Hr r r

^jJifJJ

>

-:
g ij-L
'

^^

if'i^

'f

bJ
,

f ^i|J

^W=^

S-S-

^
r

P J
I

L
K

'l

T3

tei

trmi

^
^

-f5>-^

^^''
1

'

rr

^^

I.

IM rirrr

pg

'
l

-W-'

!?P'
i

^g

^s

JDrjNCED EAR-TRAINING AND

l^'l'

^^

JJ

^
'^ui

VH

if H^

JJJ
d

^-Jtf-

Brahms

|fr

TTTT-rrrr

^^

|i'P

^^

ijp

1^

^^
^

^-y

f
i

m P
vtr-m

r;-

^rinrr
V

rfT

275

fp

.'n

SICf/T-SINGINC

1^

'<f

Brahms
itr

r k

rT

1^ ^r^

Lesson 29
In a melody, skips are often made from above to the lower neighbor of a tone,
An entire arpeggio may be
or from below to the upper neighbor of a tone.
embellished in this way, as the Bb chord in the sixth measure of Melody 3,
Section B (3). The neighbor generally resolves immediately to the tone, though
it may jump to the other neighbor before resolving, as in the first measure of

Melody

3,

oVji,

Section

(3).

be made to and from the lowered 2nd degree of the scale in the
chord with the lowered 6th degree. Scale-line or skips in the V^ chord

Skips

may

should follow.

m
0^%

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

276

Section A.

major, using all types of moduConstruct double periods in the key of


anticipations, suspensions and
Use
keys.
related
and
remote
next
lations to
jumping
to the neighbors.
Emby
Embellish
tones
chord.
the
in
skips
qV^i,
rhythms
given
on
pages
270-271.
and
meter
the
ploy
(i)

Section B.
(i)

Practise the following Chord Successions:

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords.


Pause before each modulation and think the progression Into the

(a)

(b)

new

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the cnords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

(c)

(d)

^M

r^

^ m
I

Vj

W
^m

I,Fv9

im

V^=J^x l

iJ ^^

i PP f^
r^
rr
u
1

VA.

DtoV? yj

ll

^
^

i^ i ^

f=

iiBi,v^

^ f?

rr r^

D V^ V7

J:

T^

1J

^^

(2)

m ^
m ^^

s^

^
^

^i ^
^^ rr

rr

^ ^
^

J=4

f^

rr

m
r

Practise the following Intervals:

The same
(a)

intervals will be found in the qV^,, chord as In the

Play the

I,

major.

IV,

IIi,

IIi,

11^,^

chord.

oV^, Vl,^ and I chords in the


of the Intervals.

Think the sound

key of

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Play the Intervals, determining their sound
of the chord and the key-centre.

(b)

277

in relation to the root

Sing the intervals.


Transpose the intervals to other major keys.

(c)

(a)

8b8

yii

o|.o

H "

3X

ol'o

.j) B)j8t|i.8

DO,.. .r
K o [?o

1.

11

" r

o^ Vj
jl

11

g(,g

^^^ g

o PO PO
-O-

1^

"

ti

it

3x:

ol'B

te b8
ti

^^^ ^- 311

oj,..^

ho "

^^

XT

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

(3)

Play the

11^,,, I2, V^ and I chords in the key of


exercise mentally, noting the modulations,
suspensions, anticipations and neighboring tones.

(a)

D
(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(g)

I,

major.

Ii,

IV,

Read each

Sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the
first few in the new key, first to la, thinking the number-names,
then singing the number-names.
Sing the measures which have skips in the IIi,^ chord. Contrast
the altered and unaltered forms of this arpeggio.
Play the antecedent phrase twice, sing from memory to la; sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to other major keys.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

1
'i

V],

n
}^

,JQ

^5 jjJ^^

..n;.n

N- J^Jj
1

GV

V^

u't^

f-r^fpS^
:ti:

li^v/


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

278

'^"1

Ih

r^

W^^ijr-^^^icJ^

jJi

J ^r^i^J^j

i,

j^^r

j/i'jjjNi-7JJ^Jjjj

jt

17

^j_j

;3ii

fe=f:^
#-

P.J
MH^

j.

^'^r''^

^^

^^J

,'mi^nj.i

i^C^^^3i|J-^,jj

'"mj

im

j ,ijj,in'^
i

rai/JiJJ'

^j

'i

i-

u'jj

w^m
^^

i^

i'i|j

-'jjj

m^^f
s ^^^
1^^

jij^^j

*f
"

r^^^

|,

-1->r

ii|

j"i.^

"snpr

ttr7

tfp

Jl

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGIIT-SINGING


a

279

[j"c;Jji^JJ--^i^ 'rr[g^:jir
i

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

Drill.

Regular

Practise using the

(a)

rhythm

Rhythm

In 9/8 meter.

arm movement

to indicate the meter.

Sing the

on a major scale. In 9/8 meter use the same arm movement


meter, and mentally subdivide each pulse into triplets. All of

to la

as for triple

the rhythmic figures used in 6/8 are found in 9/8 meter.

(!)

j>j

rn

J.

(3)

J.

J.

(4>

(5)

J.

(6)

J.

(7;

J.

(2;

J
J.

i)j

J-

;),/T3
,J:

J)/T3,J

J.

J
J), J.

mm
mm

i)J

J)

J.

J.

J) J.

m
J
J
J
J

(2)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

each exercise mentally.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to la, thinking the number- and the letter-names.

from dictation.

Note. Sing the chords that are enharmonically changed, with both spellings and resolutions.
larefully for correct intonation, as these exercises serve no purpose unless sung perfectly in tune.

Worl

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

280

Uj

JJri^Jj^ jjj^^r i^i^ j4>n

i^jj

.v't.

I"" jJJ^^r

^Jj

UU^"^

-^-ij

ij^Ji'^r

i!-^

EII^Jj.

oV^k

<^^JJJ^Jr ^J|J^J^l^^

'

u^JJi^'r

Aj

>
i

^P
>^^

^PJM^JJJJ'||
oV^t.

<^^ii

j^^L^'f

^^u

GHI^j|.

yii ''^yi

kJ

^r^clT

^c^kj

kj

^r~^V

av

(|\ Ji J-i^rrf

|i

bV

ife^

"C^

V'

^i^ ijjj^n^jj

*-*

GV37.

P^

^
i

Il-

fjJ l/i
m
W-w m

t
^

U^J^T

Mj,iJji3rHi^Jj^

^[|;U

^jjiJii^
II?j}|,.

^JJ

vk

'^'J|J 'ijifJ^J Mj.

Lj^TPi

ll .j.

Vlltj,.

"

j^J^^-i'ij.

MJ

JPJ-j'U.

viIj,,

Mu

Jffr--^'

Dl oVft.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^

M-

U.

Jl

't>J

281

n:7^

C vjk

'jJ^MU'ljj rPiJI^j.
F

<|'iii.

V^

iJPrMi

iIiLaJi

I
i

jjjTjj

a V'

B!,Vi'

V\i

'

jU

UJJi'^i
El.

'

Ji^P

'u JJi
D

ul^\,.

{''jjji^ijij.

(e)

Sing the following chord successions,

by

first

iilmh [yix,iBb maj

ov:, I

(3)

in,

F major
1

ber-names,thento/a;
D major
F major

then by num-

letter-,

major

(i) I,oV^,oV?^,oVii.iVLl,VIl8 oV^, I, Il23, I2

(2)

Db maj

major

i,iiL,oV^,i,vF,vi;,ov:,i

Ivii

Gl*

maj

i.

major

I2,

v^

I.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

min^i
4^ "TO:, ^R==^

'

PTOJ:rmj

mi

jjjjiJiJ^vji^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SfGHT-SINGING

282

^i

tfj^JOTQWJJij. jjjjj^j r [mr;^^^^ii^J


i

JTTH

J.

^^

jTJ^Jrp

''Hrrff

rj'
-^-

Jm^.^

^^
^1,1'

(g,^''

Tp-'i- U-

('

^-

'^

F''

-^dL.

:3ii

3=5:

^i3:

MTT

JTJlrr^'M'

rH^'^vr

T'

>>)

h-

''

n^ ifrP"

1>*

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

V r

h^^

^p^p

^\j'

i^'''iTfr'f

^^''

Mlzi

^Tj>^.^-

\,j\J^\W^=^^i:^

p[,j.

^T' r

|p-^-^

'y^

C' m

P
pp.-pp

p^^,g

^
^
Foster

"? h-'fcr.rr''i''-'Pcr-rrp

^I'^^iij.

i-

'

*^

|^

i^p-iJ-u- iiJJ^^'/J- ip-iJ

r^JJ^J>^'l

<^

*fl-

\>d.J

283

J.

J.

1^
h

J^f

pif^

J'ij.J^^f"Tr"r p^

J>

:2

*^-

J Jm.I,
J J^lrJ
ntZ=ZZ=MZ3I
=2tt

^^

^^
^

W'

ny^

J^J- J

Mzzat

"

f^

^
^^

J^N> i|J|jJ

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

284

^j^ "

\j.

.JJ.M

*m p
*ift

^J.

fr

p^

gf
MS

f"

^^ ^^

ji'U-^J-

j-

i-U

xd,

iiOiJ

'

j.

i'jtfJ^

'^'1

IMI

rr1r^-H^

M-

#v-^

Mf'^

e3

32

y
g

r"r

^^

i|i-

"

i
.

^5

Cowen
-^

-H-

Lesson 30
Abrupt modulations may be made to any key by retaining and using as a
pivot a tone common to both keys. This is known as Pivotal Modulation. In
Exercise i, Section B (i), the ist degree of c minor becomes the 4th of
major;
the 3rd degree of
major becomes the 5th of E major. In Exercise 2 the C
in the soprano, the 8th degree in c minor, becomes the leading-tone of Db; the
Db in the soprano, the 1st degree of Db, enharmonically changes to C# and
becomes the 7th degree of d minor.
In minor the 6th degree is raised in the ascending form of the melodic scale,

and

Is

harmonized by the

IIi,,

IIJ, IVi,

or IVJ chords.

I^'i'

ijl

ii^a

hi

IV^Ij

Section A.
(i)
Construct double periods in c minor, using pivotal and all other types of
modulation to next related and remote keys. Use anticipations, suspensions,

and skips In chords embellished by jumping to the neighbors.


meter and rhythms given on page 279.

Employ

the

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords

and

Section B.
(i)

(a)

modulations.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


(b)

Pause before each modulation and think the progression into the

(c)

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page i6i.

new
(d)

3
I.
,

key.

^ J J

febt sM
&
I

rr

ri

sfeet

i.J=^

S ^ ^ ^ y^
f

*K

ft

B^ ^ ^

^^
m^ ^
f

^ ^ r^^
rr

^f

y=i

(2)

285

ii ^
r

rr
4J

^ rr
^^rr
^
^ n^ ^

Practise the following Intervals:


(a)

Play the I, IVi,, II, V^ and I chords


the sound of the intervals.

in the

key of c minor.

Think

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

286

Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root


of the chord and the key-centre.
Note the altered intervals
resulting from the melodic form of the scale.

(b)

(c)

Sing the intervals.

(d)

Transpose the intervals to other minor keys.

Uq q

bo

I,.,

" Q

.."

-0--0-

^h

* S SE

^o

,-

',-

fto

;"

331

_Q_

3i:

jm

:^

-o-

=^fff=^

;xr

* s :
(3)

-" ^8

TJ-

XT

-o-

T^

o^..^8^a oi;;

xr

..o^^o o

oi|.

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:

Play the

(a)

I,

V^,

Read each

I,

IV,

IIj,

V^ and

chords in the key of c minor.


and embel-

exercise mentally, noting the modulations

lishments.
(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

^h)\

Sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the
first few in the new key, first to la, thinking the number-names,
then singing the number-names.
Play the antecedent phrase twice, sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-, then the letter-names. Sing both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to other minor keys.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

}J
I,

? f

J/

[7

v*"

I,

n^^

'

vZ

^h-*'
I

Al>V'

h)j
rv

^'^

r p^^^ ^

nj

i^5
^^

U
I4

rv,

IV

ii

^^p^Ci^i^r

}>

r Up r" r

^P
Vi

IT pr
I

fV;^

ul

II'

ii,

;jJ

^
"^^

c IV

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^'1;

r^-

tj

Txr

[tip p J

i^

ttpi!r~r''.p

^'
I

'

'T

An
^^''1^

J j7^

j.^

^
i

i^^'^J

^^'i-''

^^
h

^^^

^J-

j)f

-^^^

[x^N-^^

JJji,J^i^r^pr ^'^\}hu^j^M\^\'^^
N.

j>

^dV^J^ 1^

r'

r||jyJr'

^^''

v'^^

''^^^^^

^^S f^-^t||g

'-

Hi

jjj

''

iJ^jiW- ^JJJ ii^J^P-^ii-'-

^'SJ-

l^i'''!,

VI

V.

287

iiJ.

*r'

ii

it

M3=i::ri

MUfijJ ^p'i i'J^


i

r^ r'r I'T'Of

J.

i,J^^-

^l

||.

'r-

^l| jj J->

E^E

J^^i'^^J) ^

l|

|J.

F^r 't

'

Ic^f

r'n-^JJ

"
'

pii

J>f

i^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

288

^h

Drill.
Irregular Rhythm in 9/8 meter.
Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter.
rhythm to /a, on a major scale.

j^^.ll

Rhythmic

(l)

(a)

a>t
8

VTir-tJ-^^l^llJJJi|JJJIjJ'JiJ'y

I"

J.

ij

/n

J> J-

Sing the

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

/TTJ

J.

'y

(2)

^j"tSTj-

Ji

^J

J.

j:t^_J"TJ .J35353J-

/n

J)

ijn

J-

J-

'J-

i-i^

J>

/n

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

each exercise mentally.


the letter, then the number-names.
to la, thinking the number- and letter-names.
from dictation.

li-

jrfJ-

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


iJ>^ pJ >U_4^i.

i-fi

jjj

289

i^jj ^Jj

-^'jji^.
J.

VI.

'P'"j,

f.

j.gjj
1,**it.

Hrl

rn

jJU
-*

),^_stJ.

jJ'i^'^JL=^
111

v/.

nil,

J^l^ "!
IT

^M
^ ^

^^

T7

--^

EI^V/.

^i"''!'

ditJ'ii'^^p^JU
E

j.

^jit>irVr^'

J-

iiJ-

iiJ-'J''i^"p^

V/.

nl-

u^i'ir^Pf

#
Al

'' ^JJ

^'^i'

JJ
.

UiJ

j_jIlHl

4J

i'l

rPr^^

J-

J-

oV?k

y-^'l.

^^Ji'4_4^IlT

ul

J-Jjl

'

^.

P^

^^i^

la

Ij^J^J^'J^

n^i,.

f^iJ'^P^i'

i.

i.

li^^-^Ui.i. JJ'rC;
l

III-

"T

^^

TTT
li-

J)

-*^

#^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

290

j)j.

k^

jj- -JT]

j_j_ J

\j^_

jij-^

^j

0*1-

AoVi^

"

-i

J.W*

'

'J

W-

'

^a

"'
j ^

.4_j-

nV:

dll^li-

*s

ll

''

''
'

J'<

^J

j'll J.

l"U]

'

J.

^J^'^^

'i

^'''^^J

'

^^

J."

l?o.

V^

Gl,

'^4.

J. "4^

ci.

'

i^''^

J-

P^J''

4:J.

c nV:

(e)

Sing the following chord successions,


c

names, then to
f

E
I

maj.
1

oVU
(3)

(i)

I,

by letter-, then by number-

III,VL

Ii,

Dl>

iiL iiL i III,,


c minor
D maj.

maj

V^

III^,V, I

c minor

c minor

minor

0^,

la:

first
minor

v^

I.'

(2)

i,

Iv^ iiL

maj.

V[,

E*?

maj.

Ivi,

III,, i2,oV^'

il

oVl,i ii;,vLi.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

^'jP^j.ni^^

'''

'iU

d'

fa

lvi,r
A

^^

maj

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

ihk-

-^
1

K ^.

fl

ji^JifJ J

In

, r-

Tr

T'

291

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

292

rff i[Tv

^''

J-

'

>J

J-'

j.^-

^i"

^r

^'^r

pJ ^ftf^^i^-'T-

M-

1^'

^^
^^

|i^^^^:Jnf^

^^

J'lr

n-

ir>Jja^'

*'

|i^

'

te^

rt

^'^"

ju^''

^i ijj ^j'f j_;3

<^i.

^'

pJ

j^

vi-

J-

n^\^'>2 OTir
^

^,,^

fiJJjW^ltt
l

Ui

ZjE

pj

ZIX

^
Spohr

^p- m^
\

MI^ JJ J^^

ADVANCED EAR-TRJINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

*a

m
^

fei

r^^tr

^i
r

pf

[ir

^[x!r'^-^^j;j |i.i^'^'^ iiJ^'^


i

^^r-^-^

n^

*i
'|''Nji;iJ^;j jiiJii:P^
i

i lU

^=fcg=r:piM=ac=

293

h|.P^^

Wiillner
i

ajj^j'

c^^=_gzcarr=

-i.

1^;=:

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

294
Section B.

Practise the following Chord Successions:

(i)

Piay the entire

(a)

exercise, listening to the character of the chords


and
modulations.
Pause before each modulation and think the progression Into
the

(b)

new

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page i6i.

(c)

(d)

544 365

56

^m n
8

i
r

*=^=

a^
J

IFoV^tv/

1,

^^j-j-

oV

^ ^^

f=^

^m
rff

.u

77'="

Vj

I,

J:

v-^

J J

^^ ^^
J

^^

i
r ff

A^

J J

'y'i

Jx

^ ^^ ^^
f

W ^ ^^

ia

IffoV^vJ

f^

^ PW

oV^

n^ V

it

tip

ii

tj
7-^ ^

:i

i r=f

ff i f
J

J
I'P

lip

I'f

WWW

i
f

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Practise the Jollozving Intervals:

(2)

(a)

(b)

4^

Play the I, IV, IIi, Y\ and I chords in the key of e minor. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chords and the key-centre.

(c)

Sing the intervals.

(d)

Transpose the intervals to other minor keys.

oiUt^tefc^

" H

3X1

i[ti

ita

"
"
^ =5^
1^"*

(3)

295

r.

It

*^;;

It

^\^

f"

ft

zr

o #p4
=EX=: II

..11

rcr

xc

XC no

IXE

"

\%

g *^

"

33:
i^

XT XT

* o cP it"

18

II"

lliQ

iifi

if^^
TF
"

'

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

Play the I, IVt,, Hit,, I2, V'^ and I chords in the key of e minor. Read
each exercise mentally, noting the modulations and embellishments.
Sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the
first few in the new key, first to la, thinking the number-names,
then singing the number-names.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-names, then use the letter-names. Sing both
aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to other minor keys.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

i,ji>jj
I

Ativ/l,

pi-r

V^

MMr

pir ^lu^^

CIVt L

yyj.

^^j

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

296

D|,I

il\j

Ii

IV

^irn

if

IV

Ti|

cvj'

Ii

^'^

l^^

HJ

I
'

-J:^

rv

'N

eV^

Vj

prprii^'ir

i^

irrra^.^i"i
*

Vj

p
I

il

KIM

'TQ^c^

E
^r-'T-Tr'

^f^^
^^^

^''rrrrr.

(S*P*rcjjrir'rc:;r- i^^r^ccrr
4'

4*

J.

^'

^^^

p"ffi'^iJ'iTOcr!!ri*'riiWtf^jjPi|jjj.^^i

[T^-

^^

^-i-

==iP

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

j-i

tjjjW^'

? iJ?^

i't

^Aj- ^^pTr

tfp

"p

297

^^

ii
^
W^fiJ^liJ^J

Section C.

Rhythmic

(i)

(a)

Drill.
Regular Rhythm in 12/8 meter.
Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter.
rhythm to la on a major scale. In 12/8 meter use the

movement

as for quadruple

pulse into triplets.


in 12/8 meter.

J>J.

<3)

}J72JT2

<4)

(6)

JT3 /T3J-

jn

/T3J.

JJ

rr:
(2)

meter and mentally subdivide each

All the rhythmic figures used in 6/8 are found

JT2
J)

J.

J)J

J)

JT3 i/T3JT3J
JTHrJ.

J)j1j

J)

J)j

J)

,j

J)J

J.

j:t^

J.

(a)

(c)

(d)

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

Jj/ts^JIJ'

each exercise mentally.


the letter-names, then use the number-names.
to la, thinking the number- and letter-names.

from dictation.

J>J~J?5

/71 J^^J

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(b)

Sing the

same arm

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

298

^^m

JMj

j.ij^j^-j jij.

m
i^^5

VI.

MM

'{".i^UJi

J.

MiMIN ejJU

iiL^r

.i

fJoV-

.i_j.

u ^[^r
'

^'1
,!

_^j.

p^^r

GV;

H i_^

dt

V'^

'^-

prJA_.

'ip[jj rr
p

^^
^^

it

_1^.

oVfl--

j^jfflj^ij.

j^ij.

jjijyp^j

i.

ijjfl^^>

en'

y 4_J.
jm

'

ti^i^^^^

^^

li_i-

jl^^'^'^ J ^^j.
l

;iiri

vz

ni^

'

LC;
nl-

r*pr-|Ct;J-

iJ-^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

4*

J.

299

o*i-

fe^
jtJ.^^'^f'

iJ.

CD

^iJ.

^^

^i.itJ^-"r~

oVft,

J|J"^ p-'T'^jflJ](J.

IjtJ-it''

unh

1^^^

trH''^
p^f

v7-

L
^p
bpg
'ipT

zz

li|J.

-.

pT

[;,l.

Urn-

Lji|

BtVi

GoV^k

^^ ^fe

i'JJ.

J-^^i'-^^T'

Et

'

''""HJ.

^^

V/.

^^PP

*^

39C

-:

Bi

i^g. |jjg
i

eoV:
(e)

Sing the following chord successions,

first

by

letter-,

then by numbermaj.

-I

names, thento/^;
e

V,

I,

oV^,

(3)

in,

2,

I.

III,,

(2)

VL

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

M^^

I,VI,in,l2, II2^,VI,

minor

iiL, VI,

I,

(i)

MLmJL

minor

V^,

FS maj.

I,II3^oV^I oV^,
I.

Vl, I

I,

III,,

VL

maj.
1

VL,
D

c3 minor

v[,

A!> mai.

maj.

ov:, I

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

300

jVri!r
i^
^ ''*?n rc:j-iir.
ii

'r

rVc!tfrr'^-?^

i|,-^J j .L.i^ j jjj.iji^j.

^m

^=

j.^ rr r

yi*/j ]jj3Jj3

^^

r"[ xj

JJ^^'^'^^j)^ !

^3

^i7^r"

j^

3jj^

rj

Bach

*'-g

^^
^

^^

m
^^'"

J.

^h''

^^^

t|j-

H'-^

J j^^'

t-

J.

n^J

^ r

~'^

^a^s3
:=)1 "ir^li

|.'.-7j..

J.

J ^^j^j

jj

i^

J
=

p Hi p.

T^-

IJ

'

-L,-^'

^r'

o-

||

r j)iJ. J.

/at

r^JJJJ.

-h

'^^

-I

^ ^

^r^

^^
^"

"^

NJjtJ^tt^i

HP

u- -

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^i"''

^^ni^J.

J.

^^'-

itJ.

>j

j ip

J.

J. J

ij u-

J'lr-^Jjgj.

^^JJ.

'

J71|

^
^

/j^/j,|jt Jl

y
i-'

vv

>

j>

*:

j.J j^r'T

j.jj,j.

^ ^ ^^S

<?

u-

^ ^^5
^^

Ztl

1^

4'

u-^^j^i'j-jiif j.j.

^^
^^''

>-

pj. Ji.J^IJ. J

J.^JJ"--

>-r-i

(^^'

U-

301

zat

^y p ii''jjj|jij:jJj

J.

jiJ^^j

^ p

ny

li.i.

f-

W.

i^^j^ [irr ^'f ^^p

Jiinij.

|^j:-J]j^j.J"?JrJH ^jjir:i

Mackenzie

ja

v^p

jjJJ'i:^,J^^i

^"r pLirr rp -^^ J^j^^^Mr plLt^^^p


i

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

302
A

Handel
nanaei

^M,y

j)irrrr

Jy JMr-Tfr pw^i'

J^j

Fii

^^ r

rpr

r p

1 ) ^^if

^^
P

'iTp

;rp

ii

prpJ'Jli-

't

r"p^<ipr

i*H*

\r

j.

P[^f^

^r:^i,i^JJ]

j^r pv ;uj^'tf

p'

u-

PfPJT]
f

i-

i^

JTMrpr^ r f^'^

^P

^ff

^1-

pr pr ph'^J

pr pr^^^-^

^^

^J'

^
Handel

Lesson 32

composition often divides into sections which vary in length from a phrase
to a double period or a series of phrases. These sections are known as Parts.
When two of these parts are used, the second answering and a complement of
the first part, the form is known as a Two-Part Song-Form. The parts of a Twopart Song-form may be of any length, though rarely shorter than a period, and
more often a double period. The cadence at the end of the first part of a

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

303

song-form beginning in major will be a perfect authentic cadence in the key, or


heavy cadence in the key of the dominant; if beginning in minor, it will be
an authentic cadence in the relative key.
a

Parti

Part

II

J^^ lj.JJi j

i#

^^

The Two-part Song-form resembles and is hard to distinguish from the contrasting double period, the difference being that the cadence at the end of a part
is heavier than that at the end of the first period.
Many hymn-tunes and
popular songs are written in this form.
In minor the 4th degree is raised in the

and IVl^ chords.

Illn^

i^m M
ali

The 4th degree

is

.nd IV5, chords.

Tvll

raised in conjunction with the 6th in the

|[-'l,j)|

y
ni

[by

l]|^ll

Ijl^H

II^i,, IIJi,,

IVji,

II

n\

rf\

ivt,

Section A.

Construct Two-part Song-forms in


and remote keys. Use
meter and rhythms given on page 297.
(i)

tions to next related

minor, using all types of modulaembellishments, and employ the

all

Section B.
(l)

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords and

(b)

'
modulations.
Pause before each modulation and think the progression into the

new
(c)

(d)

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

fimiv

iDtvJv?

IGtV^v/

BvJ i^cvj

vj

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

304

m^ m ^
^^ ^
8

5^

.U-i

'ni'i>

li

jj

J-

^j^

r'

n^ v^

^^ ^

^y

iJ=i

^^^

ItJ

g
"

I'f

i^
m

J.

^
t-^

W ^
t

rrf r

i=^

j=,t

r^

i-

^^
WtW ^

i
:^

Ji

5t

^ ^^
AJA

S3

J.

^^

Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Play the I, IV#, IIJn, V^ and I chords in the key of f minor. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound in relation to the root
of the chords and the key-centre,
Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to other minor keys.

m^

tjU

tl^

*^

o"

l\

o o

tjo

-- Qii

>

j,i.v

:;"""..
I

)f.>l'l>

11

8l|

'I

'lt' l'.'

^,
31
3X ^o

o o-

fe

3E

-e-

"bo

P'o

^
:,^8 H "||^ 8 ^S

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

305

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:


Play the I, IVi,, IVji,, IIJi,, I2, V^ and I chords in the key of f minor.
Read each exercise mentally, noting the modulations and embellishments.

(3)

(a)

Sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the
first few in the new key, first to la, thinking the number-names,
then singing the number-names.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-names, then use the letter-names. Sing

(b)

(c)

both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to other minor keys.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

(d)
(e)
(f)

v^

I2

\'^'\>

p
I,

(^i''i>

'1'^

l|^''i>

i.''i>

1'^

U'j

n^

iJ >j
fV

j>J

^j^

JTjg J
IV

j)J7^J-

v7

Btv^

>,j.

VI

J J''7 Ju.

||J.

i>r ^p^r

p r

J-

^S

^
l-P

^p

ciir^ "^ ^i^

c!:/

*riiJ>rT"r^J^rii-''

ih.Naxj3ii^iiii
ji r

hJkJ^j.

JbJ^ ip

iJ^J>iiJ^pitfJ pi^r"P''r7iiJ'ff!

^ff

ip
r p r

II

m^f

v7

h. r-

-^'^^

^-^''-

'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

306

fefe

u^r^T

jj^p p
i

kk
H^i^H^

"^1>^

111

>J.-'

hJ

U-

li

p-

p-

cfj

i-

J||JJ ii
i

^-

lip

^p

j1juJJ"Jj

t'"''^

j,^'-

riiJY"gi r *r'ir

,^

fe
i>

>

pf

|,j.

pnj)p-

''r

j^j

^J^^

pJbiM

pi^f'

j.

-i'

i
i

ir

^ri->J

r'

J. Tjijj

ij

^^rth^

^j^jyJJ^#ui|!4jd

v^r"f''^"riii^

^^^'^l>

Kj

'

^'i

^^

p^r

'T

LorJt

^Cicj^j.

pr i

^^L
'^p

^''ju

J'^^^l'"rr rhp^lJ>php|,J>p^

J^jiJ.

j,J. IJ

JJJ^^JJ

Section C.
(l)

Drill.
Irregular Rhythm in 12/8 meter.
Practise using the arm movement to indicate the meter.
rhythm to la on a major scale.

Rhythmic
(a)

Sing the

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

Largo
(Dl|

J)

Ti

ij:

.^i^j nj^j

(2)

(3)

J)

.j:

j:

(4)

J)

i/

7n r

j~2

J.

J.

J.

jrJl

juj^j rsij^j rsijnj

J3^j

"^^7-

MI.

T2

^ /n

307

/ T3

Srn

JTl

J>

(2)

;
Bach

J.
J.

J.

js^n

I.

3]
"T3
7~:

xj

in
J.

JT

J.

Practise the following Chord Successions:


(a)

(b)
(c)

(d)

|ii'ihf

Sing
Sing
Sing
Sing

,1.

each exercise mentally.


the letter-, then the number-names.
to

la,

from

thinking the number- and letter-names.


dictation.

pi'

Ij. ^1

h'

'1^1

J.

''
ii^

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

308

fe

i I

y. i

^5

'^'

'"

^-

DtVi

li-

P ^

^=5
^P^^^^
d

mfe

,)

iJ

U- iiJ^r^^M- i

1,4.

v/.

p^rp

''-'-

-1.

p^rp U.

I'-l

1-1-

J.

i^j.

i|j.

g.

i
"

[^

iJ

>r

^^ii"i-

^^

ii-

^^
?

ZE

AtL
^^''-^

J.

nit.

nl-

^
* w=^

^5

mi

^j.

^1^

V/.

i|J-^'^^'ii|J-

iiJ.

^^'i,''

U- i^''"J'^^-^

^.

JSCZ

nl-

J.

oV^.

J^T^' J.j

ij.

j.^jJ'^

c n^

Ii-

f'^J-i- U^J^'^^^M-a

^J-

^^ ^^T

^^^

d n'

f'l'

jti-^^^'"^'^'V-|i-

iM-ttJ.

^T^'ij -hJ. y.iiJ' -''^r^'


i

En;

v.^

!?^''

i^J-ii^'

i^J.|Jll>i^>

'

tfJ.^4.

^^'

^^P'TP ^-^
I

e vj

''''''

^1

^Jj-'

'"r

'^M

i^j.

^J

^j.
f rv'

I
I

'

i^j. ^j,

Ii.

Ml

'


ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

<^''|''

'I

\i

J-^^^r^'

^i-

^J.

^J-

prp

nlh

$S

kfe
izi

^1-

J.

II

J'rPr"^

rf'

rf

n(

fei'T

..

J^r

7f

.-

J-

309

^J-

h7r-'ti-h-i^^^^=t^^=

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

310

4^''!'

J'*^

jj^^^r

|7

^w

Ills-

(e)

ir

:^

^'T Pf

i^J

^.

Sing the following chord successions,


f

first

minor

Ei

(i)

la:

I,

minor

oV^
f

oV^
C

g minor

El>

maj.
1

V^

(3)

4^"

h,

III,,, VI, I.
(2)
f minor
Al> major

V^

I,

oV^

oV^I

vi, I

min.

bt>

v^

maj.

oV,
Bl>

v^

VI,

III,,

v^

I.

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

-'U[::iirh^>\iI^^U

4'"

('

ft

J?^.-T],JdU'

':xn:f^EjJ"^' ^^ r"r

'

J'

^Ji^rjlr^ ^'^'

"^'i^^

--vi^'cir

maj.

Ii

I, III,

oV^
F

maj.

111,

b min.

maj.

oV^, I

minor

3x:

then by numberC

maj.

oV^,I

letter-,

D?

maj.

names, then to

by

Pr- J

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^ V j^

[_Q7^[T.r

J'lJ

-^cdlrJ^ij j-i^jg-^Jj

l^ii

4*" -i^Tjpj: jirJ- jjJj. J] j_j >

pr'i^'^

'r

p"r

^^

j.jJJ.:

^^ ji^'-T^^j. ;^

'lr

311

[ifT'm^fiJ ^P^i7;jJiJ]

4^1

jin-^j'[;jQ^;jjT:iij:;gw

jij

j/J3^^^

Bach

|^''

>w-

''i."r

h
|^''|-

r f

jJ
^"f

I'p^J

^-

p r

pUJ

k.

CI;

fr ^ccr

Y^'

r p ^'T

^t-'lr

'>lUf P

J;
J>

J.

J-

'

J.

|))J

'^^ iJJjpj
i

yyp^J-

^-

^ ^ p

Kz:

pfp

"r^npr

J)jj|jMr-

pj

p r

U^ f

[/

J-

r*

4^''i.

r f^y

^-i

Pr

[7

pifp

pj py
i

^^

'^

\f^

p^^ p^^'"^'^

^ J^ r"

4i''uiiJ']r>r rr piJ- rw-^^p piji.ii


_

twr -fn-^

J-

^^-^ P^-^U
Y

FtS

Tf

^^pr^

J>_JOTr pr

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

312

Gasparini

4n
^vi

r*

V : iJ'itJ

>r

r~r

r-

>

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

*w

^i.'i>

^i

'l l'

r frfr

! V

^^'''^

s^

rf ,.p g

J. i-

>^

,,

r-

p'

?E^E5

circrf
j.

r^^

^-

[QfcXrc^N

r'

pT

mt't

^^

r^pH^Jf

Ccjrr-

^^J^JJ

lit

^^

^^

^rnVr/ir Viji

-^

irri|,ii

Lesson

313

uT^Tj

33

When

three parts are used, the composition is known as a Three-Part SongForm. In the Three-part Song-form the third part is always an exact or modified
repetition of the first part.
This is the most common construction in all art
forms. The aria da capo, most songs and short piano pieces are written in this
form. The cadence at the end of the first part is the same as in the two-part
song-form; the cadence at the end of the second part is generally a perfect authentic cadence in the key of the dominant or dominant harmony in the key;
the cadence at the end of the third part is a perfect authentic cadence in the key.

Parti

Partn

^^t

cjQjiJ^p'iiO[^irL
Part HI

In minor the 2nd degree

is

lowered in the

II.,,

11^

and qV^ chords,

k
m
#
ni.

n^t

v^i.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

314
Section A.

Construct Three-part Song-forms in c# minor, using all types of moduand remote keys. Use all embellishments, and employ
the meter and rhythms given on page 307.
(i)

lations to next related

Section B.
Practise the following Chord Successions:
Play the entire exercise, listening to the character of the chords

(l)

(a)

(b)

new

key.

Sing the number-names of the soprano as you play the chords.


Have each exercise dictated as outlined on page 161.

(c)

(d)

322

565 542

3^

Ill

ff

^r

?^^
I

rVji

V,

v/v

714342357

^M

so:

lEnJ V

^ W

^^

ILL
f

ii
^

^
^ft

rr

iU

rr rr

m
i

J.

rr

i |J .U

icjv^v^

avJi, vj ifjv^v

fefe^

^^

and

modulations.
Pause before each modulation and think the progression into the

ff*f

aJ

^
M4
1^
m

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING


Practise the following Intervals:

(2)

Play the I, IV, IIn,, V^ and I chords in the key of c^ minor. Think
the sound of the intervals.
Play the intervals, determining their sound In relation to the root

(a)

(b)

of the chords and the key-centre.


Sing the intervals.
Transpose the intervals to other minor keys.

(c)

(d)

am

H
o

tl

-TTT

"

:^g

A ^^

3B^ a

ii it^

^"* it^

0 8

o 8 U xy

"

:.

H-^8

,.

TT

n 2XC

^11

^^ s

f>

f*

33-

^s

its it" t

H..OO g|^ |S|8 )

^t||tt|j

Mt>

^l

acii^'Trr

jOl.

^^

U o

^
^

a u

;;

jd:

$m

(3)

315

31:

^r-^

"
b .i
j^ j

^o

31:

vt>

xi> 3:ji

*
acit

"

jjo
Xtl t^^TT

*^

11

II

j[

o_
ito tto

**

;;

ilu

<

"

gf>
its

p:

j|*ir:^

11
;t

jjo

jjS

^^

o H"

It

DOC
c:

Exercises for Melodic Dictation:


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
(e)
(f)

Read
minor.
Play the I, IV, Iljt, IV^ and I chords In the key of
embellishmodulations
and
the
noting
each exercise mentally,
c:{:j:

ments.
Sing the last few notes in the key before the modulation, then the
first few in the new key, first to la, thinking the number-names,
then singing the number-names.
Play the antecedent phrase twice. Sing from memory to la. Sing
mentally the number-names, then use the letter-names. Sing

both aloud.
Practise the other phrases in the same way.
Transpose to other minor keys.
Have each melody dictated as outlined on page 87.

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

316

Sequence

Figure

c|

V7v^

Modified Repetition

^%

i^Fm-

yj

iir

Cjl

vj V^

v^

V^

hk vvJ>
c IV

piV

A ^^

P
tt

fe

rf

yJ.

P'

a'

IV

i^

Kz:

mr

prr-Tf

i'

*-#-

|j>-rn

pr

,j

yJu

jnj^j ji^j

-'''*

v^

pr' r

VI

pr pr pj

ir

1^^

i>

npij

i
|

J'

-^'r

^
r

Br-JT]J

r7

^'i^

if

rit

J^,

J'^-

j.

i^'T

h^^ijJ-

f^j jj (I'l^

^ u-

v^

r'

>

P'

j.j.

^'

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^% vrprrTrpf
^%

3 J.

%w
^-

aw

.J

y
y

r p

f^

J>r

-^M'-l

p ir
i

pr

'

l"^-

11 '
J

J.

If

>

tf^-J^

P
i

r'

'

^-

>

s^

J.

'ip

'

iMz:

^-

^-

J^

^^ ^

J-

^/jp lie/

pirn

rTii^^-^r^ut-m

^ M-

ifc

317

r r

f*-'

Section C.

Rhythmic Drill. Five Pulse Measure.


meter Is generally the result of combining a duple and a triple
meter. The duple and triple measure are signified either by the beaming, by
the slurs, or by dotted bars dividing the measure.
The Tschalkowsky example combines a duple and a triple measure. In 5
and 6 Debussy draws a dotted bar to show the division. In 7, Elgar shows the
measure by the beaming.
(i)

five pulse

a)| J J J73J J ,J
J J

Tschaikowsky Path.

J.

;73J J iJ?37?3J.

iJJ J73JJ
iJ J

;73J

J.

iJ?3J?3J)n

.1

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

318

(2)

I J

iJTUt^J.

JJJ

r~J

,JU11^ I777T3

JTT3 JJJJJJ ./7T7 JJJJJJ

imjirni xsm

j j j j j j

(3)

(4)

(6)

J>J

J.

J)J

J.

J.

im

J.

=J.

J-

.;t3J.

J.

J-

-J.

J.

J.

=J.

;T3.J

J>J

,J. J>J

Debttssy

J.

j.

iJ.

JT2 it:

'.

J-

fn 17^

(6)

J)J

j.

J>J.

JTl

=J.

Elgar D. of G.

Voice part

<

/dJ

I J'J
8
(2)

J^J~J

J'J

i
>S
I

/773

;?

II

Practise the following Chord Successions:


Sing each exercise mentally.

(a)

Sing the letter-names, then use the number-names.


Sing to laj thinking the number- and letter-names.
Sing from dictation.

(b)
(c)

(d)

I^'I^H

>.

J.

)J

^^

^^^

22:

IV.

^'''J,jy

ij.,iJr

N.Ju.

J.^Ti

iv:

iv'ii.

-P"-

P
i

P ^M-

i*

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIQIIT-SINGING

l'l'ii

II

ij

ItI'

t'

^m

IJ

319

I
i

IV^I

AI,-

^^

"T

I'

ii

^i-

g.

'

ii

\^

I,

JV "~I^-

I^i-

^i'|,i.

'

nlit-

"ll""|

'j

c8

(e)

IJ.

I.

vik

Sing the following chord successions,


cj{

names

then to

(i)

la:

VI, I

V, VL

ii

i,

vL

ii, ir,
minor

VI, I
fSmin.

cS minor

(2)

VL

v^

cij

>,vl,i,vl,ii,iv5,i2,vLi.
(3)

Exercises for Sight-Singing:

letter-,

i,IlLoVW,I
VI,

I,

VI, I

m A

iiL VI,

I2,

then by numbere minor

maj.

cj?

uu,

by

first

minor

d minor

a minor

F major

V,

111,^2^1^^^^
m inor

ivi

maj.

vi,ir

12,
d minor

vi, i

in* VI,

I.

in, vi, i

"

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

320

Li/" n-^T

rrT7i

jj]T7^rJpj:;jJ_J.

4""

^^^

^*ii

^*ti

jp^

r^i*^j_j^

w=m=m- r

^
i
i

JP

M
r

II

j~j( j

j_j)

JTJ

ill

*l

793=

ih-m-0-

^^

^^
?

ir

^^

~as.

^ i

iplir

I"

3==

Tschaikowsky
^r^

ftV

-'

Pf

m*
'

r-

-Wi

r
i

j.

pr-

i^

j^ ^

rTrp
Trr

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

3t3=

55

3t

<P

Tschaikowsky
<

^ii

^^' H
i

Ji^p

hp-pr

cTp

^^^ ^
V- K

ji-'^^

J ^J J J

^^'A

4^'i>k

~f

O
r

[^

iir
i

ii

err rrcr

Ff=S

|^

!>

J.

hjj

j^

J_ JM

^W s

p''yucf

ir'

^^ Jl -H^

[J

jjJ^J^

^'^>^

ir

f^^

J.

'

321

nfr

'"^

[J

iiJ

'
l

^
^

/7\

^^''1^

^^''1-^

j^hh.

'r-

r
i

'^T

1*'

cj

i^^r'^r

ft^rai

Fj-

^"

t=^=^

;^jjJ JMrrcTf' p^
^j rr
i

rr^

Chausson

322

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

m^^

''t;^j|j^j

if

jii

ffp^rnrfi:

fl^^

J J J ji>^

j^''

J^J

^ii

fTp^n^ rP

tNfH

jj

J J

'^

'

iJti

^.i

i)(J^

;;jr

it^jjjjjj^

**

'

[J*

^jy*
I

^^

|J??^i'J

i^J J]j

zz:

ADVANCED EAR-TRAINING AND SIGHT-SINGING

^^^'h j-jj

i|>

l ^>

)i

J|tJj|j^jj^j

ii

# E^^^=5
i>*

^h'i>k

i^

^^>

J.vinnii|j| P^ jj^j

^j^^^Ji
^|)JH'HJ

i
I

iJn

|ii''i,'"i.

^T^ > JjJii^

iJ-

^^ ^M
5^

"

1^

Jj] IjjJ

'

JuJj ^iv^^tt'^^'*'

j>

J
i

rr irrr

i!\[Ss^ ^

"^^^^

'^'hi'^|J||Ji|JJi|J |i"l'

IJJ^

piijj.j

J.

n^T

p-

jjjj p-^ >ij,

^^\K \'

^^

)
i

M^^^

g'jj^
|.J

^^'i^

^'q;

f<nJ

ii

323

IIH

^^

JJT

^g^^ ^TTT =^^='^'*=^^ ^=-"r^--=-H--:^

INTERVALS
Lesson

OOs:^o^:gOCT

prioo^o, oogr^o^
.

J|armonj>
A

Practical Application of Music Theory


Including the Study of Melody Harmonization, Broken Chords and Arpeggios, Transposition, Modulation

By

and Improvisation

GEORGE

MUSIC THEORY

is

WEDGE

A.

become
equipped musician, and

a study which has

essential to the fully

which, In consequence, most pupils take up as a part


of

their

proper musical education.

It

is

generally

followed as a separate subject from the pupil's chosen

instrument or particular

very few realize

field;

its far-

reaching application and value.

This book

is

pupils of piano
theoretic point

an endeavor to show the teachers and

how

to apply, at the keyboard, each

and to give
Price

exercises for practice.

$2.50
(In U. S. A.)

OB. ^cfjirmer,

3 Cast 43rb Street


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W^

Wedge, George Anson


Advanced eax-training
and sight-singing

Music

<35.

&0
m