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32.973.26-018.2.

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# 2005 "".: . . . : ".. ", 2008. 576 . :
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ISBN 978-5-8459-1068-4 (.)
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32.973.26-018.2.75

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, ,
, JOHN
WILEY&Sons, Inc.
Copyright 2008 by Dialektika Computer Publishing.
Original English language edition Copyright 2006 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.
All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. This translation is pub
lished by arrangement with Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The
Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, and related trade dress are trademarks or
registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, b e , and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and
may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley
Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
ISBN 978-5-8459-1068-4 ()

ISBN 0-7645-9704-3 (.)

, ,
by Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2006

- "", 2008,

19

I. #

27

1. Windows- #

29

2. #

47

II. #

55

3. -

57

4.

73

5.

85

III. -

6.

115

7.

141

8.

177

9. #

199

IV. -

223

10. -

225

11.

231

12.

261

13.

283

V.

309

14.

311

15.

339

VI.

373

16.

375

17. # ++

385

VII.

391

18.

393

19.

419

20.

445

2 1 . Visual Studio

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22. #

525

565

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19

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29
30
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31
32
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33
36
37
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2. #

47

47
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52

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57
58
59
59
60
61
62
63


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63
64
64
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4.

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73
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74
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77
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86
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93
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98
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103
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III. -

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115

,

-

115
116
117
117
120
122
123
124

#




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124
125
125
127
130
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7.

141

141
143
149
150





-

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DOS

Visual Studio 2005

150
152
153
154
156
162
162
163
163
166
167
169
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8.

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this

177
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183
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185
188
190
191
192
193
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9. #

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200
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225
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226
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11.

231



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231
232
235
235
236
237
242
242
244
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10

246
247
249
252
252
253
256
260

12.

261






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261
263
264
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268
269
270
270
270
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276
278
281

13.

283


is

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283
284
284
285
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302
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304
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308

11

309

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311

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311
312
313
315
315
316
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326
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329
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330
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15.

339








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340
340
341
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344
344
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345
347
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352
353
355
356
358
360
362
363
363
364
364
365
366

12




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422
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20.

445


:


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451
452
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21. Visual Studio

487







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487
488
490
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491
493
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494
495
497
498
501
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14

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!

507
509
510
511
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517
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22. #

525

.NET


# SharpDevelop
SharpDevelop
SharpDevelop Visual Studio

SharpDevelop

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526
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541
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565

15

VI.

373

16.

375

The name 'memberName' does not exist in the class or namespace 'className'
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375
377
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17. # ++

385



-
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386
386
387
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388
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VII.

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18.

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381
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393
395
398
400
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406
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19.

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421
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13

. (Stephen R. Davis) ( )
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, + + ( + + For Dummies) + + Weekend
Crash Course. L-3 Communications.
(Chuck Sphar) Microsoft,
++, 1997
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{ //

2. #

49

// Program ,
p u b l i c c l a s s Program

{
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{
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//
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Microsoft Visual Studio 2005<=>Visual Studio T o o l s o V i s u a l Studio 2005 C o m


mand Prompt.
50

I. #

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:
using
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2. #

51

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52

I. #

, ,
. Visual Studio .
D e b u g ^ S t a r t , Visual Studio
.
Windows.
, ,
<Enter>
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, , M a i n ()
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.

2. #

53


,
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58

II. #

// m 2
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60

II. #

// 4 5 F
int nFahr = 4 1 ;
int n C e l s i u s = ( n F a h r - 3 2 ) * ( 5 / 9 ) ;
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d o u b l e 15-16 .

62

II. #

# d o u b l e ,
d o u b l e ,
. d o u b l e f l o a t
,
.



:
dCelsius =

(dFahr - 3 2 . 0 )

(5.0 / 9 . 0 ) ;

- d o u b l e -
C o n v e r t T e m p e r a t u r e W i t h F l o a t .

ConvertTem
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: 1 0 0
: 3 7 . 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8
Press Enter to t e r m i n a t e . . .


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.

3. -

63

Pentium ,
,
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64

II. #

decimal m l ;
decimal m2 = 1 0 0 ;
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//
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3. -

65

b o o l i n t (, , f a l s e 0)
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66

II. #

string
s t r i n g .
, .
//
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:
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3. -

67

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//

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68

II. #


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3. -

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nValue = ( i n t ) l v a l u e ;

70

//

II. #

3.


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l v a l u e i n t , ,
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//

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76

II. #

n = 1;
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4.

77

4.3.
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... true, ...

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b = 10M > 12M;

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=
9;
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9.9999... 10? ,

78

II. #

. Pentium #
, , t r u e .
f 1 f 2
:
Math.abs(fl-f2*3.0)<.0001;

//

. . .

t r u e . . 0 0 0 1
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(!)

4.

&

(2) ;

79

# 1 2,
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(1)

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(1)

(2);

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80

II. #

. ,
:
int
uint
long
float
decimal
double

* int
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=>
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uint
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, 2 * 3 i n t * i n t *
int 6.


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double d R e s u l t = nl

d2 ;

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.
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i n t * i n t d o u b l e * d o u b l e . # d2 i n t ,
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d e c i m a l .
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4.

81

, i n t * i n t :
int nl
double
double

= 10;
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nl

(int)d2;

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nl;

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82

II. #

, - .
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:
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.
1 2 ,
,
.
3

.
. i f ,
5, " ", , .
.
, 1 2 .
:
int = 1 ;
double b = 0 . 0 ;
i n t nMax = ( a > b ) ? : b;
,
nMax . b
, d o u b l e , .
?:

d o u b l e ,

i n t :
int = 1 ;
double b = 0 . 0 ;
i n t nMax;
/ /
nMax = ( i n t ) ( ( a > b )
/ / . . . :
nMax = ( a > b ) ? :

:
? : b) ;
(int)b;

#, ++
. . .

4.

83


> , ...
> w h i l e
> f o r
> s w i t c h

:
using S y s t e m ;
namespace H e l l o W o r l d
(
public

class

Program

{
/ /
s t a t i c void Main(string[] args)
{
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " : " ) ;
/ /
s t r i n g sName = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ( ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(", " + sName);
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " <Enter> "
"
...");
Console.Read();

,
#, . , .
,
-
( ?...),
.

. " " ,
!

, .
.

# i f :
if

()
II

}
//
//

if
b o o l (. 4, ""), ,
. ( true),
, .
.
if , :
// , - :
/ / 0 . . .
i f ( < 0)
{
// ... 0
= 0;

,
, , 0.
,
, ..
if ( < 0 ) = 0,-. ,
.

if
, .
, , (
). #:
//
decimal mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal * (mlnterest / 100);
/ /
decimal mTotal = m P r i n c i p a l + m l n t e r e s t P a i d ;
m P r i n c i p a l
m l n t e r e s t ( 1 0 0 ,
).
m l n t e r e s t P a i d ,
m T o t a l .

86

II. #

, ,
. ,
(, ,
...), C a l c u l a t e I n t e r e s t , -,
.
// C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t
//
// . ,
// .
using S y s t e m ;
namespace C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t
(
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c void Main(string[]

args)

{
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sPrincipal = Console.ReadLine();
decimal mPrincipal =
Convert.ToDecimal(sPrincipal);
// ,
if ( m P r i n c i p a l < 0)
{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " "
" " ) ;
m P r i n c i p a l = 0;

}
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
s t r i n g s l n t e r e s t = Console . ReadLine ;
decimal mlnterest =
Convert.ToDecimal(slnterest);
// ,
//
if ( m l n t e r e s t < 0)
{

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " "
" " ) ;
m l n t e r e s t = ,-

/ /
//
decimal mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal * (mlnterest / 100);
/ /
d e c i m a l mTotal = m P r i n c i p a l + m l n t e r e s t P a i d ;
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( ) ; // skip a l i n e
Console.WriteLine(" = " + mPrincipal);

5.

87

Console.WriteLine(" = "+mInterest+"%");
Console.WriteLine();
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " = "
+ mlnterestPaid);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " = " + m T o t a l ) ;
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > "
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
}

}
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t !

. W r i t e -
L i n e ( ) , s t r i n g .
, . -
, . -
>
.
!
<Enter> s t r i n g R e a d L i n e ( ) . !
d e c i m a l , !
d e c i m a l , Con
v e r t . T o D e c i m a l ( ) . m P r i n c i p a l .
R e a d L i n e ( ) , W r i t e L i n e () T o D e c i m a l () - I
.
, . 7,
" ", .
- , ,
.
m P r i n c i p a l .
, .
. ,
,
W r i t e L i n e ( ) .
:
: 1 2 3 4
: 21

= 1234
= 21%

= 2 5 9 . 1 4

= 1493.14
< E n t e r >

...

88

II. #


:
: 1 2 3 4

-12.5

= 1234
= 0%

= 0

= 12 34
< E n t e r > . . .
if . #
, .

i f . Visual Studio
T o o l s O O p t i o n s , T e x t Editor, # ,
T a b s . S m a r t Indenting
, .
T a b S i z e .

else
. ,
m a x
:
// b
// m a x
int max;
// . . .
if ( > )

// . . .
max = ,-

max

- '

"

// . . .
if ( <= )
{
// . . . b m a x
max = b ;
}

'

if ,
. , .
# e l s e , ,
, i f .
e l s e :
// b
// m a x
int max;

5.

89

/ /
i f ( > )

...

{
// . . .
//
max = ,-

max;

}
else
{
// . . .
max = b ;

max

}
, ; -|
. max .

else
e l s e , |
e l s e ,
. ,
:
//
// max
i n t max;
// ,
max = ,/ / . . .
i f (b > )

{
// . . .
max = b ;

max b

}
, , ml
. , , , !
. . .

if
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t ,
,
. . , ,
,
, .
, ,
? ,
.

, , ,
. if
.

90

II. #

i f , i f ,
(embedded) (nested).

CalculatelnterestWithEmbedded-

T e s t if ,
.
// C a l c u l a t e I n t e r e s t W i t h E m b e d d e d T e s t
//

//
. ,
//

//
.
using S y s t e m ;
namespace C a l c u l a t e I n t e r e s t W i t h E m b e d d e d T e s t
{
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c void Main(string[]

args)

{
//
//
int nMaximumlnterest = 50;

/ /
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sPrincipal = Console.ReadLine;
decimal mPrincipal = C o n v e r t . T o D e c i m a l ( s P r i n c i p a l ) ;

/ /
if ( m P r i n c i p a l < 0)

...

II...

...
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "

");

}
else

I {

// . . .
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string slnterest = Console.ReadLine;
decimal mlnterest = Convert.ToDecimal(slnterest);
/ /
// . . . if

(mlnterest <

m l n t e r e s t > nMaximumlnterest)

{
/ / . . .
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
" " +

5.

"

91

" "
+ nMaximumlnterest) ;
m l n t e r e s t = 0;

}
else
{
// ,
//
//
decimal mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal *
//

d e c i m a l mTotal
//

(mlnterest / 1 0 0 ) ;

= mPrincipal

+ mlnterestPaid;

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e () ,// s k i p a l i n e
Console.WriteLine(" = "
+ mPrincipal);
Console.WriteLine(" = "
+ m l n t e r e s t + "%") ;
Console.WriteLine();
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " = "
+ mlnterestPaid);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
= "
o t a l), +
mT

//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > "
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();


. ,
. , e l s e .

. ,
.
if :
if

(mlnterest

<

||

mlnterest

> nMaximumlnterest)

, m l n t e r e s t 0 nMaximu
m l n t e r e s t . , n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t
, .

.

92

II. #

.
. n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t ,
50.
, .
. ,
n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t .
n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t , , 60,
, .
6, "
".
,
:
: 1 2 3 4
: - 1 2 . 5

< E n t e r > . . .

50.

,
:
: 1 2 3 4

:12.5

= 1234
= 1 2 . 5 %
= 1 5 4 . 2 5 0

= 13 8 8 . 2 50
< E n t e r > . . .

i f
b o o l .
, ,
i f .
.
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t " if
.
, .
, ?
(, Microsoft Excel
, , ).
,
. (loop).

while
w h i l e
:

5.

93

while{)

{
II ,
//

}

w h i l e . ,
.
, .
- , ,
, .
,
.

. , w h i l e , ,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
;
, .
w h i l e C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e , C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t
. .
// CalculatelnterestTable
/ /
//
using System;
namespace C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e

{
using

System;

public

class

{
public

Program

s t a t i c void Main(string[]

args)

//
//
i n t nMaximumlnterest = 50;

/ /
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sPrincipal = Console.ReadLine();
decimal mPrincipal = Convert.ToDecimal(sPrincipal);
//
if ( m P r i n c i p a l < 0)

...

94

. #

II...

...
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " ) ;
}
else
{
// . . .
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string slnterest = Console.ReadLine();
decimal m l n t e r e s t = C o n v e r t . T o D e c i m a l ( s l n t e r e s t ) ;
/ /
// . . .
if ( m l n t e r e s t <
I m l n t e r e s t > nMaximumlnterest)

/ / . . .
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " +
" " +
" " +
nMaximumlnterest);
m l n t e r e s t = 0;

}
else

/ / ,
// ,
/ /
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sDuration = Console.ReadLine();
int nDuration = Convert.ToInt32(sDuration);
/ /
Console.WriteLine();
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" = "
+ mPrincipal);
Console.WriteLine(" = "
+ m l n t e r e s t + "%") ;
Console.WriteLine("
= "
+ nDuration + " y e a r s " ) ;
Console.WriteLine();

/ /
i n t nYear = 1;
w h i l e ( n Y e a r <= n D u r a t i o n )

{
//
decimal mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal * (mlnterest / 100);
/ /
mPrincipal = mPrincipal + mlnterestPaid;

C#

^ 5.

95

/ /
mPrincipal = decimal.Round(mPrincipal,

2);

/ /
Console.WriteLine(nYear + "-" + mPrincipal)
//
n Y e a r = n Y e a r + 1;

/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > "
"
.
Console.Read();

") ;

: 1 2 3 4

: 1 0

CalculatelnterestTable:

:12.5

= 1234
= 1 2 . 5 %

= lOyears
1-1388.25
2-1561.78
3-1757.00
4-1976.62
5-2223.70
6-2501.66
7 - 2 8 1 4 . 37
8-3166.17
9-3561.94
10-4007.18

<Enter>

...

i
, . ,
1234 . 12.5% 9 3561.94 .
.
# , , ,
2223.70 2223.7. 0
,
9, " # " (# 2.0 .)
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e ]
.
, ,
n D u r a t i o n .

96

II. *

w h i l e , n Y e a r ,
1. " ", ..
. ,
nYear, , n D u r a tion, " "
" ".
" ".
d e c i m a l . Round ()

.
nYear = n Y e a r + 1; n Y e a r 1.
, , nYear,
. 10 ,
n Y e a r 11, .. 10,
w h i l e , .

,
.
- n Y e a r C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e
w h i l e , .
, n Y e a r ,
. , ,
. w h i l e ,
.
w h i l e .
:
i n t nYear =
while

1;

(nYear < 10)

{
//

...

...

}
( n Y e a r = n Y e a r + 1 ; . )
n Y e a r 1,
. (infinite loop).
(
).
, .
.
, ,
...

5.

97

,
, .

do...while
w h i l e d o . . . w h i l e . |
, :
i n t nYear = 1;
do
{
/ / . . . . . .
n Y e a r = n Y e a r + 1;
} w h i l e (nYear < n D u r a t i o n ) ;
w h i l e , d o . . . w h i l e
, n D u r a t i o n .
, w h i l e .

break continue
b r e a k c o n t i n u e
b r e a k
. c o n t i n u e
, .
c o n t i n u e ,
. , ,
.
,
, (
, , .
:
if

(mPrincipal

>

(maxPower

mOriginalPrincipal))

{
break;

}
b r e a k , if
, .. maxPower . Ons
b r e a k w h i l e (nYear<=nDurationj
,
.
-
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e W i t h B r e a k (
).

98

II.

cyjvijviy

loo

:25

: 1 0 0

= 10 0
= 25%
= 100 y e a r s
10

1-125.00
2-156.25
3-195.31
4-244.14
5-305.18
6-381.48
7-476.85
8-596 . 06
9-745 . 08
10-931.35
11-1164 . 19
< E n t e r > . . .
,
1000 , 100 !


C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e ,
,
. ,
, .
w h i l e b r e a k
, C a l culatelnterestTableMoreForgiving:
//
CalculateInterestTableMoreForgiving
//
// .
//
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace C a l c u l a t e I n t e r e s t T a b l e M o r e F o r g i v i n g
[{
using S y s t e m ;
public

class

Program

{
p u b l i c s t a t i c v o i d Main ( s t r i n g [ ]

args)

{
//

5.

99

//
i n t nMaximumlnterest = 50;
/ /
/ / ; ,
//
decimal mPrincipal;
while(true)

{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sPrincipal = Console.ReadLine();
mPrincipal = Convert.ToDecimal(sPrincipal);
/ / ,
if ( m P r i n c i p a l >= 0)

{
break;

}
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" ");
Console.WriteLine ( ) ;

}
//
decimal mlnterest;
while(true)
{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string slnterest = Console.ReadLine();
mlnterest = Convert.ToDecimal(slnterest);
//
//
if


...

( m l n t e r e s t >= 0 && m l n t e r e s t <= n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t )

{
break;

}
/ / . . .
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
" " +
" " +
nMaximumlnterest);
Console.WriteLine(" ");
Console.WriteLine();

" +

}
//
//
//
//

100

,
,

II. #

Console.Write(" : " ) ;
string sDuration = Console.ReadLine();
int nDuration = Convert.ToInt32(sDuration);
/ /
Console.WriteLine();
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" = " + mPrincipal);
Console.WriteLine(" = " +
m l n t e r e s t + "%") ;
Console.WriteLine("
= " + nDuration
" years");
Console.WriteLine() ;

/ /
i n t nYear = 1;
w h i l e ( n Y e a r <= n D u r a t i o n )

{
/ /
decimal mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal * (mlnterest / 100);
/ /
mPrincipal = mPrincipal + mlnterestPaid;
//
mPrincipal = decimal.Round(mPrincipal,

2);

/ /
Console.WriteLine(nYear + "-" + mPrincipal);
/ /
n Y e a r = n Y e a r + 1;

I }
\}
}

/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " <Enter> " +
"
...");
Console.Read();

,
. i f ,
, w h i l e :
decimal m P r i n c i p a l ;
while(true)
{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " : " ) ;
string sPrincipal = Console.ReadLine();
mPrincipal = C o n v e r t . T o D e c i m a l ( s P r i n c i p a l ) ;

5.

101

/ / ,
if ( m P r i n c i p a l >= 0)

{
break;

}
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" ");
Console.WriteLine();

}
. !
, .!
, -|
, .
, , , !
, . I

, |
, , , -1
.
mlnterest

<

||

mlnterest

> nMaximumlnterest


m l n t e r e s t >= 0 && m l n t e r e s t <= n M a x i m u m l n t e r e s t
, m l n t e r e s t > = 0 m l n t e r e s t < 0 ,
(| |) (&&). if
: " , -1
( , )".
, C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a - l
b l e M o r e F o r g i v i n g , -1
, ,
? :
w h i l e ( t r u e ) .
: m P r i n c i p a l -1
, - [
.
, t r u e
t r u e . , w h i l e ( t r u e ) ,
b r e a k .
w h i l e ( t r u e ) b r e a k ,
.
:
: - 1 0 0 0

102

II. #

: 1 0 0 0

:-10

50

: 1 0
: 5

= 10 0 0
= 10%
,
= 5 years
1-1100 . 0
2-1210.00
3-1331.00
4-1464.10
5-1610 . 51
< E n t e r > . . .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
. !


, , .
:
int n D a y s = 1;
while(nDays < n D u r a t i o n )
{

i n t nAverage = nValue / nDays;


/ / . . .
n D a y s = n D a y s + 1;

...

n A v e r a g e w h i l e .
, :
i n t n A v e r a g e .
, ,
, . .
,
, .

, n A v e r a g e

.

( 5.

103

, nAver-l
a g e w h i l e .

, w h i l e
#. foil
:
f o r { 1;

2)

{
II

...

...

1
f o r !.
, , , !
f o r .
2,

.
f o r w h i l e :
1 ;
whi1()
{
I I . . . . . .
2;

, , f o r , !
:
/ / #
= 1;
/ /
f o r ( i n t n Y e a r = 1;

nYear < n D u r a t i o n ;

n Y e a r = n Y e a r + 1)

{
//

...

...

}
/ /
= 2;
, = 1 ; .
n Y e a r 1.
n Y e a r n D u r a t i o n . n Y e a r n D u r a t i o n ,
. }|
n Y e a r = n Y e a r + l ,
n Y e a r < n D u r a t i o n .

104

II. &

n Y e a r f o r ,
, .


# f o r , , w h i l e ?
, f o r
, w h i l e .
f o r ,
, : ,
. ,
, w h i l e
.
for .
, f o r
-, .
# .
f o r , , ,
, .
f o r (
4, "").
for
for(int n Y e a r = 1;

nYear < n D u r a t i o n ;

nYear++)

{
//

...

.. .

}
f o r
, .

f o r ,
, , t r u e .

, f or (; ;)

, w h i l e ( t r u e ) .
f o r (; ;)
, w h i l e ( t r u e ) ; , .

, , ,
,

. . .
5

,
false, ,
. . .

5.

105


:
for(...

...)

{
for(...

...)

{
//

...

...


. - , ,
.
, , (nested)
"", ..
:

, ,
.
b r e a k
. brea)
:
//

for(...

for

...)

{
/ / f o r
for(...

...)

{
//
if
{

. . .
( )
break;

//

...

}
}

# , . |
, .
,
, . r e t u r n
, .. ,
. r e t u r n
7, " ".

106

II. #

D i s p l a y X W i t h N e s t e d L o o p s ,
, ,
X.
II D i s p l a y X W i t h N e s t e d L o o p s
//
// X
using S y s t e m ;

namespace D i s p l a y X W i t h N e s t e d L o o p s
{
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c void Main(string[]

args)

{
int nConsoleWidth = 4 0 ;
//
f o r ( i n t nRowNum = 0 ;
nRowNum < n C o n s o l e W i d t h ;
nRowNum + = 2)

{
//
f o r ( i n t nColumnNum = 0 ;
i
nColumnNum < n C o n s o l e W i d t h ; nColumnNum++)

{
/ /
1 1
char =
;

//
if (nColumnNum == nRowNum)

. . .

{
/ / . . .
= ' \\ ' ;

}
//
// . . .
i n t nMirrorColumn = nConsoleWidth i f (nColumnNum = = n M i r r o r C o l u m n )

nRowNum;

{
/ / . . .
= ' /1 ;

}
//
Console.Write();

}
Console.WriteLine();

}
//

5.

Si

107

s w i t c h .
n M a r i t a l S t a t u s .
c a s e .
, , d e f a u l t .
s w i t c h s t r i n g :
string s = "Davis";
switch(s)
{
case "Mallory":
/ /
break;
case "Wells":
/ /
break;
case
"Arturo":
/ /
break;
c a s e "Brown":
/ /
break;
default:
// ,
/ /

s w i t c h .

S
string.

s w i t c h ()

c a s e , s w i t c h .

c a s e ,
.

c a s e b r e a k ( -
, , r e t u r n ) . b r e a k
s w i t c h .

c a s e , :
switch(nMaritalStatus)
{
c a s e 0 .case 2:
// /
//
break;
case 1:
//
break;

110

II. #

case 3 :
// ( )
break;
case 4:
/ /
break;
default:
// , ,
/ / -
/ / , , -
/ /
break;
}


g o t o . :
;
c a s e s w i t c h ;
d e f a u l t , d e f a u l t s w i t c h .
c a s e
s w i t c h .
g o t o :
// . . .
if ( > )

I'

/ / g o t o
// e x i t L a b e l
goto e x i t L a b e l ;

//
exitLabel:
//
g o t o ,
.
, ,
. , "" .
g o t o " ".
# , .
. ,
, .

5.

111

, ,
. ,
-. ,
.

.
.


> #
>
>
>


i n t , d o u b l e b o o l ,
. ,

.
, ,
. , , ,
, ,
.. , s t r i n g ,
int s h o r t , d o u b l e .
S t u d e n t .
, # , ,
.
.
, . d o u b l e
,
, ,
d o u b l e . # .
,
, ,
. # .

,
. #
, .

, "
". , ,
, ,
..


, . ,
V e h i c l e ,
d T o p S p e e d , n W e i g h t b T r a i l e r .
#,
IV, "-
"; .


V e h i c l e :
public

class

Vehicle

{
public
public
public
public

s t r i n g sModel;
s t r i n g sManufacturer;
i n t nNumOfDoors;
i n t nNumOfWheels;

//
//
//
//

}
p u b l i c

c l a s s ,

( V e h i c l e ) .
#, . #
,
.
,
( ). , . V e h i c l e s t r i n g
s M o d e l , .
s t r i n g

sManuf a c t u r e r , -

.
, . , #. .
p u b l i c -!
. , p u b l i c
. ,
11, "".
.
, ,
, .

116

III. -


#, .
"". ,
, .
i n t i n t . V e h i c l e .
, , V e h i c l e :
Vehicle myCar;
myCar = new V e h i c l e () ;
myCar V e h i c l e ,
n S o m e t h i n g i n t (, ,
# ). new V e h i c l e ()

V e h i c l e myCar. n e w
("")
, myCar.
# m y C a r V e h i c l e . ,
m y C a r V e h i c l e .
(instance) "" " ".
, V e h i c l e ,
new.
myCar num i n t :
int num;
num = 1;
num i n t ,
i n t ,
num.
num my . 1 , , # ,
1. , V e h i c l e .

new V e h i c l e

, , #, .


V e h i c l e .
1 nNumberOf D o o r s ,
myCar:
myCar. nNumberOf D o o r s = 1;
# , . myCar
V e h i c l e . V e h i c l e .nNumberOf D o o r s
i n t ( V e h i c l e ) . 1
i n t ,
.

6. -

117

, strinJ
myCar:
m y C a r . s M a n u f a c t u r e r = "BMW";
myCar.sModel = " I s e t t a " ;
( I s e t t a , 1950-
.)

-
V e h i c l e D a t a O n l y :
V e h i c l e ;
myCar;
myCar;
myCar .
V e h i c l e D a t a O n l y :

//

VehicleDataOnly

/ / V e h i c l e , ,
// ,
using System;
namespace

VehicleDataOnly

{
public

class

Vehicle

{
public
public
public
public

s t r i n g sModel;
s t r i n g sManufacturer;
i n t nNumOfDoors,i n t nNumOf Wheels,-

/ /
//
//
//

}
public

class

Program

{
/ /
s t a t i c void
Main(string[] args)
{
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "

");

// V e h i c l e
Vehicle
myCar = new V e h i c l e ( ) , / /
Console.Write(" = " ) ;
string s = Console.ReadLine();
myCar.sModel = s;

118

III. -

/ /
Console.Write(" = " ) ;
myCar.sManufacturer
= Console.ReadLine;
/ / i n t
Console.Write(" = " ) ;
s = Console.ReadLine();
myCar.nNumOfDoors
= Convert.ToInt32(s),Console.Write(" = " ) ;
s = Console.ReadLine();
myCar.nNumOfWheels = C o n v e r t . T o I n t 3 2 ( s ) ;
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ : " ) ;
Console.WriteLine(myCar.sManufacturer
+ " " +
myCar.sModel);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " c " + myCar.nNumOfDoors +
" , "
+
" " + m y C a r . n N u m O f W h e e l s
+
" ") ;
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

V e h i c l e .
, P r o g r a m
. -
.
myCar V e h i c l e ,
, .
.
.
:

= Metropolitan
= N a s h
= 2

= 4
:

Nash M e t r o p o l i t a n
2 , 4
< E n t e r >

...

, -

119

R e a d ( ) , R e a d L i n e ( ) , !
. , nil
, . ,
' \ ' W r i t e L i n e ( ) .


|
. ,
, :
V e h i c l e c a r l = new V e h i c l e ;
carl.sManufacturer = "Studebaker";
carl.sModel = "Avanti";
/ /
V e h i c l e c a r 2 = new V e h i c l e ( ) ;
c a r 2 . s M a n u f a c t u r e r = "Hudson";
car2.sModel = "Hornet";

carl

c a r 2 ]
c a r l .
,
,
, .

"" ,
. :
/ /
V e h i c l e yourCar;
//
y o u r C a r = new V e h i c l e ( ) ;
//
yourCar.sManufacturer = "Rambler";
// ,
V e h i c l e yourSpousalCar = yourCar;

y o u r C a r , ,
(null object).

, .
#

. -

.
V e h i c l e -1
y o u r C a r . y o u r S p o u s a l C a r l

120

III. -

y o u r C a r . . 6.1, , y o u r S p o u s a l C a r
, y o u r C a r .

. 6.1.

:
//
Vehicle y o u r C a r = new V e h i c l e () ;
yourCar. s M o d e l = " K a i s e r " ;
//
Vehicle y o u r S p o u s a l C a r = y o u r C a r ;
// ,
yourSpousalCar. sModel = "Henry J " ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " - " + y o u r C a r . s M o d e l ) ;

Henry J, K a i s e r . , y o u r S p o u s a l C a r
yourCar y o u r S p o u s a l C a r , y o u r C a r ,
.
, y o u r S p o u s a l C a r ,
"" (, ),
:
//
Vehicle y o u r C a r = new V e h i c l e () ;
yourCar. s M o d e l = " K a i s e r " ;
//
Vehicle y o u r S p o u s a l C a r = y o u r C a r ;
// . . .
yourCar = n u l l ;
// yourCar "
// "
// . . . y o u r S p o u s a l C a r
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " - " + y o u r S p o u s a l C a r . s M o d e l ) ;

" - K a i s e r " , y o u r C a r
.
y o u r C a r .
, ""
yourCar, y o u r S p o u s a l C a r .
,
(garbage collector) # ,

6. -

121

, . -1
12, "".

,
, , . !
, , !
.
V e h i c l e :
public class Vehicle
{
//
p u b l i c s t r i n g sModel;
public
s t r i n g s M a n u f a c t u r e r ; //
//
p u b l i c i n t nNumOfDoors;
public
i n t nNumOfWheels;
//
p u b l i c i n t nPower;
//
public double displacement;
//

,!
, , !
.
!
:
public

class

Motor

{
public
public

i n t nPower;
double displacement;

/ /
/ /

}
V e h i c l e :
public
{

class

public
public
public
public
public

Vehicle

s t r i n g sModel;
s t r i n g sManufacturer;
i n t nNumOfDoors;
i n t nNumOfWheels;
Motor motor;

//
//
//
//

, s o n s C a r :
/ /
M o t o r l a r g e r M o t o r = new M o t o r ( ) ;
l a r g e r M o t o r . n P o w e r = 23 0;
largerMotor.displacement = 4.0;
//
V e h i c l e s o n s C a r = new V e h i c l e ( ) ;
sonsCar.sModel = "Cherokee S p o r t " ;
sonsCar.sManfacturer = "Jeep";
sonsCar.nNumOfDoors = 2;
sonsCar.nNumOfWheels = 4;
//
sonsCar.motor = largerMotor;

122

III. -

V e h i c l e ,
:
Motor m = s o n s C a r . m o t o r ;
Console.WriteLine("

"

+ m.displacement);

:
Console.Writeline (" " +
sonsCar.motor.displacement);
d i s p l a c e m e n t M o t o r .
V e h i c l e A n d M o t o r ,
-.


- .
:
public c l a s s

Car

(
public

string

sLicensePlate;

//

I
,
.
:
Car c o u s i n s C a r = new Car () ;
cousinsCar. s L i c e n s e P l a t e = " X Y Z 1 2 3 " ;
Car yourCar = new Car () ;
yourCar. s L i c e n s e P l a t e = " A B C 7 8 9 " ;
, . ,
,
. s t a t i c ,
:
public class Car
{
public s t a t i c
int nNumberOfCars; / /
public s t r i n g s L i c e n s e P l a t e ;
/ /

}
,
, :
//

Car newCar = new C a r () ;


newCar.sLicensePlate = "ABC123";
//

Car.nNumberOf Cars++ ;

( 6. -

123

n e w C a r . s L i c e n s e P l a t e
n e w C a r , ()
C a r . n N u m b e r O f C a r s .
n N u m b e r O f C a r s .

-
,
.
, ,
:
class

Program

{
//

public
public

i n t

const
s t a t i c

nDaysInYear

void

366;

Main(string []

args)

{
//

int[]

nMaxTemperatures

for(int

index

0;

index

new
<

int[nDaysInYear];

nDaysInYear;

index++)

{
//

n D a y s I n Y e a r

366.

" " ( 3 6 6 ) n D a y s I n Y e a r , *
.
# . ,
c o n s t , r e a d o n l y :
public

readonly

i n t

nDaysInYear

366;

c o n s t ,
, . X
,
,
readonly.
.
, ( n D a y s I n Y e a r )

D A Y S _ I N _ Y E A R . .

,
. .

124

III. -

, ,
. A r r a y ,
( i n t ,
double, V e h i c l e ..).


.
10 d o u b l e
( , 3,
" -"):
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
double
double

dO
dl
d2
d3
d4
d5
d6
d7
d8
d9

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

5;
2;
7;
3.5;
6.5;
8;
1;
9;
1;
3;

10:
double dSum = dO + dl + d2 + d3 + d4 +
d5 + d6 + d7 + d8 + d 9 ;
double dAverage = dSum / 1 0 ;
, 10.
, 10000 ...


, . #
,
. ,
:
double[]

dArray =

{5,

2,

7,

3.5,

6.5,

8,

1,

9,

1,

3} ;

A r r a y ,
. []
:
dArray[0]
dArray[1]

dO
dl

do, dl .
0, 1, 2, ... .

( 6.
-

125

# 0, 1. ,
1 . !
d A r r a y , . f o r , , F i x e d A r r a y A v e r a g e .
11
'FixedArrayAverage
//

//
namespace
FixedArrayAverage
using

System;

public

class

Program

{
public

static

double[]

void

Main(string[]

dArray =
{5, 2, 7, 3 . 5 ,

6.5,

8,

args)

1,

9,

1,

3};

//
// dSum
d o u b l e d S u m = 0 ,f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < 10; i + + \

dSum =

dSum +

dArray[i];

//
d o u b l e d A v e r a g e = dSum / 1 0 ;
Console.WriteLine(dAverage);
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . " ) ;
Console.Read();

d S u m 0.
d A r r a y
d S u m . d S u m . !
, .


F i x e d A r r a y A v e r a g e 10
. , , 10
. 10 , ? .

126

III. -

9 ? #
. 9 10 , #
, ? ,
, .
11 ( ) ?
#
, -
. , f o r , 10 11:
for ( i n t i = 0 ; i < 1 1 ; i + + )

:
IndexOutOfRangeException was u n h a n d l e d
Index was o u t s i d e t h e b o u n d s o f t h e a r r a y .
C# I n d e x O u t O f
R a n g e E x c e p t i o n ,
, . (
, , ,
#, .)


, F i x e d A r r a y A v e r a g e ,
:
10 ;
,
.
,
, ,
F i x e d A r r a y A v e r a g e ,
.

:
doublet] d A r r a y = n e w d o u b l e [ N ] ;
N .
V a r i a b l e A r r a y A v e r a g e
.
,
, .
;// V a r i a b l e A r r a y A v e r a g e
// ,
// .
[//
[// , ,
[// .

6, -

127

namespace

VariableArrayAverage

{
using

System;

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// double,
//
Console.Write(" :
");
s t r i n g sNumElements = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
i n t numElements = Convert.ToInt32(sNumElements);
Console.WriteLine();
//

double[]
//

dArray

for

(int

new

0;

<

double[numElements];

numElements;

i++)

{
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " d o u b l e " +
( i + 1) + " : ") ;
s t r i n g sVal = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ( ) ;
double dValue = Convert.ToDouble(sVal);
//

dArray[i]

dValue;

//
'numElements'
/ / dSum
d o u b l e dSum = 0;
for

(int

0;

<

numElements,-

i++)

{
dSum

dSum

dArray[i];

}
//
d o u b l e d A v e r a g e = dSum

numElements;

/ /
Console.WriteLine();
Console.Write(dAverage
+ "

("

+ d A r r a y [ 0 ] ) ,for

(int

1;

<

numElements,-

Console.Write("

i++)

{
"

dArray[i]);

}
Console.WriteLine(")

128

"

numElements);

III. -

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

1 5:

double
double
double
double
double

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:

1
2
3
4
5

3
( 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 )
/5
< E n t e r > . . .
V a r i a b l e A r r a y A v e r a g e
,
. n u m E l e m e n t s i n t .
5.
d A r r a y
. ,
d o u b l e . n u m E l e m e n t s ,
.
,
, F i x e d A r r a y A v e r a g e
.

( ).
, . ,
, ,
.
V a r i a b l e A r r a y A v e r a g e , ,
. ,
, -
. , #
;
. 15, "
", .

Length
V a r i a b l e A r r a y A v e r a g e
f o r :

6.

129

//

doublet]
//

dArray

for

(int

new

0;

<

double[numElements];

numElements;

i++)

{
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e ( " d o u b l e "
+
(i + 1) + " : ,),,;
s t r i n g sVal = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
double dValue
=
Convert.ToDouble(sVal);
//

dArray[i]

dValue;

}
d A r r a y n u m E l e m e n t s . ,
, n u m E l e m e n t s .
, - (
, . , ,
L e n g t h , , d A r r a y . Lengtkl
, n u m E l e m e n t s .
, f o r :
//

for

(int

0;

<

dArray.Length;

i++)


, |
:
double[]
doublet]

dFixedLengthArray =
{5,2,7,3.5,6.5,8,1,9,1,3};
d V a r i a b l e L e n g t h A r r a y = new d o u b l e [ 1 0 ] ;

C# , |
:
doublet]
dFixedLengthArray =
new d o u b l e [ 1 0 ]
{5,
2,
7,
3.5,

6.5,

8,

1,

9,

1,

3 } ;

,
, .


( ) . , , -]
, , :
public

class

Student

{
public
public

string
double

sName;
dGPA;
//

}
130

III. -

.
n u m S t u d e n t :
Student []

students

new

Student[num];

n e w S t u d e n t [ n u m ]

S t u d e n t ,

S t u d e n t .

, s t u d e n t s [ i ] ,
# , n u l l .
, , s t u d e n t s [ i ]
n e w S t u d e n t .
:
for

(int

0;

<

students. Length;

new

i + +)

{
students[i]

Student();

}
:
students [ i ]

new

students [ i ] . sName
students [ i ] . dGPA

Student ();
=

"My N a m e " ;
dMyGPA;

A v e r a g e S t u d e n t G P A ,
.

// A v e r a g e S t u d e n t G P A
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

AverageStudentGPA

f
public

class

Student

{
public
public

string
sName;
d o u b l e dGPA;

//

}
public
{

class

public

Program

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
Console.WriteLine("

");
string s = Console.ReadLine();
int nNumberOfStudents = Convert.ToInt32(s);
// S t u d e n t
Student[]

students

//
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i <

new

Student[nNumberOfStudents];

students.Length;

6. -

i++)

131

//
//
//
Co

.
,

#
n s o l e . W r i t e ( "

"
+ ( i + 1) + " : ") ;
s t r i n g sName = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;

Console.Write("
:
s t r i n g sAvg = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
d o u b l e dGPA = C o n v e r t . T o D o u b l e ( s A v g ) ;
//
Student thisStuden
thisStudent.sName
thisStudent.dGPA
//

students[i]


t = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
= sName;
= dGPA;

" ) ;

thisStudent;

}
//

d o u b l e dSum = 0 . 0 ;
for

(int

0;

<

students.Length;

i++)

{
dSum

+=

students[i].dGPA;

}
double

dAvg

dSum/students.Length;

//
Console.WriteLine();

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
"
+
students.Length
+ " - " + dAvg);
//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +


" ...");
Console.Read();


,
S t u d e n t .
f o r ,
.
S t u d e n t .
, ]
, ]
.

132

III. -

<Enter>

1:
Randy
:
2:
Jeff
:
3:
Carrie
:

3.0
3.5
4.0

3.5

...

, ,
, s t u d e n t . -
, , , b a d S t u d e n t , g o o d S t u d e n t ..
( ) ,
s t u d e n t s , p h o n e N u m b e r s

p h o n e N u m b e r s I n M y P a l m P i l o t .

, #
, .

, :
public

class

Student

{
public
public

string
double

sName;
dGPA;
//

)
public

class

Program

(
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// ...

...
//
d o u b l e dSum = 0 . 0 ;
for

(int

0;

<

students.Length;

i++)

{
dSum

+=

students[i].dGPA;

d o u b l e dAvg = dSum / s t u d e n t s . L e n g t h ;
// . . . . . .
f o r .
s t u d e n t s . L e n g t h .

6.

133

# f o r e a c h ,
, .
:
//
d o u b l e dSum = 0 . 0 ;
foreach

(Student

stud

in

students)

{
dSum +=

stud.dGPA;

d o u b l e dAvg = dSum / s t u d e n t s . L e n g t h ;
S t u d e n t
s t u d . f o r e a c h
s t u d .
f o r e a c h , .
, f o r e a c h .
.
, ++ J a v a f o r e a c h
, # (, .NET)
.
f o r e a c h ,
. , (
, , 15, " ").
, f o r e a c h (..
), .

-'
. , , ,
, . ,
S t u d e n t ,
:
S t u d e n t temp = s t u d e n t s [i] ;
s t u d e n t s [i]
= students [j];
students[j]
= temp;

//

i-

i-
s t u d e n t s , , i-
j- . j-
, i-
. . 6.2.
, ,
.
15, " ".

734

III. -

. 6.2. " "


" "
,

.
.

,
.
// S o r t S t u d e n t s
//
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

SortStudents

(
class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
Student[]
st
students[0]
students[1]
students[2]
students[3]
students[4]


u d e n t s = new S t u d e n t [ 5 ] ;
= Student.NewStudent("Homer",
0);
= Student.NewStudent("Lisa",
4.0);
= Student.NewStudent("Bart",
2.0);
= Student.NewStudent("Marge",
3.0);
= Student.NewStudent("Maggie",
3.5);

ft

135

/ /
:
Console.WriteLine("
:");
OutputStudentArray(students);
//
//
(
//

)
Console.WriteLine("\
\");
Student.Sort(students);
/ /

Console.WriteLine("
OutputStudentArray(students);

:");

//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +


"
...");
Console.Read();

}
// O u t p u t S t u d e n t A r r a y -
//


public
s t a t i c
void OutputStudentArray(Student []
students)

{
foreach(Student

in

students)

{
Console.WriteLine(s.GetString());

}
} }
//

Student

//

class

Student

{
public

string

sName;

public

double

dGrade

//
//

NewStudent

public

s t a t i c

0.0;

Student

NewStudent(string
double

sName,
dGrade)

{
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
s t u d e n t . s N a m e = sName;
student.dGrade = dGrade;
return
student;

}
//
//

GetString

public

string

Student

GetString()

136

III. -

strin
s +=
s +=
s +=
retur

g s = "" ;
dGrade;
" - " ;
sName;
n
s;

}
//
//
//

Sort -

public

s t a t i c

void

Sort(Student[]

students)

{
bool
//

bRepeatLoop;

do

{
// t r u e
//
bRepeatLoop =
false;
//
f o r ( i n t i n d e x = 0;
index
index++)

<
(students.Length

1);

{
//
//
if


...
(students[index].dGrade
<
students[index +
1].dGrade)

{
//
... ...
Student to = s t u d e n t s [ i n d e x ] ;
S t u d e n t from = s t u d e n t s [ i n d e x +
students[index]
= from;
s t u d e n t s [ i n d e x + 1]
= to;

1];

//
. . . t r u e ,

//
//
( ,

//

)
bRepeatLoop = t r u e ;

while

(bRepeatLoop);

}
}
, :
:

- Homer
4 - Lisa
2 - Bart

6.

137

3 3.5

Marge
- Maggie

4 - Lisa
3.5
- Maggie
3 - Marge
2 - Bart
0 - Homer
< E n t e r >

...

,
. N e w S t u d e n t ()
S t u d e n t , *
. OutputStudentArray().
S o r t ( ) .
, , .
, S o r t S t u d e n t s ]
S o r t ( ) . ,
,
. ,
-,
, , . . 6.3-6.6 ,
.

HOMER

LISA

LISA

BART

BART

MARGE

MARGE

MAGGIE

3,5

MAGGIE

3,5

HOMER

. 6.3.

-* Homer

. 6.4.

. 6.5.
, , ""
"" .

138

III. -

. 6.6.
.
,


,
. , ,
, .

6.

139


>
>
>
>


, . , ,
, ,
.
# , .

.

:
class

Example

public i n t n l n t ;
public s t a t i c i n t n S t a t i c I n t
public v o i d MemberFunction()
{

Console.WriteLine("

/ / H e

//
/ / H e

-" ) ;
^

public

static

void

ClassFunction()

//

{
Console.WriteLine("

");

}
n l n t -, 6,
" ". M e m b e r F u n c t i o n ()
. -, #,
. ,
, , , .
:
. ,

8, " ", , - #
.
n l n t
( ) n S t a t i c I n t :
Example
example
example.nlnt
Example.nStaticInt

new
1;
= 2;

Example();
//
//
//
//
//

(
) M e m b e r F u n c t i o n ( ) C l a s s F u n c t i o n ( ) :
Example e x a m p l e = new E x a m p l e ( ) ; //
example.MemberFunction();
// -
//
Example.ClassFunction();
//
//
//
example.ClassFunction();
//
//
E x a m p l e . M e m b e r F u n c t i o n ( ) ; // //
() -
(), ,
() - (), !
6, " ".
e x a m p l e . M e m b e r F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
. E x a m p l e . C l a s s F u n c t i o n ()
.
:

,
.

M a i n () .
.
, !
,
, , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
.

142

III. -

,
,
C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e 5, "
", .
, Visual Studio 2005
Refactor,
.

, .


. ,
. ( , ,
, ,
, , /
).
"" C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e :
public

static

void

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
// .
// ,
// .
// .
// ,
// .
/ / , .
// .
/ / .
while(nYear <= n D u r a t i o n )

{
//
II
.
// .

*.

}
}
.
, , :
I / , ,
;
| / , ,
;
I J , .

7,

143

. ,
, ,
,

. .
Calcl
latelnterestTable

CalculatelnterestTa

bleWithFunctions.
//

CalculateInterestTableWithFunctions

//
//
//
//

,
,

.

using

System;

namespace
{
public

CalculateInterestTableWithFunctions
class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

// 1 - ,
//
d
d
d
I

ecima
ecima
ecima
nputl

l
l
l
n

m P r i n c i p a l = 0;
m l n t e r e s t = 0,m D u r a t i o n = 0;
terestData(ref
mPrincipal,
ref
mlnterest,
ref
mDuration);

// 2 -
//
Console.WriteLine();
// skip a.line
Console.WriteLine("
mPrincipal);

"

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " = " +
mlnterest
Console.WriteLine("

"%") ;
=

"

m D u r a t i o n + . " ");
Console.WriteLine();

// 3 - , ,
//
OutputlnterestTable(mPrincipal,

mlnterest,

mDuration);

//
Console.WriteLine("

744

<Enter>

"

III. -

"

...");

Console.Read();

}
//
//

InputlnterestData

// 1,
//
public
s t a t i c
void
InputlnterestData(ref
ref
ref

mPrincipal,
mlnterest,
mDuration)

// la

mPrincipal
=
InputPositiveDecimal("");
//

16

mlnterest
//

decimal
decimal
decimal

InputPositiveDecimal("

mDuration

");

InputPositiveDecimal("");

//

InputPositiveDecimal

//

//

//

decimal

public
s t a t i c
decimal
InputPositiveDecimal(string

sPrompt)

{
//

//

while(true)
{
//
Console.Write(" " +

sPrompt

" : " ) ;

// d e c i m a l
string slnput = Console.ReadLine();
decimal mValue = C o n v e r t . T o D e c i m a l ( s l n p u t ) ;
//

if

(mValue

//

>=

return

0)

mValue;

}
//
//
Console.WriteLine(sPrompt
+

7.

145

" " ) ;
Console.WriteLine("
" ) ;
Console.WriteLine();

//
//
//

O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e - ,

// 3
public

s t a t i c

void

OutputlnterestTable(decimal
decimal
decimal

mPrincipal,
mlnterest,
mDuration)

{
for

(int

nYear

1;

nYear

<=

mDuration;

nYear++)

{
//
decimal
mlnterestPaid;
mlnterestPaid = mPrincipal *
(mlnterest

100);

//
//
//

mPrincipal = mPrincipal + mlnterestPaid;


//
mPrincipal = decimal.Round(mPrincipal,
//

Console.WriteLine(nYear

"-"

2);

mPrincipal);

}
M a i n () ,
. , , ,
1, 1 1.

.
,
.
, .
,
( m P r i n c i p a l , m l n t e r e s t m D u r a t i o n ) , I n p u t l n
t e r e s t D a t a ( ) . ,
.
O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ( ) .
, O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ( ) .
,

146

III. -

C a l c u l a t e l n t e r e s t T a b l e 5, "
". ,
.
,
.
, O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ( ) .
O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ! ) ,
Refactoring V i s u a l Studio 2005.
.
1. CalculatelnterestTableMoreForgiving 5, " ",
nYear while:
0;
<=

int nYear =
while(nYear
{
//...

nDuration)

//
// w h i l e

}
2. R e f a c t o r ^ E x t r a c t Method.
3. Extract Method O u t p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ,

Preview Method Signature .


, "" ""
p r i v a t e s t a t i c m P r i n c i p a l , m l n t e r e s t
n D u r a t i o n . p r i v a t e ,
p u b l i c , 1 1 , "".
p u b l i c .
.
/ M a i n ( )

p r i v a t e s t a t i c O u t

p u t l n t e r e s t T a b l e ().
/ , M a i n () ,
:
mPrincipal

OutputlnterestTable(mPrincipal,
mlnterest, nDuration);

" " I n p u t l n
t e r e s t D a t a ( ) . ,
.
.
I n p u t l n t e r e s t D a t a ()
d e c i m a l . , ,
I n p u t P o s i
t i v e D e c i m a l ( ) , ,
, . ,
while I n p u t P o s i
t i v e D e c i m a l ( ) . , .

[ 7.

147

, ,
,
. Web-ca
www.refactoring.com.
I n p u t P o s i t i v e D e c i m a l () ]
. ,
. , !
.
, (
" "), :
:100
:-10

:10

1-110 . 0
2 - 1 2 1 . 00
3-133 .10
4-146 .41
5 - 1 6 1 . 05
6-177.16
7 - 1 9 4 . 88
8-214 .37
9-235.81
10-259.39
< E n t e r >

=
=
=

:10
10 0
10%
10

...

, , , |
, , -
.

?
1950- , !
. , ,
.
D i s p l a y R a t i o ( ) ,
.
, , ;
. , ,
W r i t e L i n e ( ) , MOiyr .
:
, ,
, . D i s p l a y R a t i o () -

148

III. -

, .
, ,
.
:
.
.
. : .
c a l c u l a t e S i n () . ,
, ,
.
c a l c u l a t e S i n ( ) , , .
,
. ,
.
, , , ,
. , R e d i s p l a y D o c u m e n t ()
R e p a r a g r a p h () . ,
, C a l c u l a t e W o r d W r a p ()
. C a l c u l a t e W o r d W r a p () L o o k UpWordBreak ( ) , , ,
. ,
(,
).

,
, ,
.

, , , ,
. ,
:
public

static

v o i d O u t p u t ()

Console.WriteLine("

");

. ,
, ? ,
? ? ,
.

7.

149


, , (
).
. ,
.
E x a m p l e :
public

class

Example

{
public

static

void

Output(string

funcString)

{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e (" O u t p u t ()
+ funcString);

11

}
}
:
Output("Hello") ;

Output

Hello

O u t p u t () " H e l l o " .
f u n c S t r i n g . O u t p u t () nep
f u n c S t r i n g ,
s t r i n g .
:
string myString =
Output(myString);

"Hello";

m y S t r i n g " H e l l o " .
O u t p u t ( m y S t r i n g ) , .
m y S t r i n g , .. " H e l l o " , . . 7.1.
, .

. 7.1. O u t p u t (myString)
myString

funcString


, , . , . , , .

750

III. -


. A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( ) :

// AverageAndDisplay
using System;
namespace

Example

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// -
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( " 1 " , 3 . 5 , " 2 " , 4 . 0 ) ;
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();
}
// A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y -
//
public s t a t i c
void AverageAndDisplay(string si,
double dl,
s t r i n g s2,
d o u b l e d2)
{
double dAverage = (dl + d2) / 2 ;
Console.WriteLine(" "
+ si
+ ", " + dl
+ ", "
+ s2
+ ", " + d2
+ ", "
+ dAverage);

:
1 , 3 . 5 , 2 , 4 ,
< E n t e r > . . .

3 . 7 5

A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ()
, .
, M a i n ( ) .
M a i n ( ) , , A v e r
a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( ) , d o u b l e .
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ()

double, dl d 2 , (
si s 2 ) , d A v e r a g e .
.

.

7.

151



, .
.
// A v e r a g e W i t h C o m p i l e r E r r o r
using
System;
namespace

Example

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// -
AverageAndDisplay(" 1",

"

2",

3.5,

4.0);

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

}
// A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y -
//
public
static
void AverageAndDisplay(string si,
double dl,
s t r i n g s2,
d o u b l e d2)

d o u b l e d A v e r a g e = ( d l + d 2) / 2;
Console.WriteLine(" "
+
+ ", " +
+ ", "
+
+ ", " +
+ ", "
+

si
dl
s2
d2
dAverage);

C#
. " 1 " s t r i n g
;
d o u b l e ,
s t r i n g .
, !
. , ,
.
,
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( ) .

152

III. -

(overloading) .
, .

// A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y O v e r l o a d e d -
//
//
using

System;

namespace

AverageAndDisplayOverloaded

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

// -
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( " ", 3 . 5 ,

" ",- 4 . 0 ) ;
Console.WriteLine();

// -
AverageAndDisplay(3.5,

4.0);

//
Console.WriteLine("

<Enter>

"

" ...");
Console.Read();

// A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y -
//
//
public
void

static
AverageAndDisplay(string
string

{
double dAverage = (dl + d2) / 2 ;
Console.WriteLine("

"

si,
s2,

double
double

dl,
d2)

si

+ ", " + d l ) ;
Console.WriteLine("

"

s2

+ ", " + d2
+ ", "
}
public static void AverageAndDisplay(double dl,

+ dAverage);

double

d2)

{
double

dAverage

7.

(dl

d2)

2;

153

Console.WriteLine("
+ " "
+ "

"
"

+ dl
+ d2
+ dAverage);

A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( ) .
, . # col
, |
, .
, :

, 3.5
, 4,

3.5 4
<Enter>

3.75

3.75

...

, # !
. , ,
? , #
, . # !
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( s t r i n g , d o u b l e , s t r i n g , d o u b l e )
A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ( d o u b l e , d o u b l e ) .
, , .


( ) ,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
.
.
D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l ( ) :

//
//
//

154

FunctionsWithDefaultArguments -
,

III. -

using

System;

namespace

F u n c t i o n s W i t h D e f a u l tA r g u m e n t s

(
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

// -
11
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " {0} ,
DisplayRoundedDecimal(12.345678M,

3));

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

}
//

DisplayRoundedDecimal

//

decimal

//
public

s t a t i c

string

DisplayRoundedDecimal(decimal
int

mValue,

nNumberOfSignificantDigits)

{
//
//
decimal mRoundedValue =
decimal.Round(mValue,
nNumberOfSignificantDigits);
//
string s = Convert.ToString(mRoundedValue);
return

s,-

}
public
s t a t i c
string
DisplayRoundedDecimal(decimal

mValue)

{
// D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l ( d e c i m a l ,
int)

//
string s = DisplayRoundedDecimal(mValue,
2);
return
s;

D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l ( )

d e c i m a l

s t r i n g
. d e c i m a l ,
, 2.
, D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l ()

' 7.

155

.
, D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l ( d e c i m a l
D i s p l a y R o u n d e d D e c i m a l
( d e c i m a l , i n t ) .
.
, |
.

,
,
,
, !
. !

, .
Visual Basic C/C++: #
. #
.

-
, i n t , d o u b l e , d e c i m a l ,
.
. (by valu
.
.
-, " ",
" ".


, - id
d o u b l e , ..
, , .


, :
// PassByValue -
//
using
System;
namespace

PassByValue

{
public

class

Program

156

III.

// Update -
// ,
; ,
//
public s t a t i c v o i d U p d a t e ( i n t i,
double d)
{

i = 10;
d = 2 0.0;

}
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

args)

{
// ,
int i = 1;
double d = 2.0;
Console.WriteLine(" U p d a t e ( i n t , d o u b l e ) : " ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " i = " + i + ", d = " + d ) ;
//
U p d a t e ( i , d) ;
// 1 2 . 0
Console . W r i t e L i n e (" U p d a t e ( i n t , d o u b l e ) :") ,C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " i = " + i + ", d = " + d) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

:
U p d a t e ( i n t , d o u b l e ) :
i=1, d = 2
U p d a t e ( i n t , d o u b l e ) :
i = 1, d = 2
< E n t e r > . . .
U p d a t e () 1 2.0, i .
,
.


-
, ,

. P a s s B y R e f e r e n c e
.
#
r e f o u t .
P a s s B y V a l u e , .

7.

157

// PassByReference -
//
using
System;
namespace

PassByValue

{
public

class

Program

{
// Update -
// ,
; ,

// ref out
public s t a t i c void Update(ref
int i,
out double d)

{
i =
d =

10;
20.0;

}
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
i n t i = 1;
double
d;
Console.WriteLine(" " +
"Update(ref
int,
out double):");
Console.WriteLine("i = " + i +
", d " ) ;

'

//
Update(ref i,
out d);
//
//

20.0

Console.WriteLine("

10,

"

"Update (ref
int,
out double):"),C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " i = " + i + ", d = " + d ) ;
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

"

...");

Console.Read();

r e f #, i,
. , , , .
, o u t : " ,
,
".
, ,
.

158

III. -

P a s s B y R e f
:
U p d a t e ( r e f i n t , o u t d o u b l e ) :
i = 1, d
U p d a t e ( r e f i n t , o u t d o u b l e ) :
i = 10, d = 20
< E n t e r > . . .
, o u t ,
r e f , .. r e f

o u t . ,


, 2
i n t , .
, i d U p
d a t e d . M a i n ()
U p d a t e () . P a s s B y
Value, .



,
. ,
. U p d a t e ()
.
// PassByRef e r e n c e E r r o r -
/ /
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

PassByRef e r e n c e E r r o r

public

class

Program

{
// Update -
//
public s t a t i c v o i d D i s p l a y A n d U p d a t e ( r e f
int nVarl,
ref
i n t nVar2)

{
Console.WriteLine("
nVarl);
nVarl = 10;

nVarl

"

Console.WriteLine("
nVar2);
n V a r 2 = 2 0;

nVar2

"

}
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

7.

159

//
i n t = 1;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " +
"Update(ref n,
ref n ) : " ) ;
Console.WriteLine("n = " + n);
Console.WriteLine();
//
DisplayAndUpdate(ref

n,

ref

n);

// ,
// - ,
// ,
Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine(" " +
"Update(ref n,
ref n ) : " ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " n = " + n) ;

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
}
U p d a t e ( r e f i n t , r e f i n t )
,
. ,
, .
n V a r l , ,
1 10. nVar
:
, 1 20
,
10 20.
:
U p d a t e ( r e f n,
ref n ) :
n = 1

nVarl
nVar2

1
10

U p d a t e ( r e f n,
ref
n = 20
< E n t e r >

n):
...

, , U p d a t e ( ) ,
, , . ,
.
, ,
.

160

III. -

,
.

?
# ,
.
(
-). # ,
, :
int n V a r i a b l e ;
Console.WriteLine("
n V a r i a b l e = 1;
Console.WriteLine("

"

+,nVariable);
"

nVariable);

C# :
void

SomeFunction(ref

int

nVariable)

{
Console.WriteLine("

"

nVariable);

},

S o m e F u n c t i o n () , n V a r i a b l e
? . #
,
:
int n U n i n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e ;
SomeFunction(ref n U n i n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e ) ;
C# , S o m e F u n c t i o n ()
(.. ( g a r b a g e ) )
. o u t
,
, .
- :
int n U n i n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e ;
SomeFunction(out n U n i n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e ) ;
o u t -
:
int n l n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e = 1;
SomeFunction(out n l n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e ) ;
n l n i t i a l i z e d V a r i a b l e
S o m e F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
.

7.

161

,
, . , s i n ()
""
.
r e t u r n ;
.

return

,
public

class

Example

{
public

static

double

Average(double

dl,

double

d2)

{
double dAverage =
return
dAverage;

(dl

d2)

2;

}
public

static

void

TestO

{
d o u b l e vl = 1.0;
d o u b l e v2 = 3 . 0 ;
double dAverageValue = Average(vl, v2);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " + vl
+ " " + v2 + " "
+ dAverageValue);
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " + vl
+ " " + v2 + " "
+ Average(vl, v2));

}
}
, p u b l i c s t a t i c double
A v e r a g e () d o u b l e , Av
e r a g e () d o u b l e .
A v e r a g e () dl d2 ,
. d A v e r a g e ,
. , d A v e r a g e ,
.
, " d A v e r a g e " .
. , dAver
a g e .
, d A v e r a g e .
A v e r a g e () T e s t () ,
; d o u b l e , A v e r a g e d ,
d A v e r a g e V a l u e .

162

III. - ]

, (, , A v e r a g e ( ) ) ,
,
# ,
? r e t u r n .



r e f o u t . U p d a t e ()
" " :
// U p d a t e -
//, ; ,
// r e f o u t
public static void Update (ref int i, out double d)
{
i = 10;
d = 20.0;
}
v o i d ,
. i r e f ,
d o u t , ,
Update ( ) , . ,
.


: "
r e t u r n , , .
?" , Av
erage () :
public c l a s s

Example

// : , ' o u t ' ,
//
public s t a t i c v o i d A v e r a g e ( d o u b l e 1 , d o u b l e d 2 ,
out double dResults)

{
dResults = (dl + d2) / 2;
}

public

static

void

Test()

{
double vl = 1.0;
d o u b l e v2 = 3 . 0 ;
double
dAverageValue;
Average(dAverageValue,
vl,
v2);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " + vl
+ " " + v2 + " "
+ dAverageValue);
}
}

7.

163

r e t u r n , o u t - , ;
.
!
, 14, "!
". |
.

^S^

, " o u t " ,
, :
public

class

Example

{
public
static
void AverageAndProduct(double dl, double d2,
out double dAverage,
out double dProduct)

{
}

dAverage
dProduct

=
=

( d l + d2)
dl * d 2 ;

/ 2 ;

,
. , ,
, ;
, . *
.


, -,
n u l l . (.. ,
n u l l ) , . ,
:
class
{

Example

int

nValue,-

}
// r e f l
Example
refl;
//
E x a m p l e r e f 2 = new E x a m p l e ;
r e f 2 . n V a l u e = 0;
r e f l , . "", ..
. r e f 2
, .
, :
string
string

164

si;
s2 =

"";

III. -

fj

, si ,
s2 (
). ,
:
// T e s t namespace

Test

(
using
System;
public
class
Program
{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

strings)

{
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" T e s t S t r i n g ( ) " ) ;
Console.WriteLine();
Example e x a m p l e O b j e c t = new E x a m p l e ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine("

:");
string s = null;
exampleObject.TestString(s);
Console.WriteLine();
//
()

Console.WriteLine(" : " ) ;
exampleObject.TestString("");
Console.WriteLine() ;
// ,

Console.WriteLine(" :");
exampleObject.TestString("test
string");
Console.WriteLine();
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
C o n s o l e . R e a d () ,-

class

Example

{
public

void

TestString(string

sTest)

{
//
//
if
{

,

! )
(sTest == n u l l )

Console.WriteLine("sTest
return;

==

n u l l " ) ;

}
//
//
//
//

,
s T e s t ,
.
,
s T e s t
()

if

(String.Compare(sTest,

11

Console . WriteLine (
return;

7.

sTest

"")
-

==

0)

");

165

// ,

} Console.WriteLine("sTest :

'"

sTest +

" ' " ) ;

T e s t S t r i n g O s T e s t = = n u l l ,
. ,
, T e s t S t r i n g () C o m p a r e () ( Com
p a r e () 0, . 9, "
# " , ).
:
T e s t S t r i n g O
:
sTest == n u l l
:
s T e s t -
:
sTest :
'test string'
< E n t e r > . . .


p u b l i c s t a t i c d o u b l e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e d
d o u b l e . ,
. A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ,
,
.
, # v o i d :
public

void

AverageAndDisplay(double,

double)

v o i d , , ,
, .. , A v e r a g e A n d D i s p l a y ()
. ( #
, v o i d . )
, , void, .

, v o i d - ,
r e t u r n ,
. v o i d -
, r e t u r n
( )
.
D i s p l a y R a t i o ( ) :
public

class

Example

166

III. -

public

//
if

static

void

DisplayRatio(double
double


( d D e n o m i n a t o r ==

0.0)

dNumerator,
dDenominator)

0...

{
// . . .
// . . .
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
//
return;

");

}
// ,
//
double dRatio = dNumerator / dDenominator;
Console.WriteLine(" " + dNumerator
+ " " + dDenominator
+ " " + d R a t i o ) ;
} // ,
}
//
D i s p l a y R a t i o () , d D e
n o m i n a t o r .
d D e n o m i n a t o r ,
,
.
0 .
d D e n o m i n a t o r ,
. W r i t e
L i n e () D i s p l a y R a t i o () ,
, .

.
M a i n ( ) .
M a i n ( ) :
public

static

void

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
//

...

...

M a i n () P r o g r a m , Visual Stu
dio AppWizard.
s t r i n g . ?

.
.
copy m y F i l e : \ m y D i r , m y F i l e : \ m y D i r .

7.

167

D i s p l a y
A r g u m e n t s , s t r i n g ,
M a i n ( ) ,
.
//

DisplayArguments

using

System;

namespace

DisplayArguments

{
class

Test

public

// ,

// Program
s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

Main(),

args)

{
//

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
args.Length);
// :
i n t nCount = 0;
foreach
(string
arg

in

{0}

",

args)

{
Console.WriteLine("
nCount++,

{}
arg);

{l}",

}
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");

Console.Read();
r e t u r n 0;
//
//
//
//

,

,

;

, M a i n ( ) 4
, v o i d , .
s t a t i c .
a r g s .
, . |
a r g s , .
( ]
, ):
DisplayArguments

argl

arg2

3
0 /
1
- argl
2
- arg2

<Enter>

...

, (
, ).

168

III. - ,

, . "/ " . ,
a r g s ,
. ,
.

DOS
D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s DOS,
.
1.

S t a r t s P r o g r a m s ^ A c c e s s o r i e s ^ C o m m a n d Prompt
( ^ ^ ).

: \ > ( ).
2. , D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s ,
cd

\C#Programs\DisplayArguments\bin\Debug.

(
# P r o g r a m s . , .)
: \ C # P r o g r a m s \ D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s \
bin\Debug>.

- Windows
. Windows
: \ C # P r o g r a m s Search
(...), . 7.2.

Puc. 7.2. Windows

7.

169

D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s .

Search ().
Search Result ( ), . 7.3.

D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s . e x e o b j \ D e b u g ;
b i n \ D e b u g . ,
, .

. 7.3. ;

Visual Studio 2005 bin
D e b u g ; b i n \ r e l e a s e Visual Studio.
Windows ,
DOS . Windows Windows
. ,
My S t u f f
cd

\"

Stuff"

3. , :\C#Programs
DisplayArguments\bin\Debug>,
displayarguments

argl

arg2.

D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s . ,
, . 7.4. ,
,
, , . .


D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s . e x e ,

Command Prompt ( ).
Windows,
Windows.

170

III. -

. 7.4. DisplayArguments.
DOS
. 7.5, D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s
.

Puc. 7.5. Windows



D i s
p l a y A r g u m e n t s . Windows ,
D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s

a r g l . t x t a r g 2 . t x t
D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s , . 7.6.

<Ctrl>
. 7.6.

7.

, ,
,
,
D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s .

171

Puc. 7.6. Windows



D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s . 7.7.

Puc. 7.7.
,

172

III. -

,
.

W r i t e L i n e ()
, WriteLine (),
, Console:
Console.WriteLine(" " ) ;
WriteLine () ,
.NET. Console ,
.
WriteLine (), ,
string. +
, , :
string s = "";
Console. WriteLine (" " + s +
" " + 3 + " " ) ;
"
'".

WriteLine ()
, :
Console .WriteLine (" { } {l}
"", 3 ) ;

",

.
"" {0}
. 3 ,
{l}. ,
, , .
,
, ,
WriteLine (). 9, " #".

Visual Studio 2005


Visual Studio 2005, ,
. Builds Build
Output .

Build: 1 s u c c e e d e d , 0 f a i l e d , 0 s k i p p e d
Output - .
.
, Debug^Start Debugging (
<F5>) Debug^Start Without Debugging ( <Ctrl+F5>)
.

7.

173

Visual Studio , . :
, , Visual Studio,
. .
1. Solution Explorer, !

V i e w : Solution Explorer.
Solution Explorer .
. .
, D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s , P r o g r a m . c s
,
, ,
D i s p l a y A r g u m e n t s Visual Studio.
2. DisplayArguments Solution E
plorer Properties,
. 7.8.
, . 7.9,

, ,
.

Puc. 7.8.
Solution Explorer
3. DisplayArguments ]

Debug.
4. Command Line Arguments Start Options ,!
Visual Studio.

174

III. -

Puc. 7.9. Command Line Arguments


Debug
5. Properties,
Debug^Start.
. 7.10, Visual Studio DOS
.

Puc. 7.10. Visual Studio

7.

Visual Studio 2005


si
.

176

III. -


>
>

> t h i s
>

, 7, " ",
.
, . , - , ,
, .
.

, ,
-,
.
,
:

// P a s s O b j e c t
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

public

PassObject
class

public

Student

string

sName;

}
public c l a s s P r o g r a m
(
public s t a t i c v o i d M a i n ( s t r i n g [ ]
{

Student

student

new

args)

Student();

//
//

Console.WriteLine(":");
student.sName =
"Madeleine";
OutputName(student);

//
Console.WriteLine("
:");
SetName(student,
"Willa");
OutputName(student);
//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +


" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

// OutputName
public
static

-
void OutputName(Student

student)

{
//
Console.WriteLine("Student.sName
=
student.sName);

{o}",

}
// SetName -
public
s t a t i c void SetName(Student
student,
string
sName)

{
student.sName

sName;

s t u d e n t , , ~
Out
putName().
S e t N a m e ( ) .
# , , stud
d e n t , . M a i n ()
, ,
:
:
Student.sName = Madeleine
:
Student.sName = Willa.
< E n t e r >

,
r e f . ,
, ,
,
:

178

III. -

Student s t u d e n t = n e w S t u d e n t ( ) ;
student.Name = " M a d e l e i n e " ;
OutputName ( s t u d e n t ) ;
Console. W r i t e L i n e ( s t u d e n t . N a m e ) ;
I //
public

static

void

//

"Madeleine"

O u t p u t N a m e () :

OutputName (Student

student)

}
student

new

student.Name

Student();

//
//
//

He

s t u d e n t
OutputName()

"Pam";

,
. , V e h i c l e
, , ..
: ,
.. ,
. V e h i
cle, -.

-
,
:

// P a s s O b j e c t T o M e m b e r F u n c t i o n -
// -
UBing S y s t e m ;

namespace PassObjectMemberToFunction
{
public

class

Student

(
public

string

sName;

// OutputName -
public
static void OutputName(Student

student)

{
/ /
Console.WriteLine("Student.sName
=
student.sName);

{o}",

}
// SetName -
public s t a t i c v o i d S e t N a m e ( S t u d e n t

ft

student,

179

string

sName)

s t u d e n t . s N a m e = sName;

}
public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
Student

student

= new S t u d e n t ( ) ;

//
// Console .WriteLine(":");
student.sName = "Madeleine";
Student.OutputName(student);
//

//
// Student
//
Console.WriteLine("
:");
Student.SetName(student, "Willa");
Student.OutputName(student);
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

P a s s O b j e c t |
: O u t p u t N a m e () S e t N a m e () S t u d e n t .
- M a i n () |
S t u d e n t . Stu-|
d e n t , P r o g r a m , M a i n ( )
, . O u t p u t N a m e !
:
, Output
N a m e () , ,
, S t u d e n t , .
. P r o g r a m
, S t u d e n t , , :
. Stu
d e n t . .
M a i n ()
Madeleine <
S e t N a m e ( ) .

180

III. -

S t u d e n t -
. S e t N a m e () O u t p u t feme ( ) , . , # ,
.



, :
Student s t u d e n t
student.sName

= new S t u d e n t () ;
= "Madeleine";

//
//

Student

C# - :
student. S e t N a m e ( " M a d e l e i n e " ) ;
:

//InvokeMethod
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

InvokeMethod

{
class S t u d e n t
{
//
public
string
public
string
// SetName
public

void


sFirstName;
sLastName;

SetName(string

sFName,

string

sLName)

{
sFirstName
sLastName

=
=

sFName;
sLName;

}
// ToNameString -
//
public
s t r i n g ToNameString()

Stude

{
string
return s;

sFirstName

"

"

sLastName;

}
}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main()

{
Student

student

new

Student();

student.SetName("Stephen",

8.

"Davis");

181

Console.WriteLine("
"
+ student.ToNameString());
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

}
}
}
:

Stephen

Davis

P a s s O b j e c t T o M e m b e r F u n c t i o n . B
,
s t u d e n t S t u d e n t ,
S e t N a m e ( ) , " S t e p h e n " "Davi
- s F i r s t N a m e s L a s t N a m e . ,
- T o N a m e S t r i n g ( ) , ,
, #,
. ]
-,
.

() ().
S e t N a m e ( ) ,
S t u d e n t . SetName!
, :
S t u d e n t c h r i s t a = new S t u d e n t ( ) ; //
Student sarah
= new S t u d e n t ( ) ; //
christa.SetName("Christa",
"Smith");
sarah.SetName("Sarah",
"Jones");
S e t N a m e () c h r i s t a ,
sarah.
# , .
c h r i s t a , s a r a h .


, , .
:
public

class

Person

{
public

void

Address()

{
Console.WriteLine("Hi");

182

III. -

public
(

class

Letter

string sAddress;
//
public

void

Address(string

sNewAddress)

}
sAddress = sNewAddress;

}
}
A d d r e s s () .
A d d r e s s () P e r s o n A d d r e s s ()
L e t t e r . - , A d d r e s s ( ) ,
A d d r e s s () ?
, . A d d r e s s ()

son. A d d r e s s ( ) L e t t e r . A d d r e s s ( ) .
, .
. ,
( , ,
). (
), .
, ,
. ,
,
, .
, A d d r e s s () ,
.

S t u d e n t . S e t N a m e ( ) :
class S t u d e n t
//
public s t r i n g s F i r s t N a m e ;
public s t r i n g s L a s t N a m e ;
// SetName -
public v o i d S e t N a m e ( s t r i n g sFName,


s t r i n g sLName)

sFirstName = sFName;
sLastName = sLName ;

}
}
public class Program
{

8.
public static void Main()

183

S t u d e n t s t u d e n t l = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
studentl.SetName("Joseph",
"Smith");
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t 2 = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
student2.SetName("John",
"Davis");

}
}
M a i n () S e t N a m e () ,
s t u d e n t l s t u d e n t 2 . S e t N a m e ()
S t u d e n t . , "
, ?
. -I
,
studentl.SetName("Joseph",

"Smith");

:
Student.SetName(studentl,
"Joseph",
"Smith");
// - (
// )

, S e t N a m e ()
, , .
,
. .
?
:
public
class
Student
{
p u b l i c s t r i n g sFirstName,public
s t r i n g sLastName;
public void SetName(string sFirstName,
s t r i n g sLastName)
SetFirstName(sFirstName);
SetLastName(sLastName);
public

void

SetFirstName(string

sFirstName
public

void

sLastName

sName;

SetLastName(string
=

sName)

sName)

sName;

}
S e t F i r s t N a m e () . , |

, .
, ,
.

184

III. - ]

this
,
, , . #
t h i s ,
,
.
t h i s #,
, .

, :
public

class

Student

(
public
public
public

string sFirstName;
string sLastName;
void SetName(string

sFirstName,

string

sLastName)

// " "
// t h i s
this.SetFirstName (sFirstName) ;

this.SetLastName (sLastName) ;
public

void

SetFirstName(string

this. sFirstName
public

void

sName;

SetLastName(string

this. sLastName

sName)

sName)

sName;

t h i s . t h i s
, t h i s
. M a i n () , t h i s s t u d e n t l
S e t N a m e ( ) , , :
studentl. S e t N a m e ( " J o h n " ,

"Smith" ) ;

this
t h i s ,
, . ,
. , t h i s
:
class

Person

(
public s t r i n g s N a m e ;
public i n t n I D ;
public v o i d I n i t ( s t r i n g

8.

sName,

int

nID)

185

this.sName
this.nID

sName;

// ,
// -

= nID;

}
}
I n i t () s N a m e n I D ,
-. ,
, . !
, s N a m e , -.
.
t h i s , ,
s N a m e .

I n i t ()

sName

t h i s . s N a m e .
t h i s

. Ref
enc ingThi s Exp1i i tly:
// R e f e r e n c i n g T h i s E x p l i c i t l y
// t h i s
using
System;
namespace

ReferencingThisExp1iitly

{
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

strings)

{
//

S t u d e n t s t u d e n t = new
student.Init("Stephen

Student();
Davis",
1234);

' //
Console.WriteLine(" Stephen
" Biology 101");
student.Enroll("Biology
101");
//
Console.WriteLine("
student.DisplayCourse();

"

:");

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

Davis

"

...");

Console.Read();

}
}
// S t u d e n t public
class

186

Student

III. -

//
public
public

string
int

sName;
nID;

// ,
Courselnstance

// I n i t
public

courselnstance;

void

I n i t ( s t r i n g

sName,

int

nID)

{
this.sName
this.nID

=
=

sName;
nID;

courselnstance

null;

}
// E n r o l l -
public

void

Enroll (string

sCourselD)

{
c o u r s e l n s t a n c e = new C o u r s e l n s t a n c e ( ) ;
courselnstance.Init(this,
sCourselD);

//
public

void

Display-Course ()

{
Console . W r i t e L i n e (sName)
c o u r s e l n s t a n c e . D i s p l a y ()

;
;

// C o u r s e l n s t a n c e -
//
public

class

Courselnstance

{
public
public

Student
string

student;
sCourselD;

// I n i t -
public

void

Init(Student

student,

string

sCourselD)

(
this.student
this.sCourselD

=
=

student;
sCourselD;

// D i s p l a y -
public

void

D i s p l a y ()

{
Console.WriteLine(sCourselD);

km 8.

187

S t u d e n t
(, ...).
s t u d e n t , I n i t ( )
. c o u r s e l n s t a n c e n u l l ,
.
E n r o l l ()

s e l n s t a n c e . C o u r s e l n s t a n c e . I n i t ( )
S t u d e n t . )
? , S t u d e n
, t h i s .

this

, # .
, ,
:

// M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t h o d s -
//
using
System;
namespace

MixingFunctionsAndMethods

{
public

class

Student

{
public
public

string
string

sFirstName;
sLastName;

// I n i t S t u d e n t - s t u d e n t
public void InitStudent(string sFirstName,
string
sLastName)
this.sFirstName = sFirstName;
this.sLastName = sLastName;

// O u t p u t B a n n e r -
public
s t a t i c void OutputBanner()

Console.WriteLine("
:");
// Console.WriteLine(?

public

void

OutputBannerAndName()

// Student,

//
OutputBanner();

188

?);

III. -

//
OutputName(this);

}
// OutputName -
public
s t a t i c void OutputName(Student

student)

{
//
Console.WriteLine("

{}",
student.ToNameString());

}
II T o N a m e S t r i n g -
public
s t r i n g ToNameString()

{
//
//
//
ret

t h i s :
return this.sFirstName + " " + this.sLastName;
urn sFirstName + " " + sLastName;

}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
student.InitStudent("Madeleine",
//
Student.OutputBanner();
Student.OutputName(student);
Console.WriteLine();
//
student.OutputBannerAndName();

"Cather");

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

, M a i n ( ) ,
. S t u d e n t
.
.
M a i n ()
. O u t p u t B a n n e r ()
O u t p u t N a m e () . O u t p u t B a n n e r ()

8.

189

. O u t p u t N a m e ()
S t u d e n t , .
M a i n ( )
s t u d e n t . O u t p u t B a n n e r A n d N a m e ( ) .
s t u d e n t . O u t p u t B a n n e r A n d N a m e ( )
O u t p u t B a n n e r ( ) . , ,
, , ,
, .. S t u d e n t . O u t p u t N a m e ( ) .
, S t u d
S t u d e n t . stu
d e n t . O u t p u t B a n n e r A n d N a m e ( ) t h i s .
T o N a m e S t r i n g () Output
N a m e ( ) . O u t p u t N a m e ( ) s t a t i c , ,
t h i s . S t u d e n t ,
.

. .
.
,
.

Visual Studio ,
(auto-complete).
, Visual Studio ,
.
Visual Studio .
, Visual Studio,
M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t h o d s :
//
Student.OutputBanner();
Student.OutputName(student);
Console.WriteLine();
//
student.OutputBannerAndName();

, ,
Help^Index . ,
, , , # .NET
,
.
.
, .

190

III. - .


M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t h o d s
, C o n s o l e . , Visual Studio
C o n s o l e . W, Visual Studio
, W ( W r i t e ( ) ) .
<1>, W r i t e L i n e ( ) ,
(. 8.1). , , , 19
, .

. 8.1. Visual Studio


W r i t e L i n e .
, Visual Studio
(. 8.2).

Puc. 8.2. Visual Studio ,



. , W r i t e L ,
,
. , , Visual Studio
.
<Ctrl+Space> .

8.

191


M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t h o d s
, C o n s o l e ., Visual Studio
C o n s o l e . W, Visual Studio
, W ( W r i t e ( ) ) .
<1>, W r i t e L i n e ( ) ,
(. 8.1). , , , 19
, .

. 8.1. Visual Studio


W r i t e L i n e . , Visual Studio
(. 8.2).

Puc. 8.2. Visual Studio ,



. , W r i t e L ,
,
. , , Visual Studio
.
<Ctrl+Space> .

'

8.

191


W r i t e L i n e ().
(
). W r i t e L i n e () 19
. ,
.

.
W r i t e L i n e ,

" s o m e s t r i n g { 0 } " ( ),
, Visual Studio
, . 8.3.

. 8.3. Visual Studio no



Visual Studio (
, .NET).
. " s o m e s t r i n g { } "
: C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e .
s t u d e n t . , Vis
Studio S t u d e n t .
, Visual Studio
, . 8.4. ,
, .
,
- .
: -
, .

192

III. -

. 8.4. Visual Studio



, E q u a l s
GetHashCode. # (
) .
Visual Studio
.

.
Student, , Visual Studio
. O u t p u t N , Visual Studio
OutputName ( ) , . 8.5.

Puc. 8.5. Visual Studio ,



Visual Studio ,
, ,
, .
Visual Studio
. , Visual Studio ,

8.

193

O u t p u t N a m e ( ) ,
. .
# / /. Visual Stud
, ///.

Visual

Studio

, .
, Java,

. #
,
.

. 8 . 1 .

X M L 7 H T M L :
< c o m m a n d > </command
XML.

, Help^lndex
"XML documentation features [#]".
M i x i n g
FunctionsAndMethods:

/ / M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t h o d s W i t h X M L T a g s - -

//
//
using

System;

namespace

MixingFunctionsAndMethods

{
///

<summary>

/ / /

///
</summary>
public class Student
{
///
<summary>

/ / /

194

III. -

/// < / s u m m a r y >


public
string
sFirstName;
/// <summary>
///
/// < / s u m m a r y >
public

string

sLastName;

// I n i t S t u d e n t
/// <summary>
/// .
/// < / s u m m a r y >
/// < p a r a m n a m e = " s F i r s t N a m e " > < / >
/// < p a r a m n a m e = " s L a s t N a m e " > < / >
public v o i d
I n i t S t u d e n t ( s t r i n g
sFirstName,
string
sLastName)
{'

this.sFirstName = sFirstName;
this.sLastName = sLastName;

// O u t p u t B a n n e r
/// <summary>
///
///


</summary>

public

s t a t i c

void

OutputBanner()

{
Console.WriteLine("
:");
// Console.WriteLine(?

?);

}
// O u t p u t B a n n e r A n d N a m e
/// < s u m m a r y >
///
/// < / s u m m a r y >
public

void

OutputBannerAndName()

{
// S t u d e n t ,

//
OutputBanner();

//
OutputName(this,
5);

// O u t p u t N a m e
/// < s u m m a r y >
///
/// < / s u m m a r y >
/// < p a r a m n a m e = " s t u d e n t " > ,

///

</>
/// < p a r a m n a m e = " n I n d e n t " > K ^ H 4 e c T B O
///
</>
/// < r e t u r n s > B b m e f l e H H a f l
cTpoKa</returns>
public s t a t i c
string OutputName(Student
student,
int
nlndent)

//
s t r i n g s = new S t r i n g ( '
',
nlndent);
s += S t r i n g . F o r m a t ( " {}",
student.ToNameString());
Console.WriteLine(s);
return
s;

}
//
ToNameString
///
<summary>
///
///

</summary>

///

<returns>CTpoKy

public

string

</returns>

ToNameString()

{
//
//
//
ret

t h i s :
return this.sFirstName + "
" + this.sLastName;
u r n sFirstName + " " + sLastName;

}
///
///

<summary>
,

///

Student

</summary>

public

class

Program

{
///
///

<summary>

///

</summary>

///

<param

name= "args

///
public

.
11

>

</>
s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

args)

{
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
student.InitStudent("Madeleine",

"Cather");

//
Student.OutputBanner();
string s = Student.OutputName(student,
Console.WriteLine();
//
student.OutputBannerAndName();

/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

5);

"

...");

Console.Read();

}
}

}
.
,

196

III. -

. S t u
dent . O u t p u t N a m e ( ) M a i n ( ) .
1. Visual Studio . O u t p u t Name

(), Visual Studio

<summary>

</summsiry>, . 8.6. .
2. , Visual Studio
, < p a r a m x / p a r a m > .
, ,
.
3. Visual Studio , n l n d e n t .

. 8.6. Visual Studio


XML
, ,
.
Visual Studio ,
.

XML-
Visual Studio XML-.
, , .
, XML-, ,
.
XML- .

1. Project^ Properties.
2. Build Output
XML Documentation File.
.
3. Properties.

8.

197

Solution Explorer.

4. B u i l d : Rebuild Solution
, , .
5. b i n \ D e b u g M i x i n g F u n c t i o n s A n d M e t
o d s W i t h X M L T a g s ( ,
XML-).
. 2
,
XML-.

198

III. -

#
...
>
}

>

s t r i n g
- i n t c h a r .
, , :
int i = 1;
string s =

"abc";

/ /
/ /

i n t
string

, ,
:
string si = new S t r i n g ( ) ;
string s2 = " a b e d " ;
int n L e n g t h O f S t r i n g = s 2 . L e n g t h ;
s t r i n g - ? S t r i n g
, #
. , s t r i n g
S t r i n g , :
String si = " a b e d " ; //
//
string s2 = s i ;
//
//

S t r i n g
S t r i n g

si S t r i n g (
S ), s2 s t r i n g
( s ). , s t r i n g
S t r i n g ( ) .

. i n t I n t 3 2 , d o u b l e
D o u b l e ..; , s t r i n g S t r i n g
.

,
#. , ""
, :
s t r i n g sName = " R a n d y " ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "

"

sName);

//

S t r i n g . S t r i n g
.
" S t r i n g

c l a s s " .

!
:
s t r i n g , . -1
, # , s t r i n g .
, s t r i n g , ,
s t r i n g .
, " -

" + " R a n d y " -

, "

- R a n d y " .

, , - .
:

//
//
//
usi

M o d i f y S t r i n g - S t r i n g

(s.ToUpperO
s;
)
ng
System;

namespace

class

ModifyString
Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// Student
S t u d e n t si = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
sl.sName = "Jenny";
//
S t u d e n t s2 = new S t u d e n t ( ) ;
s2.sName = s i . s N a m e ;
//
//

200

"" si
,
ToUpperO

III. -

// ,
s2.sName = s i . s N a m e . T o U p p e r ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine("si - { o } ,
s1.sName,
s2.sName);

s2 - {l}",

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
II S t u d e n t - ,
class S t u d e n t

{
public String sName;

}
S t u d e n t si s2 , s N a m e
. T o U p p e r () s i . s N a m e ,
. , , si s2
, , T o U p p e r ()
sName, , .
:
Sl - Jenny,

s2 - J E N N Y

< E n t e r > . . .
( ).
.
"

" , 1

int. , ,

, .
, .


,
Compare ( ) , , "-".
, C o m p a r e () 1.
, C o m p a r e () -1.
, C o m p a r e () 0.
C o m p a r e ( ) ,
:
compare (string s l ,

s t r i n g s2)

{
ft #

// ,
//
//
f o r e a c h ( )
if ( sl >
s2)
return 1
if ( sl <
s2)
r e t u r n -1
// , sl
// s2, s2
if sl
return 1
// , s2
//, s l , s l
if s2
r e t u r n -1
// ,
//
return

}
, " a b e d " " a b b d " , a " a b e d e " " a b e d " . ,
, ,

"-" .

C o m p a r e () 0, .

, .
B u i l d A S e n t e n c e

.
. ,
E X I T , e x i t , Q U I T q u i t .
// BuildASentence -
// ,
//
// .
//
using System;
namespace BuildASentence

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
Console.WriteLine("
" , "

202

III.

"

" E X I T or Q U I T " ) ;
//
// ,
//
string s S e n t e n c e = "" ;
for( ; ; )

{
//
Console.WriteLine(" " ) ;
string s L i n e = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ( ) ;
//
if ( I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( s L i n e ) )
{
break;

}
//
sSentence = S t r i n g . C o n c a t ( s S e n t e n c e , s L i n e ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine("\ : { } " , s S e n t e n c e ) ;

}
Console.WriteLine("\:\n{OJ", s S e n t e n c e ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . ..'"');
Console.Read();

}
// I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g - t r u e ,
/ /
public s t a t i c b o o l I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( s t r i n g s o u r c e )
{
string[] s T e r m s = { " E X I T " , " e x i t " , " Q U I T " , " q u i t " };
//
//
foreach

(string

sTerm

in

sTerms)

// true
if ( S t r i n g . C o m p a r e ( s o u r c e , s T e r m )

== 0)

return

true;

return f a l s e ;
s S e n t e n c e , "" .
w h i l e (true)

for (; ;)

, b r e a k
( ) r e t u r n ( ).
, .
5, " ".

9. #

203

,
R e a d L i n e ( ) .
,
I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( ) . t r u e ,
, f a l s e .
,
t r u e f a l s e , Is, H a s , C a n
. ,
, #
, .
,
S t r i n g . C o n c a t ( ) .
, , .
I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g () s T e r m s .
.
, ,
.
" E X I T " , " e x i t " ,
C o m p a r e () (
, " e x i t " " E x i t " ,
).
I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ()
. m
p a r e () ,
t r u e ;
,

fa 1 .

B u i l d A S e n t e n c e .

, EXIT or QUIT

#
:

-

:

EXIT

204

III.

# -
< E n t e r > . . .
.


C o m p a r e ( ) , I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( ) ,
" E X I T " " e x i t " .
C o m p a r e ( ) , .
, ( t r u e )
( false). 7, " ".

I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ()

t r u e ,

.
// I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g - t r u e ,
//
//
public s t a t i c b o o l I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( s t r i n g s o u r c e )

// , exit
/ / q u i t ,
return ( S t r i n g . C o m p a r e ( " e x i t " , s o u r c e , t r u e ) = = 0 )
(String.Compare("quit", source, true) == 0 ) ;

I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ()

. ,
,
.
, I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ()
if.
,
if.

switch
, s w i t c h
. s w i t c h
,
s t r i n g . I s
TerminateString () s w i t c h .
//IsTerminateString - t r u e ,
//
//
public static b o o l I s T e r m i n a t e S t r i n g ( s t r i n g s o u r c e )

{
switch (source)
{
case "EXIT" :
case "exit" :

9. #

205

case "QUIT":
case "quit":
return true;

}
return

false;

}
,
. f o r ()

, C o m p a r e ( ) , !
, ""
.


,
.
.
,
, f o r e a c h [],
StringToCharAccess
.
// S t r i n g T o C h a r A c c e s s -
//
using System;
namespace

StringToCharAccess

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
//
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" . " ) ;
string sRandom = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
Console.WriteLine();
//
Console.WriteLine(" : " + s R a n d o m ) ;
Console.WriteLine();
//
Console.Write(" foreach: " ) ;
f o r e a c h ( c h a r in s R a n d o m )
{
Console.Write();

}
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( ) ; .//
//

206

III.

Console.WriteLine();
/ /
Console.Write(" for: " ) ;
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < s R a n d o m . L e n g t h ; i + + )
{
Console.Write{sRandom[i]);

Console.WriteLine();

//

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

,
.
WriteLine ( s t r i n g ) . f o r e a c h ,
. , f o r
[ ]. :
.
: d j n d f v c k e x f q y f z c n h j r f

foreach:

for:

<Enter>

djn dfv ckexfqyfz

djn dfv ckexfqyfz

cnhjrf

cnhjrf

...

(
(white space) ,
, , , ).
T r i m ():
//
sRandom = s R a n d o m . T r i m () ;

S t r i n g . T r i m () . ,
,
.


R e a d L i n e () s t r i n g .
, ,
. # C o n v e r t
, ,
. ,
int.

ft #

207

string s = Console.ReadLine();
int n = C o n v e r t . T o I n t 3 2 ( s ) ;

/ / ,
//

: T o D o u b l e (), ToFloat
ToBoolean().
T o I n t 3 2 ( )

32-

(, 32 int),
int; !
l o n g Int 6 4 ().
"" ,
, , |
, .
t r u e , crpoi
.
, .
- TI
, ,
, .
, :
//
//

IsAllDigits -

public

static

bool

true,

IsAllDigits(string

sRaw)

{
// .
// ,
//
string s = s R a w . T r i m ( ) ; //
if ( s . L e n g t h == 0)

{
return

false;

}
//
f o r ( i n t i n d e x = 0; i n d e x < s . L e n g t h ; i n d e x + + )
{
// , ,
// ,
if ( C h a r . I s D i g i t ( s [ i n d e x ] ) == false)
{
return false;

}
}
// :
return true;

}
I s A l l D i g i t s |
. , !
. ,
. -

208

III.

, f a l s e , ,
. t r u e , ,
, , .

:

// IsAllDigits - ,
[// I s A l l D i g i t s
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

IsAllDigits

{
class P r o g r a m
{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
//
Console.WriteLine(" " ) ;
string s = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ( ) ;
// ,
if
(!IsAllDigits(s))

{
Console.WriteLine("

!");

}
else
{
//
int n = I n t 3 2 . P a r s e ( s ) ;
// , 2
Console.WriteLine("2 * { } = { l } " , n, 2 * n ) ;

}
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
// IsAllDigits - t r u e ,
//
//
public

static bool

IsAllDigits(string

sRaw)

{
//
II

, ,
I s A l l D i g i t s .
false, . ,

9. #

209

I n t 3 2 . P a r s e ( ) ,
C o n v e r t . T o I n t 3 2 ( ) . ,
(
).
:

1
!
<Enter>

...

C o n v e r t
,
.
,
,
1 1.


,
. S t r i n g . S p l i t ( ) ,
, , |
.
S p l i t ()
-. ,
S p l i t ( ) , , "1,2,
" 1", " 2" " 3".
Split]
.

// ParseSequenceWithSplit

// ,
//
namespace ParseSequenceWithSplit
{
using System;
class

Program

{
p u b l i c static v o i d M a i n ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
//
//
Console.WriteLine("

"
+
" , :");
//
string input = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
Console.WriteLine();

210

III.

//
// -
//
1
1
c h a r [] c D i v i d e r s = { ' , ' ,
};
string[] segments = i n p u t . S p l i t ( c D i v i d e r s ) ;
//
int n S u m = 0;
f o r e a c h ( s t r i n g s in s e g m e n t s )

//
if

(
( s . L e n g t h > 0)

{
// ,
if ( I s A l l D i g i t s ( s ) )

{
// 32-
int n u m = I n t 3 2 . P a r s e ( s ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" = { } " , n u m ) ;
//
nSum += num;

}
//
Console.WriteLine("

{ } " ,

nSum);

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

// I s A l l D i g i t s - t r u e ,
//
public

static bool

IsAllDigits(string

sRaw)

{
// .
// - ,
//
string s = s R a w . T r i m f ) ; //
if ( s . L e n g t h == 0)

{
return f a l s e ;

}
//
for (int i n d e x = 0; i n d e x < s . L e n g t h ; i n d e x + + )
{
// , ,
// ,
if ( C h a r . I s D i g i t ( s [ i n d e x ] ) == f a l s e )

return

false;

tea 9. #

211

}
// :
return true;

}
P a r s e S e q u e n c e W i t h S p l i t ]

. S p l i t () c D i v i d e r s , :
-, .
"",
S p l i t ( ) , f o r e a c h .
, I s A l l D i g i t s ()
, .
nSum.
( ).
:
,
1, 2 , , 3, 4
= 1
= 2
= 3
= 4
= 10

<Enter>

...

, , (
) . ""
, 10. , ,
, . not
"" .
.


. : , .
,
;
.
S t r i n g
. , Trim
Pad(), PadRight(), PadLeft(), Substring() Concat().

Trim() Pad()
T r i m () . !
. )
.

212

III.

,
Pad, ,
. ,
,
.
A l i g n O u t p u t .

// AlignOutput -
//
namespace A l i g n O u t p u t
(

using S y s t e m ;
class P r o g r a m

{
public s t a t i c v o i d M a i n ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
string[]

names

{"Christa
",
"
Sarah",
"Jonathan",
"Sam",
" Schmekowitz " } ;
// ,
Console.WriteLine(" " ) ;
foreach(string

in n a m e s )

{
Console.WriteLine(" '{}' ", s);
}
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e () ;
II
//
string [] s A l i g n e d N a m e s = T r i m A n d P a d ( n a m e s ) ;
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "
" " ) ;
foreach(string s in s A l i g n e d N a m e s )

"

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " ' {0} ' " , s) ;

}
II
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) . ;
Console.Read();

}
9. #

213

// TrimAndPad -
// ,
// ,
//
p u b l i c s t a t i c string[] T r i m A n d P a d ( s t r i n g [] strings)

{
// ,
//
string[] stringsToAlign = new String[strings.Length];
//
//

f o r ( i n t i = 0;

i < stringsToAlign.Length;

i++)

{
stringsToAlign[i]

= strings[i].Trim();

}
//
i n t n M a x L e n g t h = 0;
foreach(string

in

stringsToAlign)

{
if

(s.Length

> nMaxLength)

{
nMaxLength

s.Length;

}
}
//

f o r ( i n t i = 0;

i < stringsToAlign.Length;

i++)

{
stringsToAlign[i] =
stringsToAlign[i].PadRight(nMaxLength + 1 ) ;

}
//
return stringsToAlign;

A l i g n O u t p u t ,
( ,
). M a i n ()
, . TrimAndPad
:

'Christa
'
'
S a r a h '
'Jonathan'
'Sam'
1
' Schmekowitz

214

III.

e
'Christa
'
'Sarah
'
ta 'Jonathan
'
'Sam
'
'Schmekowitz '
< E n t e r > . . .
T r i m A n d P a d ()

strings. , ,
, .
TrimAndPad () , T r i m ()
, .
, .
, P a d R i g h t ( ) ,
, .
P a d R i g h t (10) ,
10 .

PadRight (10) 4 .
T r i m A n d P a d () .
lain () , . .


.
( R e p l a c e ():
string s = " D a n g e r N o S m o k i n g " ;
.Replace (s, ' ' , ' ! ' )

"Danger!NoSmoking".

( )
( ) ,
.
,
.
, , R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s ( ) ,
.
R e m o v e W i t h S p a c e
R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s ()
(, ).
// RemoveWhiteSpace

// RemoveSpecialChars () ,

//
// .
/ /

//

namespace R e m o v e W h i t e S p a c e

' 9. #

215
*

using

System;

public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
//
c h a r t ] c W h i t e S p a c e = {' ', ' \ n ' , ' \ t ' } ;
// ,
//
s t r i n g s = " t h i s is a \ n s t r i n g " ;
Console.WriteLine(":" + s ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" : " +
RemoveSpecialChars(s, cWhiteSpace))
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

}
// R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s -
//
public static string RemoveSpecialChars(string slnput,
c h a r t ] cTargets)

{
// sOutput
string sOutput = slnput;
//
for(;;)

{
// ;
//
int n O f f s e t = s O u t p u t . I n d e x O f A n y ( c T a r g e t s ) ;
if ( n O f f s e t
-1)

{
break;

}
//
//
string sBefore = sOutput.Substring(0, n O f f s e t ) ;
string sAfter
= sOutput.Substring(nOffset + 1 ) ;
// ,
//
sOutput = String.Concat(sBefore, s A f t e r ) ;

216

III.

return

sOutput;

R e m o v e S p e c i a l
Chars ( ) . , ,
, c T a r g e t s .
, , " a b , c d , " ,
' ,

R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s () ,
, . 1dexOf Any () ( -1 ,
).
I n d e x O f A n y () 2 (
1

0,

b 1, ' , ' 2).


. S u b s t r i n g (0, 2) ,
,

0,

..

"ab".

Substring (3) 3
, .. " c d , e " (+1 ).
Concat () , " a b e d , ".
. 4, " a b e d e " .
, -1.
,
, R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s ()
:
|: this is
Wring
:thisisastring
<Enter> . . .

SplitQ
R e m o v e W h i t e S p a c e
C o n c a t ( ) I n d e x O f ( ) ;
.
,
S p l i t .

Remove-

W h i t e S p a c e W i t h S p l i t . R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s ()
.
// RemoveSpecialChars -
//
r a b l i c static s t r i n g R e m o v e S p e c i a l C h a r s ( s t r i n g s l n p u t ,
char[] cTargets)

toa ft #

217

//
//
string[] sSubStrings = s l n p u t . S p l i t ( c T a r g e t s ) ;
// sOutput
string sOutput = "";
//
foreach(string substring in

sSubStrings)

{
sOutput

String.Concat(sOutput,

substring);

}
return

sOutput;

}

S p l i t ()

-,

, ,
.
f o r e a c h .
.

S t r i n g Format ]
, . Forma
, ,
. , , :
string myString =
S t r i n g . F o r m a t ( " { 0 } {l} { 2 } " ,

2,

3,

2*3);

F o r m a t () ( ).
, - , ,
. {0} ( 2), {1
(3) .
myStr
:
2

, F o r m a t ()
.
, . 9.1.

218

III.

. 9.1

,
#.
,
O u t p u t F o r m a t C o n t r o l s ,
, ,
.
//OutputFormatControls - ,
// .
// ,
//
namespace O u t p u t F o r m a t C o n t r o l s
{
using S y s t e m ;
public c l a s s P r o g r a m

{
public s t a t i c v o i d M a i n ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
// ,
// ,
//

for(;;)
{
/ / , ]
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " ")
string sNumber = C o n s o l e . R e a d L i n e ;
if ( s N u m b e r . L e n g t h == 0)

{
break;

}
double dNumber = Double.Parse(sNumber);
// ,
//
Console.WriteLine(" " +
", " + ,
"");
chart] separator = {' ' } ;
string sFormatString = Console.ReadLine();
string[] sFormats = sFormatString.Split(separator) ;
//
f o r e a c h ( s t r i n g s in s F o r m a t s )

{
if

(s.Length

!=

0)

{
// !
//
s t r i n g s F o r m a t C o m m a n d = " {0 : " + s + " } " ;
//
//
Console.Write(
" { } ", sFormatCommand);
try
{
Console.WriteLine(sFormatCommand,

dNumber);

}
catch(Exception)
{
Console.WriteLine("<

>");

220

Console.WriteLine();

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

III.

O u t p u t F o r m a t C o n t r o l s
d N u m b e r ,
. ,

. ,
( !).
,
. { 0 } s F o r m a t
Command. ,

N4,

{0: N4}.
:
Console.WriteLine ( s F o r m a t C o m m a n d , d N u m b e r ) ;
N4
tasole. W r i t e L i n e (" { :N4 }" , d N u m b e r ) ;
( ; ):
.
1234 5 . 6 7 8 9
,
F1 N0 0000000 .00000
{0:} $ 1 2 , 3 4 5 . 6 8
{0:} 1 . 2 3 4 5 6 8 + 0 0 4
{ 0 : F 1 } 1 2 3 4 5 . 7
{0:N0} 1 2 , 3 4 6
{ 0 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 } 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 . 6 7 8 9 0

.12345
,

.%
{ 0 : 0 0 . 0 % } 1 2 . 3 %

<Enter>

...

12345.6789, N0
( N) ( 0),
, 346 ( , ).
, 0.12345,

0 0 . 0 %

12.31 % 100 % . 00.0 ,


, .
0.01, 0 1 . 0 % .
t r y . . . c a t c h
.
.

[ 9. #

221

IV

- ,
. ,
- + +
. Java,
, .
-! ?
? ?
#,
- .
-

;
, , ,
.

10

> -
>
> -


-
.

,
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.

"-"
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, ( ).

, ..
.
#.

226

IV.

.
-, : " ?"
: " , ...". : "
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: " .
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).
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228

IV.

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,

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,
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229

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(, Word M a i n O ) .
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# ,
.
11, "".
. # , i
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h i c l e . 12, "".
. ,
. , Rocket
V e h i c l e , S t a r t
, , V e h i c l e . ,
,
...|

13,

"", 1

" ".

230

IV.

11


>
>
>

.
, , - ,
( )
.
,
,
. # .

p u b l i c .
BankAccount, - b a l a n c e
. p u b l i c ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, .

. ,
, , ,
b a l a n c e
. , , , ,
. , ,
,
...


B a n k A c c o u n t
p u b l i c , - nAccountNumb e r d B a l a n c e p r i v a t e .
, .
// B a n k A c c o u n t -
/ / d o u b l e (
// private,
// )
// :
// , ,
// Main() private-
// BankAccount.
using System;
namespace

BankAccount

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" . " ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" " ) ;
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ba.InitBankAccount();
// Deposit()
// ; Deposit()
// -
ba.Deposit(10);
// -
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " +
" " ) ;
ba.dBalance += 10;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

// BankAccount - ,
//
public class BankAccount

232

IV.

private s t a t i c i n t n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r =
private i n t n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;

10 0 0 ;

// d o u b l e
private d o u b l e d B a l a n c e ;
// Init -
//
//
public v o i d

InitBankAccount()

{
nAccountNumber =
dBalance = 0.0;

++nNextAccountNumber;

// G e t B a l a n c e -
public d o u b l e G e t B a l a n c e ( )

{
return d B a l a n c e ;

//
public int G e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( )
{
return n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;

}
public v o i d S e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( i n t

nAccountNumber)

{
this.nAccountNumber

= nAccountNumber;

// Deposit -
public v o i d D e p o s i t ( d o u b l e d A m o u n t )

{
if

(dAmount

>

0.0)

{
dBalance

+= d A m o u n t ;

// Withdraw - ,
// ;
//
public d o u b l e W i t h d r a w ( d o u b l e

dWithdrawal)

{
if

(dBalance <= d W i t h d r a w a l )

{
dWithdrawal

= dBalance;

dBalance -= d W i t h d r a w a l ;
return d W i t h d r a w a l ;

11.

233

private static int n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r =


private int nAccountNuraber;

1000;

// d o u b l e
private d o u b l e d B a l a n c e ;
// Init -
//
//
public v o i d I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t ( )
nAccountNumber =
dBalance = 0.0;

++nNextAccountNumber;

}
// G e t B a l a n c e -
public d o u b l e G e t B a l a n c e ( )
return d B a l a n c e ;

//
public

int G e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( )

return n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;
public v o i d S e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( i n t

nAccountNumber)

this.nAccountNumber = nAccountNumber;
// D e p o s i t -
public v o i d D e p o s i t ( d o u b l e d A m o u n t )

{
if

(dAmount

>

0.0)

{
dBalance

+= d A m o u n t ;

// W i t h d r a w - ,
// ;
//
public d o u b l e W i t h d r a w ( d o u b l e d W i t h d r a w a l )
if

( d B a l a n c e <= d W i t h d r a w a l )

dWithdrawal

= dBalance;

dBalance -= d W i t h d r a w a l ;
return d W i t h d r a w a l ;

233

// G e t S t r i n g -
//-
public string GetString()

{
string

return

s;

String.Format("#{0} = {l:C}",
GetAccountNumber(),
GetBalance());

d B a l a n c e -= d W i t h d r a w a l ,
d B a l a n c e = d B a l a n c e - d W i t h d r a w a l . C#
.
p u b l i c ,
.
B a n k A c c o u n t I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t () -1
, D e p o s i t () With-I
d r a w ( ) . D e p o s i t ( ) W i t h d r a w ( )

-1

" -1
" " , ". !
, - d B a l a n c e (
" , !
"), . -1
.!
, -1
. , -1
, .
, , -1
, !
D o u b l e B a n k A c c o u n t . B a n k A c c o u n t . d B a l a n c e :
'DoubleBankAccount.BankAccount.dBalance'
due to its protection level.

is

inaccessible

,
" private", . b a . d B a l a n c e += 10; I
d B a l a n c e ]
p r i v a t e M a i n ( ) ,
B a n k A c c o u n t . b a . D e p o s i t (10)
B a n k A c c o u n t . D e p o s i t () p u b l i c ,
M a i n ().
p r i v a t e ,
,
p r i v a t e .

. ,
.

234

IV.



, .
,
.
# .
, p u b l i c , .
, p r i v a t e , .
, p r o t e c t e d ,
.
, i n t e r n a l ,
.
# ,
. - . D L L .
.
, i n t e r n a l p r o t e c t e d ,
.
p r i v a t e . . ,
, p r o
jected .

I p u b l i c

.
- p u b l i c , ,
.
Deposit () W i t h d r a w () ? ,

.
, .
B a n k A c c o u n t ,
, . W i t h
draw () ,
, W i t h d r a w n ,
. ,
.
-
. , B a n k A c c o u n t ,
, . ,
.

' 11.

235

- ""
. , B a n k A c c o u n t
. -,
W i t h d r a w ( ) .
, ,
, ,
!
?
, ,
, .

. p r i v a t e ,
p r o t e c t e d , i n t e r n a l , internal
p r o t e c t e d p u b l i c .


B a n k A c c o u n t ,
. , G e t S t r i n g ( ) ,
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( ) . ,
B a n k A c c o u n t ,
. , " ",
, .
, G e t B a l a n c e () ]
G e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r () SetAc
c o u n t N u m b e r ( ) . - , !
d B a l a n c e p r i v a t e , GetBal
() ? .
G e t B a l a n c e d B a l a n c e
.
. ,
,
, , .
G e t B a l a n c e ()
. G e t B a l a n c e ()
, , -
, .
. ,
, , .
, G e t B a l a n c e () !
B a n k A c c o u n t , !,!
- , -1
( !
).

236

IV.


D o u b l e B a n k A c c o u n t
B a n k A c c o u n t .

// DoubleBankAccount
//

//

double

private,

using S y s t e m ;
namespace

DoubleBankAccount

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
//

Console.WriteLine("

"

"

" ) ;

BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ba.InitBankAccount();
//

double dDeposit = 1 2 3 . 4 5 4 ;
Console.WriteLine(" {0:C}",
ba.Deposit(dDeposit);
//

dDeposit);

Console.WriteLine(" = { } " , ba.GetString()) ;


//
double dAddition = 0.002;
Console.WriteLine(" {0:C}", dAddition);
ba.Deposit(dAddition);
//

Console.WriteLine("

{ } " ,

ba.GetString());
//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

"

.. . " ) ;

Console.Read();

}
}
//

BankAccount

//

public c l a s s B a n k A c c o u n t
{
private static int n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r =
private int n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;

11.

1000;

237

//
private double dBalance;

double

// I n i t -
//
//
public

void

InitBankAccount()

{
nAccountNumber =
d B a l a n c e = 0.0;

++nNextAccountNumber;

}
// GetBalance
public double

-
GetBalance()

{
return dBalance;,

}
// AccountNumber
p u b l i c int G e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( )

{
return

nAccountNumber;

}
public

void

SetAccountNumber(int

nAccountNumber)

{
this.nAccountNumber = nAccountNumber;

}
// Deposit -
public void Deposit(double dAmount)

{
if

(dAmount

>

0.0)

{
dBalance

+= dAmount;

}
}
// W i t h d r a w - ,
// ;
//
public double Withdraw(double dWithdrawal)
{
if

(dBalance

<= d W i t h d r a w a l )

{
dWithdrawal

= dBalance;

}
d B a l a n c e -= d W i t h d r a w a l ;
return dWithdrawal;

}
// G e t S t r i n g -
//
public string GetString()

238

IV.

{
string s

String.Format("#{0} = {l:C}",
GetAccountNumber(),
GetBalance());

return s;
}

}
M a i n ()

123.454 ..

. M a i n ()

.
:

$123 .45
= #1001 = $ 1 2 3 .45
$0.00
= #1001 = $123.46
< E n t e r > . . .
.
,
... , .
, , , 123.454 123.45.
,
.
d e c i m a l D e c i m a l . R o u n d ( ) ,
D e c i m a l B a n k A c c o u n t .
// DecimalBankAccount -
// decimal
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace

DecimalBankAccount

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
//
Console.WriteLine(" " +
"
");
BankAccount ba = n e w B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ba.InitBankAccount();
//
double dDeposit = 123.454;
Console.WriteLine(" {0:C}",
dDeposit);
ba.Deposit(dDeposit);
//

[ 11.

239

Console.WriteLine(" = { o } "

ba.GetString());

//
double dAddition = 0.002;
Console.WriteLine(" {0:C}",
dAddition);
ba.Deposit(dAddition);
//
Console.WriteLine(" =
ba . G e t S t r i n g ()'');

{ } " ,

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
// BankAccount - ,
//
public class BankAccount
{
p r i v a t e s t a t i c int n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r = 1 0 0 0 ;
p r i v a t e int n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;
//
private decimal mBalance;
//
//
//

decimal

Init -

public

void

InitBankAccount()

{
nAccountNumber =
m B a l a n c e = 0;

++nNextAccountNumber;

}
// G e t B a l a n c e
public double
return

-
GetBalance()

(double)mBalance;

// AccountNumber
p u b l i c int G e t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ( )

{
return

nAccountNumber;

}
public

void

SetAccountNumber(int

this.nAccountNumber

nAccountNumber)

nAccountNumber;

}
240

IV. -

// D e p o s i t -
public v o i d D e p o s i t ( d o u b l e d A m o u n t )

{
if

(dAmount

>

0.0)

//
//
decimal mTemp = (decimal)dAmount;
mTemp = Decimal.Round(mTemp, 2 ) ;
mBalance

+= m T e m p ;

}
// Withdraw - ,
// ;
//
public d e c i m a l W i t h d r a w ( d e c i m a l d W i t h d r a w a l )

{
if

( m B a l a n c e <= d W i t h d r a w a l )

{
dWithdrawal

= mBalance;

}
mBalance -= d W i t h d r a w a l ;
return d W i t h d r a w a l ;

// G e t S t r i n g -
//
public s t r i n g G e t S t r i n g ( )

string s = S t r i n g . F o r m a t ( " # { 0 } = { l : C } " ,


GetAccountNumber(),
GetBalance() ) ;
return s;

d e c i m a l ,
, d o u
ble. D e p o s i t () D e c i m a l . R o u n d ()
. ,
:

$123.45
= #1001
=
$123 .45
$0.00
= # 1 0 0 1 = $ 1 2 3 . 4 5
<Enter> . . .


, Bank
c o u n t d e c i m a l , , , .
. . , BankAcoi
,
( ,
: B a l a n c e () d o u b l e ) .
: , B a n k A c c o u n t
.

,
, M a i n ( ) , |
, |
.
,
.

, *
.


G e t X O S e t X ( ) , BankAccou
(access functions).
,
. 1 n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ,
:
SetAccountNumber(GetAccountNumber() + 1 ) ;
# ,
.
A c c o u n t N u m b e r :
p u b l i c int A c c o u n t N u m b e r

//

getjreturn nAccountNumber;}
set{nAccountNumber = value;}

//
//
// v a l u e -

g e t , a s e t .
B a l a n c e
, g e t :
public

double

Balance

{
get
{

242

IV.

return

(double)mBalance;

:
BankAccount ba = n e w B a n k A c c o u n t () ;
// A c c o u n t N u m b e r
ba. AccountNumber = 1 0 0 1 ;
//
Console. W r i t e L i n e ("#{ 0} = { l : C } " , ba . A c c o u n t N u m b e r ,
ba.Balance) ;
A c c o u n t N u m b e r B a l a n c e -
, .
(, m B a l a n c e p r i v a t e ) .
, B a l a n c e
.
.
.
, : B a l a n c e ,
Balance().
. #
,
, .
, #. #
,
- .


- ,
:
public class B a n k A c c o u n t
private s t a t i c int n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r =
public s t a t i c i n t N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r

1000;

get {return n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ; }

N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ,
.
// N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r
int nValue = B a n k A c c o u n t . N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;


get
, . :

11.

243

p u b l i c static int A c c o u n t N u m b e r
{
// ,
//
get{return ++nNextAccountNumber;}

}
, .
, oco
, - .
.
, ,

. ,
,
, ,

.
. , ,
, ,
. - ]
"", .
#
,

MyObject

mo

new M y O b j e c t O ;

,
.
. D o g , Scooter-I
Dog.

#
. ,
:
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
int n ;
d o u b l e d;
double dCalculatedValue

= n

d;

}
244

IV.

# , n, d
.
:
Use of u n a s s i g n e d l o c a l v a r i a b l e 'n'
Use of u n a s s i g n e d l o c a l v a r i a b l e 'd'
C# ,
- 0 , f a l s e
n u l l .
:
using System;
namespace T e s t
(
public c l a s s P r o g r a m
{
public s t a t i c v o i d M a i n ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
//
MyObject l o c a l O b j e c t = n e w M y O b j e c t O ;
Console.WriteLine("localObject.n = { o } " , localObject.n);
if ( l o c a l O b j e c t . n e x t O b j e c t == n u l l )

{
Console.WriteLine("localObject.nextObject

null");

}
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . " ) ;
Console.Read();
public class M y O b j e c t
{
internal int n;
internal M y O b j e c t n e x t O b j e c t ;

M y O b j e c t ,
int n e x t O b j e c t ,
. M a i n () M y O b j e c t
.
localObject . =
localObject . n e x t O b j e c t = n u l l
<Enter> . . .
#
. , - l o c a l O b j e c t . l o c a l O b j e c t . n e x t O b j ect
- , "".
[, , .
"" .

11.

245

# , :
. (,
) . Bank
c o u n t , ,
public

class

BankAccount

{
int n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;
double dBalance;
I I . . .

}
,
.
B a n k A c c o u n t I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ,
.
, .
I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ,
,

InitBankA

c o u n t ( ) , .
,
# . # ,
, ,
B a n k A c c o u n t :
public void Main(string[]

args)

{
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;

}
public

class

BankAccount

{
// 1000
//
static int n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r = 1 0 0 0 ;
//
int n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;
double dBalance;
/ / B a n k A c c o u n t -
public BankAccount() // ,
// ,
//

{
nAccountNumber =
d B a l a n c e = 0.0;

++nNextAccountNumber;

}
I I . . .

}
246

IV.

B a n k A c c o u n t ,
InitBankAccount (). :
, ;
, v o i d ;
M a i n ()


.
D e m o n s t r a t e D e f a u l t C o n s t r u e t o r .

// DemonstrateDef a u l t C o n s t r u c t o r -
// ;
//
using System;
namespace

DemonstrateDef aultConstructor

// MyObject - " "


//
public class M y O b j e c t
I
// -
static M y O t h e r O b j e c t s t a t i c O b j = n e w M y O t h e r O b j e c t ( ) ;
// -
MyOtherObject d y n a m i c O b j ;
// ( )
public M y O b j e c t O

{
Console.WriteLine(" M y O b j e c t " ) ;
Console.WriteLine("( - " +
" " +
" )11) ;
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" - : ") ;
dynamicObj = n e w M y O t h e r O b j e c t ;
Console.WriteLine(" M y O b j e c t " ) ;

// MyOtherObject -
// , -
public class M y O t h e r O b j e c t
public M y O t h e r O b j e c t ()
{

.
Console.WriteLine("

11,

MyOtherObject");

247

public

class

Program

{
public

static void Main(string[]

args)

{
Console.WriteLine(" M a i n ( ) " ) ;
Console.WriteLine("
"MyObject M a i n ( ) : " ) ;
MyObject localObject = new M y O b j e c t O ;

"

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
}
:
Main()
MyObject M a i n O :
MyOtherObject
MyObject
( -
)
-:
MyOtherObject
MyObject
<Enter> ...
.
1. , M a i n ()
M y O b j e c t .
2. M a i n () l o c a l O b j e c t M y O b j e c t .
3. M y O b j e c t s t a t i c O b j MyOtherObject.
- MyObject
# s t a t i c O b j
, M y O b j e c t .
4. M y O b j e c t .
, , pal
M y O b j e c t .
5.
M y O b j e c t

MyOtherObject

n e w ,
M y O t h e r O b j e c t .
6. M y O b j e c t , ,
M a i n ().
7. .

248

IV.


,
.
1.

DefaultConstructor.

Build Build Demonstrate-

2. ,
Console.WriteLine

MyOtherObject.

, . . 11.1
,
.

Puc. 11.1.

3.
<F11>).

D e b u g ^ S t e p Into

, ,
M a i n ()
.
4. <F11>
localObject ( ).
M y O b j e c t .
, . 11.2. , -

toa 77.

249

l o c a l O b j e c t n u l l .
Locals.

. 11.2. Visual Studio


5. <F11>.
M y O t h e r O b j e c t , !
. 11.3. ? M a i n ()
MyObj e c t .
# M y O b j e c t ,
M y O t h e r O b j e c t ,
(
,
).
6. <F11>, !
s t a t i c O b j , . 11.4.
, .
7. <F11>
.
<F11>
M y O b j e c t . ,
O t h e r O b j e c t , , M y O b j e c t
d y n a m i c O b j .

250

IV.

Puc. 11.3. MyObject


MyOtherObj ect

Puc. 11.4. MyOtherObject


11.

251


, !
, - . #
- , .
, B a n k A c c o u n t :
public

class

BankAccount

{
// 1000
//
s t a t i c i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
/ /
i n t nAccountNumber = ++nNextAccountNumber;
double dBalance = 0.0;
I I . . . .
.
.

}
. n A c c o u n t N u m b e r , dBalance
,
.
. ,
0 . 0 d B a l a n c e .
d B a l a n c e . ,
, B a n k A c c o u n t .
.
, - n N e x t A c c o u n t N u m b e r
B a n k A c c o u n t (
), ..
, , .
, ,
. .
. ()
, ,
.


D e m o n s t r a t e D e f a u l t C o n s t r u c
t o r n e w M y O t h e r O b j e c t () M y O b j e c t
,
, W r i t e L i n e ( ) .
public

class

MyObject

/ /
s t a t i c M y O t h e r O b j e c t s t a t i c O b j = new M y O t h e r O b j e c t ( ) ;
/ /
M y O t h e r O b j e c t d y n a m i c O b j = new M y O t h e r O b j e c t ;
public
MyObject()

252

IV.

Console . W r i t e L i n e ( " M y O b j e c t " ) ;


C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e (" ( " +
" ) " ) ;
/ / d y n a m i c O b j
Console . W r i t e L i n e ( " M y O b j e c t " ) ;


D e m o n s t r a t e D e f a u l t C o n s t r u c t o r .
M a i n ( )
M y O b j e c t M a i n ( ) :
M y O t h e r O b j e c t
M y O t h e r O b j e c t
MyObject
( )
M y O b j e c t
<Enter> . . .
D e m o n s t r a t e C o n s t r u c t o r W i t h l n i t i a l i z e r .

, .

, (
7, " ").
, B a n k A c c o u n t , ,
.
BankAccountWithMultipleConstructors

Using System;

H o m e s p B a n k A c c o u n t W i t h M u l t i p l e C o n s t r u c t o r s
Using S y s t e m ;
public class Program
{
public

static

void

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
//
//
BankAccount b a l = n e w B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine(bal.GetString());

253

B a n k A c c o u n t 2 = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 0 0 ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( b a 2 . G e t S t r i n g (.)).;
B a n k A c c o u n t b a 3 = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 2 3 4 ,
Console.WriteLine(.GetString());

200);

/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

// BankAccount -
p u b l i c c l a s s BankAccount

//

1000;

//

static

int

//
//

1000;

public

nNextAccountNumber

/ /
i n t nAccountNumber;
double dBalance;

BankAccount()

//

{
nAccountNumber = ++nNextAccountNumber;
dBalance = 0.0;
}'

public

BankAccount(double

dlnitialBalance)

{
//
nAccountNumber = ++nNextAccountNumber;
//
//
//
if

,
(
)
( d l n i t i a l B a l a n c e < 0)

{
dlnitialBalance

0;

}
dBalance

dlnitialBalance;

}
public

BankAccount(int nlnitialAccountNumber,
double
dlnitialBalance)

{
//
if


( n l n i t i a l A c c o u n t N u m b e r <= 0)

{
254

IV.

nlnitialAccountNumber =

nAccountNumber

++nNextAccountNumber;

nlnitialAccountNumber;

//
// )
if ( d l n i t i a l B a l a n c e < 0)

{
dlnitialBalance

0;

}
dBalance

dlnitialBalance;

}
public

string

G e t S t r i n g ()

{
return

String.Format("#{0} = {l:N}",
nAccountNumber,

dBalance);

,
, #
.
.
B a n k A c c o u n t W i t ^ h M u l t i pleConstructors :
;

( );

.
Main ()
ipex .
:
#1001 = 0 . 0 0
#1002 = 1 0 0 . 00
# 1 2 3 4= 2 0 0 0 0
<Enter> . . .

, .

,
. , M a i n ( ) , b a l , , B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) , ( ,
# ). , -

11.

255

// BankAccount -
public c l a s s
BankAccount

(
/ / 1 0 0 0 ;
//
static i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
/ /
int n A c c o u n t N u m b e r ;
double d B a l a n c e ;

//
// ,

public

BankAccount()

//

{
Init(++nNextAccountNumber,
public

BankAccount(double

0.0);

dlnitialBalance)

{
Init(++nNextAccountNumber,

dlnitialBalance);

//
//
public B a n k A c c o u n t ( i n t
nlnitialAccountNumber,
double
dlnitialBalance)

{
//
//
//
//
In

,

nlnitialAccountNumber
()


()

1000
it(nlnitialAccountNumber,
dlnitialBalance);

private

void

I n i t ( i n t
double

nlnitialAccountNumber,
dlnitialBalance)

{
nAccountNumber
//
if

nlnitialAccountNumber;


(dlnitialBalance <
0)

{
dlnitialBalance

0;

}
dBalance

dlnitialBalance;

}
public

string

return

GetStringO

String.Format("#{0}
=
{l:N}",
nAccountNumber,

11.

dBalance);

257

I n i t ()

, .

" " !
, ,
!
, .
t h i s
:
// B a n k A c c o u n t C o n t r u c t o r s A n d T h i s
//

using
System;
namespace

BankAccountContructorsAndFunction

{
using

System;

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

//
//

BankAccount bal
= new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine(bal.GetString());

BankAccount ba2
= new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 0 0 ) ;
Console.WriteLine(ba2.GetString());
BankAccount ba3
= new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 2 3 4 ,
Console.WriteLine(ba3.GetString());
//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

200);

"

+
..").;

Console.Read();

}
// BankAccount
-
public
class
BankAccount

{
// 1000;

//

s t a t i c i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
//
int
nAccountNumber;
double
dBalance;
//
//
//

258

IV. -

public

BankAccount()

this(0,

0)

{}

public
BankAccount(double
dlnitialBalance)
:this(0,
dlnitialBalance)
{}
//

//
public B a n k A c c o u n t ( i n t
nlnitialAccountNumber,
double
dlnitialBalance)

{
//
//
//
if

,


( n l n i t i a l A c c o u n t N u m b e r <= 0)

{
nlnitialAccountNumber

++nNextAccountNumber;

}
nAccountNumber

nlnitialAccountNumber;

//

if

(dlnitialBalance

<

0)

{
dlnitialBalance

0;

}
dBalance

public

string

dlnitialBalance;

GetString()

{
return

String.Format("#{0}
=
{l:N}",
nAccountNumber,

dBalance);

B a n k A c c o u n t ,
.

,
. I n i t () .

B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) :
BankAccount

bal

new

B a n k A c c o u n t () ;

B a n k A c c o u n t ( )

//

BankAc

count ( i n t , d o u b l e ) , 0 0.0:
public B a n k A c c o u n t ( )

this(0,

0)

{}

,
.

11.

259


,

:
public

BankAccount(double

d)

this(0,

d)

{}

- .
, # .
, .
, B a n k A c c o u n t , i n t e r n a l
( ) ,
, , B a n k A c c o u n t .
// BankAccount
-
public
class
BankAccount

// 1000
//
s t a t i c i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
//
int
nAccountNumber;
double
dBalance;

'

internal BankAccount() //

{
nAccountNumber
dBalance

++nNextAccountNumber;

0;

}
public

string

GetStringO

{
return

260

String.Format("#{0}
=
{l:N}",
nAccountNumber,

dBalance);

IV. -

12

,
" " " "



( ) ,
( ) .
. ( ,
- ) . H u m a n ( ) ,
, , .. H u m a n
, M a m m a l

(),

, A n i m a l ( ) .
.
. , : " ? "
: " , " . , ,
. , ,
, , ,
" " .
-
, , , ,
- ,
, , , -
.

InheritanceExam-

p l e S u b c l a s s B a s e C l a s s .

// I n h e r i t a n c e E x a m p l e
using S y s t e m ;

namespace

InheritanceExample

public

class

BaseClass

{
public

int

public

void

nDataMember;
SomeMethodO

{
Console.WriteLine("SomeMethod()");

}
}
public

class

Subclass

BaseClass

{
public

void

SomeOtherMethod()

{
Console.WriteLine("SomeOtherMethod()");

}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//


Console . WriteLine ("

B a s e C l a s s be = new B a s e C l a s s ;
be.nDataMember = 1 ;
be.SomeMethod();
//

Console.WriteLine("

S u b c l a s s sc = new S u b c l a s s ;
s c . n D a t a M e m b e r = 2;
sc.SomeMethod();
sc.SomeOtherMethod();

:"

:");

//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +


"
...");
Console.Read();

B a s e C l a s s

- S

M e t h o d ( ) . M a i n ()

b e B a s e C l a s s

Subclass

B a s e C l a s s

BaseClass

Subclass

B a s e C l a s s , ,
. M a i n ()

262

, S u b c l a s s -'

IV. -

nDataMember - S o m e M e t h o d ( ) , B a s e C l a s s ,
S o m e O t h e r M e t h o d (.), .
, ( L , ) :

SomeMethod ()

SomeMethod ()
B o m e O t h e r M e t h o d ()

<Enter>

...


, ,
. , , , .. .

(, ) .
( , ) . , , .
, .
' # , S t u d e n t P e r s o n . , P e r s o n
S t u d e n t .

Stu-

dent P e r s o n (
) . + +
- .
, S t u d e n t P e r s o n , . P e r s o n
S t u d e n t

, , ) .
, P e r s o n , S t u d e n t .
, S t u d e n t , a P e r s o n .
. , G r a d u a t e Student S t u d e n t , P e r s o n .
, : G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t S t u d e n t
Student P e r s o n , G r a d u a t e S t u d e n t P e r s o n .


. ,
.
P e r s o n S t u d e n t .

(reuse).

,
.

hm 12.

263


.
, ? ,
, ?

,
, .
.

.
,
. - ,
,
.

. , . ,
, .
,
.
, .
,
, .

.

. # .
-
, .
//
SimpleSavingsAccount
-
SavingsAccount
// BankAccount;

//
( 13)
using
System;
namespace

SimpleSavingsAccount

{
// BankAccount - ,
//
p u b l i c c l a s s BankAccount // t h e base c l a s s

{
// 1000
//

p u b l i c s t a t i c i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
//
public
int
nAccountNumber;
public
decimal
mBalance;
// I n i t -
//
(

264

IV. -

// )
public v o i d

InitBankAccount()

{
I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t (0) ;
}
public

void

InitBankAccount(decimal

mlnitialBalance)

{
nAccountNumber = ++nNextAccountNumber;
mBalance = m l n i t i a l B a l a n c e ;

}
// B a l a n c e
public d e c i m a l B a l a n c e
get { return mBalance;}
}
// D e p o s i t -
public v o i d D e p o s i t ( d e c i m a l mAmount)

if

(mAmount

>

0)

{
mBalance

+=

mAmount;

// Withdraw - ,
// ;
public d e c i m a l
Withdraw(decimal
mWithdrawal)
if

(Balance

<=

mWithdrawal)

{
mWithdrawal

//

//

Balance

Balance;

}
mBalance -= m W i t h d r a w a l ;
return mWithdrawal;
}
// T o S t r i n g public
string
return


ToBankAccountString()

String.Format("{0}
{l:C}",
nAccountNumber,

// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t
//
public

class

SavingsAccount

Balance);

BankAccount

//

{
public d e c i m a l m l n t e r e s t R a t e ;
// I n i t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t -
// 0 100
public

void

InitSavingsAccount(decimal

mlnterestRate)

{
InitSavingsAccount(0,

mlnterestRate);

public

void

InitSavingsAccount(decimal
decimal

m 12.

mlnitial,
mlnterestRate)

265

InitBankAccount(mlnitial);
this.mlnterestRate = mlnterestRate

100;

}
// A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t -
//
public
void
Accumulatelnterest()
{
i
mBalance = Balance +
(decimal) (Balance*mInterestRate);

}
// T o S t r i n g -
public
string
ToSavingsAccountString()
r e t u r n

String.Format("{0}
({l}%)"(
ToBankAccountStringO ,
mlnterestRate *
100);

}
}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ba.InitBankAccount(10 0);
ba.Deposit(100);
Console.WriteLine("
{}",
ba.ToBankAccountString());
//
SavingsAccount
sa
=
new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( ) ;
sa.InitSavingsAccount(100,
12.5M);
sa.Accumulatelnterest();
Console.WriteLine("
{}",
sa.ToSavingsAccountString());
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

B a n k A c c o u n t ,
. I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t l
,
, ,
1 1 , " " . !
.
B a l a n c e , !
. D e p o s i t , W i t h d r a w
(
T o B a n k A c c o u n t S t r i n g ()

266

IV. - *

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

BankAccount.

.
M a i n ( )

. B a n k -

ccount, , S a v i n g s A c c o u n t , . :
1001

$2 0 0 . 0 0

1002

$112.50

(12.500%),

< E n t e r > . . .

I n i t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ()

I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) , -
. I n i t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( )

B a n k A c c o u n t
. .

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t B a n k A c c o u n t , .
.


( I S _ A ) S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

BankAccount

P r o g r a m
S i m p l e S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,
public class Program
{

// :
// D i r e c t D e p o s i t public s t a t i c v o i d


D i r e c t D e p o s i t (BankAccount ba,
decimal mPay)

{
ba.Deposit(mPay);

}
public

static

void

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
II
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ba. I n i t B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 0 0 ) ;
DirectDeposit(ba,100);
Console.WriteLine("
{0}",
ba.ToBankAccountString());
// -
SavingsAccount
sa
=
new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( ) ;
sa.InitSavingsAccount(100,
12.5M);
DirectDeposit(sa,100);
sa. A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t ( ) ;

\m 12.

267

Console.WriteLine("
{0}",
sa.ToSavingsAccountString());
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

}
. , J
D i r e c t D e p o s i t (),i
B a n k A c c o u n t .
.
( !), M a i n ()
D i r e c t D e p o s i t ()
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

, ,

BankAccount

, ,

. S a v i n g s A c c o u n t BankAt
c o u n t , S a v i n g s A c c o u n t B a n k A c c o u n t
B a n k A c c o u n t .

BankAccount
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t B a n k A c c o u n t
, (
).
// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t -
p u b l i c c l a s s SavingsAccount_ //

// :

{
//
SavingsAccount.

public BankAccount bankAccount; // BankAccount


public

decimal

mlnterestRate;

// I n i t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t -
// 0 100
public
void
InitSavingsAccount(BankAccount
bankAccount,
decimal
mlnterestRate)
this.bankAccount
= bankAccount;
this.mlnterestRate = mlnterestRate
// A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t -
//
public
void
Accumulatelnterest()

100;

bankAccount.mBalance
= bankAccount.Balance
+
(bankAccount.Balance * mlnterestRate);
// D e p o s i t -
public
void Deposit(decimal
//

mAmount)

BankAccount

bankAccount.Deposit(mAmount);

268

IV. -

//Withdraw
/ / ;
'public

double

return

Withdraw (decimal

mWithdrawal)

bankAccount .Withdraw (mWithdrawal)

SavingsAccount_

bankAccount

B a n k A c c o u n t ) . b a n k A c c o u n t
, SavingsAccount_. Savingaccount_ ,

B a n k A c c o u n t (.. -

| S a v i n g s A c c o u n t _ , , ,
| B a n k A c c o u n t ) .
, S a v i n g s A c c o u n t _ B a n k A c c o u n t .


.
:
/ /

BankAccount b a
/ /

new

B a n k A c c o u n t ()

SavingsAccount:

SavingsAccount_ sa

new

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t _ () ;

s a . I n i t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( b a , 5) ;
/ /

100

sa.Deposit ( 1 0 0 ) ;
/ /
s a . A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t () ;
, S a v i n g s A c c o u n t _
BankAccount,

BankAccount, . , :
//DirectDeposit

void DirectDeposit(BankAccount ba, int nPay)


{
ba.Deposit (nPay) ;
}
void SomeFunctionO
{
/ /

SavingsAccount_

sa

DirectDeposit (sa,

new

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t _ () ;

100);

// . . . . .
}
D i r e c t D e p o s i t ( )

SavingsAccount_

BankAccount. ,
.

12.

269

,
.
.
, " " .
, ,
" " , .
" " ,
.
Z a p o r o z h e t s ,
,
.
, M o t o r ,
M o t o r ,
. , M o t o r G o ( ) .
, . "
, , " "
, " " . ,
, ,
, , ..
, , .

. , ,
, .
-
.

# , .


.
. S o m e F u n c t i o n ( ) S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,
B a n k A c c o u n t .
:
BankAccount
,SavingsAccount
sa

270

new

SavingsAccount();

IV. -

ba = s a ;
ba =

(BankAccount)sa;

sa = b a ;
sa =

(SavingsAccount)ba;

//
:
//
//

//
//

//
:
//
//
//

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t B a n k A c
count. # .
.
B a n k A c c o u n t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t .
. , " "
, " " . ,
B a n k A c c o u n t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,
. ,
,
.


B a n k A c c o u n t

SavingsAc

count . :
public

s t a t i c

void

ProcessAmount(BankAccount

bankAccount)

{
//
bankAccount.Deposit(10000.00);
// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,

SavingsAccount
SavingsAccount
=
(SavingsAccount)bankAccount;
SavingsAccount.Accumulatelnterest();

{
public

s t a t i c

void

TestCastO

{
SavingsAccount
sa
=
new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ProcessAmount(sa);
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;
ProcessAmount(ba);

}
P r o c e s s A c c o u n t ( )
A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t ( ) .

,
ba

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

, b a B a n k A c c o u n t . ,
.
P r o c e s s A c c o u n t ( )
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

T e s t ( ) .

P r o c e s s A c c o u n t ( ) .

B a n k A c c o u n t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t , b a
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t .

12.

271

P r o c e s s A c c o u n t ()

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . b a
m u l a t e l n t e r e s t ().

(run-time error

,
. ,
, .
.

is as
P r o c e s s A c c o u n t () , ,
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t , ,
. # is as.

is
i s . t r u e ,
. .
i s ,
.
public

s t a t i c

void

ProcessAmount(BankAccount

bankAccount)

{
//

bankAccount.Deposit(10000.00);
//

if

(bankAccount

SavingsAccount...
is

SavingsAccount)

{
//

...

//

SavingsAccount

SavingsAccount

(SavingsAccount)bankAccount;
SavingsAccount.Accumulatelnterest();

}
//

//

//

BankAccount
-

}
public

s t a t i c

void

TestCastO

{
SavingsAccount

sa

new

SavingsAccount();

ProcessAmount(sa);
BankAccount

ba

new

BankAccount();

ProcessAmount(ba);

}
i s , ,
b a n k A c c o u n t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t .

272

IV. -

P r o c e s s A m o u n t ( )

is t r u e ,

, B a n k A c c o u n t , i s
f a l s e , .
.
,
i s
. , .

o b j e c t
:
public
public

class
class

MyBaseClass
{}
MySubClass
:
MyBaseClass

{}


:
public

class

Test

{
public
s t a t i c
void
GenericFunction(MyBaseClass
//

MySubClass
if(msc

//
//

!=
...
.

mc)

msc

mc

as

MyBaseClass;

null)

. .
.

G e n e r i c F u n c t i o n ( )

M y B a s e C l a s s a s .

a s ? , #
o b j e c t . , ,
, o b j e c t . ,
o b j e c t :
class

MyClassl

class

MyClass2

object

{}

{}

o b j e c t :
public

class

Test

{
public
s t a t i c
void
GenericFunction(object

MyClassl

mcl

12.

as

o)

MyClassl;

273

if(mcl

!=

null)

//

//

mcl,

G e n e r i c F u n c t i o n ()

, a s M y C l a s s l
object.

as
a s , i s .
b o o l ,
n u l l ,
, .
, a s n u l l :
SavingsAccount

SavingsAccount
bankAccount

if(SavingsAccount

!=

as

=
SavingsAccount;

null)

{
//

SavingsAccount

}
/ /
//

? , a s
, i s
.
, as - ,
, i n t , l o n g , d o u b l e
i s .

I n h e r i t a n c e E x a m p l e ,
I n i t . . . ()

B a n k A c c o u n t Saving!

s A c c o u n t . , , , .


,
.
,
.

274

IV. -

// I n h e r i t i n g A C o n s t r u c t o r -
/ /
ping

System;

n a m e s I n h e r i t i n g A C o n s t r u c t o r
(
public class Program
{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
Console.WriteLine("

B a s e C l a s s be = new B a s e C l a s s ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine("\
Subclass
sc = new S u b c l a s s ( ) ;

BaseClass");

Subclass");

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

public
{

class

public

BaseClass

BaseClassO

{
Console.WriteLine(" BaseClass");

{
public
{

class

public

Subclass

BaseClass

S u b c l a s s ()

{
Console.WriteLine("

Subclass");

B a s e C l a s s S u b c l a s s ,
. B a s e C l a s s
B a s e C l a s s . S u b c l a s s
B a s e C l a s s , B a s e C l a s s .
.

BaseClass

BaseClass

Subclass

BaseClass

Subclass

<Enter>

. . .

. ,
, , .
: -

[ 12.

275

, . :
, ,
. B a s e C l a s s
, S u b c l a s s .
...


,
, , ,
. ,
:
using
System;
namespace
Example

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

Console.WriteLine("
Subclass()");
Subclass
scl
= new S u b c l a s s ( ) ,
Console.WriteLine("\
Subclass(int)");
Subclass sc2
= new S u b c l a s s ( 0 ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");

Console.Read();

p u pb ul ibcl i c c l aBs as s e C
B al as se sC( l) a s s
{
Console.WriteLine("
public

BaseClass(int

BaseClass

)");

i)

Console.WriteLine("

BaseClass

( i n t ) " ) ;

}
public

class

public

Subclass

BaseClass

Subclass()

{
Console.WriteLine("
public

Subclass(int

Subclass

)")

Subclass

( i n t ) " ) ;

i)

{
Console.WriteLine("

276

IV. -

S u b c l a s s ()

B a s e C l a s s
( )
S u b c l a s s
( )

Subclass (int)
B a s e C l a s s
( )
S u b c l a s s
(int)
< E n t e r > . . .
.
, # S u b c l a s s ,
B a s e C l a s s . ,
. , #
S u b c l a s s ( i n t ) .
, , B a s e C l a s s ,
, .



b a s e .
,

t h i s (. 11, " " ) .
, , :

// I n v o k e B a s e C o n s t r u c t o r - ,

/ /
// b a s e
using
System;
namespace

InvokeBaseConstructor

{
public

class

BaseClass

p{ u b l i c
BaseClassO
Console.WriteLine("
public

BaseClass(int

class

Subclass

)");

i)

Console.WriteLine("

public

BaseClass

BaseClass({0})",

i ) ;

BaseClass

{
public

Subclass()

{
Console.WriteLine("

12.

Subclass

)");

277

public

Subclass(int

il,

int

i2)

base(il)

{
Console.WriteLine(" Subclass({0},
i2)

{ l } ) " , il,

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
Console.WriteLine("
Subclass()");
Subclass
scl
= new S u b c l a s s ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine("\
Subclass(1,
S u b c l a s s sc2 = new S u b c l a s s ( 1 ,
2);

2 ) " ) ;

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

}
}
}
:

Subclass()

BaseClass
( )
Subclass
( )
S u b c l a s s ( 1 ,
2)

BaseClass(1)
Subclass(1,
2)
< E n t e r > . . .
, !
S u b c l a s s
S u b c l a s s , B a s e C l a s s .
n e w

S u b c l a s s ( 1 , 2 ) . # -

S u b c l a s s ( i n t , i n t ) , base
B a s e C l a s s ( i n t ) . ,
S u b c l a s s ,
.

BankAccount

ConstructorSavingsAccount,

-,

S i m p l e B a n k A c c o u n t .
S a v i n g s A c c o u n t -1
B a n k A c c o u n t . M a i n ()

278

IV. -

// C o n s t r u c t o r S a v i n g s A c c o u n t - S a v i n g s A c c o u n t
/ / , B a n k A c c o u n t ; ,
//
using S y s t e m ;
namespace
ConstructorSavingsAccount
{

// BankAccount -
// ( )
public
class
BankAccount

{
// 1000
//
public s t a t i c i n t nNextAccountNumber = 1000;
//
public i n t nAccountNumber;
public decimal mBalance;
//
public BankAccount():
this(0)

{
public BankAccount(decimal mlnitialBalance)

{
nAccountNumber = ++nNextAccountNumber;
mBalance = m l n i t i a l B a l a n c e ;
//

}
// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t -
//
public c l a s s SavingsAccount
:
BankAccount
{
public decimal mlnterestRate;
// .
// 0 100
public
SavingsAccount(decimal
mlnterestRate)
: t h i s ( m l n t e r e s t R a t e , 0)

public
:

SavingsAccount(decimal
decimal

mlnterestRate,
mlnitial)

base(mlnitial)

{
this.mlnterestRate
II

mlnterestRate

100;

. . .

}
public

class

Program

{
// D i r e c t D e p o s i t public
s t a t i c void


D i r e c t D e p o s i t (BankAccount ba,
decimal
mPay)

{
b a .
Deposit(mPay);
12.

279

public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
/ /
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 1 0 0 ) ;
DirectDeposit(ba,
100);
Console.WriteLine("
{}",
ba.ToBankAccountString());
// To
SavingsAccount
sa = new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( 1 2 . 5 M ) ;
DirectDeposit(sa,
100);
sa.Accumulatelnterest();
Console.WriteLine("
{}",
sa.ToSavingsAccountString() )
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
"

...");

Console.Read();

B a n k A c c o u n t : ,
, ,
. ,

t h i s .

SavingsAccount

. S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,
, S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,
,
0. , o6mei
B a s e C l a s s
. 12.1).

12.1.

,
I n i t . . . ( ) , .

.

280

IV. - -

# , .
, , (~).
, - B a s e C l a s s ( )

B a s e C l a s s ( ) .

# , .
, ,
. , (
13, " " ) .
, . ,
.

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282

IV. -

13

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SavingsAccount,

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public

class

MyClass

{
public
//

s t a t i c

public
//

s t a t i c

s t a t i c

void

s t a t i c

AFunction(int)

void

public

AFunctionO

public
//

void

AFunction(double

,
void

Main(string[]

d)

args)

AFunction();
AFunction(1);
AFunction(2.0);

}
C# . |
M a i n () .
,
,
.

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, , ,
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public

class

MyClass

{
public

s t a t i c

public

void

void

AFunctionO;

AMethod();

}
public

class

UrClass

{
public
public

s t a t i c
void AFunctionO;
void AMethod();

}
public

284

class

Program

IV. -

public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
UrClass.AFunction();
//

MyClass

//

-
mcObject

MyClass.AMethod()

new

MyClass();

mcObject.AMethod();

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S a v i n g s A c c o u n t B a n k A c c o u n t .
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public

class

BankAccount

{
private

decimal

private

bool

//

//
public

mBalance;

isSavingsAccount;

BankAccount(decimal
bool

mlnitialBalance,

isSavingsAccount)

mBalance = m l n i t i a l B a l a n c e ;
this.isSavingsAccount
=
isSavingsAccount;

)
public

decimal

Withdraw(decimal

mAmount)

{
//
if
(isSavingsAccount)

{
//

...

mBalance

-=

1.5 0

1.50,-

}
//
if


(mAmountToWithdraw > mBalance)

{
mAmountToWithdraw

13.

mBalance;

285

mBalance -= mAmountToWithdraw;
return
mAmountToWithdraw;

class

MyClass

{
public

void

SomeFunction()

{
//

BankAccount

ba

new

BankAccount(0,

t r u e ) ;

.}
, ,
B a n k A c c o u n t .
W i t h d r a w ( ) 1.50.
- W i t h d r a w ( )
B a n k A c c o u n t S a t
i n g s A c o o u n t ,
.
// HidingWithdrawal -
//
using
System;
namespace

HidingWithdrawal

{
//

BankAccount

public

class

BankAccount

{
protected
public

public

mlnitialBalance)

mlnitialBalance;

return

decimal

decimal
if

decimal
{

public

mBalance;

BankAccount(decimal

mBalance

get

decimal

Balance
mBalance;

Withdraw(decimal

mAmountToWithdraw

(mAmountToWithdraw

>

mAmount)

mAmount;

Balance)

{
mAmountToWithdraw

Balance;

}
mBalance -= mAmountToWithdraw;
return
mAmountToWithdraw;

286

IV. -

// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t

//
public

class

SavingsAccount

BankAccount

{
public
//
//

decimal

mlnterestRate;

SavingsAccount -
0 10 0

public

SavingsAccount(decimal
decimal

mlnitialBalance,
mlnterestRate)

base(mlnitialBalance)

{
this.mlnterestRate

mlnterestRate

// A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t -
public
void Accumulatelnterest()

100;

{
mBalance

Balance

(Balance

mlnterestRate);

// W i t h d r a w - ,

/ / ;
public
decimal
Withdraw(decimal
mWithdrawal)
{
//
base.Withdraw(1.5M);

1.50

//
return
base.Withdraw(mWithdrawal);

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

MakeAWithdrawal(BankAccount
ba,
decimal
mAmount)

ba.Withdraw(mAmount);

}
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

args)

{
BankAccount
ba;
SavingsAccount
sa;
//

100,

//

ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 ) ;
ba.Withdraw(100M);
//
s a = ne~w S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 ,
12);
sa.Withdraw(lOOM);

( 13.

287

/ /
Console.WriteLine("
BankAccount

{0:}",
ba.Balance);
Console.WriteLine("
SavingsAccount

{0:C}",
sa.Balance);
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

"

...");

Console.Read();

M a i n ()

B a n k A c c o u n t

2 0 0 100. Saving'
s A c c o u n t . M a i n ( )

B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) (
). M a i n ()
s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

, Saving

, 1.50.

, S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

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.
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B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()
,
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B a n k A c c o u n t S a v i n g s A c c o u n t .
, .
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,

CheckingAccount,

C D A c c o u n t , TBil-

l A c c o u n t .
. -
B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

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. .


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- V e h i c l e , A i r p l a n e . ,
T a k e O f f ( ) , V e h i c l e . ,
, .
, # .

288

IV. -

#
H i d i n g W i t h d r a w a l .
, :
1

.. . S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( d e c i m a l ) '
hides
i n h e r i t e d member
'...BankAccount.Withdraw(decimal)'.
Use
t h e new
keyword
if
h i d i n g was
intended.
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Projects Properties Build


Errors and Warnings.
Warning Level 4, . ,
Treat Warnings as Errors LL.


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n e w ,
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//
new

public

W i t h d r a w ()
decimal

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
// . . . . . .
}
n e w
.

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

H i d i n g W i t h d r a w a l , . B a n k A c
count . W i t h d r a w ( )

b a s e .
b a s e :
new p u b l i c

decimal

Withdraw (decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
decimal

mAmountWithdrawn

13.

Withdraw(mWithdrawal);

289

mAmountWithdrawn
return

+=

Withdraw(1.5);

mAmountWithdrawn;

}
, :
void

fn()

{
f n () ;

//

}
f ()

f ()

, W i t h d r a w ( ) , , ;
, .
#,

SavingsAccount .Withdraw()

B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) . !
t h i s
:
//

Withdraw

//

public

decimal

new

Withdraw(decimal

this

mWithdrawal)

{
//
//

BankAccount
//

this

BankAccount

ba

decimal

mAmountWithdrawn

mAmountWithdrawn
return

(BankAccount)this;

Withdraw()
+=

BankAccount

ba.Withdraw(mWithdrawal);

ba.Withdraw(1.5);

mAmountWithdrawn;

}
:

ba . W i t h d r a w ()

B a n k A c c o u n t .
, S a v i n g s A c c o u n t )
B a n k A c c o u n t .
.
# , W i t h d r a w ()
,
. # b a s e .
b a s e , !
.

# b a s e
, t h i s , ,
.
//

Withdraw

//

new

public

decimal

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
//

1.50

base.Withdraw(1.5M);

290

IV. -

//
return base . Withdraw (mWithdrawal) ;
}
b a s e . W i t h d r a w ( )

B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) ;

, , . , .

. ,
.
: ,
B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

: ?
, ,

H i d i n g W i t h d r a w a l

, ).
// H i d i n g W i t h d r a w a l P o l y m o r p h i c a l l y
// Withdraw ()

//
public c l a s s
Program

(
public

s t a t i c

void

MakeAWithdrawal(BankAccount
ba,
decimal
mAmount)

{
ba.Withdraw(mAmount);
}
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
BankAccount
ba;
SavingsAccount
sa;
ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 M ) ;
MakeAWithdrawal(ba,
100M);
sa = new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 M ,
12);
MakeAWithdrawal(sa,
100M);
//
Console.WriteLine("
BankAccount

{0:C}",
ba.Balance);
Console.WriteLine("
SavingsAccount

{0:C}",
sa.Balance);
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

(
, ) :

13.

291

BankAccount

SavingsAccount

<Enter>

$100.00

$100.00

...

, M a i n ( ) ,
M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l

count?

SavingsAccount,

().

M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l ()

SavingsAccount

BankAc
BankAc

c o u n t ( . 12, " " ) .


. M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l ()
B a n k A c c o u n t , B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t , .
W i t h d r a w ()

b a . W i t h d r a w ()

ba

?
B a n k A c c o u n t ,

B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) .

, b a B a n k A c c o u n t ,

SavingsAccount,

SavingsAc

c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) . .
# .
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292

IV. -

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, . , ,
. . . , , S t u d e n t .
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void S o m e F u n c t i o n ( S t u d e n t

s)

{
// . .
. -
s. C a l c T u i t i o n ( ) ;
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}

# ,
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W i t h d r a w ( )
public
public

class

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t .

Program

s t a t i c

void

MakeAWithdrawal(BankAccount
decimal

13.

ba,

mAmount)

293

if

ba

is

SavingsAccount

{
SavingsAccount

sa

(SavingsAccount)ba,

sa.Withdraw(mAmount);
}

else

{
ba.Withdraw(mAmount);

}
, M a i n () S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ,

M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l ()

ba

SavingsAccount.Withdraw().
:
((SavingsAccount)ba).Withdraw(mAmount);
, ,
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is M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l ()

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.
v i r t u a l ,
o v e r r i d e .

, W i t h d r a w ()

, ,
.
//
//

Polymorphiclnheritance

294

IV. -

using

System;

namespace

Polymorphiclnheritance

{
// B a n k A c c o u n t -
public
class
BankAccount

{
protected
public

public

mlnitialBalance)

mlnitialBalance;

decimal
{

public

mBalance;

BankAccount(decimal

mBalance

get

decimal

Balance

return

mBalance;

virtual

decimal

Withdraw(decimal

mAmount)

Console.WriteLine("BankAccount.Withdraw()
mAmount);
decimal
if

mAmountToWithdraw

(mAmountToWithdraw

>

${o}...",

mAmount;

Balance)

{
mAmountToWithdraw

Balance;

}
mBalance -= mAmountToWithdraw;
return
mAmountToWithdraw;

// S a v i n g s A c c o u n t
//
public

class

SavingsAccount

BankAccount

{
public

decimal

mlnterestRate;

// SavingsAccount -
// 0 100
public
SavingsAccount(decimal
mlnitialBalance,

decimal
mlnterestRate)
:
base(mlnitialBalance)

{
this.mlnterestRate

mlnterestRate

// A c c u m u l a t e l n t e r e s t -
public
void Accumulatelnterest()

100;

{
mBalance

//

Withdraw .-

Balance

13.

(Balance

mlnterestRate),-

295

//
//

override

public

decimal

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
Console.WriteLine("SavingsAccount.Withdraw()...");
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " Withdraw
"
. . . ' " ) ;
//

1.50
base.Withdraw(1.5);
//

return

"

base.Withdraw(mWithdrawal);

}
}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

MakeAWithdrawal(BankAccount
ba,
decimal
mAmount)

{
ba.Withdraw(mAmount);

}
public

s t a t i c

BankAccount

void

args)

ba;

SavingsAccount
//

Main(string[]

sa;

Console.WriteLine("MakeAWithdrawal(ba,
. . . ) " ) ;
ba = n e w B a n k A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 M ) ;;
MakeAWithdrawal(ba,
100M);
Console.WriteLine(" BankAccount
{0:C}",
ba.Balance);
Console.WriteLine("MakeAWithdrawal(sa,
. . . ) " ) ;
sa = new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( 2 0 0 M ,
12);
MakeAWithdrawal(sa,
100M);
Console.WriteLine("
SavingsAccount

{0:C}",
sa.Balance);
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

"

...");

Console.Read();

}
}

}
:

MakeAWithdrawal(ba,
... )
BankAccount.Withdraw()

$100...
BankAccount
$100.00
MakeAWithdrawal(sa,
...)
SavingsAccount.Withdraw()...

296

IV. -

W i t h d r a w . . .
BankAccount.Withdraw()

$ 1 . 5 . . .
BankAccount.Withdraw()

$100...

SavingsAccount
$98.50
< E n t e r > . . .
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B a n k A c c o u n t v i r t u a l ,

o v e r r i d e . M a k e A W i t h d r a w a l ( )
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298

IV. -

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300

IV. -

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301

B a n k A c c o u n t .

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.
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C h e c k i n g A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ( ) . BankAc
count

.Withdraw()?

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.

//

Abstractlnheritance

//

//

namespace

BankAccount

Withdraw()
Abstractlnheritance

{
using

System;

//

AbstractBaseClass

//

abstract

public

class

Output()

AbstractBaseClass

{
//
//
//
abs

Output - ,
,
,

tract
public
void Output(string
sOutputString);

}
//

302

SubClassl

IV. -

//
AbstractBaseClass
public c l a s s
SubClassl

AbstractBaseClass

{
override

public

void

Output(string

sSource)

{
string

sSource.ToUpper();

Console.WriteLine("

SubClassl.Output()

{}",

s) ;
}

}
//

SubClass2

//

AbstractBaseClass

public

class

SubClass2

AbstractBaseClass

{
override

public

void

Output(string

sSource)

{
string

sSource.ToLower();

n rs oo gl re a. W
c l a s sC o P
mriteLine("
s) ;

SubClass2.Output()

{0}",

public

s t a t i c

void

Test(AbstractBaseClass

ba)

{
ba.Output("Test");

}
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

strings)

{
//
AbstractBaseClass,
// .
// ,
#
//
// A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s ba
= new A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s ( ) ;
/ / S u b c l a s s l
Console.WriteLine("

SubClassl");
S u b C l a s s l s c l = new S u b C l a s s l ( ) ;
Test(scl) ;
// S u b c l a s s 2
Console.WriteLine("\

SubClass2");
SubClass2
sc2 = new S u b C l a s s 2 ( ) ;
Test(sc2) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();
A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s

Output ().

abstract,

Output ( ) , .. .

13.

303

A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s : S u b C l a s s l SubClass2
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.

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SubClassl

SubClassl.Output()

SubClass2.Output()

<Enter>

TEST

SubClass2

t e s t

...

,
v i r t u a l a b s t r a c t .


: A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s , Test()

A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s

. S u b C l a s s l

SubClass2

, A b s t r a c t B a s e C l a s s ,
. ,
.

v i r t u a l . ,
I n h e r i t a n c e T e s t .
//

InheritanceTest

//

v i r t u a l

namespace

InheritanceTest

{
using.

System;

public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

strings)

{
Console.WriteLine("\
BankAccount")
BankAccount ba = new B a n k A c c o u n t ( ) ;

304

IV. -

Testl(ba)

Console.WriteLine("\
SavingsAccount");
SavingsAccount
sa = new S a v i n g s A c c o u n t ( ) ;
Testl(sa) ;
Test2(sa) ;
Console.WriteLine("\
SpecialSaleAccount");
SpecialSaleAccount
s s a = new S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t ( ) ;
Testl(ssa);
Test2(ssa) ;
Test3(ssa) ;
Console.WriteLine("\
S a l e S p e c i a l C u s t o m e r s s c = new
Testl(ssc);
Test2 (ssc)
Test3(ssc) ;
Test4(ssc) ;
//

SaleSpecialCustomer");
SaleSpecialCustomer();

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +


" ...");
Console.Read();

public

s t a t i c

void

Testl(BankAccount

Console.WriteLine("\tB
account.Withdraw(100)

public

s t a t i c

void

account)

Test(BankAccount)");

Test2(SavingsAccount

Console .WriteLine ( " \ t B

account)

Test (SavingsAccount),") ;

account.Withdraw(100);

public

s t a t i c

void

Test3(SpecialSaleAccount

Console.WriteLine("\tB

account)

Test(SpecialSaleAccount)");

account.Withdraw(100);

public

s t a t i c

void

Test4(SaleSpecialCustomer

Console.WriteLine("\tB

account)

Test(SaleSpecialCustomer)");

account.Withdraw(10 0);

// B a n k A c c o u n t

//
public

class

BankAccount

taa 13.

305

//
//
//

W i t h d r a w a l - ,
.

v i r t u a l

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

dWithdraw)

{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ \ "+
11
" B a n k A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()
) ;

}
}
//
//

SavingsAccount

public

class

SavingsAccount

BankAccount

{
override

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
Console .WriteLine ("\t\tBbi3biBaeT " +
"SavingsAccount.Withdraw()");

}
}
//
//

SpecialSaleAccount

public

class

SpecialSaleAccount

SavingsAccount

{
new

virtual

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
Console .WriteLine ("\t\TBBI3BMAET " +
"SpecialSaleAccount.Withdraw()");

}
}
//

SaleSpecialCustomer

//

public

class

SaleSpecialCustomer

SpecialSaleAccount

{
override

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

Console . WriteLine ("\t\TBBI3BIBAET " +


"SaleSpecialCustomer.Withdraw()");

. , ,

S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

v i r t u a l ,

. B a n k A c c o u n t S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t S a l e S p e c i a l C u s t o m e r Savi n g s A c c o u n t . S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t
W i t h d r a w ( ) .
. Main()
T e s t ( ) , ,]

306

IV. -

T e s t

W i t h d r a w ()

.
:

BankAccount
Test(BankAccount)

BankAccount.Withdraw()
1
SavingsAccount

Test(BankAccount)

SavingsAccount.Withdraw()

Test(SavingsAccount)

SavingsAccount.Withdraw()

SpecialSaleAccount

Test(BankAccount)
SavingsAccount.Withdraw()

Test(SavingsAccount)

SavingsAccount.Withdraw()

Test(SpecialSaleAccount)
SpecialSaleAccount.Withdraw()

SaleSpecialCustomer
Test(BankAccount)

SavingsAccount.Withdraw()

Test(SavingsAccount)
SavingsAccount.Withdraw()
Test(SpecialSaleAccount)
SaleSpecialCustomer.Withdraw()

Test(SaleSpecialCustomer)

SaleSpecialCustomer.Withdraw()
<Enter> ...

, .
BankAccount S a v i n g s A c c o u n t , .
T e s t ( S a v i n g s A c c o u n t )
Customer

SpecialSaleAccount,

SavingsAccount.

tomer T e s t ( S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t )

SaleSpecial

SaleSpecialCus

, .. .


# ?
?
# " " ,
.
, ,
, .
, .
,
.

.

13.

307

,
. nocgj
s e a l e d
:
using

System;

public

class

BankAccount

{
//
//
//

W i t h d r a w a l - ,
.

v i r t u a l

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdraw)

{
Console.WriteLine("

BankAccount.Withdraw()");

}
}
public

sealed

class

SavingsAccount

BankAccount

{
override

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( "

S a v i n g s A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()

11

) ;

}
public

class

SpecialSaleAccount

SavingsAccount

{
override

public

void

Withdraw(decimal

mWithdrawal)

{
Console.WriteLine(" " +
11
" S p e c i a l S a l e A c c o u n t . W i t h d r a w ()
) ;

:
'SpecialSaleAccount'
'SavingsAccount'

cannot

inherit

from

sealed

class

s e a l e d
. , ,
, , , ,
.
, , -
, .
, , , ,
.

308

IV. -


, B a n k A c c o u n t . #
. ,
- ( i n t
f l o a t ) , ,
.
, 13, " " ,

. !

. #

(generic)

.
,
, .

14


_ _



,

.
. .
. # ,

_ _ .

, ,
.
" " T a k e A N o t e . , # :
::stract class ThingsThatRecord
{
abstract

public

void

TakeANote ( s t r i n g

sNote) ;

}
public class Pen : ThingsThatRecord
{
override public void TakeANote (string sNote)
{
II . . . . . .
}
}
public class PDA : ThingsThatRecord
override
II
)

public
.

void

TakeANote ( s t r i n g

sNote)
.

"

public

class

Laptop

ThingsThatRecord

{
override

public

void

TakeANote(string

sNote)

{
II... - . . .
}
}

abstract

" " , . ,
12, " " .
,
T a k e A N o t e ( ) . R e
c o r d T a s k ( ) T a k e A N o t e ( ) ,
, :
void

RecordTask(ThingsThatRecord

things)

{
//
//
ThingsThatRecord
things.TakeANote(" "),// .
.
. .
.
.

}
.

. ,
. ,
, ,
.

. L a p t o p
C o m p u t e r . PDA
C o m p u t e r , . py
M e c h a n i c a l W r i t e D e v i c e ( y c
) D e v i c e T h a t S t a i n s Y o u r S h i r t ( ,
) . #
# .
. ,
,

-.

_ _ R e c o r d a b l e
.

, . " ,
", :

312

V.

interface IRecordable
{
void

TakeANote(string

sNote)

i n t e r f a c e ,
c l a s s . .
- .
T a k e A N o t e ( )

. p u b l i c v i r t u a l

a b s t r a c t . ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
o v e r r i d e .
I, ,
, , (
) . , #
, .

PDA

IRecordable.
public

class

PDA

IRecordable

{
public

void

TakeANote ( s t r i n g

sNote)

{
II

, T h i n g s T h a t R e c o r d I R e c o r d a b l e .

.

.
, . ,
, .

, ,
,
public class Pen : IRecordable
{
public

void

TakeANote ( s t r i n g

sNote)

{
II

. . .

14.

313

public

class

PDA

.-

ElectronicDevice,

IRecordable

{
public

void

TakeANote(string

sNote)

{
//

}
}
public

class

Laptop

Computer,

IRecordable

{
public
//
{

void

TakeANote(string

sNote)

, )
I R e c o r d a b l e , ,
T a k e A N o t e ( ) . ,
, R e c o r d S h o p p i n g L i s t ( ]
public

class

Program

{
s t a t i c

public

void

RecordShoppingList(IRecordable
recordingObj

ect)

//
string sList
= GenerateShoppingList();
//
recordingObject.TakeANote(sList)
;

public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

args)

{
PDA p d a = n e w P D A ( ) ;
RecordShoppingList(pda);

}
, R e c o r d S h o p p i n g L i s t ( )
, T a k e A N o t e ()
, , .
R e c o r d S h o p p i n g L i s t () ,
r e c o r d i n g O b j e c t . ,
PDA E l e c t r o n i c D e v i c e , ,
.
, Record
S h o p p i n g L i s t ()

, ,

. ,
,
,

.
.

314

V. 1

SortInterface

.
. .
. . . :) , .


I D i s p l a y a b l e , G e t S t r i n g ( ) (, , , I D i s p l a y a b l e ) . G e t String ( )

s t r i n g ,

( W r i t e L i n e ( ) :
//IDisplayable ,
interface
IDisplayable

GetStringO

{
//
string G e t S t r i n g O ;

}
S t u d e n t I D i s p l a y a b l e :
class S t u d e n t
private
st
private d o
/ /
public
str

IDisplayable

ring
sName;
uble dGrade = 0.0;

i n g Name

{
get

return

sName;

}
public

double

Grade

{
get

return

dGrade;

}
// G e t S t r i n g -
//

public

//

string

GetString()

implements

the

interface

string
string

sPadName = N a m e . P a d R i g h t ( 9 ) ;
11
s = S t r i n g . F o r m a t ( {0} :
{l:N0}",
sPadName, G r a d e ) ;
return
s;

[ 14.

315

P a d R i g h t ( ) ,
9 (
) . (
9 , " # " ) . { l : N 0 } :
( )
3 . .

( ):
// D i s p l a y A r r a y ,
)
//
IDisplayable
public
s t a t i c
void DisplayArray (IDisplayable []
displayables):
int
length =
displayables.Length;
f o r ( i n t i n d e x = 0;
index < length;

index++)

IDisplayable
displayable =
displayables[index];
Console.WriteLine("{0}",
displayable.GetString()

}
D i s p l a y A r r a y ( )

, G e t S t r i n g ( ) .
:
Homer
Marge
Bart
Lisa
Maggie

:
:
:
:
:

0
85
50
100
30


#.
, # I C o m p a r a b l e :
interface IComparable
{
//
// ,
//
int
CompareTo(object
);

- 1 ,

' ' ;
, 0

1,

}
I C o m p a r a b l e
, S t r i n g .
, 0. , 1,
, " " .
,

S t u d e n t - , .
C o m p a r e T o ()

, oral

. " " , "!


" " . A r r a y :!
Array.Sort(IComparable[]

316

objects);

V. *

, I C o m p a r a ble. ,
, S t u d e n t . A r r a y S t u d e n t :
//Student -
//
class S t u d e n t :
IComparable
private

double

dGrade;

/ /
public double Grade
{
get { return dGrade; }
}

// CompareTo - ;
// " "
public i n t
CompareTo ( o b j e c t
rightObject)

{
Student l e f t S t u d e n t = t h i s ;
Student r i g h t S t u d e n t =
(Student) rightObject ;
// 16 -1 0
//
if ( r i g h t S t u d e n t . G r a d e < l e f t S t u d e n t . G r a d e )
{

return

- 1 ;

}
if

(rightStudent.Grade

>

leftStudent.Grade)

return

1 ;

}
return

0;

S t u d e n t :
id MyFunction ( S t u d e n t [] s t u d e n t s )
/ /
Array.Sort ( s t u d e n t s ) ;

IComparable

; A r r a y .


: S o r t I n t e r f a c e ,
.

[Sortlnterf -

using S y s t e m ;

14.

Sortlnterf

317

namespace

Sortlnterf

{
//

IDisplayable

//

interface

IDisplayable

{
// G e t S t r i n g -
//

string
G e t S t r i n g O ;

}
class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string []

args)

{
// ...
Console.WriteLine("

");
//
Student[]
students = Student.CreateStudentList();
//
//

IComparable[]

IComparable

comparableObjects =
(IComparable[])students;
Array.Sort(comparableObjects);
//
I D i s p l a y a b l e
I D i s p l a y a b l e []
displayableObjects
=
(IDisplayable[])students;
DisplayArray(displayableObj
ects);
//

// ,

// S t u d e n t
Console.WriteLine("\ ");
Bird[]
birds = Bird.CreateBirdList();

Bird

//
// . . .
Array.Sort(birds);
DisplayArray(birds);
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
// D i s p l a y A r r a y
//
IDisplayable
public
s t a t i c
void

318

V.

D i s p l a y A r r a y [ I D i s p l a y a b l e [] d i s p l a y a b l e s )

int
length =
displayables.Length;
f o r ( i n t i n d e x = 0;
index < length;

index++)

{
IDisplayable
displayable
Console.WriteLine("{0}",

=
displayables[index];
displayable.GetString());

//
S t u d e n t s -
// S t u d e n t -
//
class

Student

IComparable,

IDisplayable

(
private
private

string
double

sName;
dGrade

0.0;

// -
public S t u d e n t ( s t r i n g sName,
double dGrade)
this.sName = sName;
this.dGrade = dGrade;

// C r e a t e S t u d e n t L i s t -
//
static s t r i n g []
sNames =
{"Homer",
static

doublet]

public

static

"Marge",
dGrades

"Bart",

S t u d e n t []

{0,

85,

"Lisa",
50,

"Maggie"};

100,

30};

C r e a t e S t u d e n t L i s t ()

{
Student[]
s A r r a y = new S t u d e n t [ s N a m e s . L e n g t h ] ;
for ( i n t i = 0; i < s N a m e s . L e n g t h ; i + + )
{
sArrayti]

new

Student(sNames[i],

dGrades[i]);

}
return

sArray;

/ /
public s t r i n g N a m e
get

public
get

return
double

return

sName;

Grade
dGrade;

// I C o m p a r a b l e :
// CompareTo -

14.

319

//

//

public

int

Student)

CompareTo(object

rightObject)

{
// S t u d e n t
( )
//
( )
,
// S t u d e n t
Student leftStudent = t h i s ;
if
(!(rightObject
is
Student))

{
Console.WriteLine("
r e t u r n 0;

Student")

}
Student

rightStudent
0

//
//

- 1 ,

if

(rightStudent.Grade

(Student)rightObject;

<

leftStudent.Grade)

>

leftStudent.Grade)

{
return

- 1 ;

}
if

(rightStudent.Grade
return

return

1;

0,

}
// IDisplayable:
// G e t S t r i n g -
//
public
string
GetString

{
string

sPadName

string

return

Name. P a d R i g n t ( ) ;

String.Format("{o}:

{l:N0}",

sPadName,

Grade)

s;

//

Birds

// Bird class Bird

j u s t an a r r a y of b i r d names
:
IComparable,
IDisplayable

{
private
//

string

public

sName;
-

Bird(string

Bird

sName)

{
this.sName

sName;

320

//

CreateBirdList

//

V.

static
{

s t r i n g []

sBirdNames

"Oriole",

"Hawk",

"Bluejay",
public

s t a t i c

"Finch",
Bird[]

"Robin",

"Cardinal",

"Sparrow"};

CreateBirdList ()

{
Bird[]
'

birds

for(int

=
0;

new

Bird[sBirdNames.Length];

birds.Length;

<

i++)

{
birds[i]

new

Bird(sBirdNames[i]);

}
return

birds;

/ /
p u b l i c s t r i n g Name
get

return

sName;

// I C o m p a r a b l e :
// CompareTo - ;
// S t r i n g
public
int
CompareTo(object
rightObject)

{
// B i r d
(
//
( )
Bird l e f t B i r d =
t h i s ;
Bird r i g h t B i r d =
(Bird)rightObject;
return

String.Compare(leftBird.Name,

rightBird.Name);

// I D i s p l a y a b l e :
// G e t S t r i n g -
public
string GetString()

{
return

Name,-

S t u d e n t ( ) I C o m p a r a
ble I D i s p l a y a b l e , . C o m p a r e T o

, . G e t
String () .
S t u d e n t N a m e G r a d e ,
C r e a t e S t u d e n t L i s t ( ) . < .
B i r d

IComparable IDis

playable. C o m p a r e T o ( ) ,
S t r i n g . ,
. G e t N a m e ( )

[( 14.

321

M a i n (). C r e a t e S t u d e n t L i s t ()
,
students.
, ,
.

c o m p a r a b l e O b j e c t s .

" " ) .
, S t u d e n t , compa
r a b l e O b j e c t s , ICom
p a r a b l e , .
,
.

comparableObj ects

A r r a y . Sort ( ) ,

.
S t u d e n t

DisplayArray (),

, G e t S t r i n g ( ) .
A r r a y . L e n g t h .
G e t S t r i n g ( ) ,
W r i t e L i n e ( ) .
. , ,
. B i r d
I C o m p a r a b l e I D i s p l a y a b l e
.
, M a i n ()

. :
class

BaseClass

class
class

Subclass
Program

{}
:

BaseClass

{}

{
public
public

s t a t i c
s t a t i c

void
void

SomeFunction(BaseClass
AnotherFunction()

be)

{}

{
Subclass

sc

new

Subclass();

SomeFunction(sc);

S u b c l a s s
S u b c l a s s

B a s e C l a s s ,

B a s e C l a s s .

, B i r d ,
I C o m p a r a b l e , B i r d ICompara
ble.

D i s p l a y A r r a y ()

b i r d s

, B i r d s I D i s p l a y a b l e .
:

V.

Lisa

100

Marge

85

Bart

50

Maggie

30

Homer

Blue

jay

Cardinal
I Finch
Hawk
Oriole
Robin
Sparrow

<Enter>

. . . "

, ,
.

" " . ,
, , .
,

.
//

ICompare

// ,
public

interface

ICompare

IComparable

{
//
int

GetValue

GetValue();

I C o m p a r e C o m p a r e T o ( )

I C o m p a r a b l e . G e t V a l u e ( ) .
I C o m p a r e I C o m p a r a b l e ,
. # - . .
, .

A b s t r a c t l n t e r f .

( , ) , , ,
.

14.

323

// A b s t r a c t l n t e r f
//

using
System;
namespace

Abstractlnterf

{
// ICompare - ,

// ,

p u b l i c i n t e r f a c e ICompare
:
IComparable
//

GetValue

int

}
//
//
//

int

GetValue();

BaseClass
- ICompare,
GetValue()

CompareTo()

abstract

public

class

BaseClass

ICompare

{
int

nValue;

public

BaseClass(int

nlnitialValue)

{
nValue

nlnitialValue;

}
//

//

public

int

ICompare:

GetValue()

{
return

nValue;

}
//

? 7

abstract

public

//

Subclass

//

public
^

//

CompareTo(object

rightObject);

CompareTo

Subclass:

'

int

class

ICompare

BaseClass

//

public
Subclass(int
nlnitialValue)

base(nlnitialValue)

{
}
//

CompareTo

II

//

override

324

public

IComparable;

int

CompareTo(object

rightObject)

V.

BaseClass
return

public

be

class

public

(BaseClass)rightObject;

GetValue().CompareTo(be.GetValue());

Program

s t a t i c

Subclass
Subclass

void

scl
sc2

MyFunc ( s c l ,

=
=

Main(string[]

new
new

strings)

Subclass(10) ;
S u b c l a s s (20) ;

s c 2 ) ,-

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

}
// MyFunc

//

//

public

s t a t i c

ICompare
,

void

MyFunc(ICompare

icl,

ICompare

ic2)

Console.WriteLine(" i c l
{0},
" +
"a
ic2
{l}",
i c l . G e t V a l u e () ,
i c 2 . G e t V a l u e ());
string

s;

switch

(icl.CompareTo(ic2))

{
case
s

0 :
=

"";

break;
case
s

- 1 :
=

"" ;

break;
case
s

1:
=

"";

default:
s = "";
break;

}
Console . W r i t e L i n e (
"

icl

{o}

fma 14.

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s) ;

325

I C o m p a r e ,
. I C o m p a r e C o m p a r e T o ()
I C o m p a r a b l e , , G e t V a l u e (),
.
i n t , GeT
V a l u e ()

.
B a s e C l a s s I C o m p a r e GetValue
n V a l u e . C o m p a r e T o ( ) ,
I C o m p a r e , .
a b s t r a c t ,
C o m p a r e T o ( ) .
.
S u b c l a s s C o m p a r e T o ( ) , ,
.
,

Subclass

ICompare

, . B a s e C l a s s
I C o m p a r e , a S u b c l a s s B a s e C l a s s . , Sub
C l a s s ICompare.
M a i n ()

S u b c l a s s

M y F u n c ( ) . M y F u n c ()

ICompare.

M y F u n c ()

C o m p a r e T o () , ,
G e t V a l u e ()

"" .

:
i c l 10,
a ic2

i c l

ic2
< E n t e r >

20
...

15, " " , ,


.

# .
- , i n t d o u b l e ,
:
int ;
n = 1;

326

//
//

V.

:
public

class

public

int

MyClass
n;

MyClass m c ;

//

mc = new M y C l a s s () ;
mc

//

. i n t d o u b l e

-.

, ,
, # -
, .
, ?

#
# , ,

- .
, :
public

struct

MyStruct

public

int

public

double

public

class

n;
d;

MyClass

public

int

public

double

n;
d;

, ,
- , :
//
int ;
n = 1;

/ / i n t
MyStruct m s ;
//
ms.n = 3 ;
// ,

ins.d = 3 . 0 ;

//

//
// new
MyClass mc = n e w M y C l a s s ;
men = 2 ;
mc.d = 2 . 0 ;
s t r u c t , .
ms ,
. ms , ,
. 1 4 . 1 .

km 14.

327

. 14.1. ms ""
, ,


-
. 100 101
n e w ( ):
M y C l a s s [ ] mc = new M y C l a s s [ 1 0 0 ] ;
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < m s . L e n g t h ; i + + )
{
mc [ i ] = new M y C l a s s ( ) ;

}
m c [ 0 ] . n = 0;
, yb
, .
,
.
M y C l a s s
- .
,
100 ,

.
, :
//
i n t [] i n t e g e r s
integers[0] =
//
M y S t r u c t [ ] ms
ms [ 0] . n = 0 ;

i n t
= new i n t [ 1 0 0 ] ;
//
0;

= new M y S t r u c t [ 1 0 0 ] ; //

328

V.


,
, ,
public

struct

public
public

MyStruct

i n t n;
double

d;

}
HyStruct m s = n e w M y S t r u c t ( ) ; / / n e w
,
d.
, -
. :
public

struct

Test

(
;

private i n t n;
public T e s t ( i n t

n)

{
this.n
public

class

n;
Program

{
public

static

void

test

new

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
Test

Test (10);

, t e s t = n e w T e s t ( 1 0 ) ;
, -.
, , .


, .
. ,
( ) .
, ,
r e f .
( O b j e c t ,
) .
.

8, " ". 7, " ",
.
12, "".

14.

329

( ) O b j e c t ,
. O b j e c t .
,
T o S t r i n g ( ) ,
.
T o S t r i n g ( ) , O b j e c t
, M y N a m e s p a c e . M y C l a s s . .

// S t r u c t u r e E x a m p l e -
//
using
System;
using
System.Collections;
namespace

StructureExample

{
public
string

interface

IDisplayable

ToString();

/ /
public s t r u c t Test


:
IDisplayable

{
/ / ,
// ( ) ;
//
private int n;
p r i v a t e s t a t i c double d = 2 0.0;
/ / -
//
public Test(int n)
{
t h i s . n = n;

}
//
//
()
public int N

get
set

public

{ r e t u r n n;}
{ n = value;

static

double

330

V.

get
set

{
{

r e t u r n d; }
d = value; }

}
//
p u b l i c v o i d C h a n g e M e t h o d ( i n t nNewValue,
double
dNewValue)

{
n = nNewValue;
d = dNewValue;

}
// T o S t r i n g - T o S t r i n g
// I D i s p l a y a b l e
override public string ToString()
{
return string.Format("({0:N},
{l:N})'\ n, d ) ;

public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// T e s t
T e s t t e s t = new T e s t ( 1 0 ) ;
Console.WriteLine("
OutputFunction(test);

test");

// ,
//
ChangeValueFunction(test,
100,
200.0);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " t e s t " +
" C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n ( 1 0 0, 2 0 0 . 0 ) " ) ;
OutputFunction(test);
// ,
//
ChangeReferenceFunction(ref t e s t ,
100,
200.0);
Console.WriteLine(" t e s t " +
" ChangeReferenceFunction(100, 200.0)");
OutputFunction(test);
//
test.ChangeMethod(1000,
2000.0);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " t e s t " +
" ChangeMethod(1000, 2 0 0 0 . 0 ) " ) ;
OutputFunction(test);

/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;

14.

331

Console.Read();

}
// C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n - j
public s t a t i c void ChangeValueFunction(Test t,
i n t newValue,
d o u b l e dNewValue)

{
t . N = newValue,T e s t . D = dNewValue;

}
// C h a n g e R e f e r e n c e F u n c t i o n -
//
public s t a t i c void ChangeReferenceFunction(ref Test t,
i n t newValue,
d o u b l e dNewValue)

{
t . N = newValue;
T e s t . D = dNewValue;

}
/ / O u t p u t F u n c t i o n - ,
// T o S t r i n g ( )
p u b l i c s t a t i c void O u t p u t F u n c t i o n ( I D i s p l a y a b l e id)
{
Console.WriteLine("id

{o}",

id.ToString());

S t r u c t u r e E x a m p l e I D i s p l a y a b l e J
T e s t , . T e s t d. d 20; .
T e s t , N
D.
T e s t C h a n g e M e t h o d () !
T o S t r i n g ( ) . T o S t r i n g ( ) T e s t I D i s p l a y a b l e .
M a i n () t e s t . M a i n () Outp u t F u n c t i o n () .
M a i n () C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
t e s t . C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n ()
d T e s t .
C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n () O u t p u t F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
, d , .
C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n () t e s t ,
t t e s t ,
. , t. N
t e s t e M a i n ( ) . T e s t -

332

V.

d, T e s t . D d
, t e s t .
C h a n g e R e f e r e n c e F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
r e f .
t e s t e , t
t e s t , .
M a i n () C h a n g e M e t h o d ( ) ,
, ,
, M a i n ( ) .
:
t e s t
id = ( 1 0 . 0 0 , 2 0 . 0 0 )
t e s t C h a n g e V a l u e F u n c t i o n ( 1 0 0 , 2 0 0 . 0 )
id = ( 1 0 . 0 0 , 2 0 0 . 0 0 )
t e s t C h a n g e R e f e r e n c e F u n c t i o n ( 1 0 0 , 2 0 0 . 0 )
id = ( 1 0 0 . 0 0 , 2 0 0 . 0 0 )
t e s t C h a n g e M e t h o d ( 1 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 0 . 0 )
id = ( 1 , 0 0 0 . 00 , 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 )
< E n t e r > . . .

:
Object, .
.


- .
- .

Int32,

d o u b l e

i n t
Double

. 14.1 .

14.1. -

bool

Boolean

byte

Byte

sbyte

SByte

char

Char

decimal

Decimal

double

Double

float

Single

int

Int32

uint

UInt32

14.

333

. HI

s t r i n g , -,
. s t r i n g
S t r i n g . s t r i n g # ,
. 9, "
# " .


i n t I n t 3 2 .
O b j e c t , i n t .
,
.
// T y p e U n i f i c a t i o n -
// ,
// Object
using System;
namespace

, i n t I n t 3 2

TypeUnification

{
public

class

Program

{
public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// i n t
i n t i = new i n t ( ) ;
/ / ,
/ / 1
// I F o r m a t t a b l e , I n t 3 2
i = 1;
OutputFunction(i);
II 2
OutputFunction(2);

IFormattable

//
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " = { } " ,
3.ToString());
//
//

334

, ,
:

V.

Console.WriteLine("\ ");
object[]
o b j e c t s = new o b j e c t [ 5 ] ;
objects[0] = " ";
o b j e c t s [ 1 ] = 2;
o b j e c t s [ 2 ] = new P r o g r a m ( ) ;
o b j e c t s [ 3 ] = 4;
objects[4] = 5.5;
f o r ( i n t i n d e x = 0; i n d e x < o b j e c t s . L e n g t h ; index++)

{
if

(objects[index]

is

int)

{
int n = (int)objects[index];
Console.WriteLine(" {}

{l}",

index,

n);

}
}
// -
// ,
Console.WriteLine("\ " ) ;
i n t nCount = 0;
f o r e a c h ( o b j e c t in o b j e c t s )

{
Console.WriteLine("Objects [{o}]
nCount++, o . T o S t r i n g ( ) ) ;

- <{l}>",

}
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read() ;

// O u t p u t F u n c t i o n - ,
// T o S t r i n g ()
public s t a t i c void O u t p u t F u n c t i o n ( I F o r m a t t a b l e id)
Console.WriteLine(" OutputFunction =
id.ToString());

{}",

}
// T o S t r i n g -
override public string ToString()

{
return

"TypeUnification

Program";

M a i n () i i n t .
I n t 3 2 ( i n t ) ,
i .
i 1. ,
.

14.

335

M a i n () i O u t p u t F u n c t i o n ( ) ,
, I F o r m a t t a b l e .
I F o r m a t t a b l e I D i s p l a y a b l e ,
. I F o r m a t t a b l e ToStrirqj
O u t p u t F u n c t i o n () I F o r m a t t a b l e
, T o S t r i n g ( ) . I n t 3 2 ,
, . ,
O u t p u t F u n c t i o n ( 2 ) . 2
I n t 3 2 , I F o r m a t t a b l e . ,
M a i n () 3. T o S t r i n g () .
M a i n () :
O u t p u t F u n c t i o n = 1
O u t p u t F u n c t i o n = 2
= 3
M a i n ( ) O b j e c t
s t r i n g , i n t , Program ..
, S t r i n g , I n t 3 2 P r o g r a m Object.
P r o g r a m P r o g r a m , ?
. Main()
, ,
I n t 3 2 i s .
:


12
34

,
Obj e c t .. T o S t r i n g ( ) . ,
, .
M a i n () , T o S t r i n g ()
. :

O b j e c t s [0]
- >
O b j e c t s [ 1 ] - <2>
Objects[2]
- < T y p e U n i f i c a t i o n Program>
O b j e c t s [ 3 ] - <4>
Objects[4]
- <5.5>
< E n t e r > . . .
P r o g r a m T o S t r i n g ( ) ,
, .
T o S t r i n g ( ) , , C o n s o l e .
W r i t e ( ) . , , ,
W r i t e () O b j e c t .
T o S t r i n g () ,

{} .

336

V.

-
- i n t , b o o l ,
char # ,
(boxing).
- .
- . ,
:
int i = 9 9 9 ;
object = i;
int j = ( i n t ) ;

// i n t ( - )
// i
// 99 9

, , ,
. T y p e U n i f i c a t i o n
o b j e c t , o b
ject .
. 20
, 4 . ,
,
.
, , ,
, , o b j e c t [ ] , W r i t e
Line () . ,
ToString () , W r i t e L i n e ( ) ,
object , 15,
" ".

[ 14.

337

15


:

,

# ,
6, " ".
I , , " "
, A r r a y L i s t ,
. ,

.
,
6
. (generics) #, 2.0.
, ,
. , ,
. , L i s t < T > , A r r a y L i s t .
{) ,
i n t , i n t :
List<int> m y L i s t = new L i s t < i n t > () ; // i n t
,
List<T> s t r i n g , S t u d e n t , B a n k A c c o u n t
, ,
. .
# , L i s t < T > ,
, .. .
.

. , # ,
. ++,
, , ,
. # generic class, generic.
, ,
"". " ". . .

, ,
-.

. -
.
. Vi
ual Basic, # !
, , ?
, 1
, .
# )
. .


# . . lil
. ,

( ,
).

340

V.


, . ,
( f o r e a c h ) .

.
// N o n g e n e r i c C o l l e c t i o n s

//
using S y s t e m ;
using S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s ;
namespace N o n g e n e r i c C o l l e c t i o n s
(
public

class

Program

{
// A r r a y L i s t , S t a c k , Queue
public s t a t i c void M a i n ( s t r i n g [ ]
args)

Hashtable

{
//

ArrayList

//
/ / A r r a y L i s t (
// , )
A r r a y L i s t a L i s t W i t h S p e c i f i e d S i z e = new A r r a y L i s t ( 1 0 0 0 ) ;
A r r a y L i s t a L i s t = new A r r a y L i s t ( ) ;
// no
// (16)
aList.Add("one");
//
aList.Add("two");
// - " o n e " , " t w o "
a L i s t . A d d ( " t h r e e " ) ; // - " o n e " , " t w o " , " t h r e e "
Console.WriteLine("{0}
items
in the ArrayList:",
aList.Count);
/ / f o r e a c h
f o r e a c h ( s t r i n g s in aList)
{
// A r r a y L i s t
Console.WriteLine(s + " ( { } ) " , aList.IndexOf(s));

//
//

Stack

//
//
S t a c k s t a c k = new S t a c k ( ) ;
//
//
stack.Push("one");
stack.Push("two");
// "two","one"
stack.Push("three"); // "three","two","one"
Console.WriteLine("{0} :
",
stack.Count);
foreach
( s t r i n g s in stack)
{
Console.WriteLine(s) ;

}
(ma

15.

341

s t r i n g sval = ( s t r i n g ) s t a c k . P o p ( ) ; // "two","one"
Console.WriteLine("
:");
Console.WriteLine(sval);
Console.WriteLine(" :
{}",
stack.Peek());
//

//

Queue

//

//
Q u e u e q u e u e = new Q u e u e ( ) ;
//
queue.Enqueue("one");
queue.Enqueue("two");
queue.Enqueue("three"); // "one","two","three"
Console.WriteLine("{0}
:",
queue.Count);
foreach
( s t r i n g s in queue)
{
Console.WriteLine(s);

}
Console.WriteLine(" :
{}",
queue.Dequeue() ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" :
{}",
queue.Peek());
//

//

Hashtable

//

// H a s h t a b l e
()
H a s h t a b l e t a b l e = new H a s h t a b l e ( ) ;
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t l = new S t u d e n t ( " R a n d y " ) ;
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t 2 = new S t u d e n t ( " C h u c k " ) ;
/ / S t u d e n t ,
table.Add(studentl.Name,
studentl);
t a b l e . A d d ( s t u d e n t 2.Name,
student 2);
//
Console.WriteLine("{0}
: " ,
table.Count);
/ / , ,
// DictionaryEntry
foreach(DictionaryEntry de in table)

{
// D i c t i o n a r y E n t r y . V a l u e
// Student
Student stu =
(Student)de.Value;
Console.WriteLine(stu.Name);

/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

public

class

Student

342

V. !

private
s t r i n g name;
public S t u d e n t ( s t r i n g
{
t h i s.name = name;

name)

}
public

string

Name

{
get

r e t u r n name;

,
-, ,
.
- "System.Collections namespace"
.


, # ,
.
: .


, ,
. i n t ,
i n t , #
i n t .
, .
, ..
, .
, .
. #
O b j e c t , O b j e c t
, -, - (.
14, " ").
- (, b o o l , s t r u c t ) ,
(.
14, " ").
,
( )
A r r a y L i s t , .
ArrayList a L i s t = n e w A r r a y L i s t ( ) ;
// - , . . .
string m y S t r i n g =
( s t r i n g ) a L i s t [4] ; / /

15.

string

343

, A r r a y L i s t
. , ,
:
A r r a y L i s t a L i s t = new A r r
a L i s t . A d d ( " a s t r i n g " ) ; //
aList.Add(3);
//
aList.Add(aStudent);
//

ayList
string
int
Student

;
-- OK
-- OK
-- OK

A r r a y L i s t (
, ,
? S t u d e n t , string
.

is ( 12, "")
a s :
if(aList[i]
{

Student

is

Student)

aStudent

//

(Student)aList[i];

//

Student?

//

...

S t u d e n t a S t u d e n t = a L i s t [i] as
i f ( a S t u d e n t != n u l l )
{
/ / a S t u d e n t

Student;

/ / S t u d e n t
/ / , "as"
// n u l l

}
,
: , |
.


O b j e c t .
- ]
.
, .
i n t , 20 (
) .
.
, .


, ,
, , . . 15.2 -

344

V.

(
).

, ,
, I C o l l e c t i o n < T > I L i s t < T > .
"System.Collections.Generic
namespace" .

<>
<> ,
. , :
|ist<int> i n t L i s t =
new L i s t < i n t > ( ) ;

//

int

, L i s t < T > i n t ,
string S t u d e n t . , , <dummy> < m > . , U, V ..

List<T>

A r r a y L i s t
, L i s t < T > . G e n e r i c C o l l e c t i o n s . (
, ,
[ .) -.
// G e n e r i c C o l l e c t i o n s -
using S y s t e m ;
using S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s ;
using System. Collections .Generic;
namespace GenericCollections
{
public c l a s s P r o g r a m

15.

345

public

static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// A r r a y L i s t
A r r a y L i s t a L i s t = new A r r a y L i s t ( ) ;
// L i s t < T > :
//
List<string> sList =
new L i s t < s t r i n g > ( ) ; / / s t r i n g
sList.AddC'one") ;
/ / !
sList.Add(3);
sList.Add(
n e w S t u d e n t ( " d u B o i s " ) ) ; / / !
// i n t
L i s t < i n t > i n t L i s t = new L i s t < i n t > ( ) ;
intList.Add(3);
/ /
intList.Add(4);
Console.WriteLine("
intList:");
f o r e a c h ( i n t i in i n t L i s t )
/ / f o r e a c h
//

{
// :
Console.WriteLine("int i = " + i.ToString());

}
// S t u d e n t
L i s t < S t u d e n t > s t u d e n t L i s t = new L i s t < S t u d e n t > ( ) ;
11
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t l = new S t u d e n t ( "Vigil ) ;
S t u d e n t s t u d e n t 2 = new S t u d e n t ( " F i n c h " ) ;
studentList.Add(studentl);
studentList.Add(student2);
S t u d e n t [ ] s t u d e n t s = new S t u d e n t [ ]
{ new S t u d e n t ( " M o x " ) , new S t u d e n t ( " F o x " )
};
studentList.AddRange(students);
//
// L i s t
Console.WriteLine(" studentList = { } " ,
studentList.Count);
/ / I n d e x O f ( )
Console.WriteLine("Student2 " +
studentList.IndexOf(student2));
s t r i n g n a m e = s t u d e n t L i s t [3] . N a m e ; / /
/ /
i f ( s t u d e n t L i s t . C o n t a i n s ( s t u d e n t l ) ) / / C o n t a i n s ( )
{
Console.WriteLine(studentl.Name + " ");

}
studentList.Sort();

// , S t u d e n t
// IComparable
s t u d e n t L i s t . I n s e r t ( 3 , new S t u d e n t ( " R o s s " ) ) ;
studentList.RemoveAt(3);
/ /
/ / n a m e
Console.WriteLine(" { } " , name);
Student[] moreStudents =
s t u d e n t L i s t . T o A r r a y ( ) ; //

346

V. !

/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " <Enter> " +
"
. . . " ) . ;
Console.Read();

public c l a s s S t u d e n t :
IComparable
// .
// -
L i s t < T > : i n t , s t r i n g
Student. :
, ;
L i s t < T > f o r e a c h ,
;
, , ;
( , ICom
parable);
;
;
, ;
;
.
L i s t < T > .
, .
,
, , .

, #
, .
, ,
.
<>. , , ,
. ,
:
LinkedList<int> a L i s t = new L i n k e d L i s t < i n t > () ;
MyClass<int> a C l a s s = n e w M y C l a s s < i n t > () ;

toa 15.

347

: ,
. ,
, .
,
.
, .
- : "
S t u d e n t " , ,
.
, ,
, .


FedEx.
, .
: (
), ,
.
,
. , .
,
, .
. ,
, . .
,
, .
, !
,
.
.
# ,
. ,
, ?
- (wrapper class) :
class

Wrapper

//

PriorityQueue!

{
Q u e u e q u e u e H i g h = new Queue ( ) ;
Q u e u e q u e u e M e d i u m = new Queue ( ) ;
Queue q u e u e L o w = new Queue ( ) ;
/ / . . .
( )
.
Q u e u e , #, :

348

V.

E n q u e u e () ;
D e q u e u e () .
( ),
. ,
() .
.
E n q u e u e ( ) , ,
,
. D e q u e u e ( ) ,

. - P r i orityQueue.
:

// P r i o r i t y Q u e u e -
//
// ,
//
using S y s t e m ;
using S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s . G e n e r i c ;
namespace P r i o r i t y Q u e u e

(
class

Program

{^

//Main - ,
//
static void M a i n ( s t r i n g [] args)
{
Console.WriteLine(" :");
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > pq =
new P r i o r i t y Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" (0 - 2 0 ) " +
" : " ) ;
Package p a c k ;
P a c k a g e F a c t o r y f a c t = new P a c k a g e F a c t o r y ( ) ;
// , 2 0
Random r a n d = n e w R a n d o m ( ) ;
// 0 - 2 0
int numToCreate = r a n d . N e x t ( 2 0 ) ;
Console.WriteLine("^ {} :
",
numToCreate);
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < n u m T o C r e a t e ; i + + )

{
Console.Write("\t\treHepam^ "
" { } " , i ) ;
pack = f a c t . C r e a t e P a c k a g e ( ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " { } " ,
pack.Priority);

15.

349

pq.Enqueue(pack);

}
Console.WriteLine("
:");
int nTotal = pq.Count;
Console.WriteLine(" : { } " , nTotal);
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" : 0 - 2 0 : ") ;
i n t numToRemove = r a n d . N e x t ( 2 0 ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " ^ {0} " ,
numToRemove);
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < numToRemove; i + + )
{
pack = pq.Dequeue();
if
(pack != n u l l )

Console.WriteLine("\\ "
" { } " ,
pack.Priority);

// " "
Console.WriteLine("
{0} " ,
nTotal - pq.Count);
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . ") ;
Console.Read();

/ / P r i o r i t y -
// 3,
. . .
enum P r i o r i t y // enum
{
Low, M e d i u m , H i g h

1,

2,

}
// I P r i o r i t i z a b l e - :
// , P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
/ /
interface
IPrioritizable
{
//
Priority Priority { get;
}

}
/ / P r i o r i t y Q u e u e - ;
// , ,
// I P r i o r i t i z a b l e
class PriorityQueue<T>
w h e r e T : I P r i o r i t i z a b l e // <--
//

350

//Queues - (!)
p r i v a t e Queue<T> q u e u e H i g h
= new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Queue<T> q u e u e M e d i u m = new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Queue<T> queueLow
= new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;

V.

//Enqueue -
//
public void Enqueue(

item)

{
switch
(item.Priority)
//
{
//
IPrioritizable
case
Priority.High:
queueHigh.Enqueue(item);
break;
case
Priority.Low:
queueLow.Enqueue(item);
break;
case
Priority.Medium:
queueMedium.Enqueue(item);
break;
default:
t h r o w new
ArgumentOutOfRangeException(
item.Priority.ToString(),
" P r i o r i t y Q u e u e . E n q u e u e " ) ;

/ / D e q u e u e - T
//
public Dequeue()
{
//
Queue<T> q u e u e T o p = T o p Q u e u e ( ) ;
//
if ( q u e u e T o p != n u l l && q u e u e T o p . C o u n t > 0)
return

queueTop.Dequeue();

//
//

}
// , n u l l
(
/ / )
r e t u r n d e f a u l t ( ) ; //
//TopQueue -
p r i v a t e Queue<T> T o p Q u e u e ( )

{
if

( q u e u e H i g h . C o u n t > 0)
r e t u r n queueHigh;
if ( q u e u e M e d i u m . C o u n t > 0)
r e t u r n queueMedium;
if ( q u e u e L o w . C o u n t > 0)
r e t u r n queueLow;
:
- r e t u r n queueLow;
//IsEmpty public bool

,
IsEmpty()

//
//
//
//
//
//
//


?

?

?

{ ,
// t r u e ,
r e t u r n (queueHigh.Count
==0) &

15.

351

(queueMedium.Count = = 0 ) &
(queueLow.Count
== 0 ) ;

/ / C o u n t - ?
p u b l i c i n t Count //
{
//
get { r e t u r n queueHigh.Count
+
queueMedium.Count +
queueLow.Count; }

}
}
/ / P a c k a g e - ,
//
c l a s s Package : I P r i o r i t i z a b l e
{
private
Priority priority;
//
public

Package(Priority

priority)

{
this.priority

priority;

}
//Priority
//
public
get

Priority
{

Priority

return priority;

}
//
/ /


...

ToAddress,

FromAddress,

Insurance,

}
//
//

P a c k a g e F a c t o r y
-

}
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
, .


P a c k a g e
. ,
P a c k a g e , , . ,
P a c k a g e -
,
( )
.
P a c k a g e :
I P r i o r i t i z a b l e , .


(enum) P r i o r
i t y . :

352

V.

//Priority -
// 3, . . .
e n u mP r i o r i t y

1,

2,

{
Low,

Medium,

High

IPrioritizable
, P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
( - , ).
, P a c k a g e
,
, .. , , P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
.
, I P r i o r i t i z a b l e :
// I P r i o r i t i z a b l e - :
// , P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
I I
interface
IPrioritizable
Priority

Priority

get;

{ g e t ; } ,
. , g e t ,
, P r i o r i t y
P r i o r i t y .
P a c k a g e
Priority:
public
get

Priority
{

Priority

return priority;

Main()
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
, . M a i n ( ) :
//Main - ,
//
static v o i d Main ( s t r i n g [] a r g s )
{
Console.WriteLine(" :");
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > pq =
new P r i o r i t y Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" " +

15.

353

" (0 - 2 0 ) "
*
"
:");
Package pack;
P a c k a g e F a c t o r y f a c t = new P a c k a g e F a c t o r y ( ) ;
/ / , 2 0
R a n d o m r a n d = n e w R a n d o m () ;
// 0 - 2 0
i n t numToCreate = r a n d . N e x t ( 2 0 ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " ^ {0} :
",
numToCreate);
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < n u m T o C r e a t e ; i + + )

{
Console.Write("\t\tTeHepauHH "
" { } " , i ) ;
pack = f a c t . C r e a t e P a c k a g e ( ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " { } " ,
pack.Priority);
pq.Enqueue(pack);

}
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " : ") ;
int nTotal = pq.Count;
Console.WriteLine(" : { } " , nTotal);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " +
" : 0-2 0 : " ) ;
i n t numToRemove = r a n d . N e x t ( 2 0 ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " ^ {0} " ,
numToRemove);
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < numToRemove; i + + )
{
pack = pq.Dequeue();
if
(pack != n u l l )
{
Console.WriteL
i n e ( " \ t \ t
" {}",
pack.Priority);

}
}
// " "
Console.WriteLine(" {} ",
nTotal - pq.Count);
/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();
, M a i n () ?
1 . P r i o r i t y Q u e u e P a c k a g e .
2. P a c k a g e F a c t o r y ,
. (
, .)

354

V.

3. R a n d o m
.NET, P a c k a g e F a c t o r y
P a c k a g e .
4. P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
p g . E n q u e u e ( p a c k ) .
5. ,
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e .
6. P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
.


<>? ,
, , .

, <>. ,
, P r i o r i t y Q u e u e P a c k a g e ,
, "".
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
:
public

class

PriorityQueue

//Queues - (!)
1
private Queue<Package> queueHigh
= new Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > q u e u e M e d i u m = new Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Queue<Package> queueLow
= new Q u e u e < P a c k a g e > ( ) ;
//Enqueue - Package
//
public void Enqueue(Package item)

{
switch(item.Priority)

//

Package

{
case
Priority.High:
queueHigh.Enqueue(item);
break;
case
Priority.Low:
queueLow.Enqueue(item);
break;
case Priority.Medium:
queueMedium.Enqueue(item);
break;

}
}
// . . .
. ,
, P a c k a g e
<> (, , ).

355


, -
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e .


P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ,
Q u e u e < T > , .
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e , :
/ / P r i o r i t y Q u e u e - ;
// , ,
// I P r i o r i t i z a b l e
class
PriorityQueue<T>
where T : I P r i o r i t i z a b l e

{
//Queues - (!)
p r i v a t e Queue<T> q u e u e H i g h
= new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Queue<T> q u e u e M e d i u m = new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;
p r i v a t e Queue<T> queueLow
= new Q u e u e < T > ( ) ;
/ / - . . .
- Q u e u e < > ,
Q u e u e < T > .

Enqueue()
E n q u e u e P r i o r i t y Q u e u e . ,

.
s w i t c h . -,
P r i o r i t y . H i g h , E n q u e u e ()
q u e u e H i g h . P r i o r i t y Q u e u e . E n q u e u e ( ) :
//
//

public

void

Enqueue(

item)

{
switch (item.Priority)
//
{
//
IPrioritizable
case
Priority.High:
queueHigh.Enqueue(item);
break;
case
Priority.Low:
queueLow.Enqueue(item);
break;
case
Priority.Medium:
queueMedium.Enqueue(item);
break;
default:
t h r o w new
ArgumentOutOfRangeException(
item.Priority.ToString(),

356

V.

"

PriorityQueue.Enqueue");

Dequeue()
Dequeue () .
.

Dequeue () T o p Q u e u e ( ) , .
D e q u e u e () D e q u e u e ()
, . D e q u e u e ( ) :
//Dequeue -
//
public D e q u e u e ()

//
Queue<T> q u e u e T o p = T o p Q u e u e ( ) ;
//
if

(queueTop

!= n u l l

&& q u e u e T o p . C o u n t

>

0)

{
return queueTop.Dequeue();

//
//

/ / , n u l l
// )
return d e f a u l t ( ) ;

}
, ,
, .. P r i o r i t y Q u e u e ?
? D e q u e u e () n u l l .
, , P r i o r i t y Q u e u e . D e q u e u e ()
, D e q u e u e n u l l .
n u l l ? d e f a u l t ( ) , . d e
fault () .

TopQueue()
D e q u e u e () T o p Q u e u e () ,
.
TopQueue () q u e u e H i g h C o u n t .
0, , T o p Q u e u e ()
( T o p Q u e u e ()
Queue<T>). q u e u e H i g h , T o p Q u e u e ()
q u e u e M e d i u m q u e u e L o w .
, ?
TopQueue () n u l l ,
. D e q u e u e () De
queue () , n u l l .
T o p Q u e u e ( ) :

15.

357

/ / T o p Q u e u e -
p r i v a t e Queue<T> T o p Q u e u e ( )
{
//
if ( q u e u e H i g h . C o u n t > 0)
// ?
r e t u r n queueHigh;
i f ( q u e u e M e d i u m . C o u n t > 0 ) //
// ?
r e t u r n queueMedium;
//
if ( q u e u e L o w . C o u n t > 0)
// ?
r e t u r n queueLow;
//
r e t u r n queueLow;

}
PriorityQueue
, P r i o r i t y Q u e u e , ,
( !).
Is E m p t y ()
C o u n t P r i o r i t y Q u e u e .


P r i o r i t y Q u e u e .
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e , , i n t , s t r i n g S t u d e n t , .. ,
, ,
,
I P r i o r i t i z a b l e . P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
, I P r i o r i t i z a b l e ,
.
D e q u e u e () P r i o r i t y Q u e u e null
. <>
n u l l , , , int
s t r i n g . D e q u e u e () .


P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
. ,
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e , I P r i o r i t i z a b l e ,
P a c k a g e . P a c k a g e I P r i o r i t i z a b l e
:
class

Package

IPrioritizable

P r i o r i t y I P r i o r i t i z a b l e .
,
, ,
. .
,
, , .

358

V.

I P r i o r i t i z a b l e
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e :
c l a s s P r i o r i t y Q u e u e < T > where T :

IPrioritizable

,
w h e r e . (enforcer), ,
I P r i o r i t i z a b l e , .. :
", , I P r i o r i
t i z a b l e , ".
, w h e r e
:
, (
);
, ,
.
s t r u c t , c l a s s
inew(). new () , s t r u c t
class "Generics, constraints" .

. ,
:
class MyClass<T>

where

class,

IPrioritizable,

new ()

T , -;
I P r i o r i t i z a b l e .


? (,
!) w h e r e :
c l a s s MyClass<T,

U>

: where T:

IPrioritizable,

where U:

new()

null T
, ,
"" . i n t 0 ( 0.0).
s t r i n g " " . b o o l f a l s e , ,
Package, n u l l .
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e , # ,
n u l l .
, D e q u e u e () P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
: D e q u e u e ( ) , .
, ""? P a c k a g e ,
n u l l .

( , , , n u l l ) .

15.

359

null
,
. De
q u e u e () :
return

default();

//

null

, ,
n u l l . P a c k a g e ,
,
n u l l . ,
, .
, P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
, -
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e - , -|
P r o g r a m m i n g T o A n l n t e r f .

.
. D e q u e u e () Priori
t y Q u e u e . ,
, .
.
, Swap ( ) ,
.
( . 6.2 6, "
"). , ,
Swap () r e f , -
, (
r e f 7, " ").
,
Swap ( ) .

// G e n e r i c M e t h o d - ,
//
using System;
namespace GenericMethod

{
class

Program

{
// Main - ;
// ,
// M a i n ( ) ;
s t a t i c void Main(string[] args)
{

360

V.

//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " +
" : \ " ) ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t n p o B e p K a i n t " ) ;
i n t nOne = 1;
i n t nTwo = 2 ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t \ t n e p e f l : n O n e = { 0 } , nTwo = {1} " ,
nOne, nTwo);
// i n t

Swap<int>(ref nOne,

ref n T w o ) ;

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ \ : n O n e = { 0 } , nTwo = { l } " ,


. nOne, nTwo);
Console . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t p o e p K a " +
" s t r i n g " ) ;
s t r i n g sOne = " o n e " ;
s t r i n g sTwo = " t w o " ;
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t \ t f l o : s O n e = { o } , sTwo = { l } " ,
sOne,
sTwo);
// s t r i n g

Swap<string>(ref sOne,

ref s T w o ) ;

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t \ t r i o a n e : s O n e = { o } , sTwo =
sOne,
sTwo);
Console.WriteLine("\ " +
" " ) ;
Console . W r i t e L i n e ( " ^
Console.WriteLine("\t GenericClass.Swap " +
" i n t " ) ;
n O n e = 1;
nTwo = 2;

{l}",

int");

GenericClass<int> intClass = new GenericClass<int>();


C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t \ t f l o : nOne
nOne, nTwo);

intClass.Swap(ref nOne,

{o},

nTwo =

{1}",

ref n T w o ) ;

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t \ t n o ^ e : n O n e = { o } , nTwo =
nOne, nTwo);
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ t n p o B e p K a " +
" s t r i n g " ) ;
Console.WriteLine("\t GenericClass.Swap " +
" s t r i n g " ) ;
sOne = " o n e " ;
sTwo = " t w o " ;

{l}",

GenericClass<string> strClass =
new GenericClass<string>();
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " : sOne = { o } ,
sOne,
sTwo);

strClass.Swap(ref sOne,

sTwo

{l}",

ref sTwo);

C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " : s O n e = { o } , sTwo =
sOne,
sTwo);
/ /
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

15.

{l}",

361

} // e n d Main
/ / s t a t i c Swap -
p u b l i c s t a t i c v o i d Swap<T>(ref T l e f t s i d e ,
ref T rightSide)

{
T temp;
temp = l e f t s i d e ;
leftside = rightSide;
r i g h t S i d e = temp;

} // e n d P r o g r a m
/ / G e n e r i c C l a s s -
/ / Swap
class

GenericClass<T>

{
//Swap '- ,
/ / ; ,
/ / Swap<T>,
//
p u b l i c void Swap(ref T l e f t s i d e ,
ref T rightSide)

{
T temp;
temp = l e f t s i d e ;
l e f t s i d e = rightSide,r i g h t S i d e = temp;

Swap () (
) P r o g r a m , :
public

static

void

Swap<T>(ref

leftside,

ref

rightSide)


<>.
,
.
M a i n () Swap ( ) ,
i n t , s t r i n g (
). ( ,
):
Swap<int>(ref
nOne,
r e f nTwo);
// i n t
Swap<string>(ref
ref

362

sOne,
sTwo);

//

string

V.

Swap () i n t i n t
^ . , Swap () s t r i n g
s t r i n g . .
Swap ()
. .


G e n e r i c C l a s s ,
Swap ( ) , (
, , ):
class G e n e r i c C l a s s < T >

public

void

//
//

Swap(ref

<>
Swap()
leftside,

ref

rightSide)

...

Swap ()
Program ,
G e n e r i c C l a s s , Swap () ( ,
). Swap () <>,
Swap ( ) .
, Swap () . Swap () M a i n ( ) :
GenericClass<int> i n t C l a s s =
new G e n e r i c C l a s s < i n t > ( ) ;

//
//

i n t

//

GenericClass<string> s t r C l a s s =
new G e n e r i c C l a s s < s t r i n g > ( ) ;

//
//


s t r i n g

S t r C l a s s . Swap ( r e f

//

i n t C l a s s . Swap ( r e f

nOne,

sOne,

ref

ref

nTwo) ;

sTwo) ;

SwapO

SwapO

i n t s t r i n g .
S w a p () ,
.


,
,
^ P r i o r i t y Q u e u e .
:
static void Sort<T>(T[]
tArray) where T:
IComparable<T>
( ... }
, ,
I C o m p a r a b l e
.

15.

363

, ]
! (
14, " ".)
,
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interface IDisplayable

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interface
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{
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criteria);

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c l a s s MyClass :
/ /
c l a s s MyClass

IDisplayable

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...

:
//

c l a s s MyClass

IDisplayable

{
public

void

Display()

{
/ /
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:

ICertifiable<MyCriteria>

//

{
public

void

Certify(MyCriteria

criteria)

{
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class P a c k a g e F a c t o r y
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//
u s i n g System;
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namespace G e n e r i c l n t e r f a c e

{
class

Program

{
static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
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string>();
366

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/ / .
// -
//
L i s t < B l o b > b L i s t = new L i s t < B l o b > ( ) ;
Student[]
s t u d e n t s = new S t u d e n t [ 1 0 ] ;
Console.WriteLine(" : " ) ;
f o r ( i n t i = 0; i < 10; i++)

{
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" " +
".");
Blob b = b l o b F a c t . C r e a t e ( ) ;
b.name = "blob" + i . T o S t r i n g ( ) ;
bList.Add(b);
Console .WriteLine ("^ Student " +
" - " +
" " +
".");
s t r i n g sName = " s t u d e n t " + i . T o S t r i n g ( ) ;
students[i] = stuFact.Create(sName);
/ / . . . . -

}
/ / .
foreach(Blob b in b L i s t )

{
Console.WriteLine(b.ToString());

}
foreach(Student

in

students)

{ Console.WriteLine(s.ToString()
II
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " < E n t e r > '
" .
Console.Read();

}
// : S t u d e n t , B l o b (. - )
// B l o b - (
/ / , # ) .
// ( . - )
// S t u d e n t -
//
c l a s s S t u d e n t : ISettable<string> / /

{
// , . -
public Student()
{}
/ /
//
p u b l i c S t u d e n t ( s t r i n g name)
//
{
//
this.name
name;

}
// ISettable
public void SetParameter(string name)

367

this.name = name;
//

ToString()

}
//

// ISettable,
interface ISettable<U>
{
void SetParameter(U u ) ;

}
interface ISettable2<U, V>
{ void SetParameter(U u, V v ) ;

}
//
// ISettable
class GenericFactory<T> where T : new()
{
public T Create()
{
return new T ( ) ;

}
}
//
//
class GenericFactoryl<T, U> where T : ISettable<U>, new()
{
// U
//
public
Create(U )
{
t = new ( ) ;
t.SetParameter(); // ISettable,
// SetParameter()
return t;
}
}
//
//
//

-
,

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.
,
, .
, .
,

368

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class
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class
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class
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class
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class

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//
class Student:
ISettable<string>

string

{
private
s t r i n g name;
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//
//
//

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name)

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Student

S t u d e n t , ,
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students[0]

370

new

Student("Juan

Valdez");

V.

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string> factl =
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string>();
C r e a t e ()
:
//
s t u d e n t s [1]
= factl. Create ( "Richard Corey");
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public T C r e a t e (U u)
{
T t = new T(); // ,
/ /

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}
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371

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class

Student

{
public
public

s t r i n g sStudentName;
i n t nID;

}
class

MyClass

{
static

public

void

MyFunction(Student

s)

{
Console.WriteLine(" =
Console.WriteLine("Id
=

"
"

+ s.sStudentName);
+ s.nld);

}
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void

AverageInput()

376

i n t nSum = 0 ;
i n t nCount = 0;
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{
//
string s = Console.ReadLine();
int n = Int32.Parse(s);
/ / ,
VI.

if

(n

<

0)

{
break;

}
//
nSum + = n ;
nCount++;

}
/ /
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C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " " + nSum / < n C o u n t ) ;
//
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. , s
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5, " ").


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int nAge = 1 0 ;
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int n F a c t o r e d A g e = 2 . 0 * n A g e ;
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2.0,
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n F a c t o r e d A g e i n t ,
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static

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float

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f)

{
//
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return
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16.

377

class

MyClass

{
static

public

float

FloatTimes2(float

f)

{
/ /
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*
f;
return
fResult;

}
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f R e s u l t f l o a t .

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class

MyClass

{
static

public

void

SomeFunction()

} }

char cl = ' a ' ;


c h a r c2 = ' b ' ;
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// ,
//
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c h a r , cl 2
i n t ( c h a r
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( )
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{
static

public

float

FloatTimes2(float

f)

{
//
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(float)(2.0 * f);
return
fResult;

}
}
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, f l o a t ,
(. 3, " -").
, !
:

378

VI.

class

MyClass

{
static

public

float

FloatTimes2(float

f)

{
// 2.OF
f l o a t f R e s u l t = 2 . O F * f;
return
fResult;

float

}
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, f l o a t , f l o a t , f l o a t .

,
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,
public c l a s s M y C l a s s
{
public void SomeFunction()

{
Y o u r C l a s s uc = new Y o u r C l a s s ( ) ;
// MyClass
uc.nPrivateMember = 1;
}
}
public

class

"{

YourClass

private int nPrivateMember = 0;


}
.
, . ,
n P r i v a t e M e m b e r :
class M y C l a s s

//

internal

(
public

void

SomeFunction()

{
Y o u r C l a s s u c = new Y o u r C l a s s ( ) ;
// MyClass
uc . n P r i v a t e M e m b e r = 1;

'public

class

YourClass

(
int n P r i v a t e M e m b e r

16.

= 0 ;

//

379

, S o m e F u n c t i o n () public
, M y C l a s s
.

. ,
.

, ,
. ,
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,
public

class

MyClass

{
public

void

SomeFunction()

{
i n t n;
// , #
// ;
SomeOtherFunction(out n ) ;

}
public

void

SomeOtherFunction(out

int

n)

{
n =

1;

}
S o m e F u n c t i o n ()
, S o m e O t h e r F u n c t i o n d
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380

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public

class

BaseClass
v

public v o i d F u n c t i o n ()

public

class

public

void

Subclass

Function()

BaseClass
//

here's

the

overload

{
}
public
public

class
void

MyClass
Test()

S u b c l a s s s b = new
sb.Function();

Subclass();

}
16.

381

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s b , S u b c l a s s . F u n c t i o n ( ) .
.
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BaseClass

Function()

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class

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public

class

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BaseClass

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{
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382

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f);
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d)

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383

public

string

ConvertToString(int

n)

{
// i n t n s t r i n g
string s = n.ToString();

}
public

string

ConvertPositiveNumbers(int

n)

{
//
if

( n > 0)

{
string s = n.ToString();
return s;
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{}
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return

n);

>

}
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}
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// FactorialWithError -
// ,

using System;
namespace FactorialWithError
{
// MyMathFunctions -
//
public class MyMathFunctions
{
// Factorial -
//
public static double Factorial(double dValue)
{
// , 1
double dFactorial = 1.0;
// nValue, 1,
//
//
do
{
dFactorial *= dValue;
dValue -= 1.0;
} while(dValue > 1 ) ;
//
return dFactorial;

}
}
public class Program
{
public static void Main(string[] args)
{
//
// 6 -6
for (int i = 6; i > -6; I--)
{
//
Console.WriteLine("i = { } , = {l}",
i, MyMathFunctions.Factorial(i));

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . ") ;
Console.Read();

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i = 5, = 12 0
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i = 3 , = 6
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1 = 1 , = 1
| = 0 , = 0
i = -1, = -1
i = -2, = -2
i = -3, = -3
i = -4, = -4
i - -5, = -5
<Enter> ...
, . -,
. -, ,
, . , .
Factorial ()

do{ . . . }while (dValue ! =0),


.
while (dValue ! =0),
0.

dValue ! =0,
. , , , dValue>l.
dValue = 0.00001
.
3, " -".


, Factorial
: . Factorial ()
.
Factorial ( ) , ? ,

, ,
.

, . ,
. ,
- 1 , , -2
.
. ,
,
, .
.

18.

395

jjjdWfeK

Facto

// FactorialErrorReturn -
// , , -
//
using System;
namespace FactorialErrorReturn
{
// MyMathFunctions -
//
public class MyMathFunctions
{
//
//
public const int NEGATIVE_NUMBER
= -1;
public const int NON_INTEGER_VALUE = -2;
// Factorial -
//
public static double Factorial(double dValue)
{
// :
if (dValue < 0)

{
return NEGATIVE NUMBER;

}
// :
int nValue = (int)dValue;
if (nValue != dValue)
{
return NON INTEGER VALUE;

// , ,
// 1
double dFactorial = 1.0;
// nValue, 1,
//
//
do

{
dFactorial *= dValue;
dValue -= 1.0;
} while(dValue > 1 ) ;
//
return dFactorial;

}
}
public class Program
{
public static void Main(stririg[] args)
396 {
VII.
//
// 6 -6

for (int i = 6; i > -6; i--)


{
double dFactorial = MyMathFunctions.Factorial(i);
if (dFactorial == MyMathFunctions.NEGATIVE NUMBER)
{
Console.WriteLine
("Factorial() ");
break;

}
if (dFactorial == MyMathFunctions.NON INTEGER VALUE)
{

'

"

Console.WriteLine
("Factorial() ");
break;

//
Console.WriteLine("i = { } , = {l}",
i, MyMathFunctions.Factorial(i));

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read ();

Factorial () .
.
7
, 0 , .
, .
, , .
0.
Main () , Factorial ( ) ,
. -1 -2
, MyMathFunctions

. NEGATIVE_NUMBER - 1 , a NON_INTEGER_VALUE

2.

, , Main ( ) ,
.
,
.

MyMathClass. NEGATIVE_NUMBER.
, ,
.
" ".

"" , , 0

1. . .

18.

397



, const, .

public static readonly int NEGATIVE_NUMBER = -1;


const
.
,
const , .
enum, 15, "
". MyMathClass :

enum MathErrors
NegativeNumber,
NonlntegerValue
Factorial () MathErrors, (
.NET Framework):

MathErrors meResult = MyMathFunctions.Factorial(6);


if(meResult == MathErrors.NegativeNumber) ...
Factorial () Main ( ) , :

i = 6, = 720
i = 5, = 12 0
i = 4, = 24
i = 3, = 6
i = 2, = 2
1 = 1 , = 1
i = 0, = 0
Factorial()
<Enter> ...
( .)

FORTRAN. ?


? FORTRAN!
, . ,
.
, ,
. ,

398

VII.

.
, .
, ,
, .
,
,
, out,
. ,
,
.
. ,
Factorial -1,
. ,
, .
.
Factorial ( ) ,
. ,
: ",
, ", ,
.
, Factorial ()
,
,
, - . :

// SomeFuncO, ,
//
errRtn = SomeFunc () ;
if (errRtn == SF_ERRORl)
(

Console .WriteLine (" 1 SomeFuncO");


return MY ERROR 1;

if (errRtn == SF ERROR2)
Console .WriteLine (" 2 SomeFuncO");
return My_ERROR 2;
}

// , ..
.errRtn = SomeOtherFunc;
if (errRtn == SOF_ERRORl)
{
Console.WriteLine(" 1 " +
"SomeOtherFunc () ") ;
return MY ERROR 3;
)

if (errRtn == SOF ERROR2)


{
Console.WriteLine(" 2 " +
18.

399

"SomeOtherFunc()");
return MY_ERR0R_4;

}
.
. -|
...

,
.
,
. , .
, .

# ,
. try, catch, throw fi
nally. .
(try) . ,
(throw) , (catch),
, , (finally) ,
:

public class MyClass


{
public void SomeFunction()
{
//
try

// -
// ,
SomeOtherFunction();
// . . . - . . .

}
catch(Exception )
{
// ,
// try ,
// , , ,
// , try-
// , . Exception
//
' " ". . .

400

VII.

finally
{
// :
// , ..
// ,
// .

}
}
public void SomeOtherFunction()
{
I I . . . - . . .
11 . . . "" ""
// ,
// catch
throw new Exception(" ");
I I . . . . . .
Some Function () ,
try. , ( ,
, ...),
try-.
try catch ,
, - try- .

catch- Exception ( Exception).


catch- : catch

, catch (Exception):
catch

,
:

catch (MyException)
{
// ,
//
}
finally
, ,
. ""
, ..
++, catch
, # ,
Exception .
, - SomeOt h e r F u n c t i o n ( ) ... , -

18.

401

Exception throw
, !
try/catch ,
. ,

;
, .

FactorialException
.
// FactorialException -
// ,
//

using System;
namespace FactorialException
{
// MyMathFunctions -
//
public class MyMathFunctions
{
// Factorial -
//
public static double Factorial(int nValue)
{
// :
if (nValue < 0)

{
//
string s = String.Format(
" Factorial { } " ,
nValue);
throw new Exception(s); // ...

// ,
// 1
double dFactorial = 1.0;
// nValue, 1,
//
//
do

{
dFactorial *= nValue,} while(--nValue > 1 ) ;
//
return dFactorial;
402

VII.

public class Program


{
public static void Main(string[]

args)

try // Factorial()
//

""

{
//
// 6 -6
for (int i = 6; i > -6; i--)

{
//
double dFactorial = MyMathFunctions.Factorial(i);
//
Console.WriteLine("i = { } , = {l}",
i, MyMathFunctions.Factorial(i));
catch(Exception e) // ...
{
Console.WriteLine(":");
Console.WriteLine(e.ToString());
}
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

"" Main ()
try-.
Main () try-,
Main () . ,
- , Main ( ) .
,
Windows,
.
catch Main () Exception ToString () ,
.
Exception.Message
,
. ToString ().
Factorial ()
, (
, ). , Factorial ()

403

,
, . Factorial ()
Exception,
.
:
i = 6,
i = 5,
i = 4,
i = 3,
i = 2,
i = 1,
i = 0,
:

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

720
120
24
6
2
1
0

System.Exception: Factorial -1
at Factorial(Int32 nValue) in
:\c#programs\Factorial\Program.cs:line 21
at FactorialException.Program.Main(String[] args) in
:\c#programs\Factorial\Program.cs:line 49
<Enter> ...

9

6 0 . -1 .
,
Factorial ( ) . ,

1.

.
, .
Factorial (int) 21 Program.cs
Factorial () Main (string [] ) 49
. , Main ()
, .
Visual Studio.

, .
, .
,
.
.
, ,
,
,
. (
, ,
.)

404

, , 0! = 1. . .

VII.

Exception, #,
.
, ,
. Exception
. ,
. ,
.
.
Exception ,
.
Exception, ApplicationException,
Exception, :
// CustomException - MyClass
//
public class CustomException : ApplicationException
{
private MyClass myobject;

//

//
CustomException(string sMsg, MyClass mo) : base(sMsg)
{
myobject = m o ;
' }

// ,
//
public MyClass MyCustomObject{ get


{return myobject;}}

}
CustomException
, MyClass. Ap
plicationException , ,
MyClass, .
.
CustomExcep
tion MyClass:
public class Program
{
public void SomeFunction()
{
try

{
// ...
SomeOtherFunctionO ;
// ... ...

}
catch(MyException me)

[{ 18.

405

// Exception
// ApplicationException
string s = m e . T o S t r i n g ;
// ,
//
MyClass mo = me.MyCustomObject;
// , MyClass
//
string s = mo.GetDescription();

public

void

SomeOtherFunctionO

{
// myobject
MyClass myobject = new M y C l a s s 0 ;
// ... myobject ..
throw new MyException(" MyClass",
myobj ect) ;
// ... ...

}
SomeFunction () SomeO-|
therFunction () try. SomeOtherFunction()
myobject. - SomeOtherFunction()

. Exception Ap
plicationException, SomeFunction
MyExcept ion,
, .
catch Main () ,
MyExcept ion. ,
Exception, , , ToString ( ) .
catch- , ,
MyClass, .


MyExcept ion.
catch :
public

void SomeFunction()

{
try

{
SomeOtherFunctionO ;

}
catch(MyException me)

{
}

}
406

VII.

SomeOtherFunction () Excep
tion - , MyException?
, ,
. , #
catch, .
catch , ,
. #
catch-, catch, :
public void SomeFunction ()
(
try
SomeOtherFunctionO ;
catch(MyException me) //
{
//
// MyException
} // catch-
//
catch(Exception )
//
//
//

SomeOtherFunction () Exception,
catch (MyException), Exception MyExcep
tion. catch (Exception).
, MyException, MyException:
class MySpecialException : MyException
{
// ... - ...

}
MyException MySpecialException.
(
. ApplicationException.)
catch-
. ,
:
public void SomeFunction ()

(
try

SomeOtherFunction();

}
18.

407

catch(Exception me) // - !
{
// MyException

}
catch(MyException )
{
// -
//

}
}

,


, #, catch-, ?
catch-? ?
:

// MyException - ,
//
// ,
using System;
namespace MyException

{
// MyClass
public class MyClass{}
// MyException - - MyClass
//
public class MyException : ApplicationException
private MyClass myobject;
public MyException(string sMsg, MyClass mo)

: base(sMsg)

myobject = mo,-

//
public MyClass MyCustomObject{ get {return myobject;}}
public class Program
{
// fl - -
public void f1(bool bExceptionType)
try
{
f2(bExceptionType);
catch(Exception e)
{

408

VII.

Console.WriteLine(" " +
" fl ") ;
Console.WriteLine(.Message);

}
}

// f2 - - MyException
public void f2(bool bExceptionType)
{
try
{
f3(bExceptionType);

catch(MyException
me)
{
Console.WriteLine(" MyException f 2 ( ) " ) ;
Console.WriteLine(me.Message);

// f3 - - He
public void f3(bool bExceptionType)
{ f4(bExceptionType);

// f4 - -
public void f4(bool bExceptionType)
{

//
MyClass mc = new MyClass ;
if(bExceptionType)
{
//
//
throw new MyException(" MyException " +
" f 4 ( ) " , mc) ;
}
throw new Exception(" f4 () " );

public
static void Main(string[] args)
{
// ...
Console.WriteLine(" " +
" ");
new P r o g r a m O . fl (false) ;
// ...
Console.WriteLine("\ " +
"MyException");
new P r o g r a m O .fl(true) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

18.

409

Main () Program
f 1 ( ) , , , f 2 ( ) ,
f 3 ( ) , f 4 ( ) . f 4 ()
MyException,
Exception, bool.
Exception f3 ( ) . #
catch-, f 2 ( ) ,
MyException .
Exception,
. , f 1 () catch-,
.
Main () f 4 () MyEx
ception, 2 ( ) .
f 1 ( ) , f 2 ().
( Main () ,
, Main () .. Program? ,
? . 14, " ".)
:

fl()
f4()
' MyException
MyException f2()
MyException f4()
<Enter> ...
f3 ( ) , catch-,
. ,
catch-. ,
. ComputeX()
Factorial () ,
, Factorial () ?
ComputeXO

Factorial . ComputeX ( ) , , catch-


.
f 2 () .
, .
MyException ,
, , , ,
BrilliantLibrary. , BrilliantLibrary,
MyException.

BrilliantLibrary

System. BrilliantLibrary ,
System,
.

410

VII.

, :
.
: , ,
.


,
, " "
. catch- ,
(-, ).
, , F (),
. - F ()
G (). , G (), , F ()
,
. F () catch-
( finally), . F()
,
.
"" .
(, , )
:
public void f 1 ()
{
try

{
f 2 () ;
}
// ...
catch(MyException me)

// ... ...
Console .WriteLine (" MyException fl ()")'';
// ...
//
throw new Exception(
", f l ( ) " ) ;


, .
Exception MyEx
ception
f 1 ().
,
, .
, fit)
.

( 18.

411

throw
,
:
public

void

fl()

{
try
{
f 2 () ;

}
// ...
catch(Exception e)
{
// ... ...
Console.WriteLine(" f l ( ) " ) ;
// ...
//
throw;

}
}
( ?).
,

.
( ) - ,
.


catch-? , :
;
;
(, ) .

?
.
, ,
, - ,
, .
.
, ,
..
. ,
. , ...

412

VII.

, ,
. ,
.
, , , .
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
.

,
Exception Appli
cationException:
// MyException -
// MyClass
public class MyException : ApplicationException
{

private MyClass myobject;


MyException(string sMsg, MyClass mo)

: base(sMsg)

{
myobject = m o ;
}
//
//
public MyClass MyObject{ get {return myobject;}}
BrilliantLibrary. ,
MyException,
, .
, BrilliantLibrary
MyException.
, Exception Applica
tionException, BrilliantLi
brary .
CustomException.
// CustomException - ,
//
using System;
namespace CustomException
{
public class CustomException : ApplicationException
{
private MathClass mathobject;
private string sMessage;

18.

413

public CustomException(string sMsg,


{
mathobject = m o ;
sMessage = sMsg;

MathClass mo)

}
override public string Message
{

get{return

String.Format(" < { o } > ,


{l}",
sMessage,
mathobj ect.ToString());}

override public string ToString()


{

string s = Message;
s += "\ ";
s += TargetSite.ToString(); // ,
//
return s;

}
}
// MathClass -
public class MathClass

{
private int nValueOfObject;
private string sObjectDescription;
public MathClass(string sDescription,

int nValue)

{
nValueOfObject = nValue;
sObjectDescription = sDescription;
public int Value {get {return nValueOfObject;}}
// Message -
// MathClass
public string Message

{
get

{
return String.Format("({0} = { l } ) " ,
sObj ectDescription,
nValueOfObject);

}
}
// ToString -
// Message Message
//
override public string ToString()
{

string s = Message + "\n";


s +- base.ToString();
return s;

}
// 1/x
public double Inverse()

414

VII.

{
if
{

(nValueOfObject == 0)
throw new CustomException(" 0",
this);

}
return 1.0 /

(double)nValueOfObject;

public class Program


{
public static void Main(string[]

args)

try
{
// take the inverse of 0
MathClass mathObject = new MathClass("Value", 0 ) ;
Console.WriteLine(" d.Value { } " ,
mathObj ect.Inverse() ) ;
catch(Exception e)

Console.WriteLine(
"\ :\n{0}",
e.ToString());

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . ") ;
Console.Read();
}
CustomException . ,
MyException .
Message,
, ,
ToString ( ) , .
, ,
Exception, .
.
Main () MathClass 0, . ,
, 0,
, .
Intel 1.0/0.0: .
,
, .

NaN (Not_a_Number, ).

( 18.

415

Inverse () .
CustomException,
.
Main () , . " ", , ,
" ". Main ()
, - , ToString ().

: T o S t r i n g ()
Object.
14, " ". , ,
ToString () .
. ,
ToString ( ) , .
GetString ( ) ,
; . ,
Student. ToString () .
#
ToString () . , ToString ()
, ,
, , .
Cus
tomException, CustomException. ToString ().
Message () Excep
tion, ,
.
Message MathClass
ToString ( ) . MathClass.ToString()
, .
, .
ToString () ,
.
,
. (
) .
CustomException :
:
< 0>, (Value = 0)
CustomException.MathClass
Double Inverse()
<Enter> ...

416

VII.

: " :"
Main ( ) . " < 0>, < ~ ~ > "
CustomException. Value = 0 MathClass.
, Double Inverse ( ) ,
CustomException. ,
.

18.

417

19


>

>
>

# .
. ,
- , .
, # .

, .

, ,
, .
# :
. ,
.
, (assemblies).
. , 11, "",

,
. .

.
.
"" ""
.
.
, , ,
, ,
, -

, ...
.
Pro
gram, s . ,
, , .
.
.
, ResAgentlnterf . cs, GateAgentlnterf . cs, Res-j

Agent.cs, GateAgent.cs, Fare.cs Aircraft.cs.



.
( ).;
20 30 ,
. 24
, 24
, ( )
. ,
, .
.
,
, ?
, -
? Visual Studio 2005
.
#
. CS, . - .
,
.

,
. ,
. ,
, .
, .
(solution). (
FileRead FileWrite, ,
.)
Visual # Visual Studio Solution Explorer
# Visual Studio
2005. Solution Explorer 21, "
Visual Studio".

420

VII.

Visual Studio, C#, Visual Basic .NET .NET


.NET .
# (
.) (.DLL).
.
. ,
. , S y s t e m
, String, Console, Exception, Math O b j e c t
. System.
.

,
.
(namespace). ( .)
,
, - ..
programName..
, ( )
, .
. . -, . DLL-, . ,
, .
. -, Visual
Studio, (startup project).
Debug^Start Debugging (F5) or Debugs
Start Without Debugging (<Ctrl+F5>).
Solution Explorer
Set as Startup Project.
Solution Explorer . Solution Explorer
21, " Visual Studio".

. , ,
, ,
, .
,
, .DLL, "DLL" (DLL dynamic link library
( ) , ,
).

taa 19.

421

, ,
, . (
. -, ,
.
. DLL, .
, , !)
,
.

,
" ", ,
. , ,
, MathRoutines.
( )
. ,
. , Point.cs =
Point, T h r e e D S p a c e . c s ThreeDSpace,
. Point.cs, ThreeD
Space . cs # MathRoutines (,
, MathRoutines).
. (
, .)
.
, .
, , ,
MathRoutines,
.
, MathRoutines.
. ,
Convert,
.
.
FilelO TranslationLibrary,
: FilelO. Convert, ,
TranslationLibrary.Convert.


namespace,
.
,
namespace

MyStuff

422

VII.

class MyClass {}
class UrClass {}
}
MyClass UrClass
MyStuff.
, ,
.
. Namespace2,
Namespacel, :
namespace Namespacel
{
// Namespacel
namespace Namespace2

{
// Namespace2
public class Class2
public void AMethod() { }
}
}
}

Class2 Namespace2 -
Namespacel :
Namespacel.Namespace2.Class2.AMethod();
,
, public.

: MyCompany .MathRoutines. (, .
.
- CMSCo.MathRoutines Sphar.MathRoutines.)
,
, , MathRoutines.
" " ,
, System. Data
, Data, System.
,
System. 10, System. Data System. Text.
Visual Studio Application Wizard
, , .
, Application Wizard.
, AlignOutput AlignOutput.
Program.cs,
. Program.cs , :
AlignOutput. ( ,
.
Properties .)

19.

423

, #
. .


,
, 11,
"" ( , public, private
protected, internal protected internal).

.
, . .
NamespaceA
NamespaceB, .
NamespaceB
NamespaceA. , .

?
, Classl NamespaceA
NamespaceB. Class2 . AMethod ( ) , .
1. Class2 NamespaceB
Classl? ,
.
2. "", " " Class2
AMethod () Classl ? " "

Classl. ,
11, "".
Class2 , Classl,
(publ ic) Classl .
, Class2 internal.
public, protected, internal private.
,

internal
11,

Class2
. protected
.
"".

"" , Classl
Class2.

.


# NamespaceB
NamespaceA.

424

VII.

Name
spaceB NamespaceA.
, ,
:
System.Console.WriteLine("my s t r i n g " ) ;

NamespaceA

using

NamespaceB:
using NamespaceB;
using.
using
.



,

. ,
using :
namespace MathRoutines
{
class Sort
{

public void SomeFunction(){}


namespace

Paint

{
public class

PaintColor

public PaintColor(int nRed, int nGreen,


public void Paint() {}
public static- void StaticPaint () {}

int nBlue)

{}

}
namespace MathRoutines
{
public class Test
{
static public void Main(string[]

args)

// Sort
// , ,
//
Sort obj = new S o r t ( ) ;
obj.SomeFunction();
//
// ,
//

19.

425

Paint.PaintColor black = new Paint.PaintColor(0, 0, 0);


black.Paint();
Paint.PaintColor.StaticPaint();

Sort Test
MathRoutines, .
( ).
Sort Test
#, .
Test. Main () Sort
, ,
Main () Paint
PaintColor, Paint, PaintColor. StaticPaint ( ) .
.
,
black. Paint ( ) , black

using

. #
using. using
, #
. - :
namespace Paint
{
public class PaintColor

{
public PaintColor(int nRed, int nGreen, int nBlue)
public void Paint() {}
public static void StaticPaint() {}

{}

namespace MathRoutines

{
// Paint ,
//
using Paint;
public class Test
{
static public void Main(string[] args)
{
//
//
// ,
// "using"
PaintColor black = new PaintColor(0, 0, 0 ) ;

426

VII.

black.Paint();
PaintColor.StaticPaint();

using : "
, ,
, ". ,
( ,
), " ".
using System,-.
,
, WriteLine ().


NamespaceUse

using ,
.
// NamespaceUse -
//
using System; //
// String
// Console
namespace MainCode
{
using LibraryCodel; // MainCode
public class Classl

{
public void AMethod()
{
Console.WriteLine("MainCode.Classl.AMethod() ") ;

}
// M a i n ( ) :
static void Main(string[] args)
// ,
// Main,
Classl cl = new C l a s s l ; // MainCode.Classl
cl.AMethod();
//
// Main() !
// LibraryCodel.Classl
//
// MainCode.Classl, , ,
// using,
//
Classl 2 = new Classl(),
2.AMethod();
//
// .

19.

427

//
// using,
// Classl
LibraryCodel.Classl = new LibraryCodel.Classl();
c3 .AMethod () ,// LibraryCodel.Class2
// ,
// using
// ; # Class2
Class2 4 = new C l a s s 2 ( ) ;
4.AMethod();
// LibraryCode2.Classl
// , -
// using LibraryCode2,
// , Classl
// :
// , LibraryCode2.Classl internal,
// public,
//
LibraryCode2.Classl 5 = new LibraryCode2.Classl();
5.AMethod();
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();
}
namespace LibraryCodel
{
public class Classl
// Classl
{
//
public void AMethod() //
{
//
Console.WriteLine("LibraryCodel.Classl.AMethod()");
}

}
public class Class2
// ,
{
//
public void AMethod()

Console.WriteLine("LibraryCodel.Class2.AMethod()");

namespace LibraryCode2
{
class Classl
{
public void AMethod()

// ,
// :
// internal

Console.WriteLine("LibraryCode2.Classl.AMethod()");

}
428

VII.

: MainCode,
Classl, Main()
AMethod ( ) . LibraryCodel :
Classl Classl MainCode, Class2
. LibraryCode2 , Classl,
Classl ,
.
AMethod ().
Main () MainCode . Classl MainCode. Classl (- M a i n O ) , LibraryCodel. Classl, Library
Codel .Class2 LibraryCode2 .Classl.
AMethod () .
. :
MainCode.Classl.AMethod()
MainCode.Classl.AMethod()
LibraryCodel.Classl.AMethod()
LibraryCodel.Class2.AMethod()
LibraryCode2.Classl.AMethod()
<Enter>

...


M a i n O .
, using,

. MainCode using
LibraryCodel, M a i n O MainCode. Classl
LibraryCodel. Class2
.
LibraryCodel. Classl

. , MainCode. Classl,
LibraryCodel.
Classl MainCode.
, .
using LibraryCodel
Main () Library
Codel . Classl, .
using,
LibraryCodel. Classl.
Main () Library2 .
Classl , Library2
, MainCode. ,
Library2 .Classl ,
public, internal.
(
private).
.

19.

429


using, ,
, , , .

21, " Visual Studio", ,


. S-.
( ) . . DLL
.
, .
,
Main ( ) ,
.
Visual Studio 2005 . , . DLL ( ,
).
. : # .
Visual Studio 2005, Visual # Express,
. ,
.


Visual Studio 2005
Class Library New Project.
,
.
Visual # Express,
.
, Microsoft Visual # Express,
, .

1. Console Application ( Win


dows Application).
, , 1, "
Windows- #", 2, " C#",
.
2. Solution Explorer Program.cs,
.
Main ( ) ,
.
3. Windows
ProjectName.csproj .

430

VII.

, ,
XML.
4. Edit"=>Find , :
<OutputType>Exe</OutputType>
Windows, ,

<OutputType>WinExe</Output>
.
5. ( WinExe) Library:
<OutputType>Library</OutputType >
!
6. Visual # Express.
7. . ,
- Main ().
, . DLL-, . -.


,
, .
ClassLibrary ,
(
, ).
// ClassLibrary -
// -
// ClassLibrary.cs
using System;
namespace ClassLibrary

{
public

class MyLibrary

public

void

LibraryFunctionl()

{
Console.WriteLine("

LibraryFunctionl()");

}
public

int LibraryFunction2(int

input)

{
Console.Write(" LibraryFunction2(), " +
" { } , i n p u t ) ;
return input; //

}
}
//
// Program.cs
using System;

19.

431

using ClassLibrary;
namespace
{
class

//
/ /
ClassLibraryDriver

Program

{
static void Main(string[]

args)

//
//
MyLibrary ml = new M y L i b r a r y ( ) ;
ml.LibraryFunctionl();
//
int nResult = MyLibrary.LibraryFunction2(27);
Console . WriteLine (nResu-lt. ToString () ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . ") ;
Console.Read();

-, ,
:
LibraryFunctionl()
LibraryFunction2(), 27
27
<Enter> ...
.

.


, , ,
. ClassLi
brary .
1. Solution Ex
plorer ClassLibrary Add : New Project.
,
.
2. New Project C o n s o l e Application
ClassLibraryDriver .
3. New Project,
, B r o w s e L o c a t i o n .
, ,
O p e n .
432

VII.

, ,
. ClassLibraryDriver
, ClassLibrary, ClassLi
brary. ClassLibrary
.
,
ClassLibrary.
.
4. , New
Project .
Visual Studio Wizard .
Solution Explorer : ClassLibrary ClassLi
braryDriver.
5. ClassLibraryDriver
Set as Startup Project.
#, Main ()
. , .
6. Program, cs ClassLibraryDriver
Main () :
MyLibrary myLib = new M y L i b r a r y ( ) ;

//
//

//
myLib.LibraryFunctionl();
//
int result = MyLibrary.LibraryFunction2();
, ,
. ,
, WriteLine () Con
sole .NET Framework. (Console
System mscorlib . dll.)
.
ClassLibrary.
7. P r o j e c t s Add Reference.
8. Add Reference Projects.
ClassLibrary .
using ClassLi
brary Program, cs ClassLibraryDriver,
.
, ,
using
.DLL-, ,
.
.NET Framework.

19.

433



. ,
, ,
.
System.IO.
- FileStream.
. open
. ,
.

-: - ?
-
. read ( ) ,
,
-.
# System.IO -.
- read ()
, - ,
.
, , .
- .
,
.
, , , ,
, .
-
, .
# .
FileStream. FileStream ,
FileStream -.
F i l e S t r e a m ,
-. ,
90% . ,
. # .
FileStream .
, . , System.0 ,
, , FileStream
.
BinaryReader/BinaryWriter ,
-: ReadChar (), Write-

434

VII.

Char (), ReadByte (), WriteByte () .


( ) ,
.
Byte.
TextReader/TextWriter ().

):

Strin-

gReader/StringWriter StreamReader/StreamWriter.
StringReader/StringWriter ,
. ,

( [ ] ) , foreach
String Split (), Concatenate () IndexOf ( ) .
, .
, .
StreamReader StreamWriter, .
StreamReader/StreamWriter
. , StreamWriter WriteLine (),
Console. StreamReader
ReadLine () ReadToEnd ( ) ,

string ( StringReader, foreach ).
TextReader/TextWriter ,
, StreamReader/StreamWriter.
FileWrite FileRead,
-.

Stream Writer
.

.
(, Student,
).
,
. StreamWriter StreamReader
.
ASCII, ANSI-.
,
. ANSI

19.

435

, ,
, ,
Unicode, ANSI-
, ,
. Unicode ,
# UTF8.
FileWrite

// FileWrite -
using System;
using System.10; //
namespace FileWrite

{
- public class Program
{
public static void Main(string []

args)

// while
//
// ,
StreamWriter sw = null;
string sFileName = "";
while(true)

try

{
// ( Enter
// )
Console.Write(" "
+ "( ):");
sFileName = Console.ReadLine();
if (sFileName.Length == 0)
{
//
break;

}
// ;
// , :
// FileMode.CreateNew - ,
//
// ; FileMode.Append
//
// ; FileMode.Create
//
// .
// FileAccess: FileAccess.Read,
// FileAccess.Write, FileAccess.ReadWrite
FileStream fs = File.Open(sFileName,
FileMode.CreateNew,
FileAccess.Write);
// UTF8- (

436

VII.

// UTF8,
// )
sw = new StreamWriter(fs,
System.Text.Encoding.UTF8);
// ,
// FileStream
Console.WriteLine(" " +
"( ) " ) ;
while(true)
{
// ;
// ,
string slnput = Console.ReadLine();
if (slnput.Length == 0)

{
break;

}
//
sw.WriteLine(slnput);
}
//
sw.Close();
sw = null; //
//

}
catch(IOException fe)
{
//
//
//
string sDir = Directory.GetCurrentDirectory();
string s = Path.Combine(sDir, sFileName);
Console.WriteLine(" {}", s ) ;
//
//
Console.WriteLine(fe.Message);
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

FileWrite Sys
tem. 10 System. System. 10 ,
.
, Sys tern.Text. StringBuilder,
,
. ,
+ .

19.

437

Main ( ) , while
try-. ,
. ( , StreamReader,
, .)
- try- ,
.
, -
, .
while .
,
-. ,
, ,
, .
break try-,
. ;
break , ,
FileWrite
. break,
.
:
FileStream fs = File.Open(sFileName, FileMode.CreateNew,
FileAccess.Write);
/ / ...
sw = new StreamWriter(fs, System.Text.Encoding.UTF8);
FileStream,
, . FileStream
.
: , .
filename. txt ,
( FileWrite \bin\Debugn
; , , . -).
,

\directory\

filename.txt, .
,

(,

\\machine\

directory\filename.txt), ,
. ,
.
: ,
.
(CreateNew), (Append) (Create). Creat
eNew , IOException,
. Create , ,
, . , Append ,

438

VII.

, ,
.
: , .
FileStream ,
, ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, , .
""
FileStream StreamWriter. StreamWriter
FileStream, .
""
StreamWriter ""
( ) FileStream
FileStream, . StreamWriter
FileStream.
12, "", .
StreamWriter FileStream.
. UTF8.
. , StreamWriter
. StreamReader
.
.
FileWrite , .
,
, WriteLine () StreamWriter.

StreamWriter.WriteLine()

Console.WriteLine()

, .

, sw. Close ().


, sw .
, .
,
, , (
, ).
catch : ,
, .
, .
, , . Direc
tory,
Path. Combine () (Path , -

19.

439

, a Directory
).
. , : \user\directory\!
text. txt, : \user\directory.
Combine () , ,
c:\test.txt Path
Path. Combine () ,
, - (\)
. ( Windows - \.
,
, Path.DirectorySeparatorChar.
.NET Framework ,
# ,
.)
w h i l e try-,
catch,
.
(
).
( ):TestFilel.txt
(, )
-

. . .
( ):TestFilel.txt
:\C#Programs\FileWrite\bin\Debug\TestFilel.txt
The file already exists.
( ):TestFile2.txt
( )
-
TestFile2.
( ) :
<Enter> ...
, TestFilel. txt.
TestFilel.txt
The

file

already exists ( ).

, .
TestFile2 . txt, .

StreamReader
, ,
.
, ,
FileWrite .

440

VII.

// FileRead -
//
using System;
using System. 10;
namespace FileRead

public class Program


public static void Main(string [] args)

//
StreamReader sr;
string sFileName = " ";
// ,
// (
//
// <Ctrl+C>)
while(true)

{
try

{
//
Console.Write(" : " ) ;
sFileName = Console.ReadLine();
// ,
// ,
//
if (sFileName.Length == 0)

{
throw new
IOException(" " ) ;

}
// ;
// -
FileStream fs = File.Open(sFileName,
F i1eMode.Open,
FileAccess.Read);
// StreamReader -
//
// (
// )
sr = new StreamReader(fs, t r u e ) ;
break;

}
//
catch(IOException fe)

{
Console.WriteLine("{0}\n\n", fe.Message);

}
}
//
Console.WriteLine("\ :") ;
try

19.

441

{
//
while(true)

{
//
string slnput = sr.ReadLine() ;
// ,
if (slnput == null)

{
break;

}
//
Console.WriteLine(slnput);

}
catch(IOException

fe)

//
Console.Write(fe.Message);
//
try

sr.Close();
catch {}
sr = null;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . ") ;
Console.Read();

}
, ,
FileRead, \bin\Debug FileRead (
\bin\Debug FileWrite).
FileRead, \bin\Debug
, .
TestFilel.txt, !
FileWrite.
FileRead
. .
, .
, .
, .
, Fil
eRead, ,
. , .

<Ctrl+C> .

442

VII.

while, FileWrite. .
, :
. ,
FileStream . File.Open() ,
FileWrite.
.
. FileMode. Open :
" , , , ".
OpenNew,
. (
?), , ,
?
FileStream.
Write ReadWrite. (
FileRead Write, ?)
f s FileStream sr
StreamReader .
try- while. try-
.
, ,
, .
, break
.
FileRead FileWrite
.
try-, FileWrite,
t ry-.
try- , ,
.
, FileRead
ReadLine ( ) .
Console .WriteLine ,
.
, ReadLine () null. ,
, .
, Close () try. catch (
catch (Exception)). , Close ,
. catch ,
. ,
Close ( ) ,
. Close ()

19.

443

finally catch ,
, .
catch .
try- , ,
- .

.
:
:TestFilex.txt
Could not find file "C:\C#Programs\FileRead\TestFilex.txt".
:TestFilel.txt
:
-

...
<Enter> ...
, , TestFilel. txt, FileWrite ( !
\FileRead\bin\debug?).

444

VII.

20


...

> LinkedLi st
> LinkedList
>
> #

,
. , .
, # .
15, " ",
, , 19, " ".
, ()
, . ,
( ,
15, " ", )
.

, .
FileRead FileWrite
19, " ".
-.
LoopThroughFiles
,
. (
, . -
.)
,
.
.
, , ,
<Ctrl+C>.
.

// LoopThroughFiles - ,
// .
// ,
//
using System;
using System. 10,namespace LoopThroughFiles
{
public class Program

{
public static void Main(string [] args)
{
// ...
string sDirectoryName;
if (args.Length == 0)
{
// ... ...
sDirectoryName = Directory.GetCurrentDirectory();
}
else
{
// ... ,
//
//
sDirectoryName = a r g s [ 0 ] ;
}
Console.WriteLine(sDirectoryName);
//
FileInfo[] files = GetFileList(sDirectoryName);
//
//
foreach(Filelnf file in files)
{
//
Console.WriteLine("\\
{}:",
file.FullName);
//
DumpHex(file);
//
Console.WriteLine("\ <Enter> " +
" " ) ;
Console.ReadLine() ;
}
// !
Console.WriteLine("\ " ) ;
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

}
// GetFileList -
//
public static FileInfo[]
GetFileList(string sDirectoryName)
446
VII.

{
//
Filelnfot] files = new Filelnf [Obtry

{
//
Directorylnf di =
new Directorylnf(sDirectoryName);
//
files = di.GetFiles();

}
catch(Exception e)
{
Console .WriteLine ( " \"" + sDirectoryName +
" \" ") ,Console.WriteLine(e.Message);

return files;
}
// DumpHex -
//
public static void DumpHex(Filelnf file)
{
//
FileStream fs;
try
{
string sFileName = file.FullName;
fs = new FileStream(sFileName, FileMode.Open,
FileAccess.Read);
// Filelnf
// file.OpenRead(), FileStream
// ,

}
catch(Exception )
{
Console.WriteLine("\ \"" +
file.FullName + " \ " " ) ;
Console.WriteLine(.Message);
return;

}
//
for(int nLine = 1; true; nLine++)

{
// 10 ( ,
// ) ; ,
//
byte[] buffer = new byte [10] ;
int numBytes = fs.Read(buffer, 0, buffer.Length);
if (numBytes == 0)

return;

, 447
20. //

//
Console.Write("{0:D3} - ", n L i n e ) ;
DumpBuffer(buffer, numBytes),// 2 0 ,
//
if ((nLine % 20) == 0)
{
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" 20 " ) ;
Console.ReadLine();

}
}
// DumpBuffer -
//
public static void DumpBuffer(byte[] buffer,
int numBytes)
for(int index = 0;

index < numBytes;

index++)

byte b = buffer[index] ,
Console.Write("{0:X2}, ", b) ,Console.WriteLine();
}
}
}
, apryl
. - [
( , ):
loopthroughfiles
c:\randy\temp
, .!
( -j
. " ".)


(0 1),
.
0-9 , , , D, , F = 10, = 11,
F = 15. (
): OxD = 13. 0x10 = 16: 1*16 + 0 * 1 . 02 = 42: 2*16 + *1 ( *1 =
10*1). , : F , .
, ,
.
FileRead FileWrite
,
. , ,
.

448

VII.



0),
Visual

LoopThroughFiles
. (args. Length
Directory. GetCurrentDirectory ( ) .
Studio, ,
bin\Debug LoopThroughFiles.

Directory
, Filelnf ,
.

GetFileList ( ) . Filelnf .
Filelnf , (
, FullName, Name),
. Main ()
foreach. DumpHex ()
.

DumpHex () .
GetFileList () Filelnf ,
.
Get...List ():
, .
. ,
PriorityQueue 15,
" ",
(
, ). GetFileList (}
, .
GetFileList () Directorylnf .
, Directorylnf ,
Filelnf . Directorylnf ,
Filelnf ,
Filelnf.
, GetFileList () ,
, try-. catch
(, , , ..
).
DumpHex () - .
DumpHex () . Filelnf
, . DumpHex ()
, . FileStream
. catch ,
FileStream .
DumpHex () 10
. 20
<Enter>.

20.

449

25 (,
, ).
, 20 ,

.
(%) .
(nLine%20) = = 0 nLine, 20, 40, 60, 80.... ,
. , ,
.
DumpBuf fer ()
2. 2 -
, " " (. 9, " # " ) .
byte 0 255, O x F F ..
.
20 output.txt.
...

:\C#ProgramsVi\holdtank\Test2\bin\output.txt:
001 - 53, 74, 72, 65, 61, 6D, 20, 28, 70, 72,
002 - 6F, 74, 65, 63, 74, 65, 64, 29, 0D, OA,
003 - 20, 20, 46, 69, 6C, 65, 53, 74, 72, 65,
004 - 61, 6D, 28, 73, 74, 72, 69, 6E, 67, 2C,
005 - 20, 46, 69, 6C, 65, 4D, 6F, 64, 65, 2C,
006 - 20, 46, 69, 6C, 65, 41, 63, 63, 65, 73,
007 - 73, 29, OD, OA, 20, 20, 4D, 65, 6D, 6F,
008 - 72, 79, 53, 74, 72, 65, 61, 6D, 28, 29,
009 - 3B, OD, OA, 20, 20, 4E, 65, 74, 77, 6F,
010 - 72, 6B, 53, 74, 72, 65, 61, 6D, OD, OA,
011 - 20, 20, 42, 75, 66, 66, 65, 72, 53, 74,
012 - 72, 65, 61, 6D, 20, 2D, 20, 62, 75, 66,
013 - 66, 65, 72, 73, 20, 61, 6E, 20, 65, 78,
014 - 69, 73, 74, 69, 6E, 67, 20, 73, 74, 72,
015 - 65, 61, 6D, 20, 6F, 62, 6A, 65, 63, 74,
016 - OD, OA, OD, OA, 42, 69, 6E, 61, 72, 79,
017 - 52, 65, 61, 64, 65, 72, 20, 2D, 20, 72,
018 - 65, 61, 64, 20, 69, 6E, 20, 76, 61, 72,
019 - 69, 6F, 75, 73, 20, 74, 79, 70, 65, 73,
020 - 20, 28, 43, 68, 61, 72, 2C, 20, 49, 6E,
<Enter> 2 0

. 0x61 . ,
, 0x65 . 0x20 .

" S t r e a m ( " . , ?
"ASCII, table of codes" .
Unicode,
# ( Unicode ,
"Unicode characters").

450

VII.

, :

""
Could not find a part of the path
"C:\C#Programs\LoopThroughFiles\bin\Debug\x".

<Enter> ...
?...


:
, ,
, .
,
, 15, "
". " ",
, .

,
, .. , , .
.
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
.

.
.
(
), , .
.
.
,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
.

20.

451

,
(
List<T>,
15, " ".
, # 2.0,
, .
System. Collections .Generic).
,
System. Collections System. Collections . Specialized.
,
System. Collections . Generic.



.
// LinkedListContainer - ""
// .
// IEnumerable , foreach.
// ,
// IEnumerator
using System;
using System.Collections;
namespace LinkedListContainer
{
// LLNode - LLNode .
// LLNode ,
//
public class LLNode

{
// ,
internal object linkedData = null;
//
internal LLNode forward = null; //
internal LLNode backward = null; //
internal LLNode(object linkedData)
{
this.linkedData = linkedData;
}
// ,
public object Data
{
get
{
return linkedData;
}
}

452

VII.

II LinkedList -
public class LinkedList : IEnumerable
{
// . internal
//
internal LLNode head = null;
//
internal LLNode tail = null;
//
public IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
return new LinkedListlterator(this);
// AddObject -
public LLNode AddObject(object objectToAdd)

return AddObject(tail, objectToAdd);

}
// AddObject-
public LLNode AddObject(LLNode previousNode,
object objectToAdd)
{

//
LLNode newNode = new LLNode(objectToAdd);
// .
if (head == null && tail == null)

{
// ...
head = newNode;
tail = newNode;
return newNode;

}
// ?
if (previousNode != null &&
previousNode.forward != null)

//
LLNode nextNode = previousNode.forward;
//
newNode.forward = nextNode;
previousNode.forward = newNode;
//
nextNode.backward = newNode;
newNode.backward = previousNode;
return newNode;

}
// ?
if (previousNode == null)

20.

453

{
//
LLNode nextNode = head;
newNode.forward = nextNode;
nextNode.backward = newNode;
head = newNode;
return newNode;
}
//
newNode.backward = previousNode;
previousNode.forward = newNode;
tail = newNode;
return newNode;

}
// RemoveObject -
public void RemoveObject(LLNode currentNode)
{
//
LLNode previousNode = currentNode.backward;
LLNode nextNode
= currentNode.forward;
//
currentNode.forward = currentNode.backward = null;
// ?
if (head == currentNode && tail == currentNode)
head = tail = null;
return;
// ?
if (head != currentNode && tail

!= currentNode)

previousNode.forward = nextNode;
nextNode.backward = previousNode;
return;
// ?
if (head == currentNode && tail

!= currentNode)

head = nextNode;
nextNode.backward = null;
return;
// ...
tail = previousNode;
previousNode.forward = null;

// LinkedListlterator -

454

VII.

// LinkedList
public class LinkedListlterator : IEnumerator
{

//
private LinkedList linkedList;
// "" "" .
// private
//
private LLNode currentNode = null;
private LLNode nextNode = null;
//LinkedListlterator -
public LinkedListlterator(LinkedList linkedList)

{
this.linkedList = linkedList;
Reset ( ) ;
}
// Current-
public object. Current

{
get
{
if
{

(currentNode == null)

return null;
}
return currentNode.1inkedData;
// Reset - , ,
//
public void Reset()
{
currentNode = null;
nextNode = linkedList.head;
}
// MoveNext - ,
//
public bool MoveNext()
{
currentNode = nextNode;
if (currentNode == null)
{
return false;
}
nextNode = nextNode.forward;
return true;

public class Program

20.

455

public static void Main (string [] args)


{
//
LinkedList 11 = new LinkedList();
LLNode first = 11c.AddObject(" " ) ;
LLNode second = 11c.AddObject(" " ) ;
LLNode third = 11c.AddObject(" " ) ;
//
LLNode newfirst
= 11.AddObject(null," " ) ;
LLNode newmiddle
= 11.AddObject(second, " " +
" " ) ;
// ""
Console.WriteLine(" " ) ;
LinkedListlterator H i
= (LinkedListlterator)11.GetEnumerator();
H i . Reset () ;
while ( H i .MoveNext () )
{
string s = (string) Hi . Current ;
Console.WriteLine(s);

}
// foreach
Console.WriteLine("\ foreach");
foreach(string s in 11c)

Console.WriteLine(s);

}
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" . . . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
}
LinkedList LLNode
. . 20.1 ,
( "") , LinkedList
"". , , .NET,
.
LLNode.
forward , backward
. LinkedList . head
, tail . , ,
.

456

VII.

. 20.1.

L i n k e d L i s t

LLNode


AddObject
AddOb j ect ().

RemoveObject ().

, ,
. , .
1. . ;
. 20.2. head null, tail.
,
.

. 20.2.

2. .
null. . 20.3
. ,
forward backward , , -

20.

457

, . . 20.4
( ,
"" - ,
,
).

. 20.3.

. 20.4.

458

VII.

. 20.5.

3. . .
,

, . . 20.5.
4. , . ,
3.


R e m o v e O b j e c t () ,
.
A d d O b j e c t () R e m o v e Ob j e c t ()
. 20.2-20.5 .
,
, .
, .


, L i n k e d L i s t C o n t a i n e r
: L L N o d e , L i n k e d L i s t L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r . L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r
.
, .
.
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r
. c u r r e n t N o d e n u l l , a n e x t N o d e
. M o v e N e x t () c u r r e n t N o d e
, , a n e x t N o d e
. M o v e N e x t () , c u r r e n t N o d e

20.

459

n u l l , ,
f a l s e . .
M a i n () ,
s t r i n g . ,
.
.
M o v e N e x t () ,
f a l s e , , .
, .
M a i n () , f o r e a c h .
f o r e a c h ,
M a i n () .
f o r e a c h . ,
. :
i n t i,
.
f o r e a c h . re
m o v e d l t e m s , ,
f o r e a c h
. f o r e a c h
r e m o v e d l t e m s ,
, ,
:
List<string>

removedltems

new

List<string>();

// no o r i g i n a l C o l l e c t i o n
foreach(string s
in o r i g i n a l C o l l e c t i o n )

{
// s ,
//
removedltems
removedltems.Add(s);

}
foreach(string

in

removedltems)

//

no

removedltems

{
originalCollection.Remove(s);

}
L i n k e d L i s t C o n t a i n e r :








460

foreach

VII.



< E n t e r >

...


G e n e r i c L i n k e d L i s t C o n t a i n e r
-. , G e n e r i c L i n k e d L i s t C o n t a i n e r
I E n u m e r a t o r ,
,
I E n u m e r a t o r < T > .
. ,
L i n k e d L i s t , , ,
.


.
. " ,
. s t r i n g
." ,
,
?
, .
, 1000 ,
1000 , , . ,
2000 , ,
. (, ,
,
?)
. ,
, 256
, c h a r [ 2 5 6 ] .
, ,
, ,
, (
). , C/C++:
# .


.
( , #)
, I E n u m e r a t o r .
.

20.

461

(iterator) (enumerator)
. ,
.
, .
.

:
.

, , .
:
//
void myClearFunction(Collection aColl,
i n t index)
{
aColl[index]
= 0; //
//
//
... ...

}
( ).
, G e t N e x t ()
; P u s h ( )
P o p () ..

, ,
. X I t e r a t o r X .
X, I t e r a t o r X I E n u m e r a t o r ,
. , ,
.
() .
.
I E n u m e r a t o r ,
.
.
, .
.
-
.
(, ),
.
,
.
f o r e a c h , I E n u m e r a t o r
.
, , .
,
, .

462

VII.

I E n u m e r a t o r .
R e s e t () ,
. : I E n u m e r a t o r , I E n u m e r a t o r < T > ,
R e s e t ( ) . L i n k e d L i s t
M o v e N e x t ( ) .
M o v e N e x t ()
.
C u r r e n t ( ), ,
.
.
M y C o l l e c t i o n ( )
, I t e r a t o r M y C o n t a i n e r (
I t e r a t o r X , ).
C o n t a i n e d D a t a O b j e c t s M y C o l l e c t i o n .

I E n u m e r a t o r :
// M y C o l l e c t i o n
// C o n t a i n e d D a t a O b j e c t d a t a
void M y F u n c t i o n ( M y C o l l e c t i o n

myColl)

{
// ,
MyCollection,

// I t e r a t o r M y C o l l e c t i o n ;
//
// myColl
I E n u m e r a t o r i t e r a t o r = new I t e r a t o r M y C o l l e c t i o n ( m y C o l l ) ;
// " "
//
while(iterator.MoveNext

())

{
//
//
ContainedDataObject containedData;
// data
contained =
(ContainedDataObject)iterator.Current;
//
. . . c o n t a i n e d . . .

M y F u n c t i o n ( )

Con

t a i n e d D a t a O b j e c t s . I t e r a t o r M y
C o l l e c t i o n . M o v e N e x t ( ) .
M o v e N e x t () .
M o v e N e x t () " . "
M o v e N e x t () f a l s e ,
.
C u r r e n t
. C o n t a i n e d D a t a O b j e c t
, c o n t a i n e d . C u r r e n t ,
M o v e N e x t ( ) t r u e .

20.

463

foreach
I E n u m e r a t o r , #
f o r e a c h .

f o r e a c h ,

I E n u m e r a b l e , , :
void

MyFunction(IEnumerable

containerOfStrings)

{
foreach(string

in

containerOfStrings)

{
Console.WriteLine("

{}",

s);

}
}
I E n u m e r a b l e G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ,
I E n u m e r a t o r .
f o r e a c h G e t E n u m e r a t o r () .
.
,
. , I E n u m e r a b l e I E n u m e r a t o r , . # 2.0
. S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s . G e n e r i c
.
, f o r e a c h :
foreach(int

nValue

in

myContainer)

// ...

}
f o r :
for(IEnumerator i =
myContainer.GetEnumerator();
i.MoveNext();
)

int

//

nValue

(int)i.Current

//
//
//

//
//

}
f o r .
M o v e N e x t () . M o v e N e x t ()
, .. . ( ,
, .
i . M o v e N e x t ( ) . )
i n t ( C u r r e n t
O b j e c t ) . i n t , #
.

464

VII.

: c o n t a i n e r []
- c o n t a i n e r . ,
.
#
. ,
. ,
i n t , ,
, s t r i n g .


, ,
t h i s [ ] :
class

MyArray

{
public
{
get

string this[int

index]

//
// " t h i s "

{
return

array[index];

}
set
{
array[index]

value;

}
s = m y A r r a y [ i ] ; g e t ,
i . m y A r r a y [ i ] = " " ;
s e t , i " " .


i n t . ,
. ,
.
I n d e x e r
K e y e d A r r a y ,
, , ,
s t r i n g .
// I n d e x e r -
//
//

20.

465

using

System;

namespace

Indexer

{
public

class

KeyedArray

//
""
/ / ,

private
string[]
sKeys;
//
//

object

private

object []

KeyedArray

II
//

public

oArrayElements;

KeyedArray(int

KeyedArray

nSize)

sKeys = new s t r i n g [ n S i z e ] ;
oArrayElements
= new o b j e c t [ n S i z e ] ;

// Find - ,

// sTargetKey
( ,

-1)
private
int
Find(string
sTargetKey)
for (int
if

0,-

<

sKeys.Length;

(String.Compare(sKeys[i],
return

i++)

sTargetKey)

==

0)

i,-

}
}
return

- 1 ;

}
// F i n d E m p t y -
//
private
int
FindEmpty()
for

(int

if

(sKeys[i]

0;

i
==

<

sKeys.Length;

i++)

null)

{
return i;
}
}
throw

new

Exception("

/ /
//

public object this[string sKey]


{

");

set
{

466

VII.

//

int
if

index

Find(sKey);

(index

<

0)

{
// -
index = FindEmpty();
sKeys[index]
= sKey;

}
//
oArrayElements[index]

= value;

}
get
{
int index
if
(index

=
<

Find(sKey);
0)

{
return

null;

}
return

oArrayElements[index];

}
public

class

Program

{
public

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//
K e y e d A r r a y ma = new K e y e d A r r a y ( 1 0 0 ) ;
//
ma [ " B a r t " ] = 8;
["Lisa"]
= 10;
["Maggie"]
= 2;

/ / L i s a
Console.WriteLine("

Lisa");
i n t age =
(int)ma["Lisa"];
Console.WriteLine(" Lisa {o}",

age);

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

K e y e d A r r a y . o A r r a y E l e m e n t s
K e y e d A r r a y . , s K e y s ,
, '- s K e y s
/- o A r r a y E l e m e n t s .
K e y e d A r r a y s t r i n g .

20.

467

, , (key). , K e y e d A r r a y L i s t < T > (.


15, " " )
. L i s t < T > , ,
I L i s t ( I L i s t < T > ) . K e y e d A r r a y
,
.
s e t [ s t r i n g ] ,
, F i n d ( ) . ,
s e t []

o A r r a y E l e

m e n t s . F i n d ( ) , s e t [ ] F i n d E m p t y ( )
, .
g e t [] .
F i n d . F i n d ()
, g e t [] o A r r a y E l e m e n t s ,
. F i n d - 1 , g e t []
n u l l , , .
F i n d () s K e y s
, s t r i n g . F i n d ( )
( - 1 , ).
F i n d E m p t y () ,
.
F i n d ( ) F i n d E m p t y ()
, ,
.
,
L i n k e d L i s t ? , . , K e y e d A r
r a y s K e y s , ,
F i n d () F i n d E m p t y ( ) , .
L i n k e d L i s t
,
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r , f o r w a r d
. , .
, n u l l .
? "
".
M a i n () .
K e y e d A r r a y 100 (.. 100 ).

. ,
ma [" L i s a " ] .
,
, [ ] , K e y e d A r r a y ,
. ,
, i n t ,
K e y e d A r r a y (. 15, " ").

468

VII.

Lisa

Lisa

<Enter>

10

...

IList
object

,
t h i s [int].

I L i s t < T > , o b j e c t
.
.

M a i n ( ) ,
L i n k e d L i s t ? (
L i n k e d L i s t C o n t a i n e r -.) :
public

s t a t i c

void

Main ( s t r i n g []

args)

{
//
L i n k e d L i s t 11 = new L i n k e d L i s t ( ) ;
// . . .
Console.WriteLine("
LinkedListlterator
H i
=

");

(LinkedListlterator)11.GetEnumerator();

Hi . R e s e t ()

while ( H i .MoveNext () )
{
string s
=
( s t r i n g ) Hi . C u r r e n t ;
Console.WriteLine(s);

}
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r M o v e N e x t ( )
C u r r e n t . # 2.0
, .
G e t E n u m e r a t o r () (
).
M o v e N e x t ( ) .
C u r r e n t ,
.
f o r e a c h (#
).
, f o r e a c h L i n k e d L i s t
. G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) .
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r . ,
.

20.

469

(iterate
block) .
.
. ,
K e y e d L i s t P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
I E n u m e r a t o r .
f o r e a c h .
,
.

I t e r a t o r B l o c k s -.

// I t e r a t o r B l o c k s -
//
using
System;
namespace
IteratorBlocks

{
class

IteratorBlocks

{
//Main -
//

s t a t i c

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
// ,

//
M o n t h D a y s md = new M o n t h D a y s ( ) ;
//

Console.WriteLine(":\n");
foreach

(string

sMonth

in

md)

{
Console.WriteLine(sMonth);

}
//
S t r i n g C h u n k s sc = new S t r i n g C h u n k s ( ) ;
// - ,

//
Console.WriteLine("\:\");
foreach
( s t r i n g sChunk in sc)

{
Console.WriteLine(sChunk);

}
/ /
Console.WriteLine("\
: \ " ) ;
foreach
( s t r i n g sChunk in sc)

{
Console.Write(sChunk);

}
Console.WriteLine();
//

470

13

VII.

Y i e l d B r e a k E x yb = new Y i e l d B r e a k E x ( ) ;
// ,
13
Console.WriteLine("\
:\n");
foreach
(int nPrime
i n yb)
Console.WriteLine(nPrime);

}
//
EvenNumbers en = new E v e n N u m b e r s ( ) ;
// 10 4
Console.WriteLine("\
:\");
foreach
(int nEven in en.DescendingEvens(11,
3))
Console.WriteLine(nEven);

}
// double
P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r p r o p = new P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r ( ) ;
Console.WriteLine("\
double:\n");
foreach
(double db in prop.DoubleProp)
Console.WriteLine(db);

//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");
Console.Read();

//
I t e r a t o r B l o c k s
// MonthDays - ,

//
class
MonthDays
{
string[]
months =
{
"January 31",
"February 28",
"March 3 1 " ,
"April 30",
"May 3 1 " ,
"June 30",
"July 31",
"August 3 1 " ,
"September 30",
"October 31",
"November 30",
"December 31"
};
//GetEnumerator -
public
System.Collections.IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
{
foreach

(string

sMonth

in

months)

//
y i e l d r e t u r n sMonth;
//

//StringChunks
//

class

StringChunks

{
//GetEnumerator - .
//
()
Main

20.

471

public

System.Collections.IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

{
//
yie
yie
yie
yie
yie


ld return
"Using i t e r a t o r
ld return
"blocks
";
ld return
" i s n ' t
all
";
ld return
"that
hard";
ld
return
".";

";

}
}
//YieldBreakEx
//

yield

class

break

YieldBreakEx

{
i n t [ ] p r i m e s = { 2, 3, 5, 7,
11, 13,
17, 19, 23 };
/ / G e t E n u m e r a t o r -
// y i e l d
//
break
public
System.Collections.IEnumerator GetEnumerator()
{
foreach

(int

nPrime

in

primes)

if
(nPrime >
yield
return

//EvenNumbers
//

class

13)
yield
nPrime;

break;

//

EvenNumbers

{
//DescendingEvens - "" ,

// y i e l d
//
break
public
System.Collections.IEnumerable
{
DescendingEvens(int nTop,
i n t nStop)
// nTop
if
(nTop % 2
!= 0)
nTop -= 1;
// n S t o p
//
f o r ( i n t i = n T o p ; i >= n S t o p ; i -= 2)

{
if

(i < n S t o p )
yield
break;
//
//

yield
return
i;

//Propertylterator //

472

VII.

class

Propertylterator

{
doublet]
doubles =
{
1.0,
2.0,
3.5,
4.67
};
// D o u b l e P r o p -
"get"
public
System.Collections.IEnumerable
DoubleProp
get
{
foreach

(double

db

in

doubles)

{
yield

return

db;

I t e r a t o r B l o c k s

, :
//

MonthDays

//

class

MonthDays

{
string[]
{

months

"January

"April
"August

30",

31",

30",

"December
-

28",

"June

"September

//GetEnumerator
public

"February

"May

31",

"November

31",

"March

30",

30",

"July

"October

31"

31",
31",
31",

};

System.Collections.IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

{
foreach(string

sMonth

in

months)

{
//
y i e l d r e t u r n sMonth;
//

}
M a i n ( ) ,

f o r e a c h :
//
//

M o n t h D a y s md
//

new M o n t h D a y s ( ) ;

Console.WriteLine(":\n");
foreach

(string

sMonth

in

md)

{
Console.WriteLine(sMonth);

20.

473

" ", ,
K e y e d A r r a y . , s t r i n g .
,
. ,
, GetEnumera
t o r ( ) . G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s ,
I E n u m e r a t o r . , ,
, -
-. ,

y i e l d r e t u r n . C#
: - M o v e N e x t ()
. .
, G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ,
I E n u m e r a t o r .
:
;
;
, .

L i n k e d L i s t , . L i n k e d L i s t
, ,
.
.
(
,
, A d d () - . K e y e d A r r a y ,
, .
A d d ( ) , ,
f o r e a c h . )
, ,
, ,
I n d e x e r . (, ,
"" M o n t h D a y s ,
M o n t h D a y s . )
, , ,
"" ,
foreach.

I t e r a t o r B l o c k s ,
:
//StringChunks -
//

474

VII.

class

StringChunks

/ / G e t E n u m e r a t o r - . ,
//
()
Main
public
System.Collections.IEnumerator GetEnumerator()

//
yie
yie
yie
yie
yie

l
l
l
l
l


d return
" U s i n g i t e r a t o r /.
d return
"blocks
";
d return
"isn't all
";
d return
"that hard";
d
return
".";

}
S t r i n g C h u n k s , ,
. . ?
y i e l d r e t u r n ,
,
. "" ,
, M o n t h D a y s . ,
M a i n ( ) ,
f o r e a c h , y i e l d r e t u r n .
M a i n ( ) , ""
StringChunks:
//
StringChunks sc = new S t r i n g C h u n k s ( ) ;
// - ,
//
Console.WriteLine("\:\");
foreach
( s t r i n g sChunk in sc)
{

Console.WriteLine(sChunk);


C# 2.0 .
y i e l d r e t u r n M o v e N e x t ( ) C u r
r e n t . y i e l d b r e a k
b r e a k ,
switch.

yield return
y i e l d r e t u r n .
1. .
2. .

3. ...

20.

475

M o v e N e x t ( ) , |
L i n k e d L i s t . M o v e N e x t ()
M o v e N e x t () .
?
f o r e a c h , S t r i n g C h u n k s :
foreach

(string

sChunk

in

sc)

{
Console.WriteLine(sChunk);

}
, ,
.
f o r e a c h .

yield break
.
, y i e l d b r e a k .

, .
, y i e l d b r e a k :
//YieldBreakEx -
// yield break
class
YieldBreakEx

{
i n t [ ] p r i m e s = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 1 1 , 1 3 , 1 7 , 1 9 , 23 } ,/ / G e t E n u m e r a t o r -
// y i e l d
//
break
public

System.Collections.IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

{
foreach

(int

nPrime

in

primes)

{
if (nPrime >
yield return

13) y i e l d
nPrime;

break;

//

i f ,
, (,
f o r e a c h ). 13, y i e l d b r e a k , .
, y i e l d r e t u r n
, .


:
public

System.Collections.IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

476

VII.

yield

return

something;


G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ,
, S y s t e m .
Collections. IEnumerable

IEnumerator,

G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) M y F u n c t i o n ( ) .
, , ,

, , : !
//EvenNumbers

//

//

class

EvenNumbers

{
//DescendingEvens - " ",

//
y i e l d break.

// f o r e a c h
// Main()
public
System.Collections.IEnumerable
DescendingEvens(int
nTop,
int
nStop)

//
//
if

nTop ,

(nTop % 2 != 0)
// n T o p
n T o p -= 1;
// nTop
// nStop ,

f o r ( i n t i = n T o p ; i >= n S t o p ; i -= 2)
if
//
//
yie

(i < nStop)
yield break;

ld
return
i;

D e s c e n d i n g E v e n s () ( ),
.
, , 1 .
n S t o p (, n S t o p ,
1 ). i n t , I E n u
m e r a b l e . y i e l d r e t u r n ,
f o r e a c h .
:

"",

"" , s t r i n g -

20.

477

C h u n k s . ,
, .
. (
, Web-). ,
, ,
-2, .
D e s c e n d i n g E v e n s () f o r e a c h
M a i n () ( , ,
%):
// "" EvenNumbers
EvenNumbers en = new E v e n N u m b e r s ( ) ;
// : 10 4
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " \ : " ) ;
f o r e a c h ( i n t even in en.DescendingEvens(11,
3))

{
Console.WriteLine(even);

}
10 4. ,
f o r e a c h . E v e n N u m b e r s (
). f o r e a c h :
EvenNumbers
foreach(int

en = new E v e n N u m b e r s ( ) ;
even in en.DescendingEvens(nTop,

nStop))

...

D e s c e n d i n g E v e n s () ,
.
, :
foreach(int even
(nTop,nStop))...

in

EvenNumbers.DescendingEvens


, "" ,
,
"" : ,
,
. (, ,
R a n d o m ) ?
P r i o r i t y Q u e u e
15, " ",
P a c k a g e F a c t o r y W i t h l t e r a t o r
-.

, . ,
P a c k a g e F a c t o r y P r i o r i
t y Q u e u e , .

478

VII. I


. ,
g e t ( )

. D o u b l e P r o p .

g e t () ,
d o u b l e :
// P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r -
// get
class
Propertylterator
{
doublet]
doubles = {
1.0,
2.0,
3.5,
4.67
};
// D o u b l e P r o p - " g e t "
public
System.Collections.IEnumerable
DoubleProp
get
{
foreach(double

db

in

doubles)

{
}

yield

return

db;

}
}
D o u b l e P r o p , D e s c e n d
i n g E v e n s ( ) . I E n u
m e r a b l e , ,
g e t ( ) , s e t ( ) . g e t ( )
f o r e a c h ,
y i e l d

r e t u r n

d o u b l e .
M a i n ( ) :
// "" P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r
P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r p r o p = new P r o p e r t y l t e r a t o r ( ) ;
// :
double
foreach
(double db in prop.DoubleProp)

Console.WriteLine(db);

, ,
.



I t e r a t o r B l o c k s , ,
, M o n t h D a y s . , ,
S e n t e n c e C h u n k s , , D e
s c e n d i n g E v e n s , . ,

20.

479

, ,
, L i n k e d L i s t ?
L i n k e d L i s t W i t h l t e r a t o r B l o c k - . L i n k e d L i s t
G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ,
.

LinkedListlterator.

GetEnu
m e r a t o r ( ) .
-.
// L i n k e d L i s t W i t h l t e r a t o r B l o c k
-
//
class LinkedList
//
":
I E n u m e r a t o r "

{
...

//

GetEnumerator

public

IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

{
//

//

null,

//

//

if(currentNode

==

null)

{
currentNode

head;

}
//

//

while(currentNode

!=

GetEnumerator()

null)

{
yield return currentNode.Data;
currentNode = currentNode.forward;

} }

:
public

System.Collections.IEnumerator

GetEnumerator()

{}

, I E n u m e r a t o r , G e t E n u
m e r a t o r L i n k e d L i s t .
G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) .
, #
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r . .
L i n k e d L i s t WithlteratorBlock.
G e t E n u m e r a t o r ()

y i e l d r e t u r n
, .
.

480

VII.

, I E n u
m e r a t o r , .


.
, .
L i n k e d L i s t - c u r r e n t N o d e ,
.
c u r r e n t N o d e n u l l , .
, c u r r e n t N o d e ,
.
h e a d n u l l ( ), c u r r e n t N o d e
. ,
n u l l ,
f o r e a c h .
,
M o v e N e x t () :
// ,
while(currentNode
!= null)

MoveNext

// , C u r r e n t
y i e l d r e t u r n c u r r e n t N o d e . . . ; //
currentNode = currentNode.forward;

}

f o r e a c h ( S t r i n g C h u n k s , ).

y i e l d r e t u r n , ""
L L N o d e .
s t r i n g , i n t , S t u d e n t .. . c u r
r e n t N o d e , :
y i e l d r e t u r n c u r r e n t N o d e . D a t a ; / /
currentNode = currentNode.forward;

To , , . D a t a
L L N o d e O b j e c t .
,
, O b j e c t .
w h i l e y i e l d b r e a k ,
. G e t E n u m e r a t o r ()
f o r e a c h M a i n ( ) , .
, ,
L i n k e d L i s t l t e r a t o r
LinkedList.

20.

481

f o r e a c h .
s t r i n g , f o r e a c h :
f o r e a c h ( s t r i n g s in 11c)
{
Console.WriteLine(s);

//
//

foreach

}

G e n e r i c L i n k e d L i s t C o n
t a i n e r -.
L i n k e d L i s t
s t r i n g , i n t . , ,
f o r e a c h .
L i n k e d L i s t < T >
S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s . G e n e r i c .

,
.
. , ^
...

...
L i n k e d L i s t
, L i n k e d L i s t .
,
.
. i t e r a t o r l ,
i t e r a t o r 2 .
(
, L i n k e d L i s t ) . I t e r a t o r B l o c k l t e r a t o r
,
.
// I t e r a t o r B l o c k l t e r a t o r -
// ,
// L i n k e d L i s t ,
//
using System;
using
System.Collections;
namespace
IteratorBlocklterator

{
class

Program

{
//
//
//
sta
{
s

482



)
t i c void Main(string[]
args)
t r i n g []

strs

new

s t r i n g []

VII.

{
"Joe",
"Bob",
"Tony",
"Fred"
};
M y C o l l e c t i o n mc = new M y C o l l e c t i o n ( s t r s ) ;
//
MyCollectionlterator mcil = mc.GetEnumerator();
foreach
(string si in mcil)
/ /
// -
Console.WriteLine(si);
/ /
i f ( s i == "Tony")

{
/ /
//
M y C o l l e c t i o n l t e r a t o r mci2 = m c . G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ;
foreach
(string s2
in mci2)
//
//

if(s2

==

"Bob")

{
Console.WriteLine("\t{0}

{l}",

s2,

s i ) ;

/ /
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" .. . " ) ;
Console.Read();

}
//

public

class

MyCollection

{
// A r r a y L i s t
// i n t e r n a l
-
//
i n t e r n a l A r r a y L i s t l i s t = new A r r a y L i s t ( ) ;
public
MyCollection(string[]
strs)
foreach(string

in

strs)

{
list.Add(s);

}
}
//
//

GetEnumerator -

public

MyCollectionlterator

LinkedList,

GetEnumerator()

{
return

new

MyCollectionlterator(this);

}
}
// M y C o l l e c t i o n l t e r a t o r -
public
class
MyCollectionlterator

20.

MyCollection

483

//
p r i v a t e M y C o l l e c t i o n mc;
public

MyCollectionlterator(MyCollection

mc)

{
this.mc

mc,-

}
// G e t E n u m e r a t o r - ,

//
public
System.Collections.IEnumerator GetEnumerator()

{
//

//

foreach

(string

in

internal

mc.list)

{
yield

return

s;

//

} }

I t e r a t o r B l o c k l t e r a t o r -

A r r a y L i s t . G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( )
, , L i n k e d L i s t .
//
//

GetEnumerator -

public

LinkedList,

MyCollectionlterator

GetEnumerator()

{
return

new

MyCollectionlterator(this);

}
.
G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) . ,
. :
// G e t E n u m e r a t o r - ,

//
public
System.Collections.IEnumerator GetEnumerator()

{
//

//

foreach

(string

in

internal

mc.list)

{
yield

return

s;

//

}
}
A r r a y L i s t ',
y i e l d r e t u r n
M a i n ( ) ,
. f o r e a c h f o r e a c h
, :
Joe
Bob
Tony

484

VII.

Bob

Tony-

Fred
// -
.
M a i n ( ) :
MyCollectionlterator
foreach

(string

si

in

mcil

mcil)

// -
Console.WriteLine(si);
/ /
i f ( s i == "Tony")

mc.GetEnumerator();
//

{
/ /
//
M y C o l l e c t i o n l t e r a t o r mci2 = m c . G e t E n u m e r a t o r ( ) ;
foreach
( s t r i n g s2 in mci2)
//
//
i f ( s 2 == "Bob")

{
Console.WriteLine("\t{o}

{l}",

s2,

s i ) ;

}
, , M o v e N e x t () C u r r e n t ,
...

20.

485

21

Visual Studio
>

Visual Studio

>

>

, . #,
# .
, Visual Studio, , ,
. , Visual Studio.
Visual Studio 2005,
Visual # Express.
Visual Studio:

Solution Explorer Class V i e w ;


Editor;
Help;
Debugger.
"" , .
, Solution Explorer,
# , ,
Solution E x p l o r e r C l a s s V i e w . ,
. ,
, Visual Studio.
, ,
.
Windows

: F o r m Designer, T o o l b o x Properties.
1, " Windows- # " .

Visual Studio
.


.
(Closed)
(Floating)
(Docked)
(Tabbed)
.


, .
V i e w , . 21.1.
V i e w ; V i e w ^ O t h e r W i n d o w s .
D e b u g .


Visual Studio,
. 21.2. . ,
, "
" Visual Studio, .
Visual Studio .
,
, ,
.


,
W i n d o w ^ D o c k a b l e . ""
Visual Studio.
Visual Studio
.
. 21.3, , Output , Error
List . ,
.


, , , ,
, Visual Studio. . 21,3
Solution E x p l o r e r C l a s s V i e w ,
Visual Studio.
, .
,

, , , , .

488

VII.

. 21.1. View

Puc. 21.2. Visual Studio

21. Visual Studio

489

. 27.5. Visual Studio



, ,
.


,
( "" ,
)
. Output . 21.3,
Visual Studio.
, , .
(auto-hide).

. ,
, .
( ).
, , ,
.


, .
.
, , ,
. . 21.4 Visual Studio, . 21.3,
O u t p u t
Visual Studio.

490

VII.

" "
, .

. 21.4.
, ,
, ,
.
, (
. 21.4
).
, - (
).
, . ,
, . 21.3,
O u t p u t , E r r o r List ,
. 21.5. E r r o r List
Visual Studio, (
. 21.6 ). ,
.



"" (
). ,
. . 21.7 ,
U n i v e r s i t y . c s , S t u d e n t , c s P r o g r a m , c s .
Solution E x p l o r e r ( )
, .

21. Visual Studio

491

. 21.5.
. 21.3, . ,
. 21.6

. 21.6.

492

VII.

. 21.7.
Visual Studio


Solution E x p l o r e r
V i e w C l a s s D i a g r a m . Visual Studio C l a s s D i a g r a m l . c d . C l a s s D e s i g n e r

UML ( "class dia
gram, presentation and documentation" ).
UML-,
.
Visual Studio 2005,

Refactor C o d e Snippets Manager


T o o l s , , "What's New"
. : <Ctrl+K>, <Ctrl+X>.

# , ,
.
, , , Visual Studio
Microsoft.
" ?" .
, 19, "
". ,

21. Visual Studio

493

: , ,
.
.
,
. 19, " ",
P r o g r a m , s ,
, ,
,
.
, .
.
, , . , Solution Ex
plorer
. . 21.8 Solution Explorer
#.


. C S P R O J ,
.
Solution Explorer.
,
, , ,
.
19, " ":
, ,
, .
.
, .
, , .
Visual Studio (
. S L N ) .
,
. , , ,
, Visual Studio.
, , Visual
Studio, .
,
C l a s s L i b r a r y -.
, , "",
.
19, " ".
.
V S I n t e r f a c e , U n i v e r
s i t y S t u d e n t . .
S t u d e n t U n i v e r s i t y , .

494

. 21.8. no Pro
gram, cs, Solution Explorer



VSInterface.
1. File 1 ^New^Project.
2. Console Application.
3. VSInterface .
View"=>Solution E x p l o r e r ,
V S I n t e r f a c e , . 21.8. , V S I n
t e r f a c e , V S I n t e r f a c e .

Solution Explorer
Solution Explorer , P r o p e r t i e s R e f
e r e n c e s . P r o p e r t i e s A s s e m b l y I n f o . c s ,
"" "". , ,
, , ,
, , (
) . ..
R e f e r e n c e s ,
P r o j e c t s A d d Reference. , ,
u s i n g ( "" ,
; ,
). : P r o g r a m , cs
, . (
Windows,
, 1, " Windows- #".)

21. Visual Studio

495

Solution E x p l o r e r
( ). P r o g r a m , cs
# M a i n ( ) . ,
.
Visual Studio P r o g r a m , cs C l a s s l . c s ,
. P r o g r a m , s ,
.

. Solution Explorer
A d d ^ N e w Folder.
. Visual Studio , , .
A s s e m b l y l n f . c s ,
, ,
. , ,
. V e r s i o n in
f o r m a t i o n ( ) . -,
Windows

P r o p e r t i e s .
.
.
Solution E x p l o r e r Add^Existing
Item. .


Solution Explorer
Properties,
. .
Properties , ,
: "project
properties" .
Properties

Settings.

Application U s e r
:
// u s i n g
u s i n g MyAppName. P r o p e r t i e s ,//
. . .
//
:
//
string

:
myString
=
Settings.Default.MyAppSetting;

// :
Settings.Default.MyUserSetting = myUserString;
//
,
S y s t e m . 10,
19, " ". , -

496

VII.

,
Application Data . (
: \ D o c u m e n t s a n d S e t t i n g s \ < u s e r n a m e > . ) ,
S e t t i n g s . D e f a u l t . S a v e ( ) (, M a i n ( )
W i n d o w s F o r m ) .
.



D.

C l a s s V i e w ,
.
Solution E x p l o r e r ,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,

C l a s s View.
C l a s s V i e w ,
,
. ,
( ) .

. . 21.7,
U n i v e r s i t y C l a s s V i e w ;
E n r o l l ()
. ( C l a s s V i e w
.)

Solution Explorer C l a s s V i e w
,
.


, ,
.
, , ,
.
S c h o o l S t u d e n t .
H i g h S c h o o l , U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l ,
.
L e s s e r C a n a d i a n G o o s e G r e a t e r C a n a d i a n G o o s e .

21. Visual Studio

497

. 21.9.
Add New Item
U n i v e r s i t y V S I n t e r f ,
.
1. V S I n t e r f
Solution Explorer, Add

Add New Item.

.
, !
2. Class, University. cs Name
O p e n .
. 21.9 Add N e w Item C l a s s .
U n i v e r s i t y . cs
P r o g r a m , c s ,
.
3. Student.
Student.cs University.cs Program.cs.
. 21.8,
. .


S t u d e n t , ,
.
// V S I n t e r f - S t u d e n t . c s
// S t u d e n t - ,
//
using
System;
namespace
VSInterface

498

///
<summary>
/// S t u d e n t -
///
</summary>
public
class
Student
{
private
string
sStudentName;
private int nID;
public

Student(string

sStudentName,

int

nID)

{
this.sStudentName
this.nID = nID;

sStudentName;

}
///
<summary>
/// Name -
///
</summary>
p u b l i c s t r i n g Name { g e t {
///
<summary>
/// T o S t r i n g -
///
</summary>
public

override

string

return

sStudentName;}

ToString()

{
return

String.Format("{0}

({l})",

sStudentName,

nID);

}
S t u d e n t .
T o S t r i n g ( ) O b j e c t .

. 18, " ",
T o S t r i n g ( ) .
S t u d e n t , / / / .
,
, (
).

8, " ".
,
S t u d e n t . cs ,
U n i v e r s i t y . c s P r o g r a m , c s . .
,
.
, .
U n i v e r s i t y . cs ,
:
//
//

V S I n t e r f - U n i v e r s i t y . c s
U n i v e r s i t y -

21. Visual Studio

499

using

System;

using

System.Collections;

namespace

VSInterface

{
///

<summary>

///

University

///

</summary>

public

class

University

{
private

string

private

SortedList

public

sName;
students;

University(string

//

sNarae)

{
t h i s . s N a m e = sName;
s t u d e n t s = new S o r t e d L i s t ( ) ;

}
///
///
///

<summary>
Enroll
-
</summary>

public

void

Enroll(Student

student)

{
students.Add(student.Name,

student);

}
public

override

string

ToStringO

{
s t r i n g s = sNarae + " \ n " ;
s += " : " + " \ n " ;
//
//
IEnumerator i t e r = students.GetEnumerator;
while(iter.MoveNext())

{
object = iter.Current;
/ / ,

// S o r t e d L i s t ,

// ,
:
//
// Student s t u d e n t =
(Student);
// // :
//
( )
D i c t i o n a r y E n t r y de =
( D i c t i o n a r y E n t r y ) ,Student student =
(Student)de.Value;
s += s t u d e n t . T o S t r i n g ( ) + " \ n " ;

return

S ;

,
V S I n t e r f a c e . U n i v e r s i t y
. E n r o l l ( )

S t u d e n t S o r t e d

L i s t
, .

500

VII.

U n i v e r s i t y . T o S t r i n g ( ) ,
. , M o v e N e x t ()
,
C u r r e n t . S o r t e d L i s t ,
, ,
, ( D i c t i o n a r y E n t r y ) ,
, .
.
15, "
", 20, " ". M o v e N e x t ()
, ,
f o r e a c h :
foreach(DictionaryEntry

de

in

students)

{
Student student =
(Student)de.Value;
s += s t u d e n t . T o S t r i n g ( ) + " \ n " ;

}
, f o r e a c h .


S t u d e n t U n i v e r s i t y .
M a i n ( ) . ,
P r o g r a m .
P r o g r a m , c s :

// V S I n t e r f - ,
// . S t u d e n t U n i v e r s i t y
// .
// P r o g r a m . c s
using
System;
namespace
VSInterface

{
class

Program

{
static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
University university =
new U n i v e r s i t y ( " " ) ;
university.Enroll(new Student("Dwayne",
1234));
university.Enroll(new Student("Mikey",
1235));
university.Enroll(new Student("Mark",
1236));
Console.WriteLine(university.ToString() ) ;
Console.WriteLine();
//
Console.WriteLine(" <Enter> " +
" ...");

21. Visual Studio

501

Console.Read();

}
}
}
Visual Studio ,
U n i v e r s i t y . c s , S t u d e n t . c s
Program. cs.
( !)
:

:
Dwayne
(1234)
Mark
(1236)
Mikey
(1235)
Press

Enter

to

terminate...

, .
, ,
, ,
. ?
,
(), , ,
.
.
, . S t u d e n t ,
:
//
//
//

V S I n t e r f - S t u d e n t . c s
Student - ,

#region
using

Using

Directives

System;

#endregion
namespace

Using

Directives

VSInterface

{
III
<summary>
/// S t u d e n t -
///
</summary>
public
class
Student

#region
//

502

Private

Data

Fields

VII.

//
//

private
string
sStudentName;
private int nID;
#endregion
#region

Private

Fields

Constructors

//

Student

//

public

Data

Student(string

sStudentName,

int

nID)

{
this.sStudentName
this.nID = nID;

sStudentName;

}
#endregion
#region

Constructors

Public

///

<summary>

///
///

Name -
</summary>

public
///
///
///

string

Methods

and

Properties

Name

get{

return

sStudentName;}

<summary>
ToString -
</summary>

public

override

string

ToString()

{
return

String.Format("{o}

({l})",

sStudentName,

nID);

}
#endregion

Public

Methods

and

Properties

Visual Studio # r e g i o n

ttendregion

.
. <Ctrl+M>, < C t r l + 0 > ,
.
, .
X M L - , / / / .
Visual Studio ,

.
8, " ",

, XML-.

21. Visual Studio

503

N D o c
( h t t p : / / n d o c . s o u r c e f o r g e . n e t )
V i s u a l S t u d i o
XML-.
, .
,
. , :
/ / D i s p l a y
// S t u d e n t .
:
//

,
, , ,
. D i s p l a y A l l S t u d e n t s ()
.
, ,
.
( D i s p l a y A l l S t u d e n t s ( ) ) ,
is has ( i s V a l i d , h a s l t e m s , c a n P a s t e ) ,
. .
, .
(. 3,
" -"),
.
,
( s s t r i n g , d d o u b l e ).
,
.
, ,
. , ,
.
. ,
. ,
. , ,
,
i f ( ( y p o s == -1) & (vowelPos == - 1 ) )
...
.
,
:
public

bool

HasNoVowels(int
int

indexOfLetterY,
indexOfFirstVowel)

{
return

( i n d e x O f L e t t e r Y == -1) &
( i n d e x O f F i r s t V o w e l == -1);

504

VII.

10

( Pig Latin , - )
, ,
. , i n d e x O f F i r s t V o w e l - 1 .
,
.
, s N o V o w e l s ( ) ,
, :
if ( H a s N o V o w e l s ( y p o s ,

vowelPos) )

return

'USE_WHOLE_WORD;

( ).
, . ,
, "
" (" ,
''"), :
public

string

ConvertToPigLatin(string

return GetBackPart(word)

word)

GetFrontPart(word)

"ay";

, ,
, ,
, .. , ,
.
i f , , .
" " ,
, , .
( ),
. , G e t B a c k P a r t () G e t
F r o n t P a r t () ,
.
, ,
.
,
, , ,
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. , , ,
, .
Head First Design Patterns (Freeman) (O'Reilly, 2004).

: . , ,
.

10

" " ;
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. .

21. Visual Studio

505

,
, , S y s t e m . ,
# , ,
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.

F1
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. 21.10. ( new, . ,
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new
, ,
.
, .

506

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Visual Studio ,
, Web.
, ,
Web.
, . Visual
Studio T o o l s ^ O p t i o n s . E n v i r o n m e n t

Help, G e n e r a l . External Help V i e w e r Inte


grated Help V i e w e r S h o w Help Using .
External Help V i e w e r ,
Visual Studio. Integrated Help
V i e w e r
. , .


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, .
, ,
,
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.)
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. 21.11. ,

S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s ,
C o l l e c t i o n s .
S o r t e d L i s t . ,
. , , . 21.12.

. 21.12.
. S o r t e d L i s t , ,
.
Filtered By Index H e l p
, . . 21.11 21.12
"Visual # " .
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veloper Network (MSDN) , #.
, .
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of C o n t e n t s ( ,
).
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S o r t e d L i s t , Class Library Reference .NET
Framework Software Development Kit (SDK). C o n t e n t s
.
H e l p F a v o r i t e s Help.
"". . . 21.10
H e l p F a v o r i t e s .
,
A d d to H e l p Favorites.

508

VII.


S e a r c h Help , ,
. .
, , .
H e l p O S e a r c h , S e a r c h .
sorted S e a r c h F o r
, collection classes.
. 21.13 "collection classes".
Help, : Local Help, M S D N

Online, C o d e z o n e C o m m u n i t y Questions.
.

Puc. 21.13. ,
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( ,
). . Local Help
, . M S D N Online
Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). C o d e z o n e C o m
munity ,
# .
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, .NET.
( , , ,

H e l p ^ H e l p on Help, T e c h n i q u e s for Locating Help,


Full-Text Searches.)
21. Visual Studio

509

,
, ,
.
, "collection class",
( 500), ,
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dows Forms Office Applications) . . 21.13
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), How-Tos ( ), Knowledge Base ( ), Other
Documentation ( ) Syntax/API Reference ( - ]
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. ,
, Web. (
, "Help, online content".)


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"how-to".
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munity,
# . ,
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<F1>. .
.
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Web, . , :
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510

VII.


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Help. Visual Studio
.
. T o o l s ^ O p t i o n s .
Options T e x t Editor
All L a n g u a g e s ^ G e n e r a l . , Auto List

Members.
, ,
: ,
. , - S y s
t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s ,
n e w S y s t e m . C o l l e c t i o n s .
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C o l l e c t i o n s . .
Visual Studio ,

n e w .
13, "".
S o r t e d L i s t .
Visual Studio , . 21.14.
, , .

. 21.14.

21. Visual Studio

511

, ,
new
System.Collections.SortedList.


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: ?
( , ).

// VSDebug -
// ;
// ( VSDebugFixed)
using
System;
using
System.Collections;
u s i n g System.10;
n a m e s p a c e VSDebug

{
class

Program

{
static

void

Main(string[]

args)

{
//

512

VII.

//
//

Console.WriteLine("

!");
S t u d e n t si = new S t u d e n t ( " S t u d e n t 1 " ,
1);
S t u d e n t s2 = new S t u d e n t ( " S t u d e n t 2",
2);
//
display the
two
students
Console.WriteLine("Student 1
Console .WriteLine ( "Student 2
//

//

=
",
si.ToString()) ;
=
",
s2.. T o S t r i n g ( ) ) ;
Student

Student.OutputAllStudents();
//

Console.WriteLine(" <Enter>
"

"

., . " ) ;

Console.Read();

}
public
{

s
p
p
p

class

t a t i
riva
riva
ubli

Student

c ArrayList
allStudents
te
string
sStudentName;
te
int nID;
c S t u d e n t ( s t r i n g sName,

sStudentName
nID = nID;

new

int

ArrayList();

nID

sName;

allStudents.Add(this);
// T o S t r i n g -
public
override
string
ToString()
s t r i n g s = String.Format("{0}

({l})",

sStudentName,
return
public

nID);

s;

s t a t i c

void

OutputAllStudents()

IEnumerator i t e r = allStudents.GetEnumerator();
// for while
f o r ( i t e r . R e s e t ( ) ;
iter.Current
! = null;
iter.MoveNext())

{
Student

(Student) i t e r . Current-

Console .WriteLine ("Student

{0}",

s.ToString());

.
, (
E r r o r List ). -

21. Visual Studio

513

, ,
. , .
, . , ,
, .
-
V S D e b u g G e n e r i . e s ,
a l l S t u d e n t s A r r a y L i s t L i s t < T > , O u t p u t A H S t u d e n t s () !



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(single stepping).

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( , ).
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(executable statement)

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.

Puc. 21.15.

514

VII.

Visual Studio ,
.

, .
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, , Locals (
; . 21.15 ).
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n I D i
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nt sStudent
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" S t u d e n t 1 " , , a n I D ,
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# ,
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, , W r i t e L i n e ()

21. Visual Studio

515

, , . <F10>
, , <F11> .

, 21.16. Locals

<F10> <F11> , ,
.
<F11> (step into)
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.NET. .
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t h i s Locals.
<F10>, n I D .
Locals .

, <F10> . t h i s . n I D
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V S D e b u g
D e b u g ^ B u i l d V S D e b u g <F10>
, E r r o r List
. S t u d e n t ,
n I D = n I D ,
. ,
, , ,
. , . 21.16,
.

516

VII.

.
n I D :
nID = nID;

, , .
:
this.nID

nID;

//

, ,
,
. "Assignment made to same variable; did
you mean to assign something else?" ("
. ?").
?
t h i s . n I D = n I D
. (
Visual Studio Edit
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si s2 Locals
, , , .
W r i t e L i n e () :

Student 1 =

? , T o S t r i n g () .
, .

-
, .
.
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W r i t e L i n e ( ) , .
,
, . ,
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<F5>. , ,
, .
, ,
. 21.17. ,
, W r i t e L i n e () .
<F10>, W r i t e
L i n e ( ) , 1, <F11>,
T o S t r i n g ( ) .

21. Visual Studio

517

. 21.17. , -

S t r i n g . F o r m a t r e
t u r n , :
return

String.Format("{0}

({l})",

sStudentName,

nID);

T o S t r i n g ()
s:
public

override

string

ToString()

{
string s =
return s;

String.Format("{0}

({l})",

sStudentName,

nID);

}

. ( ,
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.)
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, T o S t r i n g ( ) . Locals
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.)


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<F10>, . ! { } ,

518

VII.

, T o S t r i n g ( ) , .
, . ,
W r i t e L i n e () :
// d i s p l a y t h e two s t u d e n t s
Console.WriteLine("Student 1
Console.WriteLine("Student 2

=
=

{o}",
{o}",

si.ToString());
s2.ToString());

. 21.18. . ?
,
WriteLine():
//
Console .WriteLine ("Student 1 = " + s i . ToString ())';
//
C o n s o l e . W r i t e L i n e ( " S t u d e n t 1 = {}",
si.ToString());



Visual Studio 2005: (DataTip).
, ,
. <F10>
M a i n ( ) , s i W r i t e
L i n e ( ) ( ) s i T o S t r i n g ( ) :
{ S t u d e n t ID ( 1 ) }. , -
.
"DataTip" .
" ", ..
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.

21. Visual Studio

519

, . 21.19.
+ s l .

s l . +

S t a t i c

m e m b e r s , a l l S t u d e n t s , [ 0 ]
A r r a y L i s t a l l S t u d e n t s sl
A r r a y L i s t a l l S t u d e n t s .

. 21.19. ,

. (
W a t c h QuickW a t c h , Locals.)
(. . 21.17) ,
. ( D e b u g s

Delete All Breakpoints.) Debug D e b u g s


W i n d o w s 1 ^ B r e a k p o i n t s ,
.


O u t p u t A l l S t u d e n t s ( ) ,
W r i t e L i n e ( ) .
<F5> ,
C o n s o l e . .
<F10>, O u t p u t A l l S t u d e n t s ( ) .
- .
. 21.20.
f o r , ,
C u r r e n t ( . 20, " ").
: E n u m e r a t i o n h a s n o t s t a r t e d . C a l l M o v e N e x t (
. M o v e N e x t ) - , .

520

VII.

. 21.20. Visual Studio , MoveNext ()


,
, D e b u g O W i n d o w s ^ C a l l Stack
Call Stack, . 21.21 ( ,
).

Puc; 21.21. Call Stack


21. Visual Studio

521

, ,
, .
, . Call Stack ,
: Main() OutputAllStudents ()
64. , 64
for, .

Tools^OptionsOEditor^C* Line Numbers.

,
: Main() OutputAllStudents ( ) .
,
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, View Detail


InnerException
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Current .
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MoveNext () . ,
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<Shift+F5>.)
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Current . for,
Current, StackTrace InnerException
Current get_Current. (
get_
set_.) , Current?
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ArrayList.
, for .
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rent null. ( while)
:
public

static void OutputAllStudents()

{
IEnumerator iter = allStudents.GetEnumerator();
while(iter.MoveNext()) // 'while 1 , 'for'
{
Student s = (Student)iter.Current;
Console.WriteLine("Student = {o}", s.ToString());

}
522

VII.

MoveNext ()
Student. Student Current.
, MoveNext () false, ,
.
foreach
20, " ".

!
:
!
Student 1 = Student 1 (1)
Student 2 = Student 2 (2)
Student = Student 1 (1)
Student = Student 2 (2)
<Enter>

...

, ,
... , .

- VSDebugFixed.

,
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21.

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Studio

523

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526

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2. #, Visual Studio,
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3.
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4. Visual Studio, SharpDevelop,
TextPad, Windows Explorer, NUnit,
.

22.

527

5. ,
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Visual Studio.

528

VII.

. 22.1. SharpDevelop
( ) Visual Studio
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SharpDevelop "" "".
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SharpDevelop Visual Studio


SharpDevelop (Combain),
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Tools SDK Web. Tools^Options 1 ^Tools.
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Web-. Internet Explorer , ,
: C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\IExplore.exe.
Arguments StartHere.htm .NET
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Files\Microsof t Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2 . 0\StartHere . htm,
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Tools SharpDevelop.
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TextPad,
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530

VII.

3. Add.
. Title
"New T o o l " .
4. "New Tool" Title - Debugger.
5. Browse Command
. N E T Framework SDK.
SDK GuiDebug. DbgCLR.exe
Open.
, SDK.
6. Options, .
Debugger CLR
. , ,
.

SharpDevelop
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CLR. ,
CLR.
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, ,

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Debug .

. ,
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Visual Studio 2005 ,
,
. ,
.


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CLR.
Debug !
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TextPad).
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1. D e b u g s Program to Debug.
, ,

Mycode. .
532

VII.

SharpDevelop
SharpDevelop
# .NET.
(,
) .

1. Project ^ P r o j e c t Options.
2. Project Options C o n

figurations^ Debug ^Runtime/Compiler.


3. Compiler Version
. N E T .
2.0 v2 . 0 . (
2.0).
4. .

# 2.0 ,
. 15, "
", 20, " ".
Visual Studio 2005
.
SharpDevelop ( )
(Standard) .
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Visual Studio ( 21,
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Tools SharpDevelop ,
Microsoft CLR, .NET Framework SDK.
, .
SharpDevelop, TextPad.

Debugger SharpDevelop
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1. T o o l s ^ O p t i o n s .
2. Options T o o l s External

Tools.
1

22. #

531

. bin\Debug
.
2. F i l e ^ O p e n ^ F i l e
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22.

533

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534

VII.

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22.

535

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536

VII.

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c s h a r p . s y n . Next,
Finish.
5. C o n f i g u r e ^ P r e f e r e n c e s .
Document C l a s s e s ^ C t t .
#, . 22.4.

Maintain Indentation, Automatically Indent Blocks, Strip Trailing


Spaces from Lines When Saving Check Spelling of Comments.
, .

22.

537

6. Tabulation #.
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Convert New Tabs to Spaces Convert Existing Tabs to
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. 22.4. TextPad
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9. ,
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Use POSIX Regular Expression Syntax.


10. , , Apply
.

: Build # Debug
Tools , #
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,
Build # Debug ,
.

538

VII.

1. C o n f i g u r e d Preferences.
Preferences Tools.
2. A d d d P r o g r a m . Se
lect a File ,
(. ) .
, ,
" ". , CLR
, . "
SharpDevelop" .
3. Csc. .
.
, .

. .
A d d o M e n u Separator ( Program).
( )
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4.
, .
, T o o l s .
<Enter> Apply.
Build

Debug.

5. , , T o o l s
Preferences, ,
. 22.5.
, . 22.5,
. , .
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560

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562

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564

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