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A REFRESHER ON

ENGINEERING MATERIALS

MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION

MATERIALS
NON - FERROUS

METALS

FERROUS

NON - METALS

FERROUS METALS
ORIGINAL DEFINITION
- IRON CONTENTS GREATER THAN 50%.

SS 310

Cr : 26 max.
Ni : 22 max.

Mn : 02 max.
Si : 1.5 max.

Total : 51.5 max.

REVISED DEFINITION (1993)


-

MATERIAL WHICH CONTAINS BY MASS MORE IRON THAN ANY


OTHER SINGLE ELEMENT.

CLASSIFICATION FERROUS METALS


FERROUS METALS
WROUGHT IRON

CARBON STEEL

CAST IRON

ALLOY STEEL

BASED ON C ADDITION

IRON MAKING

STEEL MAKING

CONTINUOUS CASTING

PRODUCTS
REHEATING FURNACE

WROUGHT IRON
IRON ORE
COKE
LIME STONE

BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE

CASTING
PLATES

RODS

PIG IRON
BLAST FURNACE

PIPE
ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE

BILLETS

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
ELASTICITY
-The

property of a material due to which it comes to its original shape

after the removal of load is called elasticity.


- There is a certain limit of every material upto which it can regain its
original shape. This limit is called Elastic Limit.

PLASTICITY
-The

property of a material due to which it is permanently deformed

(re-shaped) on the application of load, without any rupture is called


plasticity.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
HARDNESS
-

It is the property of a material due to which it resists wear, abrasion


and indentation.

Also hardness is the property which enables to cut the other material.

TOUGHNESS
-Ability

of material to resist fracture due to sudden shocks

(impact loads) or bending/twisting is called toughness.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
STIFFNESS
-

Ability of a material to resist deformation due to the external forces


is called stiffness.

BRITTLENESS
-

The property of a material to easily break up into pieces


without deformation is called brittleness.

DUCTILITY
-

Ability of a material to be drawn into wires or undergo elongation


without fracture is called ductility.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
STRENGTH
-

It is the ability of a material to withstand the external forces of different


types before undergoing the permanent deformation or fracture

- Tensile strength .. Maximum tension beared per unit area

- Compressive strength .. Maximum compression beared per unit area

- Shear strength .. Maximum shearing force beared per unit area

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
MALLEABILITY
-

If a material can be rolled or hammered to thin sheet, it's


property is called malleability

CONDUCTIVITY
-

Ability of a material to allow the passage of heat or electricity


through it, is called its conductivity

WELDABILITY
-

Ability of a material to join by welding

EFFECT OF CARBON ON STEEL


Carbon

Hardness

Strength

Ductility

Weldability

Iron

Ores are siderite, Hematite, Magnetite

Converted to PIG IRON in Blast Furnace.

PIG IRON is converted to:


i.

Cast Iron

ii.

Wrought Iron

iii.

Steels

1600 oC
Ore Coke Limestone Scrap
Pig Iron
BlastFurnace

WROUGHT IRON
COMPOSITION
- CARBON CONTENTS LESS THAN 0.08 % CARBON
- CONTAINS SMALL AMOUNT OF SLAG (SiO2)

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- LOW STRENGTH , MALLEABLE AND DUCTILE
- EASILY WELDABLE

Pig Iron Air Puddler


Furnace
wroughtiron
USES
-

CURRENTLY WROUGHT IRON IS NOT PRODUCED DUE TO HIGH


MANUFACTURING COST

MODERN WROUGHT IRON PRODUCTS ARE ACTUALLY MADE


FROM LOW CARBON STEEL

CARBON STEEL

TYPE OF STEEL FOR WHICH:


-

NO ALLOYING ELEMENT IS ADDED EXCEPT CARBON

- CARBON CONTENTS ARE < 2%

CARBON STEEL IS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO:


ITS CARBON CONTENTS
ITS TREATMENT FOR DEOXIDIZATION

CARBON STEEL CLASSIFICATION

ACCORDING TO CARBON CONTENTS


CARBON STEEL

LOW CARBON STEEL

CARBON CONTENTS < 0.3 %

CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.3 % AND 0.6%

MEDIUM CARBON STEEL

HIGH CARBON STEEL

CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.6 % AND 2.0%

EFFECT OF CARBON ON MICROSTRUCTURE


Low Carbon Steel

High Carbon Steel

Medium Carbon Steel

Cast Iron

LOW CARBON STEEL

COMPOSITION
- LESS THAN 0.3 % CARBON

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- EXCELLENT FORMABILITY AND WELDABILITY
- GRADES HAVING CARBON B/W 0.1 % TO 0.3 % ARE HEAT TREATABLE

GENERAL USES
-

SHEETS MANUFACTURING, PIPING AND PRESSURE VESSEL


COMPONENTS

LOW CARBON STEEL


USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT
- PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR
- LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH PRESSURE STEAM/CONDENSATE
- COOLING WATER, INSTRUMENT AIR, FUEL GAS, NATURAL GAS
- LIQUID AMMONIA (HIGH TEMPERATURE)
- LOAD BEARING STRUCTURES AND SHEETS

LOW CARBON STEEL GRADES

API 5L GRADE B

ASTM A - 105

ASTM A - 234

MEDIUM CARBON STEEL


COMPOSITION
-

CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.3% TO 0.6%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- GOOD BALANCE BETWEEN STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY
- HEAT TREATABLE

GENERAL USES
-

MANUFACTURING OF GEARS, CRANKSHAFT ETC.

HIGH CARBON STEEL


COMPOSITION
-

CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.6% TO 2.0%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- HIGH STRENGTH
- LOW DUCTILITY
- POOR WELDABILITY AND FORMABILITY

GENERAL USES
-

HIGH STRENGTH WIRES AND SPRINGS

CARBON STEEL CLASSIFICATION

ACCORDING TO DEOXIDIZATION TREATMENT


CARBON STEEL

RIMMED STEEL

NO DEOXIDIZER IS ADDED
Cold bending and cold forming

MOLTEN STEEL IS CAPPED TO STOP RIMMING ACTION. Used for cold working.

CAPPED STEEL

Rimmed & Capped have better yield

DEOXIDIZERS ARE ADDED IN SMALL QUANTITY

SEMI KILLED STEEL

KILLED STEEL

Rolled and drawing applications

DEOXIDIZERS ARE ADDED IN SUFFICIENT


QUANTITY

KILLED CARBON STEEL


COMPOSITION
- CARBON STEEL WITH INCLUSION OF SILICON OR ALUMINUM

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- INCREASED STRENGTH DUE TO HOMOGENOUS MICRO STRUCTURE
- DIFFICULT WELDING AS HEAT TREATMENT IS INVOLVED

GENERAL USES
-

PRESSURE VESSEL, PIPING ETC.

USES AT FERTILIZER PLANT


-

PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE LIQUID


AMMONIA

CAST IRON
COMPOSITION
- CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 2% AND 5%
- SILICON INCLUSION BETWEEN 1% AND 3%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- MELTING TEMPERATURE BELOW CARBON STEEL
- EXCELLENT FLUIDITY (REQUIRED FOR CASTING PURPOSE)
-

POOR WELDABILITY AND DUCTILITY

Cupola
Pig Iron Coke little Lime Stone
Cast Iron
Furnace
GENERAL USES
-

MANUFACTURING OF PUMPS, TURBINES, COMPRESSORS AND GEAR BOX


CASINGS

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS


CARBON
- Carbon is the primary hardening element in steels.
- Hardness and Tensile Strength increases with increase in Carbon.
Ductility and Weldibility decreases with increase in Carbon.
Very high Carbon contents (1.7% and beyond) decreases ability of
Hot and Cold Work.

MANGANESE:
Up to 2% is added steels as a beneficial element.
It improves Hardenability, Tensile Strength, response to Heat
Treatment
& decreases Ductility.

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS


CHROMIUM
It increases response to Heat Treatment and Hardness.
Large percentage of Chromium increases Corrosion Resistance.

NICKEL
It increases toughness, corrosion resistance especially at low temp.

MOLYBDENUM:
It increases hardenability & strength at elevated temp. Also improves
heat resistance, welding properties.

ALLOY STEELS
ALLOY STEEL

Cr-Mo Alloy

LOW ALLOY STEEL

CORROSION RESISTANT

ALLOYING ELEMENT UP TO 8.0%


HEAT RESISTANT

HIGH ALLOY STEEL


ALLOYING ELEMENT GREATER THAN 8.0%

WEAR RESISTANT

Cr Mo STEELS
COMPOSITION
- Cr UPTO 2.25% AND Mo UP TO 1.25%

ALLOYING EFFECT
- Cr INCREASES CORROSION RESISTANCE
- Mo ADDS ELEVATED TEMPERATURE STRENGTH

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- HIGH STRENGTH AT TEMPERATURES UP TO 650 0C
- DIFFICULT WELDING AS HEAT TREATMENT IS INVOLVED

GENERAL USES
-

PRESSURE VESSEL, PIPING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

Cr Mo STEELS
USES AT FERTILIZER PLANT
-

PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR VER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM (KS)

Cr - Mo STEEL GRADES

A-335 GRADE P11, P22

STAINLESS STEEL

WHEN Cr CONTENTS ARE GREATER THAN 11.5 %, Cr REACTS WITH


ATMOSPHERIC O2 AND FORM THIN PASSIVE Cr-O2 LAYER ON STEEL
SURFACE PREVENTING OXIDATION OF Fe CONTENTS
CrO2 LAYER

STEEL

EFFECT OF CHROMIUM

STAINLESS STEEL
STAINLESS STEEL

AUSTENITIC

FERRITIC

MARTENSITIC

DUPLEX

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL


COMPOSITION

Cr UP TO 30%
Ni UP TO 30%
C 0.3%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- EXCELLENT CORROSION RESISTANT
- GOOD WELDABILITY
- CAN BE USED AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURE (UP TO 900 0C)
- CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT

GENERAL USES
-

FOOD PROCESSING, CORROSIVE SERVICES e.g. UREA, ACID etc.

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL


USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT
- PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR
- ALL PRESSURE UREA SERVICE AND UREA FLUSHING CIRCUIT
- MDEA, PROCESS GAS, DEMIN WATER

AUSTENITIC GRADES

SS- 304

SS- 316

SS- 316L Modified

25 Cr 22Ni 02 Mo

SS- 321

CONCEPT OF SENSITIZATION IN STAINLESS STEEL


AT HIGH TEMPERATURE (> 750 0C) Cr REACTS WITH C AND FORMS
CrC
TO PREVENT SENSITIZATION Ti OR Nb IS ADDED TO FORM TiC OR
NbC
GRAIN BOUNDARIES

CHROMIUM

CHROMIUMCARBIDE
(Cr23 C6)

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL


COMPOSITION
Ni 0%

Cr UP TO
17%

C
1.2%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- MODERATE CORROSION RESISTANT
- POOR WELDABILITY
- CAN BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT

GENERAL USES
-

SHAFTS, SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, FASTENERS

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL


USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT
- PUMP SHAFTS, IMPELLERS FOR CORROSIVE SERVICE

MARTENSITIC GRADES

SS- 410

SS- 416

SS- 420

SS- 440

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL


COMPOSITION
Ni 0%

Cr UP TO
30%

C .3%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
- MODERATE TO GOOD CORROSION RESISTANT
- POOR WELDABILITY
- CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT

GENERAL USES
-

DOMESTIC EQUIPMENTS, A-369 P91 at higher elevated temperatures

DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL


COMPOSITION

Cr UP TO
30%
Ni UP TO 8%

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

C.
3%

- GOOD CORROSION RESISTANCE


- GOOD STRENGTH : GREATER THAN AUSTENITIC AND OTHER GRADES
- GOOD WELDABILITY

GENERAL USES
-

OFF-SHORE APPLICATIONS, HIGH PRESSURE UREA, SAFUREX etc

DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL


USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT
- UREA REACTOR (STAMI CARBON PLANTS)
- STEMS HIGH PRESSURE UREA VALVES

DUPLEX GRADES

HVD-1

FERRALIUM ALLOY

MARTENSITIC

STEEL

SS - 317

INCREASE C
LOWER Cr

ADD MORE Mo (4%)


FOR PITTING RESISTANCE

FERRITIC
STEEL

SS - 317L
LOWER C

SS - 316

SS - 316L
SS - 304L

NO Ni
ADD Mo (2%)
FOR PITTING RESISTANCE

SS - 347

SS 304
18 Cr 8 Ni

ADD Nb + Ta
TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION

SS - 321

ADD Ti

ADD Cr & Ni

TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION

STRENGTH & CORROSION RESIST.

DUPLEX
STEEL

SS 310
SS - 309

REDUCE Ni
TO REDUCE AUSTENITIC STRUCTURE

MATERIAL DESIGNATION SYSTEM


ASTM - American Society for Testing Materials
AISI

- American Iron and Steel Institute

SAE

- Society of Automotive Engineers

UNS

- Unified Numbering System

DIN

- German Standards

BS

- British Standards

JS

- Japanese Standards

AISI/SAE DESIGNATION SYSTEM


STAINLESS STEEL

Element addition

2
3
4

16

L
H

No Specific Interpretation
MATERIAL TYPE

- Austenitic Stainless
Steel
- Austenitic Stainless
Steel
- Martensitic &
Ferritic
- Low Carbon
(<0.03%)
- High Carbon
Contents
- Added Nitrogen

Cu - Added Copper

ASTM STANDARDS
DESIGNATION SYSTEM
CLASSIFY PRODUCTS ON THE BASIS OF MANUFACTURING METHOD
MOST WIDELY USED SYSTEM COVERS ALL DETAILS REQUIRED FOR MATERIAL
PROCUREMENT

Grade
ASTM A 182 / 182M - 93b F 304L

Ferrous Metals

AISI NO
Year of Revision

Arbitrary Number
Metric System

ASTM STANDARDS
DESIGNATION SYSTEM

- Corrosion Resistant

- Heat Resistant

- Addition of Molybdenum

EXAMPLES
A 403/A 403M -93 WP304L

Digital
No.
P

- Carbon Percentage
- Pipe

A 351 Grade HK40

- Tube

A 336/A 336M-89 Class F22

TP

- Tube and Pipe

- Forging

- Wrought

A 351 Grade CF8M

MATERIAL COMPOSITION

WHERE TO FIND

BLACK BOOK BY CASTII PUBLISHING (PDF FORMAT)

KEY TO STEEL (SOFTWARE)

ASTM STANDARDS

THE END